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Justin I
Justin I
(Latin: Flavius Iustinus Augustus; Greek: Ἰουστῖνος; 2 February 450 – 1 August 527) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 518 to 527. He rose through the ranks of the army and ultimately became Emperor, in spite of the fact he was illiterate[1] and almost 70 years old at the time of accession. His reign is significant for the founding of the Justinian
Justinian
Dynasty
Dynasty
that included his eminent nephew Justinian I
Justinian I
and for the enactment of laws that de-emphasized the influence of the old Roman nobility. His consort was Empress Euphemia.

Contents

1 Early career 2 Emperor 3 Later years 4 Legacy 5 See also 6 References 7 Sources 8 External links

Early career[edit] Justin was a peasant and a swineherd by occupation[2] from the region of Dardania, which is part of the Prefecture of Illyricum.[3] He was born in a hamlet Bederiana near Scupi
Scupi
(modern Skopje, Macedonia).[2] He was of Thraco-Roman[4][5] or Illyro-Roman stock,[6][7][8] spoke only rudimentary Greek, and bore, like his companions and members of his family (Zimarchus, Dityvistus, Boraides, Bigleniza, Sabbatius, etc.), a Thracian name, Istok.[6][9] His sister Vigilantia (b. ca 455) married Sabbatius and had two children: Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus (b. 483) and Vigilantia (b. ca 490), married to Dulcissimus and had Praejecta (b. ca 520), married to the senator Areobindus and Justin II (b. ca 520). As a teenager, he and two companions fled from a barbaric invasion, taking refuge in Constantinople
Constantinople
possessing nothing more than the ragged clothes on their backs and a sack of bread between them. Justin soon joined the army and, because of his ability, rose through the ranks to become a general under the Emperor Anastasius I; by the time of Anastasius' death in 518, he held the influential position of comes excubitorum, commander of the palace guard.[10] Emperor[edit] Thanks to his position commanding the only troops in the city and making gifts of money, Justin was able to secure election as emperor in 518. A career soldier with little knowledge of statecraft, Justin wisely surrounded himself with trusted advisors. The most prominent of these, of course, was his nephew Flavius Petrus Sabbatius, whom he adopted as his son and invested with the name Iustinianus (Justinian). Justin's reign is noteworthy for the resolution of the Acacian Schism between the eastern and western branches of the Christian church. Justin endorsed Rome's view on the question of the dual nature of Christ and the more general principle of Roman supremacy. This temporary eastern deferral to the western church did not endure. Relying upon the accounts of the historian Procopius, it often has been said that Justinian
Justinian
ruled the Empire in his uncle's name during the reign of Justin; however, there is much evidence to the contrary. The information from the Secret History of Procopius
Procopius
was published posthumously. Critics of Procopius
Procopius
(whose work reveals a man seriously disillusioned with his rulers) have dismissed his work as a severely biased source, being vitriolic and pornographic, but without other sources, critics have been unable to discredit some of the assertions in the publication. However, contrary to the Secret History, Justinian was not named as successor until less than a year before Justin's death and he spent 3,700 pounds of gold during a celebration in 520.[11] In 525, Justin repealed a law that effectively prohibited a member of the senatorial class from marrying women from a lower class of society, including the theatre, which was considered scandalous at the time. This edict paved the way for Justinian
Justinian
to marry Theodora, a former mime actress, and eventually resulted in a major change to the old class distinctions at the Imperial court. She became an equal to Justinian, participating in the governance with significant influence. Later years[edit] The later years of the reign of Justin were marked by strife among the Empire, the Ostrogoths, and the Persians. In 526, Antioch
Antioch
was destroyed by an earthquake, Justin's health began to decline and he formally named Justinian
Justinian
as co-emperor and, on 1 April 527 as his successor. On 1 August of that year, Justin died and was succeeded by Justinian. Legacy[edit] The town of Anazarbus
Anazarbus
was renamed Justinopolis in 525, in honour of Justin I.[citation needed] See also[edit]

Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
portal

List of Byzantine emperors

References[edit]

