Sir Julian Sorell Huxley FRS (22 June 1887 – 14 February
1975) was a British evolutionary biologist, eugenicist, and
internationalist. He was a proponent of natural selection, and a
leading figure in the mid-twentieth century modern synthesis. He was
secretary of the Zoological Society of
London (1935–1942), the first
Director of UNESCO, a founding member of the
World Wildlife Fund
World Wildlife Fund and
the first President of the British Humanist Association.
Huxley was well known for his presentation of science in books and
articles, and on radio and television. He directed an Oscar-winning
wildlife film. He was awarded UNESCO's
Kalinga Prize for the
popularisation of science in 1953, the
Darwin Medal of the Royal
Society in 1956, and the
Darwin–Wallace Medal of the
Linnaean Society in 1958. He was also knighted in that same year,
1958, a hundred years after
Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace
announced the theory of evolution by natural selection. In 1959 he
Special Award of the
Lasker Foundation in the category
Planned Parenthood – World Population. Huxley was a prominent member
of the British
Eugenics Society and was its president from 1959 to
There is a public house named after Sir Julian in Selsdon, London
Borough of Croydon, close to the
Selsdon Wood Nature Reserve which he
1.1 Early life
1.2 Early career
1.3 Mid career
1.4 Later career
2.1.1 Personal influence
2.1.2 Evolutionary synthesis
2.1.3 Evolutionary progress
2.2 Secular humanism
2.3 Religious naturalism
Eugenics and race
2.6 Public life and popularisation
2.7 Terms coined
2.8 Titles and phrases
6 External links
See also: Huxley family
Huxley came from the distinguished Huxley family. His brother was the
writer Aldous Huxley, and his half-brother a fellow biologist and
Nobel laureate, Andrew Huxley; his father was writer and editor
Leonard Huxley; and his paternal grandfather was Thomas Henry Huxley,
a friend and supporter of
Charles Darwin and proponent of evolution.
His maternal grandfather was the academic Tom Arnold, his great-uncle
Matthew Arnold and his great-grandfather was
Thomas Arnold of
Huxley was born on 22 June 1887, at the
London house of his aunt, the
novelist Mary Augusta Ward, while his father was attending the jubilee
celebrations of Queen Victoria. Huxley grew up at the family home in
Surrey, England, where he showed an early interest in nature, as he
was given lessons by his grandfather, Thomas Henry Huxley. When he
heard his grandfather talking at dinner about the lack of parental
care in fish, Julian piped up with "What about the stickleback,
Gran'pater?" Also, according to Julian himself, his grandfather took
him to visit J. D. Hooker at Kew.
T. H. Huxley with Julian in 1893
At the age of thirteen Huxley attended
Eton College as a King's
Scholar, and continued to develop scientific interests; his
grandfather had influenced the school to build science laboratories
much earlier. At Eton he developed an interest in ornithology, guided
by science master W. D. "Piggy" Hill. "Piggy was a genius as a
teacher ... I have always been grateful to him." In
1905 Huxley won a scholarship in
Zoology to Balliol College, Oxford.
In 1906, after a summer in Germany, Huxley took his place in Oxford,
where he developed a particular interest in embryology and protozoa.
In the autumn term of his final year, 1908, his mother died from
cancer at only 46: a terrible blow for her husband, three sons, and
eight-year-old daughter Margaret. That same year he won the Newdigate
Prize for his poem "Holyrood". In 1909 he graduated with first class
honours, and spent that July at the international gathering for the
centenary of Darwin's birth, held at the University of Cambridge.
Also, it was the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of the Origin
While at Oxford, he developed a friendship with the ornithologist
William Warde Fowler.
Huxley was awarded a scholarship to spend a year at the Naples Marine
Biological Station where he developed his interest in developmental
biology by investigating sea squirts and sea urchins. In 1910 he was
appointed as Demonstrator in the Department of
Zoology and Comparative
Anatomy at the University of Oxford, and started on the systematic
observation of the courtship habits of water birds such as the common
redshank (a wader) and grebes (which are divers).
Bird watching in
childhood had given Huxley his interest in ornithology, and he helped
devise systems for the surveying and conservation of birds. His
particular interest was bird behaviour, especially the courtship of
water birds. His 1914 paper on the great crested grebe, later
published as a book, was a landmark in avian ethology; his invention
of vivid labels for the rituals (such as 'penguin dance',
'plesiosaurus race' etc.) made the ideas memorable and interesting to
the general reader.
Great crested grebes
In 1912 his life took a new turn. He was asked by Edgar Odell Lovett
to take the lead in setting up the new Department of Biology at the
newly created Rice Institute (now Rice University) in Houston, Texas,
which he accepted, planning to start the following year. Huxley made
an exploratory trip to the United States in September 1912, visiting a
number of leading universities as well as the Rice Institute. At T. H.
Morgan's fly lab (Columbia University) he invited H. J. Muller to
join him at Rice. Muller agreed to be his deputy, hurried to complete
his PhD and moved to
Houston for the beginning of the 1915–1916
academic year. At Rice, Muller taught biology and continued Drosophila
British Army Intelligence Corps 1918
Before taking up the post of Assistant Professor at the Rice
Institute, Huxley spent a year in Germany preparing for his demanding
new job. Working in a laboratory just months before the outbreak of
World War I, Huxley overheard fellow academics comment on a passing
aircraft "it will not be long before those planes are flying over
England". In 1913 Huxley had a nervous breakdown after the break-up of
his relationship with 'K', and rested in a nursing home.
His depression returned the next year, and he and his brother
Trevelyan (two years his junior) ended up in the same nursing home.
Sadly, Trevelyan hanged himself. Depressive illness had afflicted
others in the Huxley family.
One pleasure of Huxley's life in Texas was the sight of his first
hummingbird, though his visit to Edward Avery McIlhenny's estate on
Avery Island in Louisiana was more significant. The McIlhennys and
their Avery cousins owned the entire island, and the McIlhenny branch
used it to produce their famous Tabasco sauce. Birds were one of
McIlhenny's passions, however, and around 1895 he had set up a private
sanctuary on the Island, called Bird City. There Huxley found egrets,
herons and bitterns. These water birds, like the grebes, exhibit
mutual courtship, with the pairs displaying to each other, and with
the secondary sexual characteristics equally developed in both
In September 1916 Huxley returned to England from Texas to assist in
the war effort. He was commissioned a temporary second lieutenant in
Royal Army Service Corps
Royal Army Service Corps on 25 May 1917, and was
transferred to the General List, working in the British Army
Intelligence Corps from 26 January 1918, first in Sussex, and then in
northern Italy. He was advanced in grade within the
Intelligence Corps on 3 May 1918, relinquished his
intelligence appointment on 10 January 1919 and was demobilised five
days later, retaining his rank. After the war
he became a Fellow at New College, Oxford, and was made Senior
Demonstrator in the University Department of Zoology. In fact, Huxley
took the place of his old tutor Geoffrey Smith, who had been killed in
the battle of the Somme on the Western Front.
In 1919 Huxley married Juliette Baillot (1896–1994). She was a
French Swiss girl whom he had met at Garsington Manor, the country
house of Lady Ottoline Morrell, a
Bloomsbury Group socialite with a
penchant for artists and intellectuals. The newly-weds' life together
included students, faculty wives, grebes and, unfortunately, another
depressive breakdown, this time rather serious. From his wife's
autobiography it seems his mental illness took the form of a bipolar
disorder, with the depressive phases being of moderate to severe
intensity. It took a long time for him to recover on this occasion,
but despite this he left a legacy of students who admired him, and who
became leaders in zoology for the next thirty or forty years. E. B.
