Juthungi
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The Juthungi (Greek: ''Iouthungoi'', Latin: ''Iuthungi'') were a
Germanic tribe This list of ancient s is an inventory of ancient Germanic cultures, tribal groupings and other alliances of Germanic tribes and civilisations in ancient times. The information comes from various ancient historical documents, beginning in the 2nd ...

Germanic tribe
in the region north of the rivers
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is the in Europe, after the in . It flows through much of and , from the into the . Its longest headstream rises in , while the river carries its name from its source confluence in onwards. The Danube was once a long-s ...

Danube
and
Altmühl The Altmühl ( la, Alchmona, Alcmana, Almonus)
s.v. is a river in
in what is now the modern German state of
Bavaria Bavaria (; and : ''Bayern'' ), officially the Free State of Bavaria (German and Bavarian: ''Freistaat Bayern''; ), is a (') in the south-east of . With an area of , Bavaria is the , comprising roughly a fifth of the total land area of Germany ...

Bavaria
. The tribe was mentioned by the
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testament of the Christian Bible Roman ...

Roman
historians
Publius Herennius Dexippus Publius Herennius Dexippus ( el, Δέξιππος; c. 210–273 AD), Greeks, Greek historian, statesman and general, was an hereditary priest of the Eleusinian Mysteries, Eleusinian family of the Kerykes, and held the offices of ''archon basileus'' ...
and
Ammianus Marcellinus Ammianus Marcellinus (born , died 400) was a Roman soldier This is a list of Roman army units and bureaucrats. *''Accensus'' – Light infantry men in the armies of the early Roman Republic, made up of the poorest men of the army. *''Actuarius'' ...
. The meaning of their name could mean “descendants”, referring to the ancient
Suebi The Suebi (or Suebians, also spelled Suevi, Suavi) were a large group of Germanic peoples originally from the Elbe river region in what is now Germany and Czechia, the Czech Republic. In the early Roman era they included many peoples with their ow ...
an tribe of the
Semnoni The Semnones were a Germanic peoples, Germanic tribe which was settled between the Elbe and the Oder in the 1st century when they were described by Tacitus in ''Germania (book), Germania'': "The Semnones give themselves out to be the most ancient a ...
. The name could also be related to the "
Jutes The Jutes (), Iuti, or Iutæ ( da, Jyde, non, Jótar, ang, Ēotas) were one of the Nordic Nordic most commonly refers to: * Nordic countries, written in plural as Nordics, the northwestern European countries, including Scandinavia, Fennoscand ...
", with the classical Germanic "-Ungi" suffix added. Meaning "Jute-Ungi/Juthungi", the Jutings. Like the danish "Scyldings", which in Danish is pronounced "Skjoldunger" ("Skjold" meaning = Shield, and "-Unger" meaning = "-Ings"). The Juthungi invaded
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding it, whose territory largely coincides with the . Italy is located in the centre of th ...

Italy
in 259–260, but on their way back they were defeated near
Augsburg Augsburg ( , , ; bar, Augschburg, links=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swabian_German, label=Swabian German) is a List of cities and towns in Germany, city in Swabia (Bavaria), Swabia, Bavaria, Germany, around 50 km west of Bavarian capital ...

Augsburg
on 24–25 April 260 by
Marcus Simplicinius Genialis Marcus Simplicinius Genialis was a Roman governor and military leader during the third century CE. He was the governor of Raetia in 260 when he defected to the Gallic Empire and brought the province under the rule of Postumus. He erected the Augsb ...
(this is recorded on a Roman victory altar found in 1992). At this time the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post- period of . As a it included large territorial holdings around the in , , and ruled by . From the t ...

Roman Empire
lost control of this part of the ''
limes Lime or Limes primarily refers to: * Lime (fruit), a green citrus fruit * Lime (material), inorganic materials containing calcium, usually calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide * Lime (color), a color between yellow and green Lime or Limes may also re ...
''. The Juthungi invaded Italy again in 271, defeating the Romans at the Battle of Placentia, but they were repulsed by
Aurelian Aurelian ( la, Lucius Domitius Aurelianus; 9 September 214c. October 275) was Roman emperor from 270 to 275. As emperor, he won an unprecedented series of military victories which reunited the Roman Empire after it had practically disintegrated ...

Aurelian
after the
Battle of Fano The Battle of Fano, also known as the Battle of Fanum Fortunae,Michael Grant, The History of Rome, p. 285 was fought in 271 between the Roman Empire and the Juthungi. The Romans were led by Emperor Aurelian Aurelian ( la, Lucius Domitius Au ...
and
Battle of Pavia The Battle of Pavia, fought on the morning of 24 February 1525, was the decisive engagement of the Italian War of 1521–1526 between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg empire of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor ...
. Between 356 and 358 the Juthungi and the Alamanni invaded the province of Raetia, and destroyed Regensburg, ''Castra Regina'' (Regensburg), which was the Roman capital of the province, and one of the biggest Roman military camps in south Germany, with massive stone walls and a village. A second invasion of Raetia in 383 was repelled by an army of Alans and Huns. Between 429 and 431 the Roman general Flavius Aëtius, Aëtius also fought against the Juthungi in Raetia. Due to a lot of different Germanic tribes being generalised as Alemanni, Franks, Franconians or Bavarians, during the 4th and 5th centuries, their ultimate fate is unknown. But it is likely that the Juthungi became a part of one of these so called "coalitions" of people, and most likely the Alamanni, since they multiple times were mentioned together.


Historical sources

* Augsburg Victory Altar (around 260) * Dexippus, Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker, FGrHist 100 (around 270/271) * Panegyrici Latini VIII 10.4 (around 297) *
Ammianus Marcellinus Ammianus Marcellinus (born , died 400) was a Roman soldier This is a list of Roman army units and bureaucrats. *''Accensus'' – Light infantry men in the armies of the early Roman Republic, made up of the poorest men of the army. *''Actuarius'' ...
17,6 (around 375) * Sidonius Apollinaris, c. 7, 233 (around 429/430)


See also

*List of ancient Germanic peoples {{Germanic peoples Early Germanic peoples Alemanni