Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army
Ta’ang National Liberation Army
All Burma Students' Democratic Front
Karen National Union
Karen National Liberation Army
Kuki National Army
Shan State Army - South
Myanmar (until 2011)
Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma (until 1988)
Union of Burma (until 1962)
Communist Party of Burma
New Democratic Army - Kachin (1989–2009)
Battles and wars
Internal conflict in Myanmar
Kachin Independence Army
Kachin Independence Army (Kachin: ShangLawt Hpyen, Burmese:
တပ်မတော်; abbreviated KIA) is the military wing of the
Kachin Independence Organisation
Kachin Independence Organisation (KIO), a political group of ethnic
Kachins in northern
Myanmar (formerly Burma). The Kachins are a
coalition of six tribes whose homeland encompasses territory in
Northeast India and
Kachin State in Myanmar.
The KIA is funded by the KIO, which raises money through regional
taxes and trade in jade, timber and gold. Its rifles are a combination
of AK-47s, home-made rifles (such as KA-07s) and some artillery. KIA
headquarters are outside Laiza, in southern
Kachin State near the
In 2009, Thomas Fuller of the New York Times estimated the number of
active KIA soldiers at about 4,000. They are divided into five
brigades and one mobile brigade. Most are stationed in bases near the
Chinese border, in KIO-held strips of territory. In October 2010,
KIA commanders said that they had "10,000 regular troops and 10,000
reservists". In May 2012, the group had about 8,000 troops.
1.1 Origins: 1948–1959
1.2 Insurgency: 1960–1962
1.3 Peace talks: 1963
1.4 Evolution: 1964–1965
1.5 Defeat: 1965–1970
1.6 Conflict with the CPB: 1971–1972
1.7 Communism and foreign aid
1.8 Naga National Council (NNC)
1.9 Assassination of KIA leaders
1.10 Ceasefire: 1994–2011
4 Further reading
In 1949 Naw Seng, a Kachin, was a captain in Kachin Battalion 1. He
went underground during the Kayin-Bama riot and joined the Karen
National Defense Organization. He was active in northern
Shan State as
a KNDO agent in 1950. At that time, Zaw Seng was attending the
government high school in Lasho. He contacted Naw Seng, and followed
him underground. Naw Seng took refuge in
China in 1951, and Zaw Seng
remained in the KNDO in Than-daung and Baw-ga-li.
In 1959 Gilitlin (Kachin name Zaw Bawk), assigned as a counselor, was
sent to organise residents to carry out underground operations in
northern Shan State. Zaw Seng and Gilitlin took shelter in Nant Un
village, Ho Kone district (where Gilitlin's mother was a teacher) and
began their mission. Zaw Tu (Zaw Seng's younger brother, a university
student) left school and joined Zaw Seng underground.
Lance Corporal Lamung Tu Jai, who was studying in Theinni after he was
dismissed from Kachin Battalion 4, and Lama La Ring (who returned to
Kutkai after leaving university) contacted Zaw Seng and formed the
Kachin Independence Organisation
Kachin Independence Organisation in 1960.
Zaw Seng became the head of the unit; Zaw Tu was its deputy head, and
Lama La Ring the secretary. They provided the KIO with ammunition to
form a private army with 27 members.
The KIO raided a bank on 5 February 1960. When armed attacks began,
Kachin youths (organised by Zaw Seng [Zau Seng] and Zaw Tu [Zau Tu])
went underground. With a force of 100, the KIA and the Kachin
Independence Council (KIC) were formed in Lwe Tauk, Theindi on 5
February 1961. Zaw Seng became commander-in-chief, and Gyilitlin
became a major. Base Camp 1 was built about 10 miles (16 km) east
of the village of Sin Li, near Kutkai in northern Shan State, and a
basic military course was taught on 16 March 1961.