Ford always remembered his openness and encouragement at the start of
Huxley with his two sons, Anthony and Francis.
In 1925 Huxley moved to King's College
London as Professor of Zoology,
but in 1927, to the amazement of his colleagues and on the prodding of
H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells whom he had promised 1,000 words a day, he
resigned his chair to work full-time with Wells and his son G. P.
The Science of Life
The Science of Life (see below). For some time Huxley
retained his room at King's College, and continued as Honorary
Lecturer in the
Zoology Department. From 1927 to 1931 he was also
Fullerian Professor of Physiology at the Royal Institution, where he
gave an annual lectures series. No one realised it at the time (why
would they?), but he had come to the end of his life as a university
Juliette Huxley, c.1929.
In 1929, after finishing work on The Science of Life, Huxley visited
East Africa to advise the
Colonial Office on education in British East
Africa (for the most part Kenya,
Uganda and Tanganyika). He discovered
that the wildlife on the
Serengeti plain was almost undisturbed
because the tsetse fly (the vector for the trypanosome parasite which
causes sleeping sickness in humans) prevented human settlement there.
He tells about these experiences in Africa view (1931), and so does
his wife. She reveals that he fell in love with an
18-year-old American girl on board ship (when Juliette was not
present), and then presented Juliette with his ideas for an open
marriage: "What Julian really wanted was… a definite freedom from
the conventional bonds of marriage." The couple separated for a while;
Julian travelled to the US, hoping to land a suitable appointment and,
in due course, to marry Miss Weldmeier. He left no account of what
transpired, but he was evidently not successful, and returned to
England to resume his marriage in 1931. For the next couple of years
Huxley still angled for an appointment in the US, without
As the 1930s started, Huxley travelled widely and took part in a
variety of activities which were partly scientific and partly
political. In 1931 Huxley visited the USSR at the invitation of
Intourist, where initially he admired the results of social and
economic planning on a large scale. Later, back in the United Kingdom,
he became a founding member of the think tank Political and Economic
In the 1930s Huxley visited
Kenya and other East African countries to
see the conservation work, including the creation of national parks,
which was happening in the few areas that remained uninhabited due to
malaria. From 1933 to 1938 he was a member of the committee for Lord
Hailey's African Survey.
Huxley lights a cigarette under his grandfather's portrait, c.1935.
In 1935 Huxley was appointed secretary to the Zoological Society of
London, and spent much of the next seven years running the society and
its zoological gardens, the
London Zoo and Whipsnade Park, alongside
his writing and research. The previous Director, Peter Chalmers
Mitchell, had been in post for many years, and had skillfully avoided
conflict with the Fellows and Council. Things were rather different
when Huxley arrived. Huxley was not a skilled administrator; his wife
said "He was impatient… and lacked tact". He instituted
a number of changes and innovations, more than some approved of. For
example, Huxley introduced a whole range of ideas designed to make the
Zoo child-friendly. Today, this would pass without comment; but then
it was more controversial. He fenced off the Fellows' Lawn to
establish Pets Corner; he appointed new assistant curators,
encouraging them to talk to children; he initiated the Zoo
Magazine. Fellows and their guests had the privilege of
free entry on Sundays, a closed day to the general public. Today, that
would be unthinkable, and Sundays are now open to the public. Huxley's
mild suggestion (that the guests should pay) encroached on territory
the Fellows thought was theirs by right.
In 1941 Huxley was invited to the United States on a lecturing tour,
and generated some controversy by saying that he thought the United
States should join World War II: a few weeks later came the attack on
Pearl Harbor. When the US joined the war, he found it difficult to get
a passage back to the UK, and his lecture tour was extended. The
Council of the Zoological Society—"a curious assemblage… of
wealthy amateurs, self-perpetuating and
autocratic"—uneasy with their secretary, used this as an
opportunity to remove him. This they did by abolishing his post "to
save expenses". Since Huxley had taken a half-salary cut at the start
of the war, and no salary at all whilst he was in America, the
Council's action was widely read as a personal attack on Huxley. A
public controversy ensued, but eventually the Council got its way.
In 1943 he was asked by the British government to join the Colonial
Commission on Higher Education. The Commission's remit was to survey
the West African Commonwealth countries for suitable locations for the
creation of universities. There he acquired a disease, went down with
hepatitis, and had a serious mental breakdown. He was completely
disabled, treated with ECT, and took a full year to recover. He was
Huxley, a lifelong internationalist with a concern for education, got
involved in the creation of the United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and became the organization's
first director-general in 1946. His term of office, six years in the
Charter, was cut down to two years at the behest of the American
delegation. The reasons are not known for sure, but his
left-wing tendencies and humanism were likely factors. In a fortnight
he dashed off a 60-page booklet on the purpose and philosophy of
UNESCO, eventually printed and issued as an official document. There
were, however, many conservative opponents of his scientific humanism.
His idea of restraining population growth with birth control was
anathema to both the
Catholic Church and the Comintern/Cominform. In
its first few years
UNESCO was dynamic and broke new ground; since
Huxley it has become larger, more bureaucratic and
stable. The personal and social side of the
years in Paris are well described by his wife.
Huxley's internationalist and conservation interests also led him,
with Victor Stolan, Sir Peter Scott,
Max Nicholson and Guy Mountfort,
to set up the WWF (
World Wide Fund for Nature
World Wide Fund for Nature under its former name of
the World Wildlife Fund).
Another post-war activity was Huxley's attack on the Soviet
politico-scientist Trofim Lysenko, who had espoused a Lamarckian
heredity, made unscientific pronouncements on agriculture, used his
influence to destroy classical genetics in Russia and to move genuine
scientists from their posts. In 1940, the leading botanical geneticist
Nikolai Vavilov was arrested, and Lysenko replaced him as director of
the Institute of Genetics. In 1941, Vavilov was tried, found guilty of
'sabotage' and sentenced to death. Reprieved, he died in jail of
malnutrition in 1943. Lysenko's machinations were the cause of his
arrest. Worse still,
Lysenkoism not only denied proven genetic facts,
it stopped the artificial selection of crops on Darwinian principles.
This may have contributed to the regular shortage of food from the
Soviet agricultural system (Soviet famines). Huxley, who had twice
visited the Soviet Union, was originally not anti-communist, but the
ruthless adoption of
Joseph Stalin ended his tolerant
attitude. Lysenko ended his days in a Soviet mental
hospital, and Vavilov's reputation was posthumously restored in 1955.
In the 1950s Huxley played a role in bringing to the English-speaking
public the work of the French Jesuit-palaeontologist Pierre Teilhard
de Chardin, who he believed had been unfairly treated by the Catholic
Jesuit hierarchy. Both men believed in evolution, but differed in
its interpretation as de Chardin was a Christian, whilst Huxley was an
unbeliever. Huxley wrote the foreword to
The Phenomenon of Man (1959)
and was bitterly attacked by his rationalist friends for doing
On Huxley's death at 87 on 14 February 1975, John Owen (Director of
National Parks for Tanganyika) wrote "
Julian Huxley was one of the
world's great men… he played a seminal role in wild life
conservation in [East] Africa in the early days… [and in] the
far-reaching influence he exerted [on] the international
In addition to his international and humanist concerns, his research
interests covered evolution in all its aspects, ethology, embryology,
genetics, anthropology and to some extent the infant field of cell
biology. Julian's eminence as an advocate for evolution, and
especially his contribution to the modern evolutionary synthesis, led
to his awards of the
Darwin Medal of the
Royal Society in
1956, and the
Darwin–Wallace Medal of the Linnaean
Society in 1958. 1958 was the centenary anniversary of the joint
presentation On the tendency of species to form varieties; and the
perpetuation of varieties and species by natural means of selection by
Darwin and Wallace.
