Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin[note 1] (18 December 1878 – 5 March
1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian ethnicity.
Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953,
he served as General Secretary of the Central Committee of the
Communist Party of the
Soviet Union from 1922 to 1952 and as Premier
Soviet Union from 1941 to 1953. Initially heading a collective
one-party state government, by 1937 he was the country's de facto
dictator. Ideologically a Marxist and a Leninist, Stalin helped to
formalise these ideas as Marxism–
Leninism while his own policies
became known as Stalinism.
Raised into a poor family in Gori, Russian Empire, as a youth Stalin
joined the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. He edited
the party newspaper
Pravda and raised funds for Vladimir Lenin's
Bolshevik faction via robberies, kidnappings, and protection rackets.
Repeatedly arrested, he underwent several internal exiles. After the
Bolsheviks gained power in the
October Revolution of 1917 and
established the Russian Soviet Republic, Stalin sat on the governing
Politburo during the
Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War and helped form the Soviet
Union in 1922. Despite Lenin's opposition, Stalin consolidated power
following the former's death in 1924. During Stalin's tenure,
Socialism in One Country" became a central concept in Soviet society,
New Economic Policy
New Economic Policy was replaced with a centralised
command economy, industrialisation, and collectivisation. These
rapidly transformed the country into an industrial power, but
disrupted food production and contributed to the famine of 1932–33,
particularly affecting Ukraine. To eradicate those regarded as
"enemies of the working class", from 1934 to 1939 Stalin organised the
"Great Purge" in which hundreds of thousands—including senior
political and military figures—were interned in prison camps,
exiled, or executed.
Stalin's government promoted Marxism–
Leninism abroad through the
Communist International and supported anti-fascist movements
throughout Europe during the 1930s, particularly in the Spanish Civil
War. In 1939 they signed a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany,
resulting in their joint invasion of Poland. Germany ended the pact by
Soviet Union in 1941. Despite initial setbacks, the
Red Army halted the German incursion and captured Berlin in
World War II
World War II in Europe. The Soviets annexed the Baltic
states and helped establish pro-Soviet Marxist–Leninist
governments throughout Central and Eastern Europe. The Soviet
Union and the
United States emerged as the two world superpowers, and
a period of tensions began between the Soviet-backed
Eastern Bloc and
Western Bloc known as the Cold War. Stalin led his country
through its post-war reconstruction, during which it developed a
nuclear weapon in 1949. In these years, the country experienced
another major famine and a period of antisemitism peaking in the
1952–53 Doctors' plot. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by
Nikita Khrushchev, who denounced his predecessor and initiated a
de-Stalinisation process throughout Soviet society.
Widely considered one of the 20th century's most significant figures,
Stalin was the subject of a pervasive personality cult within the
international Marxist–Leninist movement, for whom Stalin was a
champion of socialism and the working class. Since the 1991
dissolution of the Soviet Union, Stalin has retained popularity in
Russia and Georgia as a victorious wartime leader who established the
Soviet Union as a major world power. Conversely, his autocratic
government has been widely condemned and vilified for overseeing mass
repressions, hundreds of thousands of executions, and millions of
non-combatant deaths through his policies.
1 Early life
1.1 Childhood: 1878–1899
1.2 Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party: 1899–1904
Revolution of 1905
Revolution of 1905 and its aftermath: 1905–1912
Pravda and the Central Committee: 1912–1917
1.5 The Russian Revolution: 1917
2 In Lenin's government
2.1 Consolidating power: 1917–1918
2.2 Military Command: 1918–1921
2.3 Lenin's final years: 1921–1923
3 Rise to power
3.1 Succeeding Lenin: 1924–1927
3.2 Dekulakisation, collectivisation, and industrialisation:
3.2.1 Economic policy
3.2.2 Cultural and foreign policy
3.3 Major crises: 1932–1939
3.3.2 Ideological and foreign affairs
3.3.3 The Great Terror
4 World War II
4.1 Pact with Germany: 1939–1941
4.2 German invasion: 1941–1942
4.3 Soviet counter-attack: 1942–1945
4.4 Victory: 1945
5 Post-war era
5.1 Post-war reconstruction and famine: 1945–1947
Cold War policy: 1947–1950
5.2.1 The Eastern Bloc
5.2.3 Policy towards Jews and Israel
5.3 Final years: 1950–1953
5.4 Death and funeral: 1953
5.5 Aftermath: 1953–1961
6 Political ideology
7 Personal life and characteristics
7.2 Relationships and family
8.1 Death toll and allegations of genocide
8.2 In the
Soviet Union and its successor states
9 See also
11.3 Further reading
12 External links
Main article: Early life of Joseph Stalin
Stalin was born Ioseb Jughashvili in Gori, on 18
December [O.S. 6 December] 1878.[a] He was the son of
Besarion "Beso" Jughashvili and Ekaterina "Keke" Geladze, who had
married in May 1872, and had lost two sons in infancy prior to
Stalin's birth. They were ethnically Georgian and Stalin grew up
speaking the Georgian language. Gori was then part of the Russian
Empire, and was home to a population of 20,000, the majority of whom
were Georgian but with Armenian, Russian, and Jewish minorities.
Stalin was baptised on 17 December. He earned the childhood
nickname of "Soso", a diminutive of Iosif (Joseph). Beso was a
cobbler and in the early years of their marriage, the couple
prospered. He did not adapt to changing footwear fashions and his
business began to fail. The family soon found themselves living in
poverty, moving through nine different rented rooms in ten
years. Given this situation, the historian
Robert Conquest later
suggested that Stalin's class background was "uncertain and
Stalin in 1894, at the age of 15
Beso was also an alcoholic, and drunkenly beat his wife and
son. To escape the abusive relationship, Keke took Stalin and
moved into the house of a family friend, Father Christopher
Charkviani. She worked as a house cleaner and launderer for
several local families who were sympathetic to her plight. Keke
was determined to send her son to school, something that none of the
family had previously achieved. In late 1888, aged 10 he enrolled
at the Gori Church School. This was normally reserved for the
children of clergy, although Charkviani ensured that Stalin received a
place. Stalin excelled academically, displaying talent in
painting and drama classes, writing his own poetry, and
singing as a choirboy. He got into many fights, and a
childhood friend later noted that Stalin "was the best but also the
naughtiest pupil" in the class. Stalin faced several severe health
problems; in 1884, he contracted smallpox and was left with facial
pock scars. Aged 12, he was seriously injured after being hit by a
phaeton, resulting in a lifelong disability to his left arm.
At his teachers' recommendation, Stalin proceeded to the Spiritual
Seminary in Tiflis. He enrolled at the school in August 1894,
enabled by a scholarship that allowed him to study at a reduced
rate. Here he joined 600 trainee priests who boarded at the
seminary. Stalin was again academically successful and gained high
grades. He continued writing poetry; five of his poems were
published under the pseudonym of "Soselo" in Ilia Chavchavadze's
newspaper Iveria ('Georgia'). Thematically, they dealt with topics
like nature, land, and patriotism. According to Stalin's
biographer Simon Sebag Montefiore, they became "minor Georgian
classics", and were included in various anthologies of Georgian
poetry over the coming years. As he grew older, Stalin lost
interest in his studies; his grades dropped, and he was repeatedly
confined to a cell for his rebellious behaviour. Teachers
complained that he declared himself an atheist, chatted in class and
refused to doff his hat to monks.
Stalin joined a forbidden book club active at the school; he was
particularly influenced by Nikolay Chernyshevsky's 1863
pro-revolutionary novel What Is To Be Done?. Another influential
text was Alexander Kazbegi's The Patricide, with Stalin adopting the
nickname "Koba" from that of the book's bandit protagonist. He
also read Capital, the 1867 book by German sociological theorist Karl
Marx. Stalin devoted himself to Marx's socio-political theory,
Marxism, which was then on the rise in Georgia, one of various
forms of socialism opposed to the empire's governing Tsarist
authorities. At night, he attended secret workers' meetings,
and was introduced to Silibistro "Silva" Jibladze, the Marxist founder
Mesame Dasi ('Third Group'), a Georgian socialist group. In
April 1899, Stalin left the seminary and never returned, although
the school encouraged him to come back.
Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party: 1899–1904
Stalin in 1902; the image had been modified during Stalin's later life
In October 1899, Stalin began work as a meteorologist at a Tiflis
observatory, a position that allowed him to read while on
duty. Stalin gave classes in socialist theory and attracted a
group of young men around him. He co-organised a secret mass
meeting of workers for May Day 1900, at which he successfully
encouraged many of the men to take strike action. By this point,
the empire's secret police—the Okhrana—were aware of Stalin's
activities within Tiflis' revolutionary milieu. They attempted to
arrest him in March 1901, but he escaped and went into hiding,
living off the donations of friends and sympathisers. Remaining
underground, he helped to plan a demonstration for May Day 1901, in
which 3,000 marchers clashed with the authorities. He continued to
evade arrest by using aliases and sleeping in different
apartments. In November 1901, he was elected to the Tiflis
Committee of the
Russian Social Democratic Labour Party
Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP), a
Marxist party founded in 1898.
That month, Stalin travelled to the port city of Batumi. His
militant rhetoric proved divisive among the city's Marxists, with some
suspecting that he might be an agent provocateur secretly working for
the government. He found employment at the Rothschild refinery
storehouse, where he co-organised two workers' strikes. After
several strike leaders were arrested, he co-organised a mass public
demonstration that led to the storming of the prison; troops fired
upon the demonstrators, 13 of whom were killed. Stalin organised a
second mass demonstration on the day of their funeral, before
being arrested in April 1902. He was initially held at Batumi
Prison, and later moved to the more secure Kutaisi Prison. In
mid-1903, Stalin was sentenced to three years of exile in eastern
Batumi in October, arriving at the small Siberian town of
Novaya Uda in late November. There, he lived in a two-room
peasant's house, sleeping in the building's larder. Stalin made
several escape attempts; on the first he made it to
returning due to frostbite. His second attempt was successful and
he made it to Tiflis. There, he co-edited a Georgian Marxist
Proletariatis Brdzola ("Proletarian Struggle"), with Philip
Makharadze. He called for the Georgian Marxist movement to split
off from its Russian counterpart, resulting in several RSDLP members
claiming that his views were contrary to the ethos of Marxist
internationalism and calling for his expulsion from the party.
During his exile, the RSDLP had split between Vladimir Lenin's
Bolsheviks and Julius Martov's Mensheviks. Stalin detested many of
Mensheviks in Georgia and aligned himself with the Bolsheviks.
Although Stalin established a
Bolshevik stronghold in the mining town
of Chiatura, Bolshevism remained a minority force in the
Menshevik-dominated Georgian revolutionary scene.
Revolution of 1905
Revolution of 1905 and its aftermath: 1905–1912
In January 1905, government troops massacred protesters in Saint
Petersburg. Unrest soon spread across the
Russian Empire in what
came to be known as the Revolution of 1905. Georgia was one of the
regions particularly affected. In February, Stalin was in Baku
when ethnic violence broke out between Armenians and Azeris; at least
2,000 were killed. Stalin publicly lambasted the "pogroms against
Jews and Armenians" as being part of Tsar Nicholas II's attempts to
"buttress his despicable throne". He formed a
Squad which he used to try and keep Baku's warring ethnic factions
apart, also using the unrest to steal printing equipment. Amid the
growing violence throughout Georgia, Stalin formed further Battle
Squads, with the
Mensheviks doing the same. Stalin's Squads
disarmed local police and troops, raided government arsenals,
and raised funds through protection rackets on large local businesses
and mines. They launched attacks on the government's Cossack
troops and pro-Tsarist Black Hundreds, co-ordinating some of their
operations with the Menshevik militia.
Stalin first met
Vladimir Lenin (pictured) at a 1905 conference in
In November 1905, the Georgian
Bolsheviks elected Stalin as one of
their delegates to a
Bolshevik conference in Saint Petersburg. On
arrival, he met Lenin's wife Nadezhda Krupskaya, who informed him that
the venue had been moved to
Tampere in the Grand Duchy of Finland.
At the conference Stalin met Lenin for the first time. Although
Stalin held Lenin in deep respect, he was vocal in his disagreement
with Lenin's view that the
Bolsheviks should field candidates for the
forthcoming election to the State Duma; Stalin saw the parliamentary
process as a waste of time. In April 1906, Stalin attended the
RSDLP Fourth Congress in Stockholm; this was his first trip outside
the Russian Empire. At the conference, the RSDLP—then led by its
Menshevik majority—agreed that it would not raise funds using armed
robbery. Lenin and Stalin disagreed with this decision, and
later privately discussed how they could continue the robberies for
Kato Svanidze in a church ceremony at
Senaki in July
1906. In March 1907 she bore a son, Yakov. By that
year—according to the historian Robert Service—Stalin had
established himself as "Georgia's leading Bolshevik". He attended
the Fifth RSDLP Congress, held in London in May–June 1907.
After returning to Tiflis, Stalin organized the robbing of a large
delivery of money to the Imperial Bank in June 1907. His gang ambushed
the armed convoy in Yerevan Square with gunfire and home-made bombs.
Around 40 people were killed, but all of his gang escaped alive.
After the heist, Stalin settled in
Baku with his wife and son.
Mensheviks confronted Stalin about the robbery and voted to
expel him from the RSDLP, but he took no notice of them. In Baku,
Bolshevik domination of the local RSDLP branch,
and edited two
Bolshevik newspapers, Bakinsky Proletary and Gudok
("Whistle"). In August 1907, he attended the Seventh Congress of
the Second International—an international socialist
organisation—in Stuttgart, Germany. In November 1907, his wife
died of typhus, and he left his son with her family in
Baku he had reassembled his gang, the Outfit,
which continued to attack
Black Hundreds and raised finances by
running protection rackets, counterfeiting currency, and carrying out
robberies. They also kidnapped the children of several wealthy
figures in order to extract ransom money. In early 1908, he
travelled to the Swiss city of
Geneva to meet with Lenin and the
prominent Russian Marxist Georgi Plekhanov, although the latter
In March 1908, Stalin was arrested and interred in Bailov Prison,
where he led the imprisoned Bolsheviks, organised discussion groups,
and ordered the killing of suspected informants. He was
eventually sentenced to two years exile in the village of
Vologda Province, arriving there in February 1909.
In June, he escaped the village and made it to
Kotlas disguised as a
woman and from there to Saint Petersburg. In March 1910, he was
arrested again, and sent back to Solvychegodsk. There he had
affairs with at least two women; his landlady, Maria Kuzakova, later
gave birth to his second son, Konstantin. In June 1911, Stalin
was given permission to move to Vologda, where he stayed for two
months, having a relationship with Pelageya Onufrieva. He
proceeded to Saint Petersburg, where he was arrested in September
1911, and sentenced to a further three-year exile in
Pravda and the Central Committee: 1912–1917
Stalin in 1911; these mugshots were taken by the Tsarist secret police
While Stalin was in exile, the first
Bolshevik Central Committee had
been elected at the Prague Conference, after which Lenin and Grigory
Zinoviev invited Stalin to join it. Still in Vologda, Stalin
agreed, remaining a Central Committee member for the rest of his
life. Lenin believed that Stalin, as a Georgian, would be useful
in helping to secure support for the
Bolsheviks from the Empire's
minority ethnicities. In February 1912, Stalin escaped to Saint
Petersburg, tasked with converting the
newspaper, Zvezda ("Star") into a daily,
Pravda ("Truth"). The
new newspaper was launched in April 1912, although Stalin's role
as editor was kept secret. In May 1912, he was arrested again and
imprisoned in the Shpalerhy Prison, before being sentenced to three
years exile in Siberia. In July, he arrived at the Siberian
village of Narym, where he shared a room with fellow Bolshevik
Yakov Sverdlov. After two months, Stalin and Sverdlov escaped
back to Saint Petersburg.
During a brief period back in Tiflis, Stalin and the Outfit planned
the ambush of a mail coach, during which most of the group—although
not Stalin—were apprehended by the authorities. Stalin returned
to Saint Petersburg, where he continued editing and writing articles
for Pravda. After the October 1912 Duma elections resulted in six
Bolsheviks and six
Mensheviks being elected, Stalin wrote articles
calling for reconciliation between the two Marxist factions, for
which he was criticised by Lenin. In late 1912, he twice crossed
Austro-Hungarian Empire to visit Lenin in Kraków,
eventually bowing to Lenin's opposition to reunification with the
Group of exiled
Bolsheviks in Siberia, 1915. Among them, Stalin, Lev
Kamenev and Yakov Sverdlov.
In January 1913 Stalin travelled to Vienna, there focusing his
attention on the 'national question' of how the
Bolsheviks should deal
with the Russian Empire's national and ethnic minorities. Lenin
wanted to attract these groups to the
Bolshevik cause by offering them
the right of secession from the Russian state, but at the same time he
hoped that they would remain part of a future Bolshevik-governed
Russia. Stalin's finished article was titled
Marxism and the
National Question; Lenin was very happy with it. According
to Montefiore, this was "Stalin's most famous work". The article
was published under the pseudonym of "K. Stalin", a name he had
been using since 1912. This name derived from the Russian
language word for steel (stal), and has been translated as "Man
of Steel"; it may have also been intended to imitate Lenin's
pseudonym. Stalin retained this name for the rest of his life,
possibly because it had been used on the article which established his
reputation among the Bolsheviks.
In February 1913, Stalin was arrested while back in Saint
Petersburg. He was sentenced to four years exile in Turukhansk, a
remote part of Siberia from which escape was particularly
difficult. In August, he arrived in the village of Monastyrskoe,
although after four weeks was relocated to the hamlet of Kostino.
In March 1914, concerned over a potential escape attempt, the
authorities moved Stalin to the hamlet of Kureika on the edge of the
Arctic Circle. In the hamlet, Stalin had an affair with Lidia
Pereprygia, who was thirteen at the time and thus a year under the
legal age of consent in Tsarist Russia. Circa December 1914,
Pereprygia gave birth to Stalin's child, although the infant soon
died. She gave birth to another of his children, Alexander, circa
April 1917. In Kureika, Stalin lived closely with the indigenous
Tunguses and Ostyak, and spent much of his time fishing.
The Russian Revolution: 1917
While Stalin was in exile, Russia entered the First World War, and in
October 1916 Stalin and other exiled
Bolsheviks were conscripted into
the Russian Army, leaving for Monastyrskoe. They arrived in
Krasnoyarsk in February 1917, where a medical examiner ruled
Stalin unfit for military service due to his crippled arm. Stalin
was required to serve four more months on his exile, and he
successfully requested that he serve it in nearby Achinsk. Stalin
was in the city when the
February Revolution took place; uprisings
broke out in Petrograd—as
Saint Petersburg had been renamed—and
Tsar Nicholas II abdicated, to be replaced by a Provisional
Government. In a celebratory mood, Stalin travelled by train to
Petrograd in March. There, Stalin and fellow
Kamenev assumed control of Pravda, and Stalin was appointed the
Bolshevik representative to the Executive Committee of the Petrograd
Soviet, an influential council of the city's workers. In April,
Stalin came third in the
Bolshevik elections for the party's Central
Committee; Lenin came first and Zinoviev came second. This
reflected his senior standing in the party at the time.