Battalion 1 was established in Monbar, Bammaw; Battalion 2 was
established in Mon Si and Mon Htan by La Mar La Rein with a force of
300. Villager defence forces, equipped with percussion lock firearms,
were ordered to disrupt
Buddhism became the state religion on 26 August 1961, with the right
to practice other religions protected by Act 17, 1962, (Law of
Constitution, third amendment),[verification needed] but non-Buddhists
believed that they had lost this right and protested. The KIO expanded
beyond its original 27 members. Demonstrations protested the
announcement of the inclusion of the Phimaw, Gawlan and Kanphan
China in the Burma–
China border treaty. These changes
and the federal policy of the Shan Monarchy gave the KIO an
opportunity to attack, declaring their aim to establish an independent
Peace talks: 1963
Local peace talks were held in Rangoon (present-day Yangon) and the
regions, with a meeting with the Rakhine Kway Zan Shwee's communist
party held in Ngapali. Almost 300 troops were in the Lasho-Kutkai
region and about 380 in Bamaw-
Myitkyina in 1962. By early 1963 the KIA
had one brigade, six battalions and its numbers had increased to over
1,000. The army grew after it occupied the Bamaw-Sein Lone and
Bamaw-Man Wane roads, advancing to the west bank of the Irrawaddy and
Myitkyina and Hu Kaung valleys.
When the revolutionary council announced a local peace offer on 11
June 1963, the KIA was invited to Bamaw. Delegate Zaw Dan went from
Mandalay on 31 August. Divisional authorities met with him
again on behalf of the revolutionary council on 1 September, after
tentative talks with the Brigade 7 officer.
Zaw Dan demanded:
autonomy for ethnic groups
self-determination, the revolution's primary aim
a treaty after secession, based on:
a mutual agreement to restore territory and sovereignty
non-intervention in local affairs
The demands for independence were denied. KIA leader Zaw Tu occupied
nearly all the villages in Kar Mie and
Bamaw during the talks. After
the talks failed, the KIA amassed insurgents, weapons and ammunition;
it may have numbered 20,000 by the end of 1963.
The KIA could have formed one brigade and six battalions with 1,000
insurgents before the peace talks. During the talks, Zaw Dan's group
gathered supporters and extorted money. Zaw Tu crossed the Ayeyarwaddy
and invaded Ka Mine, a gemstone-mining region. Most villages in Ka
Mine were controlled by the KIA, which grew by the end of 1963.
In 1964, KIA formed Brigade 2. Zaw Sai commanded Brigade 1, which
consisted of Battalions 1, 2 and 5. Brigade 1 was based in the village
of Mon Bar Par in Mansi township. Brigade 2, commanded by Zaw Tu, was
based in Magibon. Battalion 7, also commanded by Zaw Tu, had 800
Zaw Tu increased the Brigade 2 strength to 1,400, and it operated in
Putao, Chibwe, Lawkhaung, Myitkyina,
Bamaw and Kokant. Leaders Zaw
Seng, Zaw Dan and Zaw Tu were known as "The Three Zaws".
Tatmadaw carried out successful operations against the KIA from
December 1964 to September 1965 in Gan Gaw, Aung Myay, Kaung Ya Bwam
and Kha Yang as the KIA weakened in
Kachin State and northern Shan
State. KIA losses were 696 wounded, 377 killed, 2,223 surrendered and
1,064 arrested by the Tatmadaw.
Zaw Seng went to Thailand for help, establishing a base for trading
drugs and jade in the border area of Htaan Woo. Glitlin, his advisor,
sought assistance from
SEATO in Chiang Mai, Bangkok and Fawmoser in
Foreign Minister Mabransaing went to the Chaw Kan valley to discuss
the KIA's need for assistance in 1966, but the army received none.
Early in the year, the
Tatmadaw pulled some of its forces from Kachin
State to establish the 77 Brigade and attack the Communist Party of
Burma (CPB); this gave the KIA an opportunity to regroup.
In July 1967, Brigade 2 commander Mabransain and his comrades took
military and political courses and looked for weapons. They acquired
42 rifles, 36 bombs and two boxes of bullets, returning in September.
Brigade 2 commander Zaw Tu left Burma (Myanmar) in October 1967,
accompanied by secretary Pungshwe Zaw Seng, Brang Seng and 425 men, to
seek weapons and political and military training.