^ Chapman, H. John (1971). Studies on the Early Papacy. Kennikat Press, University of Michigan. p. 210. ISBN 0-8046-1139-4.  ^ a b Cameron, Averil, "Chapter III: Justin I
Justin I
and Justinian", The Cambridge Ancient History, XIV: Late Antiquity: Empire and Successors, Cambridge University Press, p. 63, ISBN 978-0-521-32591-2  ^ Binns, John (1996). Ascetics and Ambassadors of Christ: The Monasteries of Palestine, 314–631. Clarendon Press. ISBN 9780198269342.  ^ Browning, Robert (2003). Justinian
Justinian
and Theodora. Gorgias Press LLC. p. 23. ISBN 1-59333-053-7.  ^ Pannonia and Upper Moesia: A History of the Middle Danube Provinces of the Roman Empire, András Mócsy, Routledge, 2014, ISBN 1317754255, p. 350. ^ a b Russu, Ion I. (1976). Elementele traco-getice în Imperiul Roman și în Byzantium (in Romanian). veacurile III-VII. Editura Academiei R. S. România. p. 95.  ^ The Secret History of Procopius
Procopius
tr. by Richard Atwater, 1927 p. 73. ^ Count Marcellinus and His Chronicle by Brian Croke, p.75 ^ Evans, James Allan Stewart (1996). The Age of Justinian: The Circumstances of Imperial Power. Routledge. p. 96. ISBN 0-415-23726-2.  ^ Jones, A.H.M. (1986). The Later Roman Empire, 284–602: A Social, Economic, and Administrative Survey. Baltimore: JHU Press. p. 658. ISBN 0-8018-3353-1.  ^ Norwich, John Julius (1988). Byzantium: The Early Centuries. Viking. p. 189. 

Sources[edit]

Ostrogorsky, George (1956). History of the Byzantine State. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.  Meyendorff, John (1989). Imperial unity and Christian divisions: The Church 450–680 A.D. The Church in history. 2. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. ISBN 978-0-88-141056-3.  Continuité des élites à Byzance durant les siècles obscurs. Les princes caucasiens et l'Empire du VIe au IXe siècle, 2006

External links[edit] Media related to Justin I
Justin I
at Wikimedia Commons

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
article Justin I..

Bury, John Bagnall, History of the Later Roman Empire, Macmillan & Co., Ltd., 1923 Evans, James Allan, " Justin I
Justin I
(518–527 A.D.)", De Imperatoribus Romanis, 1998 Gibbon, Edward, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, vol. 4, chapter xl. Smith, "Justinus I.", Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, 1870, v. 2, p. 677 Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Justin I

Justin I Justinian
Justinian
Dynasty Born: c. 450 Died: 1 August 527

Regnal titles

Preceded by Anastasius I Byzantine Emperor 518–527 with Justinian I
Justinian I
(527) Succeeded by Justinian
Justinian
I

Political offices

Preceded by Flavius Anastasius Paulus Probus Moschianus Probus Magnus, Post consulatum Agapiti (West) Consul of the Roman Empire 519 with Flavius Eutharicus Cillica Succeeded by Flavius Rusticius, Flavius Vitalianus

Preceded by Anicius Maximus (alone) Consul of the Roman Empire 524 with Venantius Opilio Succeeded by Anicius Probus Iunior Flavius Theodorus Philoxenus Soterichus Philoxenus

v t e

Roman and Byzantine emperors

Principate 27 BC – 235 AD

Augustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero Galba Otho Vitellius Vespasian Titus Domitian Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
and Lucius Verus Commodus Pertinax Didius Julianus (Pescennius Niger) (Clodius Albinus) Septimius Severus Caracalla
Caracalla
with Geta Macrinus
Macrinus
with Diadumenian Elagabalus Severus Alexander

Crisis 235–284

Maximinus Thrax Gordian I
Gordian I
and Gordian II Pupienus
Pupienus
and Balbinus Gordian III Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
with Philip II Decius
Decius
with Herennius Etruscus Hostilian Trebonianus Gallus
Trebonianus Gallus
with Volusianus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus
Gallienus
with Saloninus and Valerian II Claudius
Claudius
Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Carinus
Carinus
and Numerian

Gallic Emperors: Postumus (Laelianus) Marius Victorinus (Domitianus II) Tetricus I
Tetricus I
with Tetricus II
Tetricus II
as Caesar