The existing government of landlords and capitalists must be replaced
by a new government, a government of workers and peasants.
The existing pseudo-government which was not elected by the people and
which is not accountable to the people must be replaced by a
government recognised by the people, elected by representatives of the
workers, soldiers and peasants and held accountable to their
—Stalin's editorial, October 1917
Stalin helped to organise the
July Days uprising, an armed display of
Bolshevik supporters. After the armed demonstration
was suppressed, the Provisional Government initiated a crackdown on
the Bolsheviks, raiding Pravda. During this raid, Stalin smuggled
Lenin out of the newspaper's office and took charge of the Bolshevik
leader's safety, moving him between Petrograd safe houses before
smuggling him to Razliv. In Lenin's absence, Stalin continued
Pravda and served as acting leader of the Bolsheviks,
overseeing the party's Sixth Congress, which was held covertly.
Lenin began calling for the
Bolsheviks to seize power by toppling the
Provisional Government in a coup. Stalin and fellow senior Bolshevik
Leon Trotsky both endorsed Lenin's plan of action, but it was
initially opposed by Kamenev and other party members. Lenin
returned to Petrograd and at a meeting of the Central Committee on 10
October, he secured a majority in favour of a coup.
On 24 October, police raided the
Bolshevik newspaper offices, smashing
machinery and presses; Stalin salvaged some of this equipment in order
to continue his activities. In the early hours of 25 October,
Stalin joined Lenin in a Central Committee meeting in the Smolny
Institute, from where the
Bolshevik coup—the October
Bolshevik militia seized Petrograd's
electric power station, main post office, state bank, telephone
exchange, and several bridges. A Bolshevik-controlled ship, the
Aurora, opened fire on the Winter Palace; the Provisional Government's
assembled delegates surrendered and were arrested by the
Bolsheviks. Although he had been tasked with briefing the
Bolshevik delegates of the Second Congress of Soviets about the
developing situation, Stalin's role in the coup had not been
publicly visible. Trotsky and other later
Bolshevik opponents of
Stalin used this as evidence that his role in the coup had been
insignificant, although several historians reject this. According
to the historian Oleg Khlevniuk, Stalin "filled an important role [in
the October Revolution]... as a senior Bolshevik, member of the
party's Central Committee, and editor of its main newspaper".
In Lenin's government
Joseph Stalin in the Russian Revolution, Russian Civil
War, and Polish–Soviet War
Consolidating power: 1917–1918
On 26 October, Lenin formed a new government, the Council of People's
Commissars ("Sovnarkom"), which he led as Chairman. Stalin
was among the
Bolsheviks who backed Lenin's decision not to form a
coalition with the
Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionary Party,
although they did form a coalition government with the Left Socialist
Revolutionaries. Stalin was soon part of an informal foursome
leading the government, alongside Lenin, Trotsky, and Sverdlov; of
these, Sverdlov was regularly absent, and died in March
1919. Stalin's office was based near to Lenin's in the Smolny
Institute, and he and Trotsky were the only individuals allowed
access to Lenin's study without an appointment. Although not so
publicly well known as Lenin or Trotsky, Stalin's importance
Bolsheviks grew. He co-signed Lenin's decrees shutting
down hostile newspapers, and with Sverdlov chaired the sessions
of the committee drafting a constitution for the new Russian Soviet
Federative Socialist Republic. He strongly supported Lenin's
formation of the
Cheka security service and the subsequent Red Terror
that it initiated; noting that state violence had proved an effective
tool for capitalist powers, he believed that it would prove the same
for the Soviet government. Unlike senior
Bolsheviks like Kamenev
and Nikolai Bukharin, Stalin never expressed concern about the rapid
growth and expansion of the
Cheka and Terror.
The Moscow Kremlin, which Stalin moved into in 1918
Having dropped his editorship of Pravda, Stalin was appointed as
the People's Commissar for Nationalities. In November, he signed
the Decree on Nationality, according ethnic and national minorities
living in Russia the right of secession and self-determination.
The purpose of this decree was primarily strategic, designed to woo
the support of ethnic minorities for the
Bolshevik cause; the
Bolsheviks hoped that the minorities would not actually desire
independence. That month, he travelled to
Helsinki to talk with
the Finnish Social-Democrats, to whom he promised independence, which
was then granted in December. His department allocated funds for
the establishment of presses and schools in the languages of various
ethnic minorities. Socialist Revolutionaries accused Stalin of
using talk of federalism and national self-determination as a front
for Sovnarkom's centralising and imperialist policies. Stalin
Nadezhda Alliluyeva as his secretary, having had been a
longstanding friend of her parents. At some point, Stalin married
her, although the exact date of their wedding is unknown.
As a result of the ongoing First World War, in which Russia was
Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary, Lenin's
government relocated from Petrograd to Moscow in March 1918.
Lenin wanted to sign an armistice with the
Central Powers regardless
of the cost in territory, and was supported in this by Stalin.
Stalin thought it necessary because he was unconvinced that Europe
itself was on the verge of proletarian revolution, a view that irked
Lenin. Lenin eventually convinced the other senior
the need for a peace treaty, resulting in the signing of the Treaty of
Brest-Litovsk in March 1918. The treaty gave vast areas of land
and resources to the
Central Powers and angered many in Russia; the
Left Socialist Revolutionaries withdrew from the coalition government
over the issue.
Military Command: 1918–1921
Bolsheviks seized power, both right and left-wing armies
rallied against them, generating the Russian Civil War. To secure
access to the dwindling food supply, in May 1918 Sovnarkom sent Stalin
to Tsaritsyn to take charge of food procurement in southern
Russia. Eager to prove himself as a commander, once there he
took control of regional military operations. He befriended two
Kliment Voroshilov and Semyon Budyonny, who would
form the nucleus of his military and political support base.
Believing that victory was assured by numerical superiority, he sent
large numbers of
Red Army troops into battle against the region's
Bolshevik White armies, resulting in heavy losses; Lenin was
concerned by this costly tactic. In Tsaritsyn, Stalin executed
suspected counter-revolutionaries, sometimes without trial,
and—in contravention of government orders—purged the military and
food collection agencies of middle-class specialists, some of whom he
also executed. His use of state violence and terror was at a
greater scale than most
Bolshevik leaders approved of; for
instance, he ordered several villages to be torched to ensure
compliance with his food procurement program.
Joseph Stalin, Lenin, and
Mikhail Kalinin meeting in 1919. All three
of them were "Old Bolsheviks"—members of the
Bolshevik party before
the Russian Revolution of 1917.
In December 1918, Stalin was sent to
Perm to lead an inquiry into how
Red Army troops based there had been decimated in an attack by
Alexander Kolchak's White forces. He returned to Moscow between
January and March 1919, before being assigned to the Western
Front at Petrograd. When the Third Regiment defected, he ordered
any captured defectors to be publicly shot. In September he was
returned to the Southern Front. During the war, he proved his
worth to the Central Committee, displaying decisiveness,
determination, and a willingness to take on responsibility in conflict
situations. At the same time, he disregarded orders and when
affronted he repeatedly threatened to resign, forcing Lenin to
convince him to reconsider. In November 1919, the government
awarded him the
Order of the Red Banner
Order of the Red Banner for his service in the
The civil war was over by the end of 1919, having resulted in a
Bolshevik victory. Sovnarkom turned its attention to spreading
proletarian revolution abroad, to this end forming the Communist
International in March 1919; Stalin was present at its inaugural
ceremony. Although Stalin did not share Lenin's belief that the
European proletariat were on the verge of revolution, he acknowledged
that as long as it stood alone, Soviet Russia remained
vulnerable. In December 1918, he had drawn up decrees recognising
Marxist-governed Soviet republics in Estonia, Lithuania, and
Latvia; during the civil war these Marxist governments had been
overthrown and the Baltic countries became fully independent of
Russia, an act which he regarded as illegitimate. In February
1920, Stalin was appointed to head the Workers' and Peasants'
Inspectorate; that same month he was also transferred to the
Following earlier clashes between Polish and Russian troops, the
Polish–Soviet War broke out in early 1920. Stalin was moved to
Ukraine, on the Southwest Front. The
Red Army forced the Polish
troops back into Poland. Lenin believed that the Polish
proletariat would rise up to support the Russians against Józef
Piłsudski's Polish government. Stalin had cautioned against this; he
believed that nationalism would lead the Polish working-classes to
support their government's war effort. He also believed that the Red
Army was ill-prepared to conduct an offensive war and that it would
give White Armies a chance to resurface in Crimea, potentially
reigniting the civil war. Stalin lost the argument, after which
he accepted Lenin's decision and supported it. Along the
Southwest Front, he became determined to conquer Lwów; in focusing on
this goal he disobeyed orders to transfer his troops to assist Mikhail
Tukhachevsky's forces. In August, the Poles repulsed the Russian
advance and Stalin returned to Moscow. A peace treaty between the
two countries was signed; Stalin saw this as a failure for which he
blamed Trotsky. Stalin felt resentful and under-appreciated; he
was angry at how the war had been conducted and in September demanded
demission from the military, which was granted. At the 9th
Bolshevik Conference, he was accused of insubordination and military
incompetence during the war with Poland, with Trotsky publicly blaming
him for making "strategic mistakes".
Lenin's final years: 1921–1923
As People's Commissar for Nationalities, Stalin believed that each
nation and ethnic group should have the right to self-expression,
facilitating this through "autonomous republics" within the Russian
state in which ethnic minorities could oversee various regional
affairs. In taking this view, some Marxists accused him of
bending too much to bourgeois nationalism, while wothers accused him
of remaining too Russocentric by seeking to maintain these nations
within the Russian state. Stalin's native Caucasus posed a
particular problem due to its highly multi-cultural mix. Stalin
opposed the idea of separate Georgian, Armenian, and Azerbaijani
autonomous republics, arguing that these would likely oppress the
various ethic minorities within their respective territories; instead
he called for the formation of a Transcaucasian Socialist Federative
Soviet Republic. The Georgian Communist Party opposed the idea,
resulting in the Georgian Affair. In mid-1921, Stalin returned to
the southern Caucasus, there calling on Georgian Communists to avoid
Georgian nationalism which he believed marginalised
the Abkhazian, Ossetian, and Adjarian minorities living in
Georgia. On this trip, Stalin met with his son Yakov, and brought
him back to Moscow with him; Nadya had given birth to another of
Stalin's sons, Vasily, in March 1921.
After the civil war, workers' strikes and peasant uprisings broke out
across Russia, largely in opposition to Sovnarkom's food
requisitioning project; as an antidote, Lenin introduced a level of
market-oriented reform as the
New Economic Policy
New Economic Policy (NEP). There
was also internal turmoil in the Communist Party, as Trotsky led a
faction calling for the abolition of trade unions; Lenin opposed this
and Stalin helped him to drum up support against Trotsky's
position. Stalin also agreed to supervise the Department of
Agitation and Propaganda in the Central Committee Secretariat. At
the 11th Party Congress in 1922, Lenin nominated Stalin as the party's
new General Secretary. Although concerns were expressed that adopting
this new post on top of his others would both overstretch his workload
and give him too much power, Stalin was appointed to the
position. For Lenin, it was advantageous to have one of his
allies in a post crucial for the maintenance of his policies.
Stalin is too crude, and this defect which is entirely acceptable in
our milieu and in relationships among us as communists, becomes
unacceptable in the position of General Secretary. I therefore propose
to comrades that they should devise a means of removing him from this
job and should appoint to this job someone else who is distinguished
from comrade Stalin in all other respects only by the single superior
aspect that he should be more tolerant, more polite and more attentive
towards comrades, less capricious, etc.
Lenin, 4 January 1923
In May 1922, Lenin had a massive stroke and was partially
paralysed. Residing at his Gorki dacha, Lenin's main connection
to Sovnarkom was through Stalin, who was a regular visitor. Lenin
twice asked Stalin to procure poison so that he could commit suicide,
but Stalin never did so. Despite this comradeship, Lenin disliked
what he referred to as Stalin's "Asiatic" manner, and told his sister
Maria that Stalin was "not intelligent". Lenin and Stalin argued
on the issue of foreign trade; Lenin believed that the Soviet state
should have a monopoly on foreign trade, but Stalin supported Grigori
Sokolnikov's view that doing so was impractical at that stage.
Another disagreement came over the Georgian Affair, with Lenin backing
the Georgian Central Committee's desire for a Georgian Soviet Republic
over Stalin's idea of a Transcaucasian one.
They also disagreed on the nature of the Soviet state. Lenin called
for the country to be renamed the "Union of Soviet Republics of Europe
and Asia", reflecting his desire for expansion across the two
continents. Stalin believed that this would encourage independence
sentiment among non-Russians, instead arguing that ethnic minorities
would be content as "autonomous republics" within the Russian Soviet
Federative Socialist Republic. Lenin accused Stalin of "Great
Russian chauvinism"; Stalin accused Lenin of "national
liberalism". A compromise was reached, in which the country would
be renamed the "Union of Soviet Socialist Republics" (USSR). The
USSR's formation was ratified in December 1922; although officially a
federal system, all major decisions were taken by the governing
Politburo of the Communist Party of the
Soviet Union in Moscow.
Their differences were not just based on policy but also became
personal; Lenin was particularly angered when Stalin was rude to his
wife Krupskaya during a telephone conversation. In the final
years of his life, Lenin dictated increasingly disparaging notes on
Stalin that became his testament. He criticized Stalin's rude manners
and excessive power, suggesting that Stalin should be removed from the
position of General Secretary.
Rise to power
Main article: Rise of Joseph Stalin
Succeeding Lenin: 1924–1927
Anastas Mikoyan, Stalin, and
Sergo Ordzhonikidze in Tiflis (now
Tbilisi), in 1925
Lenin died in January 1924. Stalin took charge of the funeral and
was one of its pallbearers; against the wishes of Lenin's widow, the
Politburo embalmed his corpse and placed it within a mausoleum in
Moscow's Red Square. It was incorporated into a growing
personality cult devoted to Lenin, with Petrograd being renamed
"Leningrad" that year. To bolster his image as a devoted
Leninist, Stalin was eager to present himself as a theorist, giving
nine lectures at
Sverdlov University on the "Foundations of Leninism";
it was later published as a concise overview of Lenin's ideas. At
the following 13th Party Congress,
Lenin's Testament was read out to
senior figures. Embarrassed by its contents, Stalin offered his
resignation as General Secretary; this act of humility saved him and
he was retained in the position. In his private life, he was
dividing his time between his Kremlin apartment and a dacha he had
obtained at Zubalova. His wife had given birth to a daughter,
Svetlana, in February 1926.
In the wake of Lenin's death, various protagonists emerged in the
struggle to become his successor: alongside Stalin was Bukharin,
Kamenev, Zinoviev, Alexei Rykov, Mikhail Tomsky, and Trotsky.
Stalin saw Trotsky as the main obstacle to his rise to dominance
within the Communist Party, and while Lenin had been ill he had
forged an anti-Trotsky alliance with Kamenev and Zinoviev.
Although Zinoviev had expressed concerned about Stalin's growing
authority, he rallied behind him at the 13th Congress as a
counterweight to Trotsky, who now led a party faction known as the
Left Opposition. The
Left Opposition believed that too many
concessions to capitalism had been made with the NEP; Stalin was
deemed a "rightist" in the party for his support of the policy.
Stalin built up a retinue of his supporters in the Central
Committee, while the
Left Opposition were gradually removed from
their positions of influence. He was supported in this by
Bukharin, who like Stalin believed that implementing the Left
Opposition's proposals would plunge the
Soviet Union into
Leon Trotsky and Stalin bearing the coffin of
Felix Dzerzhinsky on 30
In late 1924, Stalin also removed Kamenev and Zinoviev's supporters
from key positions. In 1925, Kamenev and Zinoviev moved into open
opposition of Stalin and Bukharin. They attacked one another at
the 14th Party Congress, where Stalin accused Kamenev and Zinoviev of
reintroducing factionalism—and thus instability—into the
party. In mid-1926, Kamenev and Zinoviev joined with Trotsky's
supporters to form the
United Opposition against Stalin; in
October they agreed to stop factional activity under threat of
expulsion, and later publicly recanted their views under Stalin's
command. The factionalist arguments continued, with Stalin
threatening to resign in both December 1926 and December 1927. In
October 1927, Zinoviev and Trotsky were removed from the Central
Committee; the latter was exiled to Kazakhstan and later deported
from the country in 1929. Some of those
United Opposition members
who were repentant were later rehabilitated and allowed to return to
government. Stalin had established himself as the party's supreme
leader, although was not the head of government, a task he
entrusted to key ally Vyacheslav Molotov. Other important
supporters on the
Politburo were Voroshilov, Lazar Kaganovich, and
Sergo Ordzhonikidze, with Stalin ensuring that his allies ran the
various state institutions. According to Montefiore, at this
point "Stalin was the leader of the oligarchs but he was far from a
In 1924, Georgian nationalists seeking independence launched the
August Uprising; it was suppressed by the Red Army. In April
1925, Tsaritsyn was renamed Stalingrad. In 1926, Stalin published
On Questions of Leninism. It was in this book that he introduced
the concept of "
Socialism in One Country", which he claimed was an
orthodox Leninist perspective. It nevertheless clashed with
Bolshevik views that socialism could not be established in
one country but could only be achieved globally through the process of
world revolution. In 1927, there was some argument in the party
over the USSR's policy regarding the situation in China. Stalin had
called for the Communist Party of China, led by Mao Zedong, to ally
itself with Chiang Kai-shek's
Kuomintang (KMT) nationalists, viewing a
Kuomintang alliance as the best bulwark against Japanese
imperial expansionism in eastern Asia. Instead, the KMT repressed the
Communists and a civil war broke out between the two sides.
Dekulakisation, collectivisation, and industrialisation: 1927–1931
We have fallen behind the advanced countries by fifty to a hundred
years. We must close that gap in ten years. Either we do this or we'll
This is what our obligations before the workers and peasants of the
USSR dictate to us.
—Stalin, February 1931
By the latter half of the 1920s, the
Soviet Union was still lagging
behind the industrial development of Western countries, and
Stalin's government feared military attack from Japan, France, or the
United Kingdom. Many Communists, including in Komsomol, OGPU, and
the Red Army, were eager to be rid of the NEP and its market-oriented
approach, desiring a push towards socialism. These Communists had
concerns about a growing sector of society—affluent peasants known
as 'kulaks' and the small business owners or 'Nepmen'—who had
profited from the policy and become wealthier than other
citizens. There had also been a shortfall of grain supplies; 1927
produced only 70% of grain produced in 1926. At this point,
Stalin turned against the NEP, putting him on a course to the "left"
even of Trotsky or Zinoviev.
In early 1928 Stalin travelled to Novosibirsk, there claiming that
kulaks were hoarding their grain. He ordered that the kulaks be
arrested and their grain confiscated, with Stalin bringing much of the
area's grain back to Moscow with him in February. At his command,
grain procurement squads surfaced across Western Siberia and the
Urals, with violence breaking out between these squads and the
peasantry. Stalin announced that both kulaks and the "middle
peasants" must be coerced into releasing their harvest. Bukharin
and several other members of the Central Committee were angry that
they had not been consulted about this measure, which they deemed
rash. In January 1930, the
Politburo approved a measure to
liquidate the existence of the kulaks as a class; accused kulaks were
rounded up and exiled either elsewhere in their own regions, to other
parts of the country, or to concentration camps. Large numbers
died during the journey. By July 1930, over 320,000 households
had been affected by the de-kulakisation policy.
Aleksei Grigorievich Stakhanov
Aleksei Grigorievich Stakhanov with a fellow miner; Stalin's
government initiated the
Stakhanovite movement to encourage hard work.
It was partly responsible for a substantial rise in production during
In 1929, the
Politburo announced the mass collectivisation of
agriculture, establishing both kolkhozy collective farms and
sovkhoz state farms. Stalin stipulated that kulaks would be
barred from joining these collectives. Although officially
voluntary, many peasants joined the collectives out of fear they would
face the fate of the kulaks; others joined amid intimidation and
violence from party loyalists. By 1932, about 62% of households
involved in agriculture were part of collectives, and by 1936 this had
risen to 90%. Many of the peasants who had been collectivised
resented the loss of their private farmland, and productivity
slumped. Famine broke out in many areas, with the Politburo
frequently ordering the distribution of emergency food relief to these
regions. Armed peasant uprisings against dekulakisation and
collectivisation broke out in Ukraine, northern Caucasus, southern
Russia, and central Asia, reaching their apex in March 1930; these
were repressed by the Red Army. Stalin responded to the uprisings
with an article insisting that collectivisation was voluntary and
blaming any violence and other excesses on local officials.
Bukharin expressed concerns about these policies; he regarded them as
a return to Lenin's old "war communism" policy and believed that it
would fail. By mid-1928 he was unable to rally sufficient support in
the party to oppose the reforms. In November 1929 Stalin removed
him from the Politburo.
Soviet Union had replaced the irrationality and
wastefulness of a market economy with a planned economy organised
along a long-term, precise, and scientific framework; in reality,
Soviet economics were based on ad hoc commandments issued from the
centre, often to make short-term targets. In 1928, the first
five-year plan was launched, its main focus on boosting heavy
industry; it was finished a year ahead of schedule, in 1932.
USSR underwent a massive economic transformation. New mines
were opened, new cities like
Magnitogorsk constructed, and work on the
White Sea-Baltic Canal
White Sea-Baltic Canal begun. Millions of peasants moved to the
cities and became proletariat, although urban house building could not
keep up with the demand. Large debts were accrued while
purchasing foreign-made machinery. Many of the major construction
projects, including the
White Sea-Baltic Canal
White Sea-Baltic Canal and the Moscow Metro,
were constructed largely through forced labour. The last elements
of workers' control over industry were removed, with factory managers
increasing their authority and receiving privileges and perks;
Stalin defended wage disparity by pointing to Marx's argument that it
was necessary during the lower stages of socialism. To promote
the intensification of labour, a series of medals and awards as well
Stakhanovite movement were introduced. Stalin's message
was that socialism was being established in the
USSR while capitalism
was crumbling amid the Wall Street crash. His speeches and
articles reflected his utopian vision of the
Soviet Union rising to
unparalleled heights of human development, creating a "new Soviet
Cultural and foreign policy
Photograph taken of the 1931 demolition of the Cathedral of Christ the
Saviour in Moscow in order to make way for the Palace of the Soviets
In 1928, Stalin declared that class war between the proletariat and
their enemies would intensify as socialism developed. He warned
of a "danger from the right", including in the Communist Party
itself. The first major show trial in the
USSR was the Shakhty
Trial of 1928, in which several middle-class "industrial specialists"
were convicted of sabotage. From 1929 to 1930, further show
trials were held to intimidate opposition: these included the
Industrial Party Trial, Menshevik Trial, and Metro-Vickers Trial.
Aware that the ethnic Russian majority may have concerns about being
ruled by a Georgian, he promoted ethnic Russians throughout the
state hierarchy and made the
Russian language compulsory throughout
schools and offices, albeit to be used in tandem with local languages
in areas with non-Russian majorities. Nationalist sentiment among
ethnic minorities was suppressed. Conservative social policies
were promoted to enhance social discipline and boost population
growth; this included a focus on strong family units and motherhood,
the re-criminalisation of homosexuality, restrictions placed on
abortion and divorce, and the abolition of the
Stalin desired a "cultural revolution", entailing both the
creation of a culture for the "masses" and the wider dissemination of
previously elite culture. He oversaw the proliferation of
schools, newspapers, and libraries, as well as the advancement of
literacy and numeracy. "Socialist realism" was promoted
throughout the arts, while Stalin personally wooed prominent
writers, namely Maxim Gorky, Mikhail Sholokhov, and Aleksey
Nikolayevich Tolstoy. He also expressed patronage for scientists
whose research fitted within his preconceived interpretation of
Marxism; he for instance endorsed the research of agrobiologist Trofim
Lysenko despite the fact that it was rejected by the majority of
Lysenko's scientific peers as pseudo-scientific. The government's
anti-religious campaign was re-intensified, with increased
funding given to the League of Militant Atheists. Christian,
Muslim, Jewish, and Buddhist clergy faced persecution. Many
religious buildings were demolished, most notably Moscow's Cathedral
of Christ the Saviour, destroyed in 1931 to make way for the (never
completed) Palace of the Soviets. Religion retained an influence
over much of the population; in the 1937 census, 57% of respondents
identified as religious.
Throughout the 1920s and beyond, Stalin placed a high priority on
foreign policy. He personally met with a range of Western
George Bernard Shaw
George Bernard Shaw and H. G. Wells, both of whom
were impressed with him. Through the Communist International,
Stalin's government exerted a strong influence over Marxist parties
elsewhere in the world; initially, Stalin left the running of the
organisation largely to Bukharin. At its 6th Congress in July
1928, Stalin informed delegates that the main threat to socialism came
not from the right but from non-Marxist socialists and social
democrats, whom he called "social fascists"; Stalin recognised
that in many countries, the social democrats were the
Marxist-Leninists' main rivals for working-class support. This
preoccupation with opposing rival leftists concerned Bukharin, who
regarded the growth of fascism and the far right across Europe as a
far greater threat. After Bukharin's departure, Stalin placed the
Communist International under the administration of Dmitry Manuilsky
and Osip Piatnitsky.
Stalin faced problems in his family life. In 1929, his son Yakov
unsuccessfully attempted suicide; his failure earned Stalin's
contempt. His relationship with Nadya was also strained amid
their arguments and her mental health problems. In November 1932,
after a group dinner in the Kremlin in which Stalin flirted with other
women, Nadya shot herself. Publicly, it was claimed that Nadya
died of appendicitis; Stalin also concealed the real cause of death
from his children. Stalin's friends noted that he underwent a
significant change following her suicide, becoming emotionally
Major crises: 1932–1939
Further information: Holodomor, Causes of the Holodomor, and Holodomor
Starved peasants on streets of
Kharkiv in 1933.
Within the Soviet Union, there was widespread civic disgruntlement
against Stalin's government. Social unrest, previously restricted
largely to the countryside, was increasingly evident in urban areas,
prompting Stalin to ease on some of his economic policies in
1932. In May 1932, he introduced a system of kolkhoz markets
where peasants could trade their surplus produce. At the same
time, penal sanctions became more severe; at Stalin's instigation, in
August 1932 a measure was introduced meaning that the theft of even a
handful of grain could be a capital offense. The second five-year
plan had its production quotas reduced from that of the first, with
the main emphasis now being on improving living conditions. It
therefore emphasised the expansion of housing space and the production
of consumer goods. Like its predecessor, this Plan was repeatedly
amended to meet changing situations; there was for instance an
increasing emphasis placed on armament production after Adolf Hitler
became German Chancellor in 1933.
Such policies nevertheless failed to stop the famine which peaked in
the winter of 1932–33. Between five and seven million people
died; many resorted to cannibalising the dead to survive.
Worst affected were Ukraine and the North Caucuses, although the
famine also impacted Kazakhstan and several Russian provinces.
The 1932 harvest had been a poor one, and had followed several
years in which lower productivity had resulted in a gradual decline in
output. Stalin blamed the famine on hostile elements and wreckers
within the peasantry; his government provided small amounts of
food to famine-struck rural areas, although this was wholly
insufficient to deal with the levels of starvation. Grain
exports, which were a major means of Soviet payment for machinery,
declined heavily. Davies and Wheatcroft stated that there was no
known evidence, "either direct or indirect, that Stalin sought
deliberately to starve the peasants", and that there was "no hint" of
a policy of deliberate starvation in any of the Politburo's secret
documents or the private correspondences of its members. They
nevertheless maintained that Stalin "bore more responsibility for the
famine than any other individual." Stalin would not acknowledge
that his policies had contributed to the famine, the existence of
which was denied to foreign observers. In later years, Ukrainian
nationalists claimed that the famine had been deliberately
orchestrated by Stalin and the Soviet government to undermine
Ukrainian nationalist sentiment, although this is doubted by
historians. Those articulating this belief typically refer to the
Ukrainian famine as the "Holodomor".
Ideological and foreign affairs
In 1935–36, Stalin oversaw a new constitution; its dramatic liberal
features were designed as propaganda weapons, for all power rested in
the hands of Stalin and his Politburo. He declared that
"socialism, which is the first phase of communism, has basically been
achieved in this country". In 1938, The History of the Communist
Party of the
Soviet Union (Bolsheviks), colloquially known as the
Short Course, was released; Conquest later referred to it as the
"central text of Stalinism". A number of authorised Stalin
biographies were also published, although Stalin generally wanted
to be portrayed as the embodiment of the Communist Party rather than
have his life story explored. During the later 1930s, Stalin
placed "a few limits on the worship of his own greatness". By
1938, Stalin's inner circle had gained a degree of stability,
containing the personalities who would remain there until Stalin's
Seeking improved international relations, in 1934 the Soviet Union
secured membership of the League of Nations, of which it had
previously been excluded. Stalin initiated confidential
communications with Hitler in October 1933, shortly after the latter
came to power in Germany. Stalin admired Hitler, particularly the
latter's manoeuvres to remove rivals within the
Nazi Party in the
Night of the Long Knives. He nevertheless recognised the threat
posed by fascism and sought to establish better links with the liberal
democracies of Western Europe; in May 1935, the Soviets signed a
treaty of mutual assistance with France and Czechoslovakia. At
the Communist International's 7th Congress, held in July–August
1935, the Soviet government encouraged Marxist-Leninists to unite with
other leftists as part of a popular front against fascism. In
turn, the anti-communist governments of Germany, Fascist Italy and
Japan signed the
Anti-Comintern Pact of 1936. When the Spanish
Civil War broke out the same year, the Soviets sent 648 aircraft and
407 tanks to the left-wing Republican faction; these were accompanied
by 3000 Soviet troops and 42,000 members of the International Brigades
set up by the Communist International. Stalin took a strong
personal involvement in the Spanish situation. Germany and Italy
backed the Nationalist faction, which was ultimately victorious in
March 1939. Stalin would also give aid to the Chinese after the
outbreak of the
Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War in July 1937, the KMT and the
Communists having formed Stalin's desired United Front.
The Great Terror
Stalin on building of Moscow-Volga canal. It was constructed from 1932
to 1937 by
Regarding state repressions, Stalin often provided conflicting
signals. In May 1933, he ordered the release of many criminals
convicted of minor offenses from the overcrowded prisons and ordered
the security services not to enact further mass arrests and
deportations. In September 1934, he ordered the
establish a commission to investigate any false imprisonments; that
same month he called for the execution of workers at the Stalin
Metallurgical Factory accused of spying for Japan. This mixed
approach began to change in December 1934, when the prominent party
Sergey Kirov was murdered. After Kirov's murder, Stalin
became increasingly attentive of the possibility of murder and
subsequently improved his own personal security, including being
heavily guarded at all times and rarely going out in public.
Kirov's killing was followed by an intensification of state
repression; Stalin issued a decree establishing NKVD troikas
which could mete out rulings without involving the courts. Just
as the de-kulakisation policy had sought to rid rural areas of
anti-government forces, so Stalin sought to do the same in the cities
and towns. In 1935, the NKVD was ordered to expel suspected
counter-revolutionaries, particularly those who had been aristocrats,
landlords, or businesspeople before the October Revolution. In
the early months of 1935, over 11,000 people were expelled from
Leningrad, to live in isolated rural areas. In 1936, Nikolai
Yezhov became head of the NKVD and oversaw this intensification.
Stalin instigated this intensification of repression, which was rooted
in his own psychological compulsions and the logic of the system he
had created, one which prioritised security above other
In this famous image,
Nikolai Yezhov is shown with Voroshilov,
Molotov, and Stalin inspecting the White Sea Canal. The image was
later altered to remove Yezhov completely.
Stalin orchestrated the arrest of many former opponents in the
Communist Party: denounced as Western-backed mercenaries, many were
imprisoned or exiled internally. The first Moscow Trial took
place in August 1936; Kamenev and Zinoviev were among those accused of
plotting assassinations, found guilty in a show trial, and
executed. The second Moscow Show Trial took place in January
1937, and the third in March 1938, in which Bukharin and Rykov
were accused of involvement in the alleged Trotskyite-Zinovievite
terrorist plot and sentenced to death. By late 1937, all remnants
of collective leadership were gone from the Politburo, which was
controlled entirely by Stalin. There were mass expulsions from
the party, with Stalin commanding foreign communist parties to
also purge anti-Stalinist elements. During the 1930s and 1940s,
NKVD groups assassinated defectors and opponents abroad; in
August 1940, Trotsky was assassinated in Mexico, eliminating the last
of Stalin's opponents among the former Party leadership. In May,
this was followed by the arrest of most members of the military
Supreme Command and mass arrests throughout the military, often on
fabricated charges. These purges replaced most of the party's old
guard with younger officials who did not remember a time before
Stalin's leadership and who were regarded as more personally loyal to
him. Party functionaries readily carried out their commands and
sought to ingratiate themselves with Stalin to avoid becoming the
victim of the purge. Such functionaries often carried out a
greater number of arrests and executions than their quotas set by
Stalin's central government.
Repressions further intensified in December 1936 and remained at a
high level until November 1938, a period known as the Great
Purge. By the latter part of 1937, the purges had moved beyond
the party and were affecting the wider population. In July 1937,
Politburo ordered a purge of "anti-Soviet elements" in society,
Bolsheviks who had opposed Stalin, former
Socialist Revolutionaries, priests, former soldiers in the White Army,
and common criminals. That month, Stalin and Yezhov signed Order
No. 00447, listing 268,950 people for arrest, of whom 75,950 were
executed. He also initiated "national operations", the ethnic
cleansing of non-Soviet ethnic groups—among them Poles, Germans,
Latvians, Finns, Greeks, Koreans, and Chinese—through internal or
external exile. During these years, approximately 1.6 million
people were arrested. 700,000 were shot, and an unknown number
died under NKVD torture.
Alexander Kosarev image and name in the caption painted over soon
after he was dismissed from the position of the First Secretary of the
Central Committee of
Komsomol and later executed. It was a common
practice in the public libraries of the
Soviet Union to deface the
enemies of the people.
Stalin initiated all of the key decisions during the Terror,
personally directing many of its operations and taking an interest in
the details of their implementation. His motives in doing so have
been much debated by historians. His personal writings from the
period were—according to Khlevniuk—"unusually convoluted and
incoherent", filled with claims about conspiracies and enemies
encircling him. He was particularly concerned at the success that
right-wing forces had in overthrowing the leftist Spanish
government, worried that domestic anti-Stalinist elements would
become a fifth column in the event of a future war with Japan and
The Great Terror
The Great Terror ended when Yezhov was removed as the
head of the NKVD, to be replaced by Lavrentiy Beria, a man
totally devoted to Stalin. Yezhov was arrested in April 1939 and
executed in 1940. The Terror had damaged the Soviet Union's
reputation abroad, particularly among previously sympathetic
leftists, and as the Terror wound down, so Stalin sought to
deflect responsibility away from himself. He later claimed that
the Terror's "excesses" and "violations of law" were Yezhov's
World War II
Soviet Union in World War II
Pact with Germany: 1939–1941
As a Marxist–Leninist, Stalin expected an inevitable Second World
War between competing capitalist powers; as
Nazi Germany annexed
Austria and then part of Czechoslovakia in 1938, Stalin recognised
that this war was looming. He sought to maintain Soviet neutrality in
the conflict, hoping that a German war against France and the UK would
leave the Soviets a dominant force in Europe. Militarily, the
Soviets also faced a threat from the east, with Soviet troops clashing
with the expansionist Japanese in the latter part of the 1930s.
Stalin initiated a military build-up, with the
Red Army more than
doubling between January 1939 and June 1941, although in its haste to
expand many of its officers were poorly trained.
Stalin greeting the German foreign minister
Joachim von Ribbentrop
Joachim von Ribbentrop in
the Kremlin, 1939
As Britain and France seemed unwilling to commit to an alliance with
the Soviet Union, Stalin saw a better deal with the Germans. In
May 1939, Germany began negotiations with the Soviets, proposing that
Eastern Europe be divided between the two powers. Stalin saw this
as an opportunity both for territorial expansion and temporary peace
with Germany. In August 1939, the
Soviet Union signed a
non-aggression pact with Germany, negotiated by Soviet foreign
Vyacheslav Molotov and German foreign minister Joachim von
Ribbentrop. A week later, Germany invaded Poland, sparking the UK
and France to declare war on it. On 17 September, the Red Army
entered eastern Poland, officially to restore order amid the collapse
of the Polish state; this explanation was also designed so as not to
anger the UK and France.
Stalin suggested a territorial exchange with Germany, giving them the
ethnic Polish-dominated areas of Lublin Province and part of Warsaw
Province, and in return receiving Lithuania; Stalin had desired the
reintegration of the three Baltic states into the Soviet Union. This
was agreed in 28 September. A
German–Soviet Frontier Treaty
German–Soviet Frontier Treaty was
signed shortly after, in Stalin's presence. The two nations
continued trading, undermining the British blockade of Germany.
Red Army entered the Baltic states, which were forcibly merged
Soviet Union in August. The Soviets also claimed
Finland, but the Finnish government refused their demands. The Soviets
invaded Finland in November; despite their numerical inferiority, the
Finns kept the
Red Army at bay. International opinion backed
Finland, with the Soviets being expelled from the League of
Nations. Embarrassed by their inability to defeat the Finns, the
Soviets signed an interim peace treaty, in which they received
territorial concessions from Finland. In June 1940, Bessarabia
and northern Bukovina—parts of Romania—were also annexed into the
Soviet Union. The Soviet authorities sought to forestall any
dissent in these new East European territories. One of the most
noted instances was the
Katyn massacre of April and May 1940, in which
around 22,000 members of the Polish armed forces, police, and
intelligentsia were executed.
The speed of the German victory over and occupation of France in
mid-1940 took Stalin by surprise. He increasingly focused on
appeasement with Germany to delay any conflict with them. After
Tripartite Pact was signed by
Axis Powers Germany, Japan and
Italy, in October 1940, Stalin approached Germany with the suggestion
that it too join the Axis alliance. To demonstrate peaceful
intentions toward Germany, in April 1941 the Soviets signed a
neutrality pact with Japan. On 6 May, Stalin replaced Molotov as
Premier of the Soviet Union. Although de facto head of government for
a decade and a half, Stalin concluded that relations with Germany had
deteriorated to such an extent that he needed to deal with the problem
as de jure head of government as well.
German invasion: 1941–1942
With all the men at the front, Moscow women dig anti-tank trenches
around Moscow in 1941
In June 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union, initiating the war on
the Eastern Front. Despite having prior warning, Stalin was taken
by surprise. He formed a military Supreme Command (Stavka),
as well as a State Committee of Defence, which he headed as Supreme
Commander. The German tactic of blitzkrieg was initially highly
effective; the Soviet air force in the western borderlands was
destroyed within two days. The German
Wehrmacht pushed deep into
Soviet territory; soon, Ukraine, Belorussia, and the Baltic
states were under German occupation. Soviet refugees flooded into
Moscow and Leningrad to escape the Wehrmacht, although there were
other Soviet citizens—namely those who were neither ethnically
Russian nor Jewish—who welcomed the German Army as liberators; they
soon found that the Nazis regarded them as Untermensch, fit only for
economic exploitation. By July, Germany's
Luftwaffe was bombing
Moscow, and by October the
Wehrmacht were amassing for a full
assault on the capital. Plans were made for the Soviet government
to evacuate to Kuibyshev, although Stalin decided to remain in Moscow,
believing that his flight would damage troop morale. The German
advance on Moscow was halted by the arrival of winter.
Against his generals' advice, Stalin emphasised attack over
defence. In June 1941, he ordered a scorched earth policy of
destroying infrastructure and food supplies before the Germans could
seize them, also commanding the NKVD to kill around 100,000
political prisoners in areas the
Wehrmacht approached. He purged
the military command; several high-ranking figures were demoted or
reassigned but a few were arrested and executed. With Order No.
270, Stalin commanded soldiers risking capture to commit suicide or
fight to the death, and that those who allowed themselves to be
captured were traitors; among those taken as a prisoner of war by
the Germans was Stalin's son Yakov, who died in their custody.
Order No. 227
Order No. 227 in July 1942, which directed that those
retreating would be placed in "penal battalions" used as cannon fodder
on the front lines. Amid the fighting, both the German and Soviet
armies disregarded the law of war set forth in the Geneva
Conventions; the Soviets heavily publicised Nazi massacres of
communists, Jews, and Romani.
The centre of Stalingrad after liberation, 2 February 1943.
The Soviets allied with the United Kingdom and United States;
although the US joined the war against Germany in 1941, little direct
assistance reached the Soviets until late 1942. Responding to the
invasion, the Soviets intensified their industrial enterprises in
central Russia, focusing almost entirely on production for the
military. They achieved high levels of industrial productivity,
outstripping that of Germany. During the war, Stalin was more
tolerant of the Russian Orthodox Church, allowing it to resume some of
its activities and meeting with Patriarch Sergius in September
1943. He also permitted a wider range of cultural expression,
notably permitting formerly suppressed writers and artists like Anna
Dmitri Shostakovich to disperse their work more
The Internationale was dropped as the country's national
anthem, to be replaced with a more patriotic replacement. There
was an increased criticism of cosmopolitanism, particularly the idea
of "rootless cosmopolitanism", an approach with particular
repercussions for Soviet Jews. Comintern was dissolved in
1943, and Stalin encouraged foreign Marxist–Leninist parties to
emphasise nationalism over internationalism to broaden their domestic
appeal. The Soviet government also began to increasingly promote
Pan-Slavist sentiment. Stalin exploited Nazi anti-Semitism, and
in April 1942 he sponsored the
Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee
Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee (JAC) to
garner Jewish and foreign support for the Soviet war effort.
In April 1942 Stalin overrode
Stavka by ordering the Soviets' first
serious counter-attack, an attempt to seize German-held
eastern Ukraine. This attack proved unsuccessful. That year,
Hitler shifted his primary goal from an immediate victory in the East,
to the more long-term goal of securing the southern
Soviet Union to
conquer oil fields vital to a long-term German war effort. While
Red Army generals saw evidence that Hitler would shift efforts south,
Stalin considered this to be a flanking campaign in efforts to take
Moscow. In June 1942, the German Army attacked Stalingrad; Stalin
Red Army to hold the city at all costs. This resulted
in the protracted Battle of Stalingrad. In December 1942 he
Konstantin Rokossovski in charge of holding the city. In
February 1943, the German troops attacking Stalingrad
surrendered. The Soviet victory marked a major turning point in
the war; in commemoration, Stalin declared himself Marshal of the
Soviet counter-attack: 1942–1945
The Big Three: Stalin, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and
British Prime Minister
Winston Churchill at the Tehran Conference,
By November 1942, the Soviets had begun to repulse the important
German strategic southern campaign and, although there were
2.5 million Soviet casualties in that effort, it permitted the
Soviets to take the offensive for most of the rest of the war on the
Eastern Front. Germany attempted an encirclement attack at Kursk,
which was successfully repulsed by the Soviets. By the end of
1943, the Soviets occupied half of the territory taken by the Germans
from 1941 to 1942. Soviet military industrial output also had
increased substantially from late 1941 to early 1943 after Stalin had
moved factories well to the East of the front, safe from German
invasion and air attack.
In Allied countries, Stalin was increasingly depicted in a positive
light over the course of the war. In 1941, the London
Philharmonic Orchestra performed a concert to celebrate his
birthday, and in 1942, Time magazine named him "Man of the
Year". When Stalin learned that people in Western countries
affectionately called him "Uncle Joe" he was initially offended,
regarding it as undignified. There remained mutual suspicions
between Stalin, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and U.S.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who were together known as the "Big
Three". Churchill flew to Moscow to visit Stalin in August 1942
and again in October 1944. Stalin scarcely left Moscow throughout
the war, with Roosevelt and Churchill frustrated with his
reluctance to travel to meet them.
In November 1943, Stalin met with Churchill and Roosevelt in Tehran, a
location of Stalin's choosing. There, Stalin and Roosevelt got on
well, with both desiring the post-war dismantling of the British
Empire. At Tehran, the trio agreed that to prevent Germany rising
to military prowess yet again, the German state should be broken
up. Roosevelt and Churchill also agreed to Stalin's demand that
the German city of
Konigsberg be declared Soviet territory.
Stalin was impatient for the UK and US to open up a Western Front to
take the pressure off of the East; they eventually did so in
mid-1944. Stalin insisted that, after the war, the Soviet Union
should incorporate the portions of Poland it occupied pursuant to the
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact with Germany, which Churchill opposed.
Discussing the fate of the Balkans, later in 1944 Churchill agreed to
Stalin's suggestion that after the war, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary,
and Yugoslavia would come under the Soviet sphere of influence while
Greece would come under that of the West.
Soviet soldiers in Polotsk, 4 July 1944
In 1944, the
Soviet Union made significant advances across Eastern
Europe toward Germany, including Operation Bagration, a massive
offensive in the Byelorussian SSR against the German Army Group
Centre. In 1944 the German armies were pushed out of the Baltic
states, which were then re-annexed into the Soviet Union. As the
Red Army reconquered the Caucasus and Crimea, various ethnic groups
living in the region—the Kalmyks, Chechens, Ingushi, Karachai,
Balkars, and Crimean Tatars—were accused of having collaborated with
the Germans. Using the idea of collective responsibility as a basis,
Stalin's government abolished their autonomous republics and between
late 1943 and 1944 deported the majority of their populations to
Central Asia and Siberia. Over one million people were deported
as a result of the policy.
In February 1945, the three leaders met at the Yalta Conference.
Roosevelt and Churchill conceded to Stalin's demand that Germany pay
Soviet Union 20 billion dollars in reparations, and that his
country be permitted to annex
Sakhalin and the
Kurile Islands in
exchange for entering the war against Japan. An agreement was
also made that a post-war Polish government should be a coalition
consisting of both communist and conservative elements.
Privately, Stalin sought to ensure that Poland would come fully under
Soviet influence. The
Red Army withheld assistance to Polish
resistance fighters battling the Germans in the Warsaw Uprising, with
Stalin believing that any victorious Polish militants could interfere
with his aspirations to dominate Poland through a future Marxist
government. Although concealing his desires from the other Allied
leaders, Stalin placed great emphasis on capturing Berlin first,
believing that this would enable him to bring more of Europe under
long-term Soviet control. Churchill was concerned that this was the
case, and unsuccessfully tried to convince the U.S. that the Western
Allies should pursue the same goal.
British Prime Minister Clement Attlee, U.S. President Harry S. Truman
Joseph Stalin at the Potsdam Conference, July 1945.
In April 1945, the
Red Army seized Berlin, Hitler committed suicide,
and Germany surrendered unconditionally. Stalin was annoyed that
Hitler was dead, having wanted to capture him alive. He ordered
his intelligence agencies to secretly bring Hitler's remains to
Moscow, seeking to prevent any physical remains becoming a relic for
Nazi sympathisers. As the
Red Army had conquered German
territory, they discovered the extermination camps that the Nazi
administration had run. Many Soviet soldiers engaged in looting,
pillaging, and rape, both in Germany and parts of Eastern Europe.
Stalin refused to punish the offenders. After receiving a
complaint about this from Yugoslav communist Milovan Djilas, Stalin
asked how after experiencing the traumas of war a soldier could "react
normally? And what is so awful in his having fun with a woman, after
With Germany defeated, Stalin switched his focus to the ongoing war
with Japan, transferring half a million troops to the far east.
Stalin was aware that the
United States had developed nuclear
weaponry, with which it intended to subdue the Japanese, and was
steadfast in entering the war before he could be denied the
territories promised to him. On 8 August, in between the atomic
bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Soviet army invaded Japanese
occupied Manchuria and defeated the Kwantung Army. These events
led to the
Japanese surrender and the complete end of World War
II. Soviet forces continued to expand until they occupied all
their territorial concessions, but the U.S. rebuffed Stalin's desire
Red Army to take a role in the occupation of Japan by Allied
Stalin attended the
Potsdam Conference in July–August 1945,
alongside his new British and U.S. counterparts, Prime Minister
Clement Attlee and President Harry Truman. At the beginning of
the conference, Stalin repeated previous promises to Churchill that he
would refrain from a "Sovietization" of Eastern Europe. Stalin
pushed for reparations from Germany without regard to the base minimum
supply for German citizens' survival, which worried Truman and
Churchill who thought that Germany would become a financial burden for
Western powers. He also pushed for "war booty", which would
Soviet Union to directly seize property from conquered
nations without quantitative or qualitative limitation, and a clause
was added permitting this to occur with some limitations. Germany
was divided into four zones: Soviet, U.S., British, and French, with
Berlin itself—located within the Soviet area—also subdivided
Post-war reconstruction and famine: 1945–1947
After the war, Stalin was—according to Service—at the "apex of his
career". Within the
Soviet Union he was widely regarded as the
embodiment of victory and patriotism. His armies controlled
Central and Eastern Europe
Central and Eastern Europe up to the River Elbe. In June 1945,
Stalin adopted the title of Generalissimus, and stood atop
Lenin's Mausoleum to watch a celebratory parade led by Zhukov through
Red Square. At a banquet held for army commanders, he described
the Russian people as "the outstanding nation" and "leading force"
within the Soviet Union, the first time that he had unequivocally
endorsed the Russians over other Soviet nationalities. In 1946,
the state published Stalin's Collected Works. In 1947, it brought
out a second edition of his official biography, which eulogised him to
a greater extent than its predecessor. He was quoted in
a daily basis and pictures of him remained pervasive on the walls of
workplaces and homes.
Banner of Stalin in Budapest in 1949
Despite his strengthened international position, Stalin was cautious
about internal dissent and desire for change among the
population. He was also concerned about his returning armies, who
had been exposed to a wide range of consumer goods in Germany, much of
which they had looted and brought back with them. In this he recalled
Decembrist Revolt by Russian soldiers returning from having
defeated France in the Napoleonic Wars. He ensured that returning
Soviet prisoners of war went through "filtration" camps as they
arrived in the Soviet Union, in which 2,775,700 were interrogated to
determine if they were traitors. About half were then imprisoned in
labour camps. In the Baltic states, where there was much
opposition to Soviet rule, de-kulakisation and de-clericalisation
programs were initiated, resulting in 142,000 deportations between
1945 and 1949.
The NKVD were ordered to catalogue the scale of destruction during the
war. It was established that 1,710 Soviet towns and 70,000
villages had been destroyed. They recorded that between 26 and 27
million Soviet citizens had been killed, with millions more being
wounded, malnourished, or orphaned. In the war's aftermath, some
of Stalin's associates suggested modifications to government
policy. Post-war Soviet society was more tolerant than its
pre-war phase in various respects. Stalin allowed the Russian Orthodox
Church to retain the churches it had opened during the war.
Academia and the arts were also allowed greater freedom than they had
prior to 1941. Recognising the need for drastic steps to be taken
to combat inflation and promote economic regeneration, in December
1947 Stalin's government devalued the ruble and abolished the
Capital punishment was abolished in 1947 but
reinstalled in 1950.
Stalin's health was deteriorating, and heart problems forced a
two-month vacation in the latter part of 1945. He grew
increasingly concerned that senior political and military figures
might try to oust him; he prevented any of them from becoming powerful
enough to rival him and had their apartments bugged with listening
devices. He demoted Molotov, and increasingly favoured Beria
and Malenkov for key positions. In 1949, he brought Nikita
Khrushchev from Ukraine to Moscow, appointing him a Central Committee
secretary and the head of the city's party branch. In the
Leningrad Affair, the city's leadership was purged amid accusations of
treachery; executions of many of the accused took place in 1950.
In the post-war period there were often food shortages in Soviet
cities, and the
USSR experienced a major famine from 1946 to
1947. Sparked by a drought and ensuing bad harvest in 1946, it
was exacerbated by government policy towards food procurement,
including the state's decision to build up stocks and export food
internationally rather than distributing it to famine hit areas.
Current estimates indicate that between 1 million and 1.5 million
people died from malnutrition or disease as a result. While
agricultural production stagnated, Stalin focused on a series of major
infrastructure projects, including the construction of hydroelectric
plants, canals, and railway lines running to the polar north.
Much of this was constructed by prison labour.
Cold War policy: 1947–1950
Stalin at his seventieth birthday celebration with (left to right) Mao
Zedong, Nikolai Bulganin,
Walter Ulbricht and Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal
In the aftermath of the Second World War, the
British Empire declined,
leaving the US and
USSR as the dominant world powers. Tensions
among these former Allies grew, resulting in the Cold War.
Although publicly referring to what Stalin regarded as the aggressive
nature of the British and U.S. governments, he thought it unlikely
that a war with them would be imminent, believing that several decades
of peace was likely. He nevertheless secretly intensified Soviet
research into nuclear weaponry, intent on creating an atom bomb.
He personally took a keen interest in the development of the
weapon. In August 1949, the bomb was successfully tested in the
Semipalatinsk in Kazakhstan. Stalin also
initiated a new military build-up; the Soviet army was expanded from
2.9 million soldiers, as it stood in 1949, to 5.8 million by
The US began pushing its interests on every continent, acquiring air
force bases in Africa and Asia and ensuring pro-U.S. regimes took
power across Latin America. It launched the
Marshall Plan in June
1947, with which it sought to undermine Soviet hegemony in eastern
Europe. The US also offered financial assistance as part of the
Marshall Plan on the condition that they opened their markets to
trade, aware that the Soviets would never agree. The Allies
demanded that Stalin withdraw the
Red Army from northern Iran, which
he did in April 1947. Stalin also tried to maximise Soviet
influence on the world stage, unsuccessfully pushing for
Libya—recently liberated from Italian occupation—to become a
Soviet protectorate. He sent Molotov as his representative to San
Francisco to take part in negotiations to form the United Nations,
insisting that the Soviets have a place on the Security Council.
In April 1949, the Western powers established the North Atlantic
Treaty Organisation (NATO), an international military alliance of
capitalist countries. Within Western countries, Stalin was
increasingly portrayed as the "most evil dictator alive" and compared
In 1948, Stalin edited and rewrote sections of Falsifiers of History,
published as a series of
Pravda articles in February 1948 and then in
book form. Written in response to public revelations of the 1939
Soviet alliance with Germany, it focused on blaming Western powers for
the war. He erroneously claimed that the initial German advance
in the early part of the war was not a result of Soviet military
weakness, but rather a deliberate Soviet strategic retreat. In
1949, celebrations took place to mark Stalin's seventieth birthday
(albeit not the correct year) at which Stalin attended an event in the
Bolshoi Theatre alongside communist leaders from across Europe and
The Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc until 1989
After the war, Stalin sought to retain Soviet dominance across Eastern
Europe while expanding its influence in Asia. Cautious regarding
the responses from the Western Allies, Stalin avoided immediately
installing Communist Party governments across Eastern Europe, instead
initially ensuring that Marxist-Leninists were placed in coalition
ministries. In contrast to his approach to the Baltic states, he
rejected the proposal of merging these states into the Soviet Union,
rather recognising them as independent nation-states. He was
faced with the problem that there were few Marxists left in Eastern
Europe, with most having been killed by the Nazis. He demanded
that war reparations be paid by Germany and its Axis allies Hungary,
Romania, and the Slovak Republic. Aware that these countries had
been pushed toward socialism through invasion rather than by
proletarian revolution, Stalin referred to them not as "dictatorships
of the proletariat" but as "people's democracies", suggesting that in
these countries there was a pro-socialist alliance combining the
proletariat, peasantry, and lower middle-class.
Churchill observed that an "Iron Curtain" had been drawn across
Europe, separating the east from the west. In September 1947, a
meeting of East European leaders was held in Szklarska Poręba,
Poland, from which was formed
Cominform to co-ordinate the Communist
Parties across Eastern Europe and also in France and Italy.
Stalin did not personally attend the meeting, sending Zhdanov in his
place. Various East European communists also visited Stalin in
Moscow. There, he offered advice on their ideas; for instance he
cautioned against the Yugoslav idea for a Balkan federation
incorporating Bulgaria and Albania. Stalin had a particularly
strained relationship with Yugoslav leader
Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito due to the
latter's continued calls for Balkan federation and for Soviet aid for
the communist forces in the ongoing Greek Civil War. In March
1948, Stalin launched an anti-Tito campaign, accusing the Yugoslav
communists of adventurism and deviating from Marxist–Leninist
doctrine. At the second
Cominform conference, held in Bucharest
in June 1948, East European communist leaders all denounced Tito's
government, accusing them of being fascists and agents of Western
capitalism. Stalin ordered several assassination attempts on
Tito's life and contemplated invading Yugoslavia.
Stalin suggested that a unified, but demilitarised, German state be
established, hoping that it would either come under Soviet influence
or remain neutral. When the US and UK remained opposed to this,
Stalin sought to force their hand by blockading Berlin in June
1948. He gambled that the others would not risk war, but they
airlifted supplies into West Berlin until May 1949, when Stalin
relented and ended the blockade. In September 1949 the Western
powers transformed Western Germany into an independent Federal
Republic of Germany; in response the Soviets formed
East Germany into
German Democratic Republic
German Democratic Republic in October. In accordance with
their earlier agreements, the Western powers expected Poland to become
an independent state with free democratic elections. In Poland,
the Soviets merged various socialist parties into the Polish United
Workers' Party, and vote rigging was used to ensure that it secured
office. The 1947 Hungarian elections were also rigged, with the
Hungarian Working People's Party
Hungarian Working People's Party taking control. In
Czechoslovakia, where the communists did have a level of popular
support, they were elected the largest party in 1946. Across
Eastern Europe, the Soviet model was enforced, with a termination of
political pluralism, agricultural collectivisation, and investment in
heavy industry. It was aimed for economic autarky within the
Eastern Bloc. Monarchies were removed from power in Romania and
Mao Zedong depicted on a Chinese postage stamp from 1950
In October 1949, Mao took power in China. With this accomplished,
Marxist governments now controlled a third of the world's land
mass. Privately, Stalin revealed that he had underestimated the
Chinese Communists and their ability to win the civil war, instead
encouraging them to make another peace with the KMT. In December
1949, Mao visited Stalin. Initially Stalin refused to repeal the
Sino-Soviet Treaty of 1945, which significantly benefited the Soviet
Union over China, although in January 1950 he relented and agreed to
sign a new treaty between the two countries. Stalin was concerned
that Mao might follow Tito's example by pursuing a course independent
of Soviet influence, and made it known that if displeased he would
withdraw assistance from China; the Chinese desperately needed said
assistance after decades of civil war.
After the Second World War, the
Soviet Union and the United States
divided up the Korean Peninsula, formerly a Japanese colonial
possession, along the 38th parallel, setting up a communist government
in the north and a pro-Western government in the south. North
Kim Il-Sung visited Stalin in March 1949 and again in
March 1950; he wanted to invade the south and although Stalin was
initially reluctant to provide support, he eventually agreed by May
1950. The North Korean Army launched the
Korean War by invading
the south in June 1950, making swift gains and capturing Seoul.
Both Stalin and Mao believed that a swift victory would ensue.
The U.S. went to the UN Security Council—which the Soviets were
boycotting over its refusal to recognise Mao's government—and
secured military support for the South Koreans. U.S. led forces pushed
the North Koreans back. Stalin wanted to avoid direct Soviet
conflict with the U.S., convincing the Chinese to hold the 38th
Policy towards Jews and Israel
Soviet Union was one of the first nations to extend diplomatic
recognition to the newly created state of Israel in 1948. When
the Israeli ambassador
Golda Meir arrived in the USSR, Stalin was
angered by the Jewish crowds who gathered to greet her. He was
further angered by Israel's growing alliance with the U.S. After
Stalin fell out with Israel, he launched an anti-Jewish campaign
Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc. In November 1948,
he abolished the JAC, and show trials took place for some of its
members. The Soviet press engaged in attacks on Zionism, Jewish
culture, and "rootless cosmopolitanism", with growing levels of
anti-Semitism being expressed across Soviet society.
Stalin's increasing tolerance of anti-Semitism may have stemmed from
his increasing Russian nationalism or from the recognition that
anti-Semitism had proved a useful mobilising tool for Hitler and that
he could do the same; he may have increasingly viewed the Jewish
people as a "counter-revolutionary" nation whose members were loyal to
the U.S. There were rumours, although they have never been
substantiated, that Stalin was planning on deporting all Soviet Jews
Jewish Autonomous Region
Jewish Autonomous Region in Birobidzhan, eastern Siberia.
Final years: 1950–1953
20 January 1953. Soviet ukaz awarding Lydia Timashuk the Order of
Lenin for "unmasking doctors-killers." It was revoked after Stalin's
death later that year.
In his later years, Stalin was in poor health. He took
increasingly long holidays; in 1950 and again in 1951 he spent almost
five months vacationing at his Abkhazian dacha. Stalin
nevertheless mistrusted his doctors; in January 1952 he had one
imprisoned after they suggested that he should retire to improve his
health. In September 1952, several Kremlin doctors were arrested
for allegedly plotting to kill senior politicians in what came to be
known as the Doctors' Plot; the majority of the accused were
Jewish. He instructed the arrested doctors to be tortured to
ensure confession. In November, the
Slánský trial took place in
Czechoslovakia as 13 senior Communist Party figures, 11 of them
Jewish, were accused and convicted of being part of a vast
Zionist-American conspiracy to subvert
Eastern Bloc governments.
That same month, a much publicised trial of accused Jewish industrial
wreckers took place in Ukraine. In 1951, he initiated the
Mingrelian affair, a purge of the Georgian branch of the Communist
Party which resulted in over 11,000 deportations.
From 1946 until his death, Stalin only gave three public speeches, two
of which lasted only a few minutes. The amount of written
material that he produced also declined. In 1950, Stalin issued
the article "
Marxism and Problems of Linguistics", which reflected his
interest in questions of Russian nationhood. In 1952, Stalin's
last book, The Economic Problems of
Socialism in the USSR, was
published. It sought to provide a guide to leading the country for
after his death. In October 1952, Stalin gave an hour and a half
speech at the Central Committee plenum. There, he emphasised what
he regarded as leadership qualities necessary in the future and
highlighted the weaknesses of various potential successors,
particularly Molotov and Mikoyan. In 1952, he also eliminated the
Politburo and replaced it with a larger version which he called the
Death and funeral: 1953
Main article: Death and state funeral of Joseph Stalin
A mourning parade to Stalin in Dresden, East Germany
On 1 March 1953, Stalin's staff found him semi-conscious on the
bedroom floor of his Volynskoe dacha. He had suffered a cerebral
hemorrhage. He was moved onto a couch and remained there for
three days. He was hand-fed using a spoon, given various
medicines and injections, and leeches were applied to him.
Svetlana and Vasily were called to the dacha on 2 March; the latter
was drunk and angrily shouted at the doctors, resulting in him being
sent home. Stalin died on 5 March 1953. According to
Svetlana, it had been "a difficult and terrible death".
An autopsy revealed that he had died of a cerebral haemorrhage and
that he also suffered from severe damage to his cerebral arteries due
to atherosclerosis. It is possible that Stalin was murdered.
Beria has been suspected of murder, although no firm evidence has ever
Stalin's death was announced on 6 March. The body was embalmed
for long-term preservation, and then placed on display in
Moscow's House of Unions for three days. Crowds were such that a
crush killed around 100 people. The subsequent funeral involved
the body being laid to rest in
Lenin's Mausoleum in
Red Square on 9
March. Hundreds of thousands attended. That month featured a
surge in arrests for "anti-Soviet agitation" as those celebrating
Stalin's death came to police attention. The Chinese government
instituted a period of official mourning for Stalin's death.
Stalin left no anointed successor nor a framework within which a
transfer of power could take place. The Central Committee met on
the day of his death, with Malenkov, Beria, and Khruschev emerging as
the party's key figures. The system of collective leadership was
restored, and measures introduced to prevent any one member attaining
autocratic domination again. The collective leadership included
the following eight senior members of the Presidium of the Central
Committee of the Communist Party of the
Soviet Union listed according
to the order of precedence presented formally on 5 March 1953: Georgy
Malenkov, Lavrentiy Beria, Vyacheslav Molotov, Kliment Voroshilov,
Nikita Khrushchev, Nikolai Bulganin,
Lazar Kaganovich and Anastas
Mikoyan. Reforms to the Soviet system were immediately
implemented. Economic reform scaled back the mass construction
projects, placed a new emphasis on house building, and eased the
levels of taxation on the peasantry to stimulate production. The
new leaders sought rapprochement with Yugoslavia and a less hostile
relationship with the U.S., pursuing a negotiated end to the
Korean War in July 1953. The doctors who had been imprisoned were
released and the anti-Semitic purges ceased. A mass amnesty for
those imprisoned for non-political crimes was issued, halving the
country's inmate population, while the state security and Gulag
systems were reformed, with torture being banned in April 1953.
In March, Malenkov denounced the Stalin personality cult. Pravda
restrained its praise of Stalin and began to criticise his personality
cult. Stalingrad was renamed Volgograd, while Svetlana
changed her surname from Stalin to Allilueva. In 1956, Khruschev
gave his "Secret Speech", titled "On the Cult of Personality and Its
Consequences", to a closed session of the Party's 20th Congress.
There, Khrushchev denounced Stalin for both his mass repression and
his personality cult. He repeated these denunciations at the 22nd
Party Congress in October 1962. In October 1961, Stalin's body
was removed from the mausoleum and buried in the Kremlin Wall
Necropolis next to the Kremlin walls, the location marked only by a
Further information: Stalinism
Chinese Marxists celebrate Stalin's seventieth birthday in 1949.
Stalin claimed to have embraced
Marxism at the age of fifteen,
and it served as the guiding philosophy throughout his adult
life; according to Montefiore, it held a "quasi-religious" value
for Stalin. Although he never became a Georgian nationalist,
during his early life elements from Georgian nationalist thought
Marxism in his outlook. The historian Alfred J.
Rieber noted that he had been raised in "a society where rebellion was
deeply rooted in folklore and popular rituals". In 1917, Stalin
wrote that "there is dogmatic
Marxism and there is creative Marxism. I
stand on the ground of the latter". Volkogonov believed that
Marxism was shaped by his "dogmatic turn of mind", suggesting
that this had been instilled in the Soviet leader during his education
in religious institutions. According to scholar Robert Service,
Stalin's "few innovations in ideology were crude, dubious developments
of Marxism". Some of these derived from political expediency
rather than any sincere intellectual commitment; Stalin would
often turn to ideology post hoc to justify his decisions. Stalin
referred to himself as a praktik, meaning that he was more of a
practical revolutionary than a theoretician.
As a Marxist, Stalin believed in an inevitable class war between the
world's proletariat and bourgeoise. He believed that the working
classes would prove successful in this struggle and would establish a
dictatorship of the proletariat, regarding the
Soviet Union as an
example of such a state. He also believed that this proletarian
state would need to introduce repressive measures to ensure the full
crushing of the propertied classes, and thus the class war would
intensify with the advance of socialism. The new state would then
be able to ensure that all citizens had access to work, food, shelter,
healthcare, and education, with the wastefulness of capitalism
eliminated by a new, standardised economic system. According to
Sandle, Stalin was "committed to the creation of a society that was
industrialized, collectivized, centrally planned and technologically
Stalin claimed to be a loyal Leninist. Nevertheless, he
was—according to Service—"not a blindly obedient Leninist".
Stalin respected Lenin, but not uncritically, and spoke out when
he believed that Lenin was wrong. During the period of his
revolutionary activity, Stalin regarded some of Lenin's views and
actions as being the self-indulgent activities of a spoiled émigré,
deeming them counterproductive for those
Bolshevik activists based
Russian Empire itself. After the October Revolution,
they continued to have differences. Whereas Lenin believed that all
countries across Europe and Asia would readily unite as a single state
following proletariat revolution, Stalin argued that national pride
would prevent this, and that different socialist states would have to
be formed; in his view, a country like Germany would not readily
submit to being part of a Russian-dominated federal state. Stalin
Oleg Khlevniuk nevertheless believed that the pair
developed a "strong bond" over the years, and after Lenin's
death, Stalin relied heavily on Lenin's writings—far more so than
those of Marx and Engels—to guide him in the affairs of state.
Stalin adopted the Leninist view on the need for a revolutionary
vanguard who could lead the proletariat rather than being led by
them. Leading this vanguard, he believed that the Soviet peoples
needed a strong, central figure—akin to a Tsar—whom they could
rally around. In his words, "the people need a Tsar, whom they
can worship and for whom they can live and work". He read about,
and admired, two Tsars in particular:
Ivan the Terrible
Ivan the Terrible and Peter the
Grutas Park is home to a monument of Stalin, originally set up in
Stalinism was a development of Leninism, and while Stalin avoided
using the term "Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism", he allowed others to do
so. Following Lenin's death, Stalin contributed to the
theoretical debates within the Communist Party, namely by developing
the idea of "
Socialism in One Country". This concept was intricately
linked to factional struggles within the party, particularly against
Trotsky. He first developed the idea in December 1924 and
elaborated upon in his writings of 1925–26. Stalin's doctrine
held that socialism could be completed in Russia but that its final
victory there could not be guaranteed because of the threat from
capitalist intervention. For this reason, he retained the Leninist
view that world revolution was still a necessity to ensure the
ultimate victory of socialism. Although retaining the Marxist
belief that the state would wither away as socialism transformed into
pure communism, he believed that the Soviet state would remain until
the final defeat of international capitalism. This concept
synthesised Marxist and Leninist ideas with nationalist ideals,
and served to discredit Trotsky—who promoted the idea of "permanent
revolution"—by presenting the latter as a defeatist with little
faith in Russian workers' abilities to construct socialism.
Stalin viewed nations as contingent entities which were formed by
capitalism and could merge into others. Ultimately he believed
that all nations would merge into a single, global human
community, and regarded all nations as inherently equal.
Stalin argued that the Jews possessed a "national character" but were
not a "nation" and were thus unassimilable. He argued that Jewish
nationalism, particularly Zionism, was hostile to socialism. In
his work, he stated that "the right of secession" should be offered to
the ethnic-minorities of the Russian Empire, but that they should not
be encouraged to take that option. He was of the view that if
they became fully autonomous, then they would end up being controlled
by the most reactionary elements of their community; as an example he
cited the largely illiterate Tatars, whom he claimed would end up
dominated by their mullahs. Khlevniuk therefore argued that
Marxism with imperialism. According to Service,
Marxism was imbued with a great deal of Russian
nationalism. According to Montefiore, Stalin's embrace of the
Russian nation was pragmatic, as the Russians were the core of the
population of the USSR; it was not a rejection of his Georgian
origins. Stalin's push for Soviet westward expansion into eastern
Europe resulted in accusations of Russian imperialism.
Personal life and characteristics
Stalin was a killer. He was also an intellectual, an administrator, a
statesman and a party leader; he was a writer, editor, and statesman.
Privately he was, in his own way, a dedicated as well as bad-tempered
husband and father. But he was unhealthy in mind and body. He had many
talents, and used his intelligence to act out the roles he thought
suited to his interests at any given time. He baffled, appalled,
enraged, attracted and entranced his contemporaries. Most men and
women of his lifetime, however, underestimated Stalin.
In adulthood, Stalin measured 5 feet 4 inches (1.63 m)
tall. To give the impression that he was taller, he wore stacked
shoes, and stood on a small wooden platform during parades.
His mustached face was pock-marked from smallpox during childhood. He
was born with a webbed left foot, and his left arm had been
permanently injured in childhood which left it shorter than his right
and lacking in flexibility, which was probably the result of
being hit, at the age of 12, by a horse-drawn carriage.
During his youth, Stalin usually wore a red satin shirt, grey coat,
and red fedora, or alternatively a traditional Georgian chokha and
white hood. At the time he grew his hair long and often had a
beard. His cultivation of a scruffy appearance deliberately
sought to reject middle-class aesthetic values. From mid-1918
until his death he took to wearing military-style clothing, in
particular long black boots and a light-coloured collarless tunics,
and also carried a gun. He had few material demands and lived
plainly, with simple and inexpensive clothing and furniture; his
interest was in power rather than wealth. He was a lifelong
smoker, who smoked both a pipe and cigarettes.
Stalin was ethnically Georgian, and had grown up speaking the
Georgian language, only learning Russian when aged eight or
nine. Stalin remained proud of his Georgian identity and
culture, and throughout his life, he retained his Georgian accent
when speaking Russian. According to Montefiore, his adoption of
Russian culture has been exaggerated, and he was profoundly Georgian
in his lifestyle and personality, spending much of his final years in
his homeland. Montefiore was of the view that "after 1917, he
became quadri-national: Georgian by nationality, Russian by loyalty,
internationalist by ideology, Soviet by citizenship." Service
stated that Stalin "would never be Russian", could not credibly pass
as one and contrary to what has been previously suggested, he never
really tried to be one. Stalin was described as "Asiatic" by his
colleagues, and told a Japanese journalist, "I am not a European man,
but an Asian, a Russified Georgian". He first adopted the
pseudonym "Stalin" in 1912; being based on the Russian word for
"steel" it has often been translated as "Man of Steel". Prior
nicknames included "Koba", "Soselo", "Ivanov" and many others.
Stalin had a soft voice, and when speaking Russian he did so
slowly, carefully choosing his phrasing. Although he avoided
doing so in public, in private Stalin used coarse language.
Described as a poor orator, according to Volkogonov, Stalin's
speaking style was "simple and clear, without flights of fancy, catchy
phrases or platform histrionics". He rarely spoke before large
audiences, and preferred to express himself in written form. His
writing style was similar, being characterised by its simplicity,
clarity, and conciseness.
Stalin inspecting the first ZIS, model 101
Trotsky and several other Soviet figures promoted the idea that Stalin
was a mediocrity. This idea gained widespread acceptance outside
Soviet Union but was misleading. According to Montefiore, "it
is clear from hostile and friendly witnesses alike that Stalin was
always exceptional, even from childhood". Stalin had a complex
mind, with a great deal of self-control. He rarely raised
his voice in anger, although as his health declined in later life
he became increasingly unpredictable and bad tempered. A hard
worker, he displayed a keen desire to learn, and had an
excellent memory. When in power, he scrutinised many details of
Soviet life, from film scripts to architectural plans and military
Stalin was a capable actor who could play many different roles to
different audiences, and was adept at deception, often lying or
deceiving others as to his true motives and aims. He was a good
organiser, and judged others according to their inner strength,
practicality, and cleverness. Despite his short temper and
tough-talking attitude, he could be very charming; when relaxed,
he cracked jokes and mimicked others. Montefiore suggested that
it was his charm which represented "the foundation of Stalin's power
in the Party". Several historians have seen it appropriate to
follow Lazar Kaganovich's description of there being "several Stalins"
as a means of understanding his multi-faceted personality.
Stalin was ruthless, temperamentally cruel, and had a
propensity for violence excessive even among the Bolsheviks. He
lacked compassion, something which Volkogonov suggested might
have been accentuated by his many years spent in prison and
exile, although he was capable of acts of kindness to strangers,
even amid the Great Terror. He never personally attended any
torture sessions or executions. Service stated that Stalin
"derived deep satisfaction" from degrading and humiliating people, and
that he "delighted" in keeping even close associates in a state of
"unrelieved fear". He was capable of self-righteous
indignation, and was both resentful, and vengeful, holding
onto grievances against others for many years. He was also
suspicious and conspiratorial, prone to believing that people were
plotting against him and that there were vast international
conspiracies behind acts of dissent. Montefiore thought that
Stalin's brutality marked him out as a "natural extremist";
Service suggested that he had a paranoid or sociopathic personality
disorder, with this "dangerously damaged" personality supplying
"the high-octane fuel for the journey to the Great Terror". Other
historians have argued that Stalin's brutality should be seen not as a
result of any personality traits, but through his unflinching
commitment to the survival of his socialist state and the cause of
international socialism. By the period of glasnost and
perestroika, Soviet psychologists were openly debating whether Stalin
had been insane.
It is hard for me to reconcile the courtesy and consideration he
showed me personally with the ghastly cruelty of his wholesale
liquidations. Others, who did not know him personally, see only the
tyrant in Stalin. I saw the other side as well – his high
intelligence, that fantastic grasp of detail, his shrewdness and his
surprising human sensitivity that he was capable of showing, at least
in the war years. I found him better informed than Roosevelt, more
realistic than Churchill, in some ways the most effective of the war
leaders... I must confess that for me Stalin remains the most
inscrutable and contradictory character I have known – and leave the
final word to the judgment of history.
—U.S. ambassador W. Averell Harriman
Stalin admired artistic talent, and protected several Soviet
writers, such as Mikhail Bulgakov, even when their work was regarded
as harmful to his regime. He enjoyed listening to music, and
owned around 2,700 albums. His taste in music and theatre was
conservative, favouring classical drama, opera, and ballet over what
he dismissed as experimental "formalism". He was a voracious
reader, with a library of over 20,000 books. Little of this was
fiction, although he knew passages from the work of Alexander
Nikolay Nekrasov by heart and could also recite Walt
Whitman. He favoured historical studies, keeping up with debates
in the study of Russian, Mesopotamian, ancient Roman, and Byzantine
history. He claimed to read as many as 500 pages a day, with
Montefiore regarding him as an accomplished autodidact and
Stalin typically awoke at around 11 am, and worked late into
the evening. His main meal was lunch, which took place between 3
and 5 pm, while dinner was held no earlier than 9 pm.
He often chose to dine with other
Politburo members and their wives
who lived in the Kremlin. He spent much time in the Kremlin
cinema, where he enjoyed watching films with other officials late at
night; he had a particular fondness for the Western genre,
although his favourite film was the 1938 film Volga Volga. Stalin
enjoyed alcoholic beverages, and at dinner parties and other social
events would encourage those around him to join in, hoping that in a
drunken state they would reveal secrets. He enjoyed practical
jokes, for instance by putting a tomato on the seat of Politburo
members and waiting for them to sit on it, and encouraged singing
at social events. As an infant, Stalin had displayed a love of
flowers, and later in life he became a keen gardener. His
dacha in the Moscow suburb of Volynskoe was surrounded by a 50-acre
park, with Stalin devoting much attention to its agricultural
activities. Stalin also enjoyed billiards and was an accomplished
Stalin disliked travel, and refused to travel by plane. As
leader of the USSR, he rarely left Moscow, unless to go to his dacha
or on holiday. His choice of favoured holiday house changed over
the years, although he holidayed in southern parts of the USSR
every year from 1925 to 1936 and again from 1945 to 1951. Along
with other senior figures, he had a dacha at Zubalova, 35 km
outside Moscow, although he ceased using it after Nadya's 1932
suicide. After 1932, he favoured Abkhazia as a holiday
destination, being a friend of its leader, Nestor Lakoba. In
1934, his new
Kuntsevo Dacha was built; 9 km from the Kremlin, it
became his primary residence. In 1935 he began using a new dacha
provided for him by Lakoba at Novy Afon; in 1936, he had the
Kholodnaya Rechka dacha built on the Abkhazian coast, designed by
Miron Merzhanov. Before
World War II
World War II he added the Lipki estate
and Semyonovskaya and had at least four dachas in the south by 1937,
including one near Sochi. A luxury villa near Gagri was given to him
by Beria. In Abkhazia he maintained a mountain retreat. After the war
he added dachas at Novy Afon, near Sukhumi, in the Valdai Hills, and
at Lake Mitsa. Another estate was near Zelyony Myss on the Black Sea.
All these dachas, estates, and palaces were staffed, well-furnished
and equipped, kept safe by security forces, and were mainly used
privately, rarely for diplomatic purposes.
Although Stalin publicly condemned anti-Semitism, he was
repeatedly accused of being anti-Semitic. People who knew Stalin,
such as Nikita Khrushchev, suggested that he had long harbored
negative sentiments toward Jews, and anti-Semitic trends in
the Kremlin's policies were further fueled by the struggle against
Leon Trotsky. After Stalin's death, Khrushchev made the
claim that Stalin hinted that he should incite anti-Semitism in the
Ukraine, allegedly telling him that "the good workers at the factory
should be given clubs so they can beat the hell out of those
Jews." In 1946, Stalin allegedly said privately that "every Jew
is a potential spy." Conquest stated that although Stalin
had Jewish associates, he promoted anti-Semitism. Service
cautioned that there was "no irrefutable evidence" of anti-Semitism in
Stalin's published work, although his private statements and public
actions were "undeniably reminiscent of crude antagonism towards
Jews"; he added that throughout his lifetime, Stalin "would be
the friend, associate or leader of countless individual Jews".
According to Beria, Stalin had affairs with several Jewish women.
Relationships and family
Stalin and his second wife Nadezhda Alliluyeva
Friendship was important to Stalin, and he used it to gain and
maintain power. He gave nicknames to his favourites, for instance
referring to Yezhov as "my blackberry". Stalin was sociable and
enjoyed a joke. According to Montefiore, Stalin's friendships
"meandered between love, admiration, and venomous jealousy".
While head of the
Soviet Union he remained in contact with many of his
old friends in Georgia, sending them letters and gifts of money.
Stalin was attracted to women and there are no reports of any
homosexual tendencies; according to Montefiore, in his early life
Stalin "rarely seems to have been without a girlfriend". He was
sexually promiscuous, although rarely talked about his sex life.
Montefiore noted that Stalin's favoured types were "young, malleable
teenagers or buxom peasant women", who would be supportive and
unchallenging toward him. According to Service, Stalin "regarded
women as a resource for sexual gratification and domestic
comfort". Stalin married twice and had several offspring. He
married his first wife, Ekaterina Svanidze, in 1906. According to
Montefiore, theirs was "a true love match"; Volkogonov suggested
that she was "probably the one human being he had really loved".
They had a son, Yakov, who often frustrated and annoyed Stalin.
Yakov had a daughter, Galina, before fighting for the
Red Army in the
Second World War. He was captured by the German Army and then
Stalin's second wife was Nadezhda Alliluyeva; theirs was not an easy
relationship, and they often rowed. They had two biological
children—a son, Vasiliy, and a daughter, Svetlana—and adopted
another son, Artyom Sergeev, in 1921. During his marriage to
Nadezhda, Stalin had affairs with many other women, most of whom were
fellow revolutionaries or their wives. Nadezdha suspected that
this was the case, and committed suicide in 1932. Stalin
regarded Vasily as spoiled and often chastised his behaviour; as
Stalin's son, Vasily nevertheless was swiftly promoted through the
ranks of the
Red Army and allowed a lavish lifestyle. Conversely,
Stalin had an affectionate relationship with Svetlana during her
childhood, and was also very fond of Artyom. In later life,
he disapproved of Svetlana's various suitors and husbands, putting a
strain on his relationship with her. After the Second World War
he made little time for his children and his family played a
decreasingly important role in his life. After Stalin's death,
Svetlana defected to the U.S.
After Nadezdha's death, Stalin became increasingly close to his
sister-in-law Zhenya Alliluyeva; Montefiore believed that they
were probably lovers. There are unproven rumours that from 1934
onward he had a relationship with his housekeeper Valentina
Istomina. Stalin had at least two illegitimate children,
although he never recognised these as being his. One of these,
Constantin Kuzakova, later taught philosophy at the Leningrad Military
Mechanical Institute, but never met his father. The other,
Alexander, was the son of Lidia Pereprygia; he was raised as the son
of a peasant fisherman and the Soviet authorities made him swear never
to reveal that Stalin was his biological father.
Poster of Stalin on the Unter-den-Linden in Berlin in 1945
Robert Conquest stated that Stalin, "perhaps more than
any other [person,] determined the course of the twentieth
century". Service regarded the Georgian as "one of the twentieth
century's outstanding politicians". Montefiore labelled Stalin as
"that rare combination: both 'intellectual' and killer", a man who was
"the ultimate politician" and "the most elusive and fascinating of the
twentieth-century titans". According to historian Kevin
McDermott, interpretations of Stalin range from "the sycophantic and
adulatory to the vitriolic and condemnatory". For most Westerners
and anti-communist Russians, he is viewed overwhelmingly negatively as
a mass murderer; for significant numbers of Russians and
Georgians, he is regarded as a great statesman and state-builder.
Stalin strengthened and stabilised the Soviet Union. Service
suggested that without Stalin's leadership the
Soviet Union might have
collapsed long before 1991. By the time of his death, the country
had been transformed into a world power and industrial colossus, with
a literate population. According to Service, Stalin's
claim impressive achievements" in terms of urbanisation, military
strength, education, and Soviet pride. Although millions of
Soviet citizens despised him, support for him was nevertheless
widespread throughout Soviet society.
Soviet Union has been characterised as totalitarian.
Various biographers have described him as a dictator, an
autocrat, or accused him of practicing Caesarism. Montefiore
argued that while Stalin initially ruled as part of a Communist Party
oligarchy, in 1934 the Soviet government transformed from this
oligarchy into a personal dictatorship, with Stalin only becoming
"absolute dictator" between March and June 1937, when senior military
and NKVD figures were eliminated. In both the
Soviet Union and
elsewhere he came to be portrayed as an "Oriental despot". The
Dmitri Volkogonov characterised him as "one of the most
powerful figures in human history", while McDermott stated that
Stalin had "concentrated unprecedented political authority in his
hands", and Service noted that by the late 1930s, Stalin "had
come closer to personal despotism than almost any monarch in
Communist Party of Great Britain (Marxist–Leninist)
Communist Party of Great Britain (Marxist–Leninist) contingent at
London May Day march in 2008, carrying a banner of Stalin.
McDermott nevertheless cautioned about "over-simplistic
stereotypes"—promoted in the fiction of writers like Aleksandr
Solzhenitsyn, Vasily Grossman, and Anatoly Rybakov—that portrayed
Stalin as an omnipotent and omnipresent tyrant who controlled every
aspect of Soviet life through repression and totalitarianism.
Service similarly warned of the portrayal of Stalin as an "unimpeded
despot", noting that "powerful though he was, his powers were not
limitless", and his rule depended on his willingness to conserve the
Soviet structure he had inherited. Khlevniuk noted that at
various points, particularly when Stalin was old and frail, there were
"periodic manifestations" in which the party oligarchy threatened his
autocratic control. Stalin denied to foreign visitors that he was
a dictator, stating that those who labelled him such did not
understand the Soviet governance structure. Stalin has also been
described as a terrorist for his revolutionary activities in
A vast literature devoted to Stalin has been produced; it is so
substantial that even specialists could not read it all. During
Stalin's lifetime, his approved biographies were largely hagiographic
in content. Stalin ensured that these works gave very little
attention to his early life, particularly because he did not wish to
emphasise his Georgian origins in a state numerically dominated by
Russians. A large number of Stalin biographies have been
published since his death. Until the 1980s, these relied largely
on the same sources of information as each other. Under the
Mikhail Gorbachev a number of previously classified
files on Stalin's life were made available to historians; during
Gorbachev's glasnost period, Stalin became "one of the most urgent and
vital issues on the public agenda" in the Soviet Union. After the
dissolution of the Union in 1991, the rest of the archives were opened
to historians, resulting in much new information about Stalin coming
to light, and producing a flood of new research.
Leninists remain divided in their views on Stalin. Some view him as
the authentic successor to Lenin, who continued and developed his
legacy, while others believe that Stalin betrayed Lenin's ideas by
deviating from them. The socio-economic nature of Stalin's Soviet
Union has also been much debated, varyingly being labelled a form of
state socialism, state capitalism, bureaucratic collectivism, or a
totally unique mode of production.
Death toll and allegations of genocide
Main article: Number of deaths in the
Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin
Gulag Museum in Moscow
According to Service, Stalin was "one of the most notorious figures in
history", one who ordered "the systematic killing of people on a
massive scale". Khlevniuk stated that Stalin's actions "upended
or utterly destroyed literally millions upon millions of lives",
suggesting that at least 60 million people faced some form of
repression or discrimination under Stalin's regime. Official
records show that 800,000 were shot in the
Soviet Union between 1930
and 1952, although a larger number died during torture or as a result
of poor conditions in labour camps. Many more died as a result of
famines and starvation; particularly during the 1932–33 famine.
In his 2008 edition of The Great Terror, Conquest stated that "at
least 15 million people" were killed by "the whole range of Soviet
regime's terrors", although acknowledged that exact numbers will never
be known. The historian and archival researcher Stephen G.
Wheatcroft attributes roughly 3 million deaths to the Stalinist
regime, including those from criminal negligence but excluding famine
deaths, which he and historian
R. W. Davies estimate to be around 5.5
to 6.5 million. The American historian Timothy D. Snyder
asserts that while the Nazi regime killed 11–12 million
non-combatants, Stalin's was responsible for about 6–9 million,
negating claims that Stalin killed more than Hitler.
Historians continue to debate whether or not the
Holodomor should be
called a genocide. Among Ukrainian nationalists is the popular
idea that Stalin consciously organised the 1932–33 famine to
suppress the nationalist desires of the Ukrainian people. This
has been rejected by more recent historical studies. These have
articulated the view that—while Stalin's policies contributed
significantly to the high mortality rate—there is no evidence that
Stalin or the Soviet government consciously engineered the
famine. The historian
Norman Naimark noted that although there
may not be sufficient "evidence to convict him in an international
court of justice as a genocidaire[...] that does not mean that the
event itself cannot be judged as genocide".
Soviet Union and its successor states
Joseph Stalin Museum in Gori, Georgia
Khrushchev's de-Stalinisation process in Soviet society ended when he
was replaced as leader by
Leonid Brezhnev in 1964; the latter
introduced a level of re-Stalinisation within the Soviet Union.
In 1969 and again in 1979, plans were proposed for a full
rehabilitation of Stalin's legacy; both were defeated by complaints
both domestically and from foreign Communist parties. Gorbachev
saw the total denunciation of Stalin as being necessary for the
regeneration of Soviet society. After the fall of the Soviet
Union in 1991, the first President of the new Russian Federation,
Boris Yeltsin, also retained Gorbachev's denunciation of Stalin but
added to it a denunciation of Lenin. His successor, Vladimir
Putin, did not seek to rehabilitate Stalin but placed an emphasis on
celebrating Soviet achievement under Stalin's leadership rather than
Marxist–Leninist activists laying wreaths at Stalin's grave in 2009
Amid the social and economic turmoil of the post-Soviet period, many
Russians viewed Stalin as having overseen an era of order,
predictability, and pride. He remains a revered figure among many
Russian nationalists, who feel nostalgic about the Soviet victory over
Nazi Germany in World War II, and he is regularly invoked
approvingly within both Russia's far-left and far-right. In the
2008 Name of Russia television show, Stalin was voted as the third
most notable personality in Russian history. A 2017 poll revealed
that Stalin's popularity reached a 16-year high among the Russian
population, with 46% expressing a favourable view of him. At the
same time, there was a growth in pro-Stalinist literature in Russia,
much of which relies upon the misrepresentation or fabrication of
source material. In this literature, Stalin's repressions are
regarded either as a necessary measure to defeat "enemies of the
people" or the result of lower-level officials acting without Stalin's
knowledge. In October 2017, Russian President
Vladimir Putin has
commented on Stalinist repressions while opening the Wall of Grief
memorial in Moscow, saying "This terrible past can not be erased from
the national memory, and it cannot be justified by anything, not even
by the so-called highest interests of the welfare of the people."
The only part of the former
Soviet Union where admiration for Stalin
has remained consistently widespread is Georgia. Many Georgians
resent criticism of Stalin, the most famous figure from their nation's
modern history; a 2013 survey by
Tbilisi University found 45% of
Georgians expressing "a positive attitude" to him. In a 2012
opinion survey commissioned by the Carnegie Endowment, 38% of
Armenians agreed with the statement, “Our people will always have
need of a leader like Stalin, who will come and restore
Twenty-six countries have officially recognized the Ukrainian famine
of 1932–33 under the legal definition of genocide. In 2006, the
Ukrainian Parliament declared it to be genocide, and in 2010 a
Ukrainian court posthumously convicted Stalin, Lazar Kaganovich,
Stanislav Kosior and other Soviet leaders of genocide. In
early 2010 a new monument in honor of Stalin was erected in
Zaporizhia. In late December 2010 the statue had his head cut off
by unidentified vandals and the following New Year's Eve it was
completely destroyed in an explosion. In a 2016 Kiev
International Institute of Sociology poll, 38% of respondents had a
negative attitude to Stalin, 26% a neutral one and 17% a positive (19%
refused to answer).
Index of Soviet Union-related articles
Joseph Stalin Museum, Gori
List of places named after Joseph Stalin
Stalin and the Scientists
Soviet Union portal
^ Although there is an inconsistency among published sources about
Stalin's year and date of birth, Iosif Dzhugashvili is found in the
records of the Uspensky Church in
Gori, Georgia as born on 18 December
(Old Style: 6 December) 1878. This birth date is maintained in his
School Leaving Certificate, his extensive tsarist Russia police file,
a police arrest record from 18 April 1902 which gave his age as 23
years, and all other surviving pre-Revolution documents. As late as
1921, Stalin himself listed his birthday as 18 December 1878 in a
curriculum vitae in his own handwriting. After coming to power in
1922, Stalin claimed to have been born on 21 December 1879 (Old Style
date 9 December 1879). That became the day his birthday was celebrated
in the Soviet Union.
^ Russian: Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин.
Stalin was born with the name Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili
(Georgian: იოსებ ბესარიონის ძე
ჯუღაშვილი), which was transliterated into Russian as
Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Russian: Ио́сиф
Виссарио́нович Джугашви́ли). He adopted
"Stalin" (/ˈstɑːlɪn/; Russian: Ио́сиф
Виссарио́нович Ста́лин, tr. Iosif Vissarionovich
Stalin, IPA: [ɪˈosʲɪf vʲɪsərʲɪˈonəvʲɪt͡ɕ
ˈstalʲɪn]) as a revolutionary nom de guerre in 1912, before
employing it as his surname after October 1917.
^ "Stalin". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. xxxi.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 2; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 11.
^ Service 2004, p. 14; Montefiore 2007, p. 23.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 23.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 2; Volkogonov 1991, p. 5; Service 2004,
p. 14; Montefiore 2007, p. 19; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 11.
^ Service 2004, p. 14; Montefiore 2007, p. 19.
^ Volkogonov 1991, p. 5; Service 2004, p. 16; Montefiore
2007, p. 22; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 11.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 1; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 11.
^ Service 2004, p. 15.
^ Service 2004, p. 16.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 11; Service 2004, p. 16; Montefiore
2007, p. 23.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 5; Service 2004, p. 14; Montefiore 2007,
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 22.
^ Service 2004, p. 16; Montefiore 2007, p. 32.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 11; Service 2004, p. 19.
^ Montefiore 2007, pp. 30–31.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 5.
^ Service 2004, p. 17; Montefiore 2007, p. 25; Khlevniuk
2015, p. 12.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 10; Volkogonov 1991, p. 5; Service 2004,
p. 17; Montefiore 2007, p. 29; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 12.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 12; Montefiore 2007, p. 31.
^ a b Montefiore 2007, p. 32.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 31.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 11; Service 2004, p. 20; Montefiore
2007, p. 34.
^ Montefiore 2007, pp. 32–33.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 12; Service 2004, p. 30; Montefiore
2007, p. 44.
^ Montefiore 2007, pp. 43–44.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 44.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 13; Service 2004, p. 30; Montefiore
2007, p. 43.
^ Service 2004, p. 20; Montefiore 2007, p. 36.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 45.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 12; Volkogonov 1991, p. 5; Service 2004,
p. 19; Montefiore 2007, p. 31.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 12; Service 2004, p. 25; Montefiore
2007, pp. 35, 46.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 51; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 15.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 53.
^ Montefiore 2007, pp. 52–53.
^ Montefiore 2007, pp. 54–55.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 19; Service 2004, p. 36; Montefiore
2007, p. 56; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 16.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 18; Montefiore 2007, p. 57.
^ Service 2004, p. 38.
^ a b Montefiore 2007, p. 58.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 69; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 18.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 19; Montefiore 2007, p. 69; Khlevniuk
2015, p. 19.
^ Montefiore 2007, pp. 70–71.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 19; Montefiore 2007, p. 62; Khlevniuk
2015, p. 18.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 63.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 14; Volkogonov 1991, p. 5; Service 2004,
pp. 27–28; Montefiore 2007, p. 63; Khlevniuk 2015,
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 64.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 69.
^ Service 2004, p. 40.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 66.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 65.
^ Service 2004, p. 41; Montefiore 2007, p. 71.
^ a b Montefiore 2007, p. 73.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 27; Service 2004, p. 43; Montefiore
2007, p. 76.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 44.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 79.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 27; Montefiore 2007, p. 78.
^ a b Montefiore 2007, p. 78.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 27; Service 2004, p. 45; Montefiore
2007, pp. 81–82.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 82.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 28; Montefiore 2007, p. 82.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 87.
^ Rieber 2005, pp. 37–38; Montefiore 2007, pp. 87–88.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 29; Service 2004, p. 52; Rieber 2005,
p. 39; Montefiore 2007, p. 101.
^ Montefiore 2007, pp. 91, 95.
^ Montefiore 2007, pp. 90–93; Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 22–23.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 29; Service 2004, p. 49; Montefiore
2007, pp. 94–95; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 23.
^ Montefiore 2007, pp. 97–98.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 29; Service 2004, p. 49; Rieber 2005,
p. 42; Montefiore 2007, p. 98.
^ Service 2004, p. 52; Montefiore 2007, p. 101.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 29; Service 2004, p. 52; Montefiore
2007, p. 105.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 29; Montefiore 2007, p. 107; Khlevniuk
2015, p. 23.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 29; Service 2004, p. 52; Montefiore
2007, pp. 108–110.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 111.
^ Service 2004, p. 52; Montefiore 2007, pp. 114–115.
^ Service 2004, p. 52; Montefiore 2007, pp. 115–116.
^ Service 2004, p. 57; Montefiore 2007, p. 123.
^ Service 2004, p. 54; Montefiore 2007, pp. 117–118.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 33–34; Service 2004, p. 53;
Montefiore 2007, p. 113; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 24.
^ Service 2004, p. 59; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 24.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 131.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 38; Service 2004, p. 59.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 56; Montefiore 2007, p. 126.
^ Service 2004, p. 56.
^ Service 2004, p. 58; Montefiore 2007, pp. 128–129.
^ a b Montefiore 2007, p. 129.
^ Montefiore 2007, pp. 131–132.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 132.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 143.
^ Montefiore 2007, pp. 132–133.
^ Montefiore 2007, pp. 135, 144.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 137.
^ Service 2004, p. 60; Montefiore 2007, p. 145.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 145.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 37; Service 2004, p. 60.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 147.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 39–40; Service 2004, pp. 61, 62;
Montefiore 2007, p. 156.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 40; Service 2004, p. 62; Khlevniuk 2015,
^ Service 2004, p. 62.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 168.
^ Service 2004, p. 64; Montefiore 2007, p. 159.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 64; Montefiore 2007, p. 167;
Khlevniuk 2015, p. 25.
^ Service 2004, p. 65.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 41; Service 2004, p. 65; Montefiore
2007, pp. 168–170.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 41–42; Service 2004, p. 75.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 180.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 43–44; Service 2004, p. 76;
Montefiore 2007, p. 184.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 190.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 186.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 189.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 191.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 44; Service 2004, p. 71; Montefiore
2007, p. 193.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 194.
^ Service 2004, p. 74; Montefiore 2007, p. 196.
^ Montefiore 2007, pp. 197–198.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 195.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 44; Service 2004, p. 68; Montefiore
2007, p. 203.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 45; Montefiore 2007, pp. 203–204.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 45; Service 2004, p. 68; Montefiore
2007, pp. 206, 208.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 46; Montefiore 2007, p. 212.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 46; Montefiore 2007, p. 222.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 46; Montefiore 2007, p. 226.
^ Service 2004, p. 79; Montefiore 2007, pp. 227, 229,
^ Conquest 1991, p. 47; Service 2004, p. 80; Montefiore
2007, pp. 231, 234.
^ Service 2004, p. 79; Montefiore 2007, p. 234.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 236.
^ a b Montefiore 2007, p. 237.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 48; Service 2004, p. 83; Montefiore
2007, p. 240.
^ a b Montefiore 2007, p. 240.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 241.
^ Service 2004, p. 84; Montefiore 2007, p. 243.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 84; Montefiore 2007, p. 247.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 51; Montefiore 2007, p. 248.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 249.
^ Service 2004, p. 86; Montefiore 2007, p. 250.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 51; Service 2004, pp. 86–87;
Montefiore 2007, pp. 250–251.
^ Montefiore 2007, pp. 252–253.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 255.
^ a b Montefiore 2007, p. 256.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 52; Service 2004, pp. 87–88;
Montefiore 2007, pp. 256–259.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 263.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 54; Service 2004, p. 89; Montefiore
2007, p. 263.
^ Service 2004, p. 89; Montefiore 2007, pp. 264–265.
^ a b Montefiore 2007, p. 266.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 53; Service 2004, p. 85; Montefiore
2007, p. 266.
^ a b Montefiore 2007, p. 267.
^ Himmer 1986, p. 269; Volkogonov 1991, p. 7; Service 2004,
^ Himmer 1986, p. 269; Service 2004, p. 85.
^ Himmer 1986, p. 269; Volkogonov 1991, p. 7; Montefiore
2007, p. 268.
^ a b Himmer 1986, p. 269.
^ Montefiore 2007, pp. 267–268.
^ Montefiore 2007, pp. 268–270; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 28.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 54; Service 2004, pp. 102–103;
Montefiore 2007, pp. 270, 273; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 29.
^ Montefiore 2007, pp. 273–274.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 55; Service 2004, pp. 105–106;
Montefiore 2007, pp. 277–278; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 29.
^ Service 2004, p. 107; Montefiore 2007, pp. 282–285;
Khlevniuk 2015, p. 30.
^ Montefiore 2007, pp. 292–293.
^ Montefiore 2007, pp. 298, 300.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 287.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 56; Service 2004, p. 110; Montefiore
2007, pp. 288–289.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 57; Service 2004, pp. 113–114;
Montefiore 2007, p. 300.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 57; Montefiore 2007, pp. 301–302.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 114; Montefiore 2007, p. 302.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 57–58; Service 2004, pp. 116–117;
Montefiore 2007, pp. 302–303; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 42.
^ Volkogonov 1991, pp. 15, 19; Service 2004, p. 117;
Montefiore 2007, p. 304.
^ Volkogonov 1991, p. 19; Service 2004, p. 120; Montefiore
2007, p. 310.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 59–60; Montefiore 2007, p. 310.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 64; Service 2004, p. 131; Montefiore
2007, p. 316; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 46.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 316.
^ Service 2004, p. 144.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 65; Montefiore 2007, pp. 319–320.
^ Montefiore 2007, pp. 322–324; Khlevniuk 2015,
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 326.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 68; Service 2004, p. 138; Montefiore
2007, pp. 331–332; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 50.
^ Montefiore 2007, pp. 332-333, 335.
^ Service 2004, p. 144; Montefiore 2007, pp. 337–338.
^ Service 2004, p. 145; Montefiore 2007, p. 341.
^ Montefiore 2007, pp. 341–342.
^ Montefiore 2007, pp. 344–346.
^ Service 2004, p. 145.
^ Service 2004, p. 147.
^ Service 2004, pp. 144–146; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 52.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 53.
^ Service 2004, p. 147; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 52.
^ Service 2004, p. 148; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 52.
^ Volkogonov 1991, pp. 28–29; Service 2004, p. 148.
^ a b c Conquest 1991, p. 71.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 90.
^ a b Montefiore 2003, p. 27.
^ Service 2004, p. 150.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 157.
^ Service 2004, p. 149.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 155.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 158.
^ Service 2004, p. 148.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 70; Volkogonov 1991, p. 30; Service
2004, p. 148; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 52.
^ a b Conquest 1991, p. 71; Service 2004, p. 152.
^ Service 2004, p. 153.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 72; Service 2004, p. 151.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 48–49.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 72; Service 2004, p. 167; Khlevniuk
2015, p. 49.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 72; Service 2004, pp. 150–151.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 75; Service 2004, pp. 158–161.
^ Service 2004, pp. 159–160.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 75; Service 2004, p. 161.
^ Service 2004, p. 161.
^ Service 2004, p. 165.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 77; Volkogonov 1991, p. 39; Montefiore
2003, p. 27; Service 2004, p. 163; Khlevniuk 2015,
^ a b Service 2004, p. 173.
^ Service 2004, p. 164.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 78, 82; Montefiore 2007, p. 28;
Khlevniuk 2015, p. 55.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 81; Service 2004, p. 170.
^ Volkogonov 1991, p. 46; Montefiore 2007, p. 27; Khlevniuk
2015, pp. 56–57.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 78–79; Volkogonov 1991, p. 40;
Service 2004, p. 166; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 55.
^ Service 2004, p. 171.
^ Service 2004, p. 169.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 83–84; Service 2004, p. 172.
^ a b c Service 2004, p. 172.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 85; Service 2004, p. 172.
^ Service 2004, pp. 173, 174.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 86; Volkogonov 1991, p. 45.
^ Service 2004, p. 175.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 91; Service 2004, p. 175.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 176.
^ Service 2004, p. 199.
^ Service 2004, pp. 203, 190.
^ Service 2004, p. 174.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 178.
^ Service 2004, p. 178; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 59.
^ Service 2004, pp. 176–177.
^ Service 2004, p. 177.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 87; Service 2004, p. 179; Khlevniuk
2015, p. 60.
^ Service 2004, pp. 180, 182.
^ Service 2004, p. 183.
^ Service 2004, pp. 182–183.
^ Davies 2003, p. 211; Service 2004, pp. 183–185.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 202.
^ Service 2004, pp. 199–200.
^ Service 2004, p. 200.
^ Service 2004, pp. 194–196.
^ Service 2004, pp. 194–195.
^ Service 2004, pp. 203–205.
^ a b Conquest 1991, p. 127; Service 2004, p. 232.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 89; Service 2004, p. 187; Khlevniuk
2015, p. 64.
^ Service 2004, p. 186.
^ Service 2004, p. 188.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 96; Volkogonov 1991, pp. 78–70;
Service 2004, pp. 189–190.
^ Service 2004, p. 190.
^ Service 2000, p. 369; Service 2004, p. 209.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 97; Volkogonov 1991, p. 53; Service
2004, p. 191.
^ Service 2004, pp. 191–192.
^ Service 2004, p. 192; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 68.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 102; Service 2004, pp. 191–192.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 98; Service 2004, p. 193; Khlevniuk
2015, pp. 69–70.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 95; Service 2004, p. 195; Khlevniuk
2015, pp. 71–72.
^ Volkogonov 1991, p. 71; Service 2004, p. 194; Khlevniuk
2015, pp. 68–69.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 98–99; Service 2004, p. 195;
Khlevniuk 2015, p. 69.
^ Service 2004, p. 195.
^ Volkogonov 1991, p. 74; Service 2004, p. 206.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 99–100, 103; Volkogonov 1991,
pp. 72–74; Service 2004, pp. 210–211; Khlevniuk 2015,
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 100–101; Volkogonov 1991, pp. 53,
79–82; Service 2004, pp. 208–209; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 71.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 104; Montefiore 2003, p. 30; Service
2004, p. 219; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 79.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 110; Montefiore 2003, p. 30; Service
2004, p. 219.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 130; Montefiore 2003, p. 30; Service
2004, p. 221.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 111–112; Service 2004, p. 221.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 111; Service 2004, pp. 222–224;
Khlevniuk 2015, p. 79.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 127; Service 2004, p. 235.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 127; Service 2004, p. 238.
^ Fainsod & Hough 1979, p. 111].
^ Conquest 1991, p. 98; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 52.
^ Service 2004, pp. 214–215, 217.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 87.
^ Service 2004, p. 225.
^ Service 2004, p. 227.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 228.
^ Service 2004, p. 340.
^ Service 2004, pp. 240–243; Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 82–83.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 126; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 83.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 137, 138.
^ Service 2004, p. 247; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 91.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 85.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 139, 151; Service 2004, pp. 282–283;
Khlevniuk 2015, p. 85.
^ a b c Service 2004, p. 282.
^ Service 2004, p. 276.
^ Service 2004, pp. 277–278.
^ Service 2004, pp. 277, 280.
^ Service 2004, p. 278.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 39.
^ Rappaport 1999, p. 97.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 130.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 244.
^ Service 2004, p. 392; Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 89–90.
^ Service 2004, p. 273.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 256.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 172–173; Service 2004, p. 256.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 144, 146; Service 2004, p. 258.
^ Service 2004, p. 254.
^ Service 2004, p. 253; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 101.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 147–148; Service 2004, pp. 257–258;
Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 102–103.
^ Service 2004, p. 258; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 103.
^ Service 2004, p. 258.
^ Service 2004, p. 258; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 105.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 267.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 160.
^ a b Sandle 1999, p. 231.
^ Service 2004, pp. 265–266; Khlevniuk 2015,
^ Sandle 1999, p. 234.
^ Service 2004, p. 266; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 112.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 113.
^ Service 2004, p. 271.
^ Service 2004, p. 270.
^ Service 2004, p. 270; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 116.
^ Service 2004, p. 272; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 116.
^ Service 2004, p. 272.
^ Service 2004, p. 270; Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 113–114.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 160; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 114.
^ Service 2004, p. 260.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 158; Service 2004, p. 266.
^ Sandle 1999, pp. 227, 229.
^ Service 2004, p. 259.
^ Service 2004, p. 274.
^ a b c Service 2004, p. 265.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 118.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 186, 190.
^ Sandle 1999, pp. 231–233.
^ Sandle 1999, pp. 241–242.
^ Service 2004, p. 269.
^ Service 2004, p. 300.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 152–153; Sandle 1999, p. 214;
Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 107–108.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 108.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 152–155; Service 2004, p. 259;
Khlevniuk 2015, p. 107.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 268.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 155.
^ Service 2004, p. 324.
^ Service 2004, p. 326.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 301.
^ Sandle 1999, pp. 244, 246.
^ Service 2004, p. 299.
^ Service 2004, p. 304.
^ Service 2004, p. 308.
^ Sandle 1999, p. 246; Montefiore 2003, p. 85.
^ Service 2004, pp. 302–303.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 211, 276–277; Service 2004, p. 307.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 157.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 191.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 325.
^ Service 2004, p. 379.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 183–184.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 261.
^ McDermott 1995, pp. 410–411; Conquest 1991, p. 176;
Service 2004, pp. 261, 383.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 173.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 289.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 169; Montefiore 2003, p. 90; Service
2004, pp. 291–292.
^ Montefiore 2003, pp. 94, 95; Service 2004, pp. 292, 294.
^ Service 2004, p. 297.
^ Service 2004, p. 316.
^ a b c Service 2004, p. 310.
^ Service 2004, p. 310; Davies & Wheatcroft 2006,
^ Service 2004, p. 31; Davies & Wheatcroft 2006, p. 628.
^ a b c Service 2004, p. 318.
^ Service 2004, p. 312; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 117.
^ a b c Khlevniuk 2015, p. 117.
^ a b Khlevniuk 2015, p. 119.
^ Davies & Wheatcroft 2006, pp. 627–628; Khlevniuk 2015,
^ a b Davies & Wheatcroft 2006, p. 627.
^ a b Davies & Wheatcroft 2006, p. 628.
^ Davies & Wheatcroft 2006, p. 633.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 164.
^ a b c Tauger 2001, p. 1.
^ Bilinsky, Yaroslav (1999). "Was the Ukrainian Famine of 1932–1933
Genocide?". Journal of Genocide Research. 1 (2): 147–156.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 319.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 212; Service 2004, p. 361.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 212.
^ Service 2004, p. 361.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 362.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 216.
^ Service 2004, p. 386.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 217.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 176; Montefiore 2003, p. 116; Service
2004, p. 340.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 218; Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 123, 135.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 135.
^ Haslam 1979, pp. 682–683; Conquest 1991, p. 218; Service
2004, p. 385; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 135.
^ Service 2004, p. 392; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 154.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 219; Service 2004, p. 387.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 154.
^ Service 2004, pp. 387, 389.
^ Service 2004, pp. 392.
^ a b Khlevniuk 2015, p. 126.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 125.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 179; Montefiore 2003, pp. 126–127;
Service 2004, p. 314; Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 128–129.
^ Overy 2004, p. 327.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 128, 137.
^ Service 2004, p. 315.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 139.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 347.
^ Service 2004, pp. 314–317.
^ Montefiore 2003, pp. 139, 154–155, 164–172, 175–176;
Service 2004, p. 320; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 139.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 139–140.
^ Montefiore 2003, pp. 192–193; Service 2004, p. 346;
Khlevniuk 2015, p. 140.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 176–177.
^ Service 2004, p. 349.
^ Service 2004, p. 391.
^ Service 2004, p. 394.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 230; Service 2004, p. 394; Overy 2004,
p. 338; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 174.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 201; Service 2004, p. 349; Khlevniuk
2015, p. 140.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 137–138, 147.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 140.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 204.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 141, 150.
^ Service 2004, p. 350; Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 150–151.
^ Montefiore 2003, pp. 203–204; Service 2004,
pp. 350–351; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 150.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 204; Service 2004, pp. 351, 390;
Khlevniuk 2015, p. 151.
^ a b c Khlevniuk 2015, p. 151.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 151, 159.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 152.
^ Service 2004, pp. 347–248; Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 125,
^ Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 153, 156–157.
^ Service 2004, p. 367.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 245.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 209; Service 2004, p. 369; Khlevniuk
2015, p. 160.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 162.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 157.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 159.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 220–221; Service 2004, pp. 380–381.
^ Service 2004, p. 392–393; Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 163,
^ Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 185–186.
^ Service 2004, pp. 399–400.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 220; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 166.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 220; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 168, 169.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 221; Roberts 1992, pp. 57–78; Service
2004, p. 399; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 166.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 222; Roberts 1992, pp. 57–78;
Khlevniuk 2015, p. 169.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 222; Roberts 2006, p. 43.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 223; Service 2004, pp. 402–403; Wettig
2008, p. 20.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 224.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 224; Service 2004, p. 405.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 227; Service 2004, pp. 404–405; Wettig
2008, pp. 20–21; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 173.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 228; Service 2004, p. 403; Khlevniuk
2015, pp. 172–173.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 279; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 173.
^ Service 2004, p. 403; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 173.
^ Brackman 2001, p. 341; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 173.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 170.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 229; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 170.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 229; Service 2004, p. 405.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 229; Service 2004, p. 406.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 231; Brackman 2001, pp. 341, 343;
Roberts 2006, p. 58.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 233; Roberts 2006, p. 63.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 234; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 180.
^ Service 2004, pp. 410–411; Roberts 2006, p. 82;
Khlevniuk 2015, p. 198.
^ Service 2004, pp. 411–412; Roberts 2006, p. 67;
Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 199–200, 202.
^ Service 2004, p. 413.
^ Service 2004, pp. 414–415; Khlevniuk 2015,
^ Service 2004, p. 417; Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 201–202.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 235; Service 2004, p. 416.
^ a b c Service 2004, p. 418.
^ Service 2004, p. 417.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 248; Service 2004, p. 420; Khlevniuk
2015, p. 214.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 248–249; Service 2004, p. 420;
Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 214–215.
^ Service 2004, pp. 422–424.
^ Service 2004, p. 424; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 220.
^ Service 2004, p. 482; Roberts 2006, p. 90.
^ Gellately 2007, p. 391.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 239–240; Roberts 2006, p. 98;
Khlevniuk 2015, p. 209.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 241; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 210.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 241–242; Service 2004, p. 521.
^ Roberts 2006, p. 132; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 223.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 423.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 422.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 211.
^ Service 2004, p. 421.
^ Service 2004, pp. 442–443; Khlevniuk 2015,
^ Service 2004, p. 441.
^ Service 2004, p. 442.
^ Service 2004, pp. 446–447.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 260; Service 2004, p. 444.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 446.
^ Overy 2004, p. 568.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 254; Service 2004, p. 424; Khlevniuk
2015, pp. 221–222.
^ Roberts 2006, pp. 117–8.
^ Roberts 2006, p. 124.
^ Service 2004, p. 425.
^ Service 2004, p. 426.
^ Service 2004, p. 427.
^ Service 2004, p. 428; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 225.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 225.
^ Service 2004, p. 429; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 226.
^ Roberts 2006, p. 155.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 255; Roberts 2006, p. 156; Khlevniuk
2015, p. 227.
^ Roberts 2006, p. 159.
^ Roberts 2006, p. 163.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 452.
^ Service 2004, p. 466.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 317; Service 2004, p. 466.
^ Service 2004, p. 458.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 252; Service 2004, p. 460; Khlevniuk
^ Service 2004, p. 456.
^ Service 2004, p. 460.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 262; Service 2004, p. 460; Roberts 2006,
p. 180; Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 229–230.
^ Service 2004, p. 462.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 463.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 244, 251; Service 2004, p. 461, 469;
Roberts 2006, p. 185; Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 223, 229.
^ Roberts 2006, pp. 186–7.
^ Service 2004, pp. 464–465; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 244.
^ Roberts 2006, pp. 194–5.
^ Service 2004, p. 469; Roberts 2006, pp. 199–201.
^ a b c Service 2004, p. 492.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 258; Service 2004, p. 492; Khlevniuk
2015, pp. 232–233.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 233.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 264; Service 2004, p. 465; Khlevniuk
2015, p. 244.
^ Service 2004, pp. 465–466.
^ Service 2004, pp. 465–466; Roberts 2006, pp. 241–244.
^ Service 2004, p. 471; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 245.
^ Service 2004, pp. 471–472; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 244.
^ a b c Service 2004, p. 473.
^ Service 2004, p. 474; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 247.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 479.
^ Service 2004, pp. 479–480.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 265; Service 2004, p. 473; Khlevniuk
2015, p. 234.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 265–266; Service 2004, p. 473;
Khlevniuk 2015, p. 235.
^ Service 2004, p. 474.
^ Service 2004, p. 475.
^ Service 2004, p. 476; Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 248−249.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 268; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 248.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 267; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 249.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 267; Service 2004, p. 475.
^ Roberts 2006, pp. 274–5.
^ a b Wettig 2008, pp. 90–1.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 506.
^ a b c Service 2004, p. 481.
^ a b c Service 2004, p. 484.
^ Service 2004, p. 493; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 247.
^ Service 2004, pp. 480–481.
^ Service 2004, p. 541.
^ Service 2004, pp. 543–544.
^ Service 2004, p. 548.
^ Service 2004, p. 485; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 262.
^ Service 2004, p. 485.
^ Service 2004, p. 493; Roberts 2006, p. 202.
^ Service 2004, p. 482.
^ Service 2004, pp. 482–483.
^ Service 2004, p. 482; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 261.
^ Service 2004, p. 500.
^ Service 2004, p. 496.
^ Service 2004, p. 497.
^ Service 2004, p. 497; Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 274–278.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 289.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 269; Service 2004, p. 491.
^ Service 2004, p. 526; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 268.
^ Service 2004, pp. 531–532; Khlevniuk 2015,
^ Service 2004, p. 534.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 303.
^ Service 2004, pp. 534–535; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 282.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 300–301.
^ Service 2004, p. 498; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 261.
^ Ellman 2000, pp. 611, 618–620.
^ Ellman 2000, p. 622; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 261.
^ a b Khlevniuk 2015, p. 299.
^ Service 2004, pp. 502–503.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 503.
^ Service 2004, p. 487.
^ Service 2004, p. 508.
^ Service 2004, p. 508; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 293.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 297.
^ Service 2004, p. 502.
^ Service 2004, p. 504; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 267.
^ Service 2004, p. 504.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 494.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 507; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 281.
^ Service 2004, p. 551.
^ Roberts 2002, pp. 96–98.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 264.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 296; Service 2004, pp. 548–549;
Khlevniuk 2015, p. 290.
^ Service 2004, p. 517.
^ Service 2004, p. 483.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 518.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 279; Service 2004, p. 503.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 286; Service 2004, p. 506; Khlevniuk
2015, p. 267.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 511.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 286–287; Service 2004, p. 515.
^ a b c Service 2004, p. 515.
^ a b c Service 2004, p. 516.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 287.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 507.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 280; Service 2004, p. 507; Khlevniuk
2015, p. 281.
^ Service 2004, p. 476.
^ Service 2004, p. 512, 513.
^ Service 2004, p. 513.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 301; Service 2004, p. 509; Khlevniuk
2015, p. 286.
^ Service 2004, p. 509.
^ Service 2004, p. 553.
^ Service 2004, p. 509; Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 287–291.
^ Service 2004, p. 552; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 287.
^ Service 2004, p. 552; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 294.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 302; Service 2004, p. 553; Khlevniuk
2015, pp. 294–295.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 554.
^ Service 2004, p. 554; Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 295–296.
^ Service 2004, pp. 555–556; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 296.
^ a b Conquest 1991, p. 291.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 285.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 291; Service 2004, p. 577; Khlevniuk
2015, p. 284.
^ Brackman 2001, pp. 384–5.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 291; Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 308–309.
^ Service 2004, pp. 576–577.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 290.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 286.
^ Service 2004, p. 577; Overy 2004, p. 565; Khlevniuk 2015,
^ a b Service 2004, p. 571.
^ Service 2004, p. 572; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 195.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 309; Service 2004, p. 576; Khlevniuk
2015, p. 307.
^ a b c d Ro'i, Yaacov, Jews and Jewish Life in Russia and the Soviet
Union, Routledge, 1995, ISBN 0-7146-4619-9, pp. 103–6
^ Conquest 1991, p. 309; Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 307–308.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 308; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 307.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 308.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 304–305.
^ a b c Service 2004, p. 560.
^ Service 2004, pp. 564–565.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 307; Service 2004, pp. 566–567.
^ Service 2004, p. 578.
^ Service 2004, p. 579; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 306.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 305–306.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 311; Service 2004, pp. 582–584;
Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 142, 191.
^ a b c Conquest 1991, p. 312.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 311–312; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 142.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 312; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 250.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 313; Service 2004, p. 586; Khlevniuk
2015, p. 313.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 313; Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 313–314.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 189.
^ Service 2004, p. 587.
^ Service 2004, p. 588.
^ Service 2004, p. 588; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 314.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 317.
^ Service 2004, p. 588; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 317.
^ Service 2004, p. 589; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 318.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 319.
^ Li 2009, p. 75.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 310.
^ Service 2004, pp. 586–587.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 312.
^ Ra'anan, Uri, ed. (2006). Flawed Succession: Russia's Power Transfer
Crises. Oxford: Lexington Books. p. 20.
^ Service 2004, p. 591.
^ a b Khlevniuk 2015, p. 315.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 593.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 316.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 314; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 314.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 314.
^ Service 2004, p. 592.
^ Service 2004, p. 595.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 314; Service 2004, p. 594.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 594.
^ Rieber 2005, p. 32.
^ a b c d Service 2004, p. 9.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 336.
^ a b Rieber 2005, p. 43.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 67.
^ Service 2004, p. 136; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 47.
^ Volkogonov 1991, p. 7.
^ McDermott 2006, p. 7.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 92.
^ a b c Service 2004, p. 93.
^ Sandle 1999, p. 216.
^ Service 2004, pp. 93–94.
^ Sandle 1999, p. 214; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 8.
^ a b c Service 2004, p. 94.
^ a b Sandle 1999, p. 211.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 211.
^ Service 2004, p. 95; Montefiore 2007, p. 211.
^ Service 2004, pp. 179–180.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 67.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 93–94.
^ Service 2004, p. 333.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 158.
^ Sandle 1999, p. 256; Service 2004, p. 333; Khlevniuk 2015,
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 352.
^ Service 2004, p. 357.
^ Sandle 1999, pp. 208–209.
^ a b Sandle 1999, p. 209.
^ Sandle 1999, p. 261.
^ Sandle 1999, p. 210.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 98.
^ Overy 2004, p. 552.
^ Overy 2004, p. 565.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 99.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 8.
^ Montefiore 2003, pp. 310, 579.
^ a b c d e Service 2004, p. 5.
^ Service 2004, p. 12.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 12; Volkogonov 1991, p. 5.
^ a b Conquest 1991, p. 12.
^ Service 2004, p. 25; Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 13–14.
^ Montefiore 2007, pp. 21,29,33–34.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 9.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 10.
^ Service 2004, p. 167.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 311; Montefiore 2003, pp. 36–37;
Service 2004, pp. 497–498.
^ Service 2004, p. 498.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 282; Service 2004, pp. 435, 438, 574.
^ a b Conquest 1991, p. 1.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 1; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 97.
^ a b Khlevniuk 2015, p. 97.
^ Montefiore 2007, pp. 66–67.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 1; Montefiore 2003, p. 2; Montefiore
2007, p. 42; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 97.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 579.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 268.
^ Service 2004, p. 85.
^ Rieber 2005, p. 18.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 395.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 183; Volkogonov 1991, p. 5.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 37.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 149; Volkogonov 1991, p. 49; Service
2004, p. 334; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 52.
^ Volkogonov 1991, pp. xx–xxi.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 329.
^ Volkogonov 1991, p. 21; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 97.
^ Conquest 1991, p. xvi; Volkogonov 1991, p. xxiii; Service
2004, p. 4; Montefiore 2007, p. xxiv.
^ a b Montefiore 2007, p. xxiv.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 343.
^ Volkogonov 1991, p. 8; Service 2004, p. 337.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 337.
^ a b Khlevniuk 2015, p. 145.
^ Service 2004, p. 42; Montefiore 2007, p. 353.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 115.
^ Conquest 1991, pp. 193, 274; Volkogonov 1991, p. 63;
Service 2004, p. 115; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 148.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 4–5.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 317; Volkogonov 1991, p. xxvi; McDermott
2006, p. 13.
^ Conquest 1991, p. xvi; Service 2004, p. 18; McDermott
2006, p. 13.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 42.
^ Service 2004, p. 342.
^ McCauley 2003, p. 92; Montefiore 2003, pp. 49–50.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 41.
^ McDermott 2006, pp. 12–13.
^ Service 2004, p. 338; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 53.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 318; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 7.
^ Volkogonov 1991, p. 4; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 7.
^ Volkogonov 1991, p. 8.
^ Service 2004, p. 334.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 175.
^ Service 2004, p. 258; Montefiore 2007, p. 285.
^ Service 2004, pp. 4, 344.
^ Service 2004, pp. 10, 344.
^ Service 2004, p. 336.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 42.
^ McDermott 2006, p. 12.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 318.
^ Leffler 2007, pp. 55–56.
^ a b Montefiore 2007, p. 60.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 96.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 73; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 6.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 6.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 86; Service 2004, p. 9; McDermott
2006, p. 19.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 93.
^ McCauley 2003, p. 93; Montefiore 2003, p. 86; Service
2004, p. 560; McDermott 2006, p. 19.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 86.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 60.
^ Service 2004, p. 525.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 60; Service 2004, p. 525.
^ Montefiore 2003, pp. 35, 60.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 2–3.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 282; McCauley 2003, p. 90.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 145.
^ McCauley 2003, p. 90; Service 2004, pp. 437, 522–523;
Khlevniuk 2015, p. 5.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 283; Service 2004, p. 437.
^ Service 2004, p. 522.
^ a b Montefiore 2007, p. 24.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 3–4.
^ Montefiore 2003, pp. 58, 507.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 102, 227.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 195.
^ Service 2004, p. 331.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 64.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 191.
^ Montefiore 2003, pp. 57–58.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 102.
^ Montefiore 2003, pp. 66–67; Service 2004, p. 296.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 215; Montefiore 2003, p. 103; Service
2004, p. 295.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 178.
^ Service 2004, p. 572.
^ Tolstoy, Nikolai (1981). Stalin's Secret War. Holt, Rinehart, and
Winston. pp. 35–37. ISBN 0-03-047266-0.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 319, 637.
^ Service 2004, p. 55.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 165.
^ Rappaport 1999, p. 297.
^ Pinkus 1984, pp. 107–108; Brackman 2001, p. 390.
^ Brent & Naumov 2004, p. 184.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 8.
^ Service 2004, pp. 567–568.
^ Service 2004, p. 77.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 237.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 49; Fitzpatrick 2015, p. 65.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 49.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 151.
^ Service 2004, p. 112.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 135.
^ Service 2004, p. 522; Montefiore 2003, p. 135; Montefiore
2007, p. 368.
^ a b McCauley 2003, p. 90.
^ a b Montefiore 2007, p. 209.
^ Service 2004, p. 80; Montefiore 2007, p. 209.
^ Service 2004, p. 80.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 5.
^ Volkogonov 1991, p. 4.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 364.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 5.
^ a b Montefiore 2003, p. 9.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 13; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 255.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 12.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 16; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 255.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 257, 259–260.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 215; Montefiore 2003, pp. 9, 227;
Khlevniuk 2015, p. 256.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 260; Service 2004, p. 521.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, pp. 250, 259.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 260.
^ Montefiore 2003, pp. 142–144.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 144.
^ Service 2004, p. 521.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 365.
^ Khlevniuk 2015, p. 252.
^ Montefiore 2007, pp. 365–366.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 366.
^ Conquest 1991, p. xi.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. xxii.
^ a b c McDermott 2006, p. 1.
^ a b c d Service 2004, p. 3.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 602.
^ Service 2004, p. 602; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 190.
^ McCauley 2003, p. 8; Service 2004, p. 52; Montefiore 2007,
p. 9; Khlevniuk 2015, p. 12.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 194; Volkogonov 1991, p. 31; Service
2004, p. 370.
^ Volkogonov 1991, p. 77.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 124.
^ Montefiore 2003, p. 215.
^ Conquest 1991, p. xvii; McDermott 2006, p. 5.
^ Volkogonov 1991, p. xviii.
^ McDermott 2006, p. 2.
^ Service 2004, p. 370.
^ McDermott 2006, pp. 5–6.
^ Service 2004, pp. 8, 9.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 182.
^ Montefiore 2007, p. 185.
^ a b c Khlevniuk 2015, p. ix.
^ Service 2004, p. 4.
^ Service 2004, p. 13.
^ a b c Service 2004, p. 6.
^ Conquest 1991, p. xiii.
^ Service 2004, p. 6; Montefiore 2007, p. xxi.
^ Sandle 1999, pp. 265–266.
^ a b Khlevniuk 2015, p. 38.
^ Conquest 2008, p. xvi.
^ Wheatcroft 1996, pp. 1334,1348.
^ Davies & Wheatcroft 2004, p. 401.
^ Snyder 2010, p. 384; Snyder 2011.
^ Rebekah Moore, "'A Crime Against Humanity Arguably Without Parallel
in European History': Genocide and the 'Politics' of Victimhood in
Western Narratives of the Ukrainian Holodomor." Australian Journal of
Politics & History 58#3 (2012): 367-379; Laura C. Collins, "Book
Holodomor Reader: A Sourcebook on the Famine of