Huxley was a friend and mentor of the biologists and Nobel laureates
Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen, and taught and
encouraged many others. In general, he was more of an all-round
naturalist than his famous grandfather, and contributed
much to the acceptance of natural selection. His outlook was
international, and somewhat idealistic: his interest in progress and
evolutionary humanism runs through much of his published
work. He was one of the signers of the Humanist
Huxley and biologist
August Weismann insisted on natural selection as
the primary agent in evolution. Huxley was a major player in the
mid-twentieth century modern evolutionary synthesis. He was a
prominent populariser of biological science to the public, with a
focus on three aspects in particular.
In the early 20th century he was one of the minority of
biologists who believed that natural selection was the
main driving force of evolution, and that evolution occurred by small
steps and not by saltation (jumps). These opinions are now
standard.Though his time as an academic was quite brief,
he taught and encouraged a number of evolutionary biologists at the
Oxford in the 1920s. Charles Elton (ecology), Alister
Hardy (marine biology) and John Baker (cytology) all became highly
successful, and Baker eventually wrote Huxley's
Royal Society obituary
memoir. Perhaps the most significant was Edmund
Brisco Ford, who founded a field of research called ecological
genetics, which played a role in the evolutionary synthesis. Another
important disciple was Gavin de Beer, who wrote on evolution and
development, and became Director of the Natural History Museum. Both
these fine scholars had attended Huxley's lectures on genetics,
experimental zoology (including embryology) and ethology. Later, they
became his collaborators, and then leaders in their own right.
In an era when scientists did not travel so frequently as today,
Huxley was an exception, for he travelled widely in Europe, Africa and
the United States. He was therefore able to learn from and influence
other scientists, naturalists and administrators. In the US he was
able to meet other evolutionists at a critical time in the
reassessment of natural selection. In Africa he was able to influence
colonial administrators about education and wildlife conservation. In
Europe, through UNESCO, he was at the centre of the post-World War II
revival of education. In Russia, however, his experiences were mixed.
His initially favourable view was changed by his growing awareness of
Stalin's murderous repression, and the Lysenko affair.
There seems little evidence that he had any effect on the Soviet
Union, and the same could be said for some other Western
scientists."Marxist-Leninism had become a dogmatic religion… and
like all dogmatic religions, it had turned from reform to
Huxley was one of the main architects of the modern evolutionary
synthesis which took place around the time of World War II. The
synthesis of genetic and population ideas produced a consensus which
reigned in biology from about 1940, and which is still broadly
"The most informative episode in the history of evolutionary biology
was the establishment of the 'neo-Darwinian synthesis'." Berry and
Bradshaw, 1992. The synthesis was brought about "not by
one side being proved right and the others wrong, but by the exchange
of the most viable components of the previously competing research
strategies". Ernst Mayr, 1980.
Huxley's first 'trial run' was the treatment of evolution in the
Science of Life (1929–30), and in 1936 he published a long and
significant paper for the British Association. In 1938
came three lengthy reviews on major evolutionary
topics. Two of these papers were
on the subject of sexual selection, an idea of Darwin's whose standing
has been revived in recent times. Huxley
thought that sexual selection was "…merely an aspect of natural
selection which… is concerned with characters which subserve mating,
and are usually sex-limited". This rather grudging acceptance of
sexual selection was influenced by his studies on the courtship of the
great crested grebe (and other birds that pair for life): the
courtship takes place mostly after mate selection, not before.
Now it was time for Huxley to tackle the subject of evolution at full
length, in what became the defining work of his life. His role was
that of a synthesiser, and it helped that he had met many of the other
participants. His book Evolution: The Modern Synthesis was written
whilst he was secretary to the Zoological Society, and made use of his
remarkable collection of reprints covering the first part of the
century. It was published in 1942. Reviews of the book in learned
journals were little short of ecstatic; the American Naturalist called
it "The outstanding evolutionary treatise of the decade, perhaps of
the century. The approach is thoroughly scientific; the command of
basic information amazing".
Huxley's main co-respondents in the modern evolutionary synthesis are
usually listed as Ernst Mayr, Theodosius Dobzhansky, George Gaylord
Simpson, Bernhard Rensch,
Ledyard Stebbins and the population
geneticists J. B. S. Haldane,
Ronald Fisher and Sewall Wright.
However, at the time of Huxley's book several of these had yet to make
their distinctive contribution. Certainly, for Huxley,
E. B. Ford
E. B. Ford and
his co-workers in ecological genetics were at least as important; and
Cyril Darlington, the chromosome expert, was a notable source of facts
and ideas.An analysis of the 'authorities cited' index of Evolution
the modern synthesis shows indirectly those whom Huxley regarded as
the most important contributors to the synthesis up to 1941 (the book
was published in 1942, and references go up to 1941). The authorities
cited 20 or more times are:Darlington, Darwin, Dobzhansky, Fisher,
Ford, Goldschmidt, Haldane, J. S. Huxley, Muller, Rensch, Turrill,
Wright.This list contains a few surprises. Goldschmidt was an
influential geneticist who advocated evolution by saltation, and was
sometimes mentioned in disagreement. Turrill provided Huxley with
botanical information. The list omits three key members of the
synthesis who are listed above: Mayr, Stebbins the botanist and
Simpson the palaeontologist. Mayr gets 16 citations and more in the
two later editions; all three published outstanding and relevant books
some years later, and their contribution to the synthesis is
unquestionable. Their lesser weight in Huxley's citations was caused
by the early publication date of his book. Huxley's book is not strong
in palaeontology, which illustrates perfectly why Simpson's later
works were such an important contribution.
It was Huxley who coined the terms the new synthesis and evolutionary
synthesis; he also invented the term cline in 1938 to
refer to species whose members fall into a series of sub-species with
continuous change in characters over a geographical
area. The classic example of a cline is the
circle of subspecies of the gull
Larus round the Arctic zone. This
cline is an example of a ring species.Some of Huxley's last
contributions to the evolutionary synthesis were on the subject of
ecological genetics. He noted how surprisingly widespread polymorphism
is in nature, with visible morphism much more prevalent in some groups
than others. The immense diversity of colour and pattern in small
bivalve molluscs, brittlestars, sea-anemones, tubicular polychaetes
and various grasshoppers is perhaps maintained by making recognition
by predators more difficult.
Further information: Orthogenesis
Huxley always believed that on a broad view evolution led to advances
in organisation. Progress without a goal was one of his phrases, to
distinguish his point of view from classical Aristotelian teleology.
"The ordinary man, or at least the ordinary poet, philosopher and
theologian, always was anxious to find purpose in the evolutionary
process. I believe this reasoning to be totally false."The
idea of evolutionary progress was subjected to some fierce criticism
in the latter part of the twentieth century. Cladists, for example,
were (and are) strongly against any suggestion that a group could be
scientifically described as 'advanced' and others as 'primitive.' For
them, and especially for the radical group of transformed cladists,
there is no such thing as an advanced group, they are derived or
apomorphic. Primitive groups are plesiomorphic. Ironically, it was
Huxley who invented the terms clade and
grades. However, to take a rather
extreme case, it would seem strange to say that when man is compared
to bacteria, that mankind is not a vastly more complex and advanced
form of life; or that the invasion of the land by plants and animals
was not a great advance in the history of life on this planet. On this
issue Julian was at the opposite end of the spectrum from his
grandfather, who was, at least for the first half of his career, a
propagandist for 'persistent types', getting close to denying any
advances at all.