Zaw Tu and the CPB agreed to fight the government. Zaw Tu and his
party acquired 800 rifles, 170,000 bullets and other equipment. In
January 1968, he and his group returned and supplied weapons to Mai
Ron Con Jar and Con Sar Bout Naws’ fighters. Zaw Tu tried to
organise the local people by preaching the Communist doctrine of Mao
Zedong, but they and the KIA resisted Mao's ideology. The Maru, Lisu
and Lachate minorities did not accept the policy of appointing only
Jean Faw people as leaders, and were dissatisfied with the governance
of Zaw Seng, Zaw Dan and Zaw Tu.
In March 1968, Zelwan (Maru) and Sakhon Teinyein (Lachate) seceded
from the KIA. Their group of about 120 co-operated with the CPB, which
settled in Kachin State, Chee Bwe, Law Khaung and Sawlt Law in 1968.
The KIA clashed with the CPB; in 1969 Zaw Dan and his partisans fought
the Kachin, and the KIA in northern
Shan State negotiated with CPB
Regiments 202 and 303. In 1970, KIA Brigade 2, Regiments 5 and 6 were
controlled by Zaw Tu. They smuggled jade to Thailand from Kar Mine and
Pha Kant to purchase weapons.
China also provided weapons and trained
the Phiso Naga in India. Zaw Dan provided weapons and
trained the Rakhine insurgents, negotiated with Thailand and opened a
headquarters in Thanwoo.
Conflict with the CPB: 1971–1972
Variant of a Type 81 assault rifle made by the KIA in Kachin State
In 1972, the KIA fielded 2,950 insurgents and the army in Thanwoo was
led by Zaw Seng. Brigade 1, led by Zaw Dan, was in Koot Khaing, Lashio
District and Bamaw. Brigade 2, led by Zaw Tu, was in Pha Kant and Myit
Kyee Na. They tried to increase the trade of jade.
In Brigade 1, Lwan Daunt led Battalion 2, Zaw Bon led Battalion 8 and
Daung Khaung led Battalion 9; they were responsible for Lashio
district. Dwa Yaung led Battalion 1 and Gawruledwa led Battalion 5;
they were responsible for
In Brigade 2, Zaw Tu led 1,469 insurgents. Zaw Baut led Battalion 3,
Zote Diang led Battalion 4, Lamarlarein led Battalion 6, Zaw Baut led
Battalion 5, Madinkeyyaw led Battalion 10 and Kadawzawsai led
Battalion 11. They were responsible for
Myitkyina district and western
Communism and foreign aid
In 1950, CPB members began to go abroad for political and military
training. In July 1967, party leader Mayanbaransai and 34 others went
The KIA accepted communism, and other countries agreed to provide
political and military aid.[specify] From 4 November 1967 to 27
January 1968, 425 KIA insurgents led by Zaw Tu, Zaw Dan, Lamontujai,
Mayanbayansai and Pungshwe Zaw Seng held talks abroad with Ba Thein
Tin and Naw Sai. The KIA received political and military assistance
from abroad[specify], and conducted more military operations.
At the end of 1976, the KIA had nine regiments with 1,750 troops in
Kachin State, 500 in northern
Shan State and received ammunition from
Zaw Sai in Thanwoo. In 1968 they fought in the
occupied camps at Kowapan, Duyitgar and Tingarukaung and established
Regiment 10, led by Zaw Diang.
Although Zaw Tu accepted communism, his subordinates and the public
did not; the KIA was based on racial and religious beliefs, rather
than ideology. In March 1968 Regiment 4 Group 1 leader Maru Zay Lwan,
Group 5 leader Zakonteinyein and 120 followers left the KIA and the
country. The Zay Lwan and Zakonteinyein groups became CPB Regiment 10,
upsetting the army.
The CPB asked Kachin Captain Naw Sai to lead KIA and Kachin natives.