Dominate 284–395

Diocletian
Diocletian
(whole empire) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) with Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) with Severus (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Severus (West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Maxentius
Maxentius
(West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Licinius
Licinius
I (West) with Constantine the Great (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Maxentius
Maxentius
(alone) Licinius
Licinius
I (West) and Maximinus II (East) with Constantine the Great (Self-proclaimed Augustus) and Valerius Valens Licinius
Licinius
I (East) and Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) with Licinius
Licinius
II, Constantine II, and Crispus
Crispus
as Caesares (Martinian) Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(whole empire) with son Crispus
Crispus
as Caesar Constantine II Constans
Constans
I Magnentius
Magnentius
with Decentius as Caesar Constantius II
Constantius II
with Vetranio Julian Jovian Valentinian the Great Valens Gratian Valentinian II Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
with Victor Theodosius the Great (Eugenius)

Western Empire 395–480

Honorius Constantine III with son Constans
Constans
II) Constantius III Joannes Valentinian III Petronius Maximus
Petronius Maximus
with Palladius Avitus Majorian Libius Severus Anthemius Olybrius Glycerius Julius Nepos Romulus Augustulus

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 395–1204

Arcadius Theodosius II Pulcheria Marcian Leo I the Thracian Leo II Zeno (first reign) Basiliscus
Basiliscus
with son Marcus as co-emperor Zeno (second reign) Anastasius I Dicorus Justin I Justinian
Justinian
the Great Justin II Tiberius
Tiberius
II Constantine Maurice with son Theodosius as co-emperor Phocas Heraclius Constantine III Heraklonas Constans
Constans
II Constantine IV
Constantine IV
with brothers Heraclius
Heraclius
and Tiberius
Tiberius
and then Justinian II as co-emperors Justinian
Justinian
II (first reign) Leontios Tiberios III Justinian
Justinian
II (second reign) with son Tiberius
Tiberius
as co-emperor Philippikos Anastasios II Theodosius III Leo III the Isaurian Constantine V Artabasdos Leo IV the Khazar Constantine VI Irene Nikephoros I Staurakios Michael I Rangabe
Michael I Rangabe
with son Theophylact as co-emperor Leo V the Armenian
Leo V the Armenian
with Symbatios-Constantine as junior emperor Michael II
Michael II
the Amorian Theophilos Michael III Basil I
Basil I
the Macedonian Leo VI the Wise Alexander Constantine VII
Constantine VII
Porphyrogennetos Romanos I Lekapenos
Romanos I Lekapenos
with sons Christopher, Stephen and Constantine as junior co-emperors Romanos II Nikephoros II Phokas John I Tzimiskes Basil II Constantine VIII Zoë (first reign) and Romanos III Argyros Zoë (first reign) and Michael IV the Paphlagonian Michael V Kalaphates Zoë (second reign) with Theodora Zoë (second reign) and Constantine IX Monomachos Constantine IX Monomachos
Constantine IX Monomachos
(sole emperor) Theodora Michael VI Bringas Isaac I Komnenos Constantine X Doukas Romanos IV Diogenes Michael VII Doukas
Michael VII Doukas
with brothers Andronikos and Konstantios and son Constantine Nikephoros III Botaneiates Alexios I Komnenos John II Komnenos
John II Komnenos
with Alexios Komnenos as co-emperor Manuel I Komnenos Alexios II Komnenos Andronikos I Komnenos Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Alexios IV Angelos Nicholas Kanabos (chosen by the Senate) Alexios V Doukas

Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261

Constantine Laskaris Theodore I Laskaris John III Doukas Vatatzes Theodore II Laskaris John IV Laskaris

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 1261–1453

Michael VIII Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos
Andronikos II Palaiologos
with Michael IX Palaiologos
Michael IX Palaiologos
as co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos John V Palaiologos John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
with John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
and Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperors John V Palaiologos Andronikos IV Palaiologos John VII Palaiologos Andronikos V Palaiologos Manuel II Palaiologos John VIII Palaiologos Constantine XI Palaiologos

Italics indicates a co-emperor, while underlining indicates an usurper.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 265706771 LCCN: n95003669 GN