Huxley argued his case many times, even in his most important works.
In the final chapter of his
Evolution the modern synthesis he defines
evolutionary progress as "a raising of the upper level of biological
efficiency, this being defined as increased control over and
independence of the environment,"
Evolution in action
discusses evolutionary progress at length: "
Natural selection plus
time produces biological improvement… 'Improvement' is not yet a
recognised technical term in biology … however, living things are
improved during evolution… Darwin was not afraid to use the word for
the results of natural selection in general… I believe that
improvement can become one of the key concepts in evolutionary
biology.""Can it be scientifically defined? Improvements in biological
machinery… the limbs and teeth of grazing horses… the increase in
brain-power… The eyes of a dragon-fly, which can see all round [it]
in every direction, are an improvement over the mere microscopic
eye-spots of early forms of life." "[Over] the whole range
of evolutionary time we see general advance—improvement in all the
main properties of life, including its general organization. 'Advance'
is thus a useful term for long-term improvement in some general
property of life. [But] improvement is not universal. Lower forms
manage to survive alongside higher". These excerpts are
much abbreviated, but give some idea of his way of thinking. He
addresses the topic of 'persistent types' (living fossils) later in
the same book (pp 126–28).
The question of evolutionary advancement has quite a history. Of
course, pre-Darwin, it was believed without question that Man stood at
the head of a pyramid (scala naturae). The matter is not so simple
with evolution by natural selection; Darwin's own opinion varied from
time to time. In the Origin he wrote "And as natural selection works
by and for the good of each being, all corporeal and mental endowments
will tend to progress towards perfection". This was much
too strong; as Sober remarks, there is nothing in the theory of
natural selection which demands that selection must produce an
increase in complexity or any other measure of advancement. It is
merely compatible with the theory that this might happen.
Elsewhere Darwin admits that "naturalists have not yet defined to each
other's satisfaction what is meant by high and low forms"
(p. 336); nor have they now – this is one of the problems.
Other evolutionary biologists have had similar thoughts to Huxley: G.
Ledyard Stebbins and Bernhard Rensch, for
example. The term for progressive evolution is anagenesis, though this
does not necessarily include the idea of improvement.The objective
description of complexity was one of the issues addressed by
cybernetics in the 1950s. The idea that advanced machines (including
living beings) could exert more control over their environments and
operate in a wider range of situations perhaps serves as a basis for
making the terms such as 'advanced' amenable to more exact
definition. This is a debate that continues
For a modern survey of the idea of progress in evolution see
Nitecki and Dawkins.
Huxley's humanism came from his appreciation that mankind
was in charge of its own destiny (at least in principle), and this
raised the need for a sense of direction and a system of ethics. His
grandfather T. H. Huxley, when faced with similar problems, had
promoted agnosticism, but Julian chose humanism as being more directed
to supplying a basis for ethics. Julian's thinking went along these
lines: "The critical point in the evolution of man… was when he
acquired the use of [language]… Man's development is potentially
open… He has developed a new method of evolution: the transmission
of organized experience by way of tradition, which… largely
overrides the automatic process of natural selection as the agent of
change". Both Huxley and his grandfather gave Romanes
Lectures on the possible connection between evolution and
ethics. (see evolutionary ethics) Huxley's views on god
could be described as being that of an agnostic
Huxley had a close association with the British rationalist and
secular humanist movements. He was an Honorary Associate of the
Rationalist Press Association
Rationalist Press Association from 1927 until his death, and on the
formation of the
British Humanist Association
British Humanist Association in 1963 became its first
President, to be succeeded by AJ Ayer in 1965. He was also closely
involved with the International Humanist and Ethical Union. Many of
Huxley's books address humanist themes. In 1962 Huxley accepted the
American Humanist Association's annual "Humanist of the Year" award.
Huxley also presided over the founding Congress of the International
Humanist and Ethical Union and served with John Dewey, Albert Einstein
Thomas Mann on the founding advisory board of the First Humanist
Society of New York.
Huxley wrote that "There is no separate supernatural realm: all
phenomena are part of one natural process of evolution. There is no
basic cleavage between science and religion;… I believe that [a]
drastic reorganization of our pattern of religious thought is now
becoming necessary, from a god-centered to an evolutionary-centered
pattern". Some believe the appropriate label for these
views is religious naturalism.
Many people assert that this abandonment of the god hypothesis means
the abandonment of all religion and all moral sanctions. This is
simply not true. But it does mean, once our relief at jettisoning an
outdated piece of ideological furniture is over, that we must
construct something to take its place.
Huxley took interest in investigating the claims of parapsychology and
spiritualism. He joined the
Society for Psychical Research
Society for Psychical Research in 1928.
After investigation he found the field to be unscientific and full of
charlatans. In 1934, he joined the International Institute
for Psychical Research but resigned after a few months due to its
members spiritualist bias and non-scientific approach to the
After attending séances, Huxley concluded that the phenomena could be
explained "either by natural causes, or, more usually by
Harold Dearden and others were judges for
a group formed by the
Sunday Chronicle to investigate the
materialization medium Harold Evans. During a séance Evans was
exposed as a fraud. He was caught masquerading as a spirit, in a white
In 1952, Huxley wrote the foreword to Donovan Rawcliffe's The
Psychology of the Occult.
Eugenics and race
Huxley was a prominent member of the British Eugenics
Society, and was Vice-President (1937–1944) and
President (1959–1962). He thought eugenics was important for
removing undesirable variants from the human gene pool, though after
World War II
World War II he believed race was a meaningless concept in biology,
and its application to humans was highly inconsistent.
Huxley was an outspoken critic of the most extreme eugenicism in the
1920s and 1930s (the stimulus for which was the greater fertility of
the 'feckless' poor compared to the 'responsible' prosperous classes).
He was, nevertheless, a leading figure in the eugenics movement (see,
Eugenics manifesto). He gave the
Galton memorial lecture
twice, in 1936 and 1962. In his writing he used this argument several
times: no one doubts the wisdom of managing the germ plasm of
agricultural stocks, so why not apply the same concept to human
stocks? "The agricultural analogy appears over and over again as it
did in the writings of many American eugenicists."
Huxley was one of many intellectuals at the time who believed that the
lowest class in society was genetically inferior.[citation
needed] In this passage, from 1941, he investigates a hypothetical
scenario where social darwinism, capitalism, nationalism and the class
society is taken for granted:
If so, then we must plan our eugenic policy along some such lines as
the following:... The lowest strata, allegedly less well-endowed
genetically, are reproducing relatively too fast. Therefore
birth-control methods must be taught them; they must not have too easy
access to relief or hospital treatment lest the removal of the last
check on natural selection should make it too easy for children to be
produced or to survive; long unemployment should be a ground for
sterilization, or at least relief should be contingent upon no further
children being brought into the world; and so on. That is to say, much
of our eugenic programme will be curative and remedial merely, instead
of preventive and constructive.