An April 1968 meeting at KIA Brigade 2 headquarters designated Naw
Sai's forces as the chief enemy, and the army began fighting them in
June. Zaw Tu rejected communism and the KIA, fighting the CPB,
accepted outside aid. In 1969, they sent Indian Fiso Narga insurgents
abroad for training. They obtained ammunition through Narga from
overseas and forcibly conscripted 13-year-old boys and girls.
Battalions 1, 2, 5, 8 and 9 made up KIA Brigade 1, and Battalions 3,
4, 6 and 7 were Brigade 2. The KIA contacted the
Tatmadaw and tried to
forge a relationship against the CPB.
Zay Lwan and Sakhonteinyein left the KIA after their return from
foreign training and formed Bakapa Battalion 101. Zay Lwan and 200
insurgents entered the Khantan valley road on 19 May 1969 and
Kanpaiktee the following day. On 27 May, Sakhonteinyein and 200
insurgents attacked the Tanlon police station. They fought the KIA in
Chiphwe, Lawkhaung and the Sawlaw region in eastern Maykha. Zaw Diang
made an agreement with the
Tatmadaw in the Kutkhaing region. In
February 1969, they ambushed a Brigade 4 convoy. They agreed to a
ceasefire with CPB Brigades 202 and 303.
A July 1969 KIO committee meeting created a master plan for an
independent Wanpaung group. The plan covered political beliefs and
objectives, defined the enemy and described the basics of Wanpaung
development and foreign relations.
Zaw Tu's group recruited personnel, training them as village defence
forces (VDF), local guerrilla forces (LGF) or commando forces and
forcing village leaders to attend the training courses. In 1970, they
agreed to accept 220 KIA and 150 Bakapa from the Kathar district for
In May 1970, the KIA provided weapons and ammunition to Rakhaing youth
led by Tun Shwe Maung, attempted to enlist the co-operation of Kachin,
Naga, Mizo and Rakhine insurgents to co-operate and requested military
assistance from East Pakistan. The CPB and KIA then agreed on a
ceasefire. The CPB entered Mone Paw secretly, setting off renewed
fighting. The failure of the ceasefire led the KIA to attempt an
agreement with the Tatmadaw. The army recognised the government as a
common enemy, and La Mohne Too Jaih and CPB leaders reached an
agreement in Mone Paw. The KIA could not refuse foreign support or
accept the CPB, forcing them to alternate between the Tatmataw and the
CPB as allies and opponents.
In December 1971, the KIA grouped Battalion 11 into four columns and
tried to fight the Tatmadaw. Battalions 5, 6 and 12, led by Zaw Tu,
became the "leopard column" in the western
Battalions 1, 2, 8 and 9 were the "elephant column", led by Zaw Dan in
Kwutkhaing. In the eastern
Ayeyarwaddy area, the "lion column"
(Battalions 3 and 10) was led by Khanhtwe. In the Putao region, the
"rhinoceros column" (Battalions 4 and 7) was led by Zawein. Although
the CPB and KIA reached an agreement, they fought again in 1972. When
the CPB penetrated KIA-held regions, the army sent a delegation to the
Tatmadaw. They stopped fighting and conferred in northern Shan State,
communicating with the
Tatmadaw to receive through Thailand. Working
Tatmadaw provided a temporary respite from confrontation with
To fight with the Tatmadaw, the KIA requested arms, ammunition and
medical supplies. On 10 June 1972, the KIA stopped fighting to
organise youth and collect unpaid revenue. Under the pretext of
stopping the CPB, they resumed military operations and attempted to
recruit Palaung Battalion 2 under Zaw Dan.
A KIA central-committee meeting was held in Samarbon, and on 29 August
1972 another central-committee meeting was held in the Hukaung Valley.
Tatmadaw rejected an agreement on 3 October 1972; on 27 October,
the central committee decided to have four brigades instead of the
Brigade 1 was commanded by Too Jaing in northern Kachin State. Brigade
2 was commanded by Zaw Tu in the western part of the state; Brigade 3
was commanded by Zaw Mai in the east, and Brigade 4 was commanded by
Zaw Dan in the south.
Zaw Sai was commander-in-chief, and Zaw Tu vice-commander-in-chief.
They formed the Kachin Freedom Council (KIC), which was the central
Pon Shwe Zaw Sai
Maran Brang Seng
Lama La Ring
Maran Brang Tawng
Kachin Freedom Council staff
Vice-chairman (Brigade 2)
Secretary (Brigade 1)
Member (Brigade 4)
Member (Brigade 3)
The KIA was organised into sections, platoons, companies, battalions
and brigades. Battalions 4, 7 and 10 were in Brigade 1, Battalions 5,
6 and 11 in Brigade 2, Battalions 1 and 3 in Brigade 3 and Battalions
2, 8 and 9 in Brigade 4. Brigade commanders headed the division
administration, battalion commanders the district administration,
group leaders the township administration and small-group leaders
Chairman (Brigade 2)
Vice-chairman (Brigade 1)
Pon Shwe Zaw Sai
Mayan Bayaung Taung
Mayan Bayaung Sai
Kachin insurgents were organised as fighting and administrative
forces. Leadership remained influenced by the Zaw brothers (Sai, Tu
and Dan). Zaw Sai was the first Kachin insurgent leader to live in
Thailand. The front-line military headquarters (FGHQ) was in the
village of Kaut Lun in the Magyi Bon region. All Kachin insurgents
were generally called "KIA".
The CPB, appointing Naw Sai as military leader, intended to co-opt
insurgents into their party after exploiting the KIA as a subordinate
organisation. However, they were dissatisfied with Naw Sai's position
(favouring fighting the KIA). They secretly arrested and killed Naw
Sai and a Wa national leader on 8 March 1972, claiming that Naw Sai
died by falling into a gully. When the KIA learned how Naw Sai was
killed, violence ensued.
The KIA communicated with neighbouring countries and their insurgent
groups, and tried to organise small insurgent groups. They acted as a
buffer between Phizo Naga, Mizo insurgents and foreign countries, and
sent Phizo Naga to foreign countries via
Myanmar in return for arms
They sent a Mizo insurgent group abroad in March 1973, and signed a
contract with local Naga insurgents on 2 June establishing terms for
supplying military training and arms. The KIA trained 100 Naga
insurgents at the India-
Myanmar border, south-west of Khar Shay. Its
headquarters were managed by Zaw Sai in Thanwoo, Thailand.
In Shan State, insurgent groups included Pa Laung and Pao. The Pa
Laung National League, led by Kham Taung, organised Shwe Pa Laung and
Ngwe Pa Laung nationals in the Mone Wee, Nant San and Mong Ngue
regions. Pa Laung insurgents came under the leadership of Zaw Dan in
1972. The KIA cooperated with Pa Laung nationals to face the CPB.
Shan State Army (SSA) settled in Thailand and developed a movement
in Lwe Khay in northern Shan State. SSA headquarters was run by
Chairman Khun Kyar Nu and secretary Set Say Wai. In the Lwe Khay
region, it was led by Vice-Chairman Ohn Paung Pon Taing and
Chief-of-Staff Sai Hla Aung. In March 1973, they removed Maha Daewi
Nann Hein Kham as president. On 24 May 1973, the SSA joined the Koe
Kant insurgent groups Law Sit Han, Maha Sann (from Bain Nginn) and Lai
U (from Man Man Sai) in the Man Pa Laung Lwe Khay region.
Shan State Progress Party planned to co-operate with the CBP, and
chose a representative to follow Sa Kaw Lae Taw. Joint Secretary Say
Htin, 200 members and three representatives arrived in Pan Sann in
October 1973. On 18 November, they agreed on military co-operation.
They took arms and ammunition and left Pan Sann on 27 November 1973,
arriving in the Mong Bon region on 17 April 1974.
The agreement led the KIA to fight the SSA in 1974 in the Kyauk Mae,
Nan Ma Tu region. In April, they reached an agreement. After the Thai
government broke up the Koe Kant insurgent group, a remnant of 20 took
refuge at the Thai border and joined the KIA. Kyan Suu Shin led 300
insurgents from the Lwe Maw group (Khun Sar group) to work with KIA
Battalion 8. The KIA and the Lwe Maw group agreed to assist each
Chinese Military Divisions 3 and 5 settled in northern Thailand, and
often operated in Burma. They were fought by the KIA and the CBP. To
operate in the Lwe Say, Man Palaung, Man Kyaung, Sut Yet and Wun Sinn
regions, the KIA cooperated with the Kuomintang.
They cooperated with Moe Hein, Koe Kant insurgents (Law Sit Han), Lwe
Maw insurgents (Khun Sar) and Pa Laung without the co-operation of the
SSA, who supported the CBP. In the west, the KIA supported local, Naga
and Rakhine insurgents.
Naga National Council (NNC)
To avoid arrest, Phizo Naga took refuge in the Naga mountain region in
Khann Tee Division in 1963. The KIA helped him flee through Kachin
The Naga insurgency began with the founding of the Naga Club in Kohima
in 1918. They submitted a memorandum to the Simon Commission to
exclude the Nagas from any constitutional framework of India. With the
coming of Angami Zapu Phizo (popularly called Phizo), the Naga
movement gained momentum during the late 1940s.
Under Phizo's leadership, the NNC declared the independence of
Nagaland on 14 August 1947. However, Phizo was arrested in 1948 by the
Indian government for rebellion. When he was released, he became the
NNC President in 1950.
In 1953, a meeting was organised between Indian Prime Minister
Jawaharlal Nehru and Burmese Prime Minister
U Nu to establish formal
borders between India and Burma. Separatist leaders described the
meeting as a division of Naga territory between the two countries.
U Nu visited Naga areas in both countries. When they visited
Kohima on 30 March 1953, the district deputy commissioner prevented
the NNC delegation from meeting Nehru (apparently without Nehru's
knowledge) and the NNC boycotted Nehru's public meeting. The Nagas
inhabit the states of Nagaland, Manipur,
Assam and Arunachal Pradesh
in northeastern India and Burma's Sagaing Division and Kachin State.
Assassination of KIA leaders
After unsuccessful discussions with the
Tatmadaw in October 1972,
fighting continued. Zaw Tu went to Thailand in December 1973, and was
replaced by La Mon Hu Gyaing. The KIA was defeated by the CPB and the
Tatmadaw in 1973 and 1974.
CPB Regiment 101 penetrated Sa-Done in eastern May-Kha. On 1 March
1975, at a battle between KIA and CPB, Zaw Dan was killed in action.
CPB Regiment 202 attacked KIA Combat Team 4's area, and CPB Regiment 2
penetrated KIA Regiment 2's area in East Kut-Khaing via Man-Yon-Maw.
Zaw Mai succeeded Zaw Dan, and stopped the CPB in Nant-Hai and
Nant-Saung-Kye while Zaw Sai and Zaw Tu were in Thailand. On 2
February 1975, KIA leader Pon-Shwe Zaw Sai and his team left for
Thailand. Zaw Sai, Zaw Tu and Pon-Shwe Zaw Sai misused funds from the
trade in opium and jade.
Zaw Sai's power disappeared when he was out of direct contact with the
KIA for about 10 years. Zaw Tu was disliked by his subordinates; after
he forbade marriage for his troops, he married Law-Khaing-Lu-On in
1966 and Lu-Sai in 1973. The leaders' personal lives cost them the
respect of their subordinates.
Former KIA Regiment 11 commanding officer Sai Tu executed Zaw Sai, Zaw
Tu and Pon-shwe Zaw Sai in Htan-Poe, at the Thai Border Camp, on 10
August 1975. KIA headquarters explained to the district and division
committees that the leaders were executed because they manipulated the
organisation. Gaw-Lu-La-Dwe and other leaders claimed that Sai Tu was
a spy, and he silenced the leaders. Thai police arrested Sai Tu on 29
September. Zaw Lmai sent Regiment 8 commanding officer Khun Cho to
Thailand to investigate.
Zaw Mai commanded the Kyaung-Nat operation, focused on CPB Regiment
202, on 26 March 1975. He led combat team 4 against the CPB ten times
beginning on 1 November 1975, with heavy losses on both sides. Combat
team 1 chief La-Mon-Tu-Gyaing became the KIA commander-in-chief and
chief of combat team 4, and Zaw Mai became deputy commander-in-chief.
Ma-Ran-Baran-Sai's leftist group strengthened after the executions,
creating an opportunity to co-operate with the CPB. In 1976,
Ma-Ran-Baran-Sai became the KIA leader and decided to ally with the
New Democratic Army - Kachin (NDA-K) is a group which split from the
KIA. Led by Zahkung Ting Ying, it affiliated with the CPB in 1968 and
became the NDA-K in December 1989.
The KIA neither disarmed nor surrendered, continuing to recruit, train
and mobilise soldiers. Before the ceasefire the KIA was primarily a
guerrilla force, but peace provided an opportunity to establish a
military academy and design officer-training programs.
Although the ceasefire was still in place, in 2009 many Kachins
expected a renewed outbreak in conjunction with the elections
scheduled for 2010. The military junta demanded that all ethnic armies
disarm, because the constitution requires only one army in Myanmar.
According to KIA chief of staff Gen. Gam Shawng Gunhtang, the demand
to disarm was "not acceptable". In February 2010, Shawng said: "I
can't say if there will be war for sure, but the government wants us
to become a border guard force for them by the end of the month ... We
will not do that, or disarm, until they have given us a place in a
federal union and ethnic rights as was agreed in Panglong Agreement in
Kachin Independence Army
Kachin Independence Army cadets in October 2016.
In 2011, General Sumlut Gun Maw confirmed that fighting had
resumed. One reason for breaking the ceasefire was the
creation of the Myitsone Dam, which required the inundation of dozens
of villages in Kachin State. The
Kachin conflict displaced
approximately 100,000 people since cease fire was broken and
killed hundreds. Thousands of protesters gathered in
20 December 2013 to protest the forcible recruitment of ethnic Shan
people for the KIA, which reportedly recruited about 100 Taileng
Mansi Township in late 2013.
^ Kumbun, Joe (2 January 2018). "Analysis: KIO Kicks Off New Year with
New Leadership". The Irrawaddy. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
^ "Kachin Independence Organization (KIO)
Myanmar Peace Monitor".
Myanmar Peace Monitor. Retrieved 12 March
^ Lynn, Kyaw Ye. "Curfew imposed after clashes near Myanmar-China
border". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
^ "Kuki National Army, Manipur". www.satp.org. Retrieved 23 February
^ a b c Leithead 2010.
^ a b c Fuller 2009.
^ a b BBC staff 2010.
^ AP, 4 May 2012,
Myanmar state media report battles between
government troops, Kachin rebels killed 31
^ "The Irrawaddy Magazine ARCHIVES 10202". Irrawaddy.org.
Retrieved 29 December 2013.
^ Jackson, Joe (19 April 2012). "On the Front Lines with the Kachin
Independence Army". Time. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
^ Operation Victory Journey
^ Renewed fighting in Kachin state
Kachin State Operation Brief" (PDF). August 2016.
^ "Security Risks for Kachin IDPS and Refugees". Free Burma Rangers.
Retrieved 31 May 2013.
^ Shan civilians accuse Kachin rebels of human rights abuses DVB
^ Kachin Rebels Accused of Forced Recruitment in
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Leithead, Alastair (22 February 2010), Burma's Kachin army prepares
for civil war, BBC
Fuller, Thomas (11 May 2009), Ethnic Groups in
Myanmar Hope for Peace,
but Gird for Fight, The New York Times
Tran, Mark (7 July 2009). "Burma rebels vow to stop using child
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Insurgent groups in Myanmar
Defunct insurgent groups
Federal Union Army
Myanmar border clashes
Communist insurgency (1948–88)
Campaign at the China–Burma border (1960–61)
Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement
Internal conflict in Myanmar