Here, he does not demean the working class in general, but aims for
"the virtual elimination of the few lowest and most degenerate
types". The sentiment is not at all atypical of the time,
and similar views were held by many geneticists (William E. Castle,
H. J. Muller
H. J. Muller are examples), and by other prominent
However, Huxley advocated a completely different alternative, in which
the lower classes are ensured a nutritious diet, education and
facilities for recreation:
We must therefore concentrate on producing a single equalized
environment; and this clearly should be one as favourable as possible
to the expression of the genetic qualities that we think desirable.
Equally clearly, this should include the following items. A marked
raising of the standard of diet for the great majority of the
population, until all should be provided both with adequate calories
and adequate accessory factors; provision of facilities for healthy
exercise and recreation; and upward equalization of educational
opportunity. ... we know from various sources that raising the
standard of life among the poorest classes almost invariably results
in a lowering of their fertility. In so far, therefore, as
differential class-fertility exists, raising the environmental level
will reduce any dysgenic effects which it may now have.
Concerning a public health and racial policy in general, Huxley wrote
that "…unless [civilised societies] invent and enforce adequate
measures for regulating human reproduction, for controlling the
quantity of population, and at least preventing the deterioration of
quality of racial stock, they are doomed to decay …" and
remarked how biology should be the chief tool for rendering social
In the opinion of Duvall, "His views fell well within the spectrum of
opinion acceptable to the English liberal intellectual elite. He
shared Nature's enthusiasm for birth control, and 'voluntary'
sterilization." However, the word 'English' in this
passage is unnecessary: such views were widespread. Duvall
comments that Huxley's enthusiasm for centralised social and economic
planning and anti-industrial values was common to leftist ideologists
during the inter-war years. Towards the end of his life, Huxley
himself must have recognised how unpopular these views became after
the end of World War II. In the two volumes of his autobiography,
there is no mention of eugenics in the index, nor is
and the subject has also been omitted from many of the obituaries and
biographies. An exception is the proceedings of a conference organised
by the British
In response to the rise of European fascism in the 1930s, he was asked
to write We Europeans with the ethnologist A. C. Haddon, the zoologist
Alexander Carr-Saunders and the historian of science Charles Singer.
Huxley suggested the word 'race' be replaced with ethnic group. After
the Second World War, he was instrumental in producing the UNESCO
statement The Race Question, which asserted that:
A race, from the biological standpoint, may therefore be defined as
one of the group of populations constituting the species Homo
sapiens"… "National, religious, geographic, linguistic and cult
groups do not necessary coincide with racial groups: the cultural
traits of such groups have no demonstrated genetic connexion with
racial traits. Because serious errors of this kind are habitually
committed when the term 'race' is used in popular parlance, it would
be better when speaking of human races to drop the term 'race'
altogether and speak of ethnic groups"… "Now what has the scientist
to say about the groups of mankind which may be recognized at the
present time? Human races can be and have been differently classified
by different anthropologists, but at the present time most
anthropologists agree on classifying the greater part of present-day
mankind into three major divisions, as follows: The Mongoloid
Negroid Division; The Caucasoid Division." …
"Catholics, Protestants, Moslems and Jews are not races … The
biological fact of race and the myth of 'race' should be
distinguished. For all practical social purposes 'race' is not so much
a biological phenomenon as a social myth. The myth 'race' has created
an enormous amount of human and social damage. In recent years it has
taken a heavy toll in human lives and caused untold suffering. It
still prevents the normal development of millions of human beings and
deprives civilization of the effective co-operation of productive
minds. The biological differences between ethnic groups should be
disregarded from the standpoint of social acceptance and social
action. The unity of mankind from both the biological and social
viewpoint is the main thing. To recognize this and to act accordingly
is the first requirement of modern man ...
Huxley won the second
Anisfield-Wolf Book Award for We Europeans in
In 1957, Huxley coined the term transhumanism for the view that humans
should better themselves through science and technology, possibly
including eugenics, but also, importantly, the improvement of the
Public life and popularisation
Huxley was always able to write well, and was ever willing to address
the public on scientific topics. Well over half his books are
addressed to an educated general audience, and he wrote often in
periodicals and newspapers. The most extensive bibliography of Huxley
lists some of these ephemeral articles, though there are others
These articles, some reissued as Essays of a Biologist (1923),
probably led to the invitation from H. G. Wells to help write a
comprehensive work on biology for a general readership, The Science of
Life. This work was published in stages in
1929–30, and in one volume in 1931. Of this Robert Olby
said "Book IV The essence of the controversies about evolution offers
perhaps the clearest, most readable, succinct and informative popular
account of the subject ever penned. It was here that he first
expounded his own version of what later developed into the
evolutionary synthesis". In his memoirs,
Huxley says that he made almost £10,000 from the book.
In 1934 Huxley collaborated with the naturalist
Ronald Lockley to
Alexander Korda the world's first natural history
documentary The Private Life of the Gannets. For the film, shot with
the support of the Royal Navy around Grassholm off the Pembrokeshire
coast, they won an Oscar for best documentary.
Huxley had given talks on the radio since the 1920s, followed by
written versions in The Listener. In later life, he became known to an
even wider audience through television. In 1939 the
BBC asked him to
be a regular panelist on a Home Service general knowledge show, The
Brains Trust, in which he and other panelists were asked to discuss
questions submitted by listeners. The show was commissioned to keep up
war time morale, by preventing the war from "disrupting the normal
discussion of interesting ideas". The audience was not large for this
somewhat elite programme; however, listener research ranked Huxley the
most popular member of the Brains Trust from 1941 to
Later, he was a regular panelist on one of the BBC's first quiz shows
(1955) Animal, Vegetable, Mineral? in which participants were asked to
talk about objects chosen from museum and university collections.
In 1937 Huxley was invited to deliver the
Royal Institution Christmas
Lecture on Rare Animals and the Disappearance of Wild Life.
In his essay The Crowded World Huxley was openly critical of Communist
Catholic attitudes to birth control, population control and
overpopulation. Based on variable rates of compound interest, Huxley
predicted a probable world population of 6 billion by 2000. The
United Nations Population Fund
United Nations Population Fund marked 12 October 1999 as The Day of
Clade (1957): a monophyletic taxon; a single species and its
Cline (1938): a gradient of gene frequencies in a population, along a
Ethnic group (1936): as opposed to race
Evolutionary grade (1959): a level of evolutionary advance, in
contrast to a clade
Mentifact (1955): objects which consist of ideas in people's minds
Morph (1942): as more correct and simpler than polymorph
Ritualization (1914): formalised activities in bird behaviour, caused
by inherited behaviour chains
Sociofact (1955): objects which consist of interactions between
members of a social group
Transhumanism (1957): the transforming of human beings
Titles and phrases
Religion Without Revelation (1927, 1957)
The Uniqueness of Man (1941)
Evolution: The Modern Synthesis (1942)
Evolutionary Ethics (1943)
Evolution as a Process (1954)
Essays of a Humanist (1964)
The Future of Man (1966)
The individual in the animal kingdom (1911)
The courtship habits of the
Great crested grebe
Great crested grebe (1914) [a landmark in
Essays of a Biologist (1923)
Essays in Popular Science (1926)
The stream of life (1926)
The Tissue-Culture King (1926) [science fiction]
Animal biology (with J. B. S. Haldane, 1927)
Religion without revelation (1927, revised edition 1957)
The science of life: a summary of contemporary knowledge about life
and its possibilities (with HG & G. P. Wells, 1929–30). First
issued in 31 fortnightly parts published by Amalgamated Press,
1929–31, bound up in three volumes as publication proceeded. First
issued in one volume by Cassell in 1931, reprinted 1934, 1937, popular
edition, fully revised, 1938. Published as separate volumes by Cassell
1934–37: I The living body. II Patterns of life (1934). III
Evolution—fact and theory. IV Reproduction, heredity and the
development of sex. V The history and adventure of life. VI The drama
of life. VII How animals behave (1937). VIII Man's mind and behaviour.
IX Biology and the human race. Published in New York by Doubleday,
Doran & Co. 1931, 1934, 1939; and by The
Literary Guild 1934.
Three of the Cassell spin-off books were also published by Doubleday
in 1932: Evolution, fact and theory; The human mind and the behavior
of Man; Reproduction, genetics and the development of sex.
Bird-watching and bird behaviour (1930)
An introduction to science (with Edward Andrade, 1931–34)
What dare I think?: the challenge of modern science to human action
and belief. Chatto & Windus, London; Harper, N.Y. (1931)
Africa view (1931)
The captive shrew and other poems (1932)
Problems of relative growth (1932) (on allometry)
A scientist among the Soviets (1932)
If I were Dictator. Methuen, London; Harper, N.Y. (1934)
Scientific research and social needs (1934)
Elements of experimental embryology (with Gavin de Beer, 1934)
Thomas Huxley's diary of the voyage of HMS Rattlesnake (1935)
We Europeans (with A.C. Haddon, 1936)
Animal language (photographs by Ylla, includes recordings of animal
calls: 1938, reprinted 1964)
The present standing of the theory of sexual selection. In Gavin de
Beer (ed) Evolution: Essays on aspects of evolutionary biology (pp
11–42). Oxford: Clarendon Press (1938)
The living thoughts of Darwin (1939)
The new systematics. Oxford. (1940) [this multi-author volume, edited
by Huxley, is one of the foundation stones of the 'Modern synthesis',
with essays on taxonomy, evolution, natural selection, Mendelian
genetics and population genetics]
Democracy marches. Chatto & Windus, London; Harper N.Y. (1941)
The uniqueness of man. Chatto & Windus, London. (1941; reprint
1943). U.S. as Man stands alone. Harper, N.Y. 1941.
On living in a revolution. Harper, N.Y. (1944)
Evolution: the modern synthesis. Allen & Unwin, London. (1942,
reprinted 1943, 1944, 1945, 1948, 1955; 2nd ed, with new introduction
and bibliography by the author, 1963; 3rd ed, with new introduction
and bibliography by nine contributors, 1974). U.S. first edition by
Harper, 1943. [this summarises research on all topics relevant to the
modern synthesis of evolution and
Mendelian genetics up to the Second
World War]. New edition by MIT Press in 2010 with Foreword by Massimo
Pigliucci and Gerd B. Müller.
Evolutionary ethics (1943)
TVA: Adventure in planning (1944)
Evolution and ethics 1893–1943. Pilot, London. In the US as
Touchstone for ethics Harper, N.Y. (1947) [includes text from both T.
H. Huxley and Julian Huxley]
Man in the modern world (1947) eBook, essays selected from The
uniqueness of man (1941) and On living in a revolution (1944)
Soviet genetics and World science: Lysenko and the meaning of
heredity. Chatto & Windus, London. In the US as Heredity, East and
West. Schuman, N.Y. (1949).
Evolution in action (1953)
Evolution as a process (with Hardy A. C. and Ford E. B. eds.) Allen
& Unwin, London. (1954)
From an antique land: ancient and modern in the Middle East. Parrish,
London (1954, revised 1966)
Kingdom of the beasts (with W. Suschitzky, 1956)
Biological aspects of cancer (1957)
New bottles for new wine Chatto & Windus, London; Harper N.Y.
(1957); repr as Knowledge, morality, destiny. N.Y. (1960)
The treasure house of wild life 13 Nov, More meat from game than
cattle 13 Nov, Cropping the wild protein 20 Nov, Wild life as a World
Asset, second page 27 Nov;
The Observer newspaper articles that led to
the setting up of the
World Wildlife Fund
World Wildlife Fund (1960)
The humanist frame (as editor, 1961)
The coming new religion of humanism (1962)
Essays of a humanist (1964) reprinted 1966, 1969, 1992:
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.cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em ISBN 0-87975-778-7
The human crisis (1964)
Darwin and his world (with Bernard Kettlewell, 1965)
Aldous Huxley 1894–1963: a memorial volume. (as editor, 1965)
The future of man: evolutionary aspects. (1966)
The wonderful world of evolution (1969)
Memories (2 vols 1970 & 1973) [his autobiography]
The Mitchell Beazley Atlas of World Wildlife. Mitchell Beazley,
London; also published as The Atlas of World Wildlife. Purnell, Cape
^ a b c d Baker, J. R. (1976). "Julian Sorell Huxley. 22 June
1887 – 14 February 1975". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the
Royal Society. 22: 206–226. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1976.0009.
^ Personal communication,
Julian Huxley to Ronald Clark, the
biographer of the Huxley family.
^ Huxley J. 1970. Memories. George Allen & Unwin, London, p. 50.
^ Huxley, Julian. "Obituary. W. Warde-Fowler" (PDF). British Birds. 15
^ For an assessment of Huxley's ethology see Burkhardt, Richard W.
1993. Huxley and the rise of ethology. In Waters C. K. and Van
Helden A. (eds) Julian Huxley: biologist and statesman of science.
Rice University Press, Houston.
^ 'K': so designated in Memories (1970), but now known to be Kathleen
Fordham, whom he met when she was a pupil at his mother's school
Prior's Field. Huxley suffered from a conflict between desire and
guilt. (Dronamraju K. R. 1993. If I am to be remembered: the life
& work of Julian Huxley. World Scientific, Singapore,
^ Huxley, Julian 1970. Memories, chapters 7 and 8.
^ "No. 30134". The
London Gazette (Supplement). 15 June 1917.
^ "No. 30938". The
London Gazette (Supplement). 4 October 1918.
^ "No. 31059". The
London Gazette (Supplement). 10 December 1918.
^ "No. 31285". The
London Gazette (Supplement). 8 April 1919.
^ "No. 32377". The
London Gazette (Supplement). 1 July 1921.
^ Huxley, Juliette. 1986. Leaves of the tulip tree: autobiography.
Murray, London. Chapter 4.
^ Ford E. B. 1989. Scientific work by Sir
Julian Huxley FRS. In Keynes
M. & Harrison G. A. Evolutionary studies: a centenary celebration
of the life of Julian Huxley. Macmillan, London.
Olby, Robert, Huxley, Sir Julian Sorell,
Oxford Dictionary of National
^ Huxley, Juliette 1986. Leaves of the tulip tree. Murray, London, p.
^ Waters C. K. & Van Helden A. (eds) 1993. Julian Huxley:
biologist and statesman of science. Houston. p. 285, notes 50 and 51.
^ Huxley, Juliette 1986. Leaves of the Tulip Tree. Murray, London, p.
^ Kevles D. J. 1993. Huxley and the popularization of science. In
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^ Huxley, Julian. 1970. Memories. George Allen & Unwin, London, p.
^ Armytage W. H. G. 1989. The first Director-General of UNESCO. In
Keynes M. and Harrison G. A. (eds) 1989. Evolutionary studies: a
centenary celebration of the life of Julian Huxley. Macmillan, London,
^ Huxley J. 1947. UNESCO: its purpose and its philosophy.
15 September 1947. Public Affairs Press, Washington.
^ Armytage W. H. G. 1989. The first Director-General of UNESCO. In
Keynes M. and Harrison G. A. (eds) 1989. Evolutionary studies: a
centenary celebration of the life of Julian Huxley. Macmillan, London.
^ a b Huxley, Juliette 1986. Leaves of the tulip tree. Murray, London.
^ Huxley J. 1949. Soviet genetics and World science: Lysenko and the
meaning of heredity. Chatto & Windus, London. In the US as
Heredity, East and West. Schuman, N.Y.
^ Huxley, Julian. 1972. Memories II. George Allen & Unwin, London,
^ Huxley, Juliette 1986. Leaves of the tulip tree. Murray, London. p.
Bowler, Peter J.
Bowler, Peter J. 2003. Evolution: The History of an Idea, 3rd ed.
University of California Press. pp. 256–273 ISBN 0-520-23693-9.
^ Waters C. K. & Van Helden A. (eds) 1992. Julian Huxley:
biologist and statesman of science. Rice,
Houston TX. p. 144
^ Ruse, Michael 1997.
Thomas Henry Huxley
Thomas Henry Huxley and the status of evolution
as science, in Barr, Alan P. (ed) Thomas Henry Huxley's place in
science and letters: centenary essays. Athens, Georgia.
^ Duvall C. 1992. From a Victorian to a modern:
Julian Huxley and the
English intellectual climate. In Waters C. K. and Van Helden A. (eds)
Julian Huxley: biologist and statesman of science. Rice University
^ "Humanist Manifesto II". American Humanist Association. Archived
from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
^ Bowler P.J. 1983. The eclipse of Darwinism: anti-Darwinian
evolutionary theories in the decades around 1900. Johns Hopkins,
^ Bowler P.J. 2003. Evolution: the history of an idea. 3rd ed revised
and expanded, University of California Press.
^ Baker, John R. 1978. Julian Huxley, scientist and world citizen,
1887–1975. UNESCO, Paris.
^ Huxley, J.S. 1949. Soviet genetics and world science: Lysenko and
the meaning of heredity. Chatto & Windus, London. In the US as
Heredity, East and West. Schuman, N.Y. (1949).
^ Huxley J. 1970. Memories. George Allen & Unwin, London. Chapter
XIX 'Russia 1945', p. 287.
^ Berry R.J. and Bradshaw A.D. 1992. Genes in the real world. In Berry
R.J. et al. (eds) Genes in ecology. Blackwell, Oxford.
^ Mayr E. 1980. Some thoughts on the history of the evolutionary
synthesis. In Mayr E. and Provine W.B. The evolutionary synthesis.
Harvard. pp. 1–80
^ Huxley J.S. (1936). "
Natural selection and evolutionary progress".
Proceedings of the British Association. 106: 81–100.
^ Huxley J. (1938). "Threat and warning colouration with a general
discussion of the biological function of colour". Proc Eighth Int
Oxford 1934 pp. 430–55
^ Huxley, J. S. (1938). "Darwin's Theory of Sexual Selection and the
Data Subsumed by it, in the Light of Recent Research". The American
Naturalist. 72 (742): 416. doi:10.1086/280795. JSTOR 2457442.
^ Huxley J.S. (1938). "The present standing of the theory of sexual
selection". In G.R. de Beer (ed) Evolution: Essays on aspects of
evolutionary biology pp. 11–42. Oxford.
^ Cronin, Helena (1991). The ant and the peacock: altruism and sexual
selection from Darwin to today. Cambridge University Press.
^ Anderson M. 1994. Sexual selection. Princeton.
^ Hubbs C. L. (1943). "
Evolution the new synthesis". American
Naturalist. 77 (771): 365–68. doi:10.1086/281134.
^ Kimball, R. F. (1943). "The Great Biological
Generalization:Evolution: The Modern Synthesis. Julian Huxley". The
Quarterly Review of Biology. 18 (4): 364. doi:10.1086/394682.
^ Huxley J. 1942. Evolution: The Modern Synthesis (2nd ed 1963, 3rd ed
^ Huxley J. (1938). "Clines: an auxiliary method in taxonomy".
Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde (Leiden) 27, 491–520.
^ Huxley, J. (1938). "Clines: An Auxiliary Taxonomic Principle".
Nature. 142 (3587): 219. Bibcode:1938Natur.142..219H.
^ Huxley, J. (1955). "Morphism and evolution". Heredity. 9: 1.
^ Huxley J. 1955. Morphism in birds. In Portmann A. & Sutter E.
(eds) Acta XI Cong Int Ornith (Basel 1954) pp 309–328.
^ Moment, G. B. (1962). "Reflexive Selection: A Possible Answer to an
Old Puzzle". Science. 136 (3512): 262–3.
^ Huxley J. 1942. Evolution: The Modern Synthesis Allen & Unwin,
London, p. 576.
^ Huxley, Julian (1957). "The Three Types of Evolutionary Process".
Nature. 180 (4584): 454. Bibcode:1957Natur.180..454H.
^ Huxley J. 1959. "Clades and grades." In Cain A. J. (ed) Function and
Systematics Association, London.
^ Dupuis, C. (1984). "Willi Hennig's Impact on Taxonomic Thought".
Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 15: 1.
^ Huxley T. H. (1859). "On the persistent types of animal life".
Proceedings of the Royal Institution.
^ Desmond A. 1982. Archetypes and Ancestors: Palaeontology in
Victorian London, 1850–1875. Blond & Briggs, London.
^ Huxley, 1942. Chapter 10 "Evolutionary progress."
^ Huxley J. 1953.
Evolution in Action. Chatto & Windus, London,
^ Huxley, 1953. 'p. 65.
^ Darwin C. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection.
Murray, London. p. 489
^ Sober E. 1984. The Nature of Selection: Evolutionary Theory in
Philosophical Focus. Chicago. p. 172
^ Stebbins, G. Ledyard 1969. The Basis of Progressive Evolution.
^ Rensch B. 1960.
Evolution above the Species Level. Columbia, N.Y.
^ Ashby, W. Ross. 1956. Introduction to Cybernetics.
^ Simon H.A. 1962. "The architecture of complexity." Proc Am Philos
Soc 106, 467–82; reprinted in Simon H.A. 1981. The Sciences of the
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^ Nitecki M. (ed) 1989. Evolutionary Progress. University of Chicago
^ Dawkins R. 1992. "Higher and lower animals: a diatribe." In
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this from other uses of the term 'humanism'. Bullock, Alan et al.
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[includes text from the Romanes lectures of both
T. H. Huxley
T. H. Huxley and
^ "Despite his atheism Huxley could appreciate Teilhard de Chardin's
vision of evolution, and like his grandfather
T. H. Huxley
T. H. Huxley he believed
progress could be described in biological terms." Robert Olby,
'Huxley, Sir Julian Sorell (1887–1975)',
Oxford Dictionary of
Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online
edition, May 2007 (accessed May 2, 2008).
^ Marty, Martin E. Modern American Religion: Vol. 3, Under God,
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^ Ross, William T. (2002). H. G. Wells's World Reborn: The Outline of
History and Its Companions. Rosemont Publishing and Printing Corp. pp.
24-25. ISBN 1-57591-057-8
^ Blow to Psychic Research Body. Distinguished Men Resign. The
Yorkshire Evening Post. June 28, 1934. p. 13.
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"Science and Psychical Research". Nature 134: 458.
^ Meckier, Jerome; Nugel, Bernfried. (2004).
Aldous Huxley Annual.
Volume 4. LIT Verlag. p. 228. ISBN 3-8258-8272-1
^ Price, Harry. (1939). Fifty Years of Psychical Research: A Critical
Survey. Longmans, Green and Co. p. 202
^ Anonymous. (1959). The Psychology of the Occult.
Science Digest 46:
^ Mazumdar, Pauline 1992. Eugenics, Human
Genetics and Human Failings:
Eugenics Society, Its Sources and Its Critics in Britain.
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human evolution." In Waters C. K. & Van Helden A. (eds) Julian
Huxley: Biologist and Statesman of Science. Rice,
Houston TX. pp.
^ Allen, p. 221
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London. Originally published in The Uniqueness of Man, 1941, p.66
^ Hubback D. "
Julian Huxley and eugenics." 1989. In Keynes M. and
Harrison G. A. (eds) Evolutionary Studies: A Centenary Celebration of
the Life of Julian Huxley. Macmillan, London.
^ Huxley J.S. 1947. Man in the Modern World. Chatto & Windus,
London. Originally published in The Uniqueness of Man, 1941, pp.
^ Huxley, Julian. 1926. Essays in Popular Science. London: Chatto
& Windus, ix.
^ Duvall C. 1992. From a Victorian to a modern:
Julian Huxley and the
English intellectual climate. In Waters C. K. and Van Helden A. (eds)
Julian Huxley: Biologist and Statesman of Science. Rice University
Press, Houston. p. 24
^ Kevles D. J. 1995. In the Name of Eugenics:
Genetics and the Uses of
Human Heredity. Harvard 1995.
^ Keynes, Milo and Harrison, G. Ainsworth (eds) 1989. Evolutionary
Studies: A Centenary Celebration of the Life of Julian Huxley.
Proceedings of the 24th annual symposium of the
London 1987. Macmillan, London.
^ The Race question;
UNESCO and its programme; Vol.:3; 1950
^ Baker J. R. and Green J.-P. 1978. Julian Huxley: Man of science
and citizen of the world 1887–1975. UNESCO, bibliography, especially
Andrew Huxley (in Keynes M. and Harrison G. A. eds 1989.
Evolutionary studies: a centenary celebration of the life of Julian
Huxley. Macmillan, London. p. 19) says it was originally published in
31 fortnightly parts in 1929–30; others (Waters C. K. & Van
Helden A. eds 1993. Julian Huxley: biologist and statesman of science.
Houston. bibliography) say it was published in three volumes
1929–30. Both may be correct: see publishing history of The Science
of Life in Works section.
^ Olby R. in Waters, C. Kenneth and Van Helden, Albert (eds) 1993.
Julian Huxley: biologist and statesman of science. Rice University
^ Olby R. 2004. Huxley, Sir Julian Sorell (1887–1975). Oxford
Dictionary of National Biography.
^ Huxley J. 1970. Memories. George Allen & Unwin, London, p. 156.
Academy Award for Live Action Short Film
Academy Award for Live Action Short Film 1937 (One-Reel) Skibo
Productions – The Private Life of the Gannets.
^ Briggs, Asa. 1970. The history of broadcasting in the UK, vol 3 The
war of words. Oxford. pp. 581–2
^ Thomas H. 1944. Britain's Brains Trust. Chapman & Hall, London.
^ Huxley, Thomas and Julian, and Osborn, F.R. 1958. Three essays on
^ Huxley, Julian 1950. Population and human destiny. Harpers,
Baker John R. 1978. Julian Huxley, scientist and world citizen,
1887–1975. UNESCO, Paris.
Clark, Ronald W. 1960. Sir Julian Huxley. Phoenix, London.
Clark, Ronald W. 1968. The Huxleys. Heinemann, London.
Dronamraju, Krishna R. 1993. If I am to be remembered: the life &
work of Julian Huxley, with selected correspondence. World Scientific,
Green, Jens-Peter 1981. Krise und Hoffnung, der Evolutionshumanismus
Julian Huxleys. Carl Winter Universitatsverlag.
Huxley, Julian. 1970, 1973. Memories and Memories II. George Allen
& Unwin, London.
Huxley, Juliette 1986. Leaves of the tulip tree. Murray,
autobiography includes much about Julian]
Keynes, Milo and Harrison, G. Ainsworth (eds) 1989. Evolutionary
studies: a centenary celebration of the life of Julian Huxley.
Proceedings of the 24th annual symposium of the
London 1987. Macmillan, London.
Olby, Robert 2004. Huxley, Sir Julian Sorell (1887–1975). In Oxford
Dictionary of National Biography. (2680 words)
Waters, C. Kenneth and Van Helden, Albert (eds) 1993. Julian Huxley:
biologist and statesman of science.
Rice University Press, Houston.
[scholarly articles by historians of science on Huxley's work and
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Julian Huxley.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Julian Huxley
Julian Huxley’s philosophy. By John Toye and Richard Toye. In 60
Years of Science at
UNESCO 1945–2005, UNESCO, 2006.
One World, Two Cultures? Alfred Zimmern,
Julian Huxley and the
Ideological Origins of UNESCO. By John Toye and Richard Toye. History,
95, 319: 308–331, 2010
"Guide to the Julian Sorell Huxley Papers, 1899–1980" (Woodson
Research Center, Fondren Library, Rice University, Houston, TX,
Julian Huxley papers documenting his career as a biologist and
a leading intellectual. 180 boxes of materials ranging in date from
1899–1980." Extent: 91 linear feet.
"Transhumanism" in New Bottles for New Wine. London: Chatto &
"The New Divination" in Essays of a Humanist. London: Chatto &
Archival material at Leeds University Library
Newspaper clippings about
Julian Huxley in the 20th Century Press
Archives of the
German National Library of Economics
German National Library of Economics (ZBW)
Director-General of UNESCO1946–1948
Succeeded byJaime Torres Bodet
Preceded byJoseph Barcroft
Fullerian Professor of Physiology1927–1930
Succeeded byJ. B. S. Haldane
Professional and academic associations
Preceded byPeter Chalmers Mitchell
Secretary of the Zoological Society of London1935–1942
Succeeded bySheffield Airey Neave
Awards and achievements
Preceded byLouis de Broglie
Succeeded byWaldemar Kaempffert
Preceded byEdmund Brisco Ford
Succeeded byGavin de Beer
Preceded byHarrison S. Brown
Succeeded byGregory Pincus
vteRace · historical racial categoriesAnthropological
Sinodonty and Sundadonty
Ancestral South Indian
Ancient North Eurasian
Early Modern European
Ancestral Native American
in Latin America
in the United States
Nazism and race
An Essay upon the Causes of the Different Colours of People in
Different Climates (1744)
The Outline of History of Mankind (1785)
Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question (1849)
An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races
An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1855)
The Races of Europe (Ripley, 1899)
The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (1899)
Race Life of the Aryan Peoples
Race Life of the Aryan Peoples (1907)
Heredity in Relation to
Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development (1916)
The Passing of the Great Race
The Passing of the Great Race (1916)
The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy
The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy (1920)
The Myth of the Twentieth Century
The Myth of the Twentieth Century (1930)
Annihilation of Caste
Annihilation of Caste (1936)
The Races of Europe (Coon, 1939)
An Investigation of Global Policy with the Yamato Race as Nucleus
The Race Question
The Race Question (1950)
Great chain of being
History of anthropometry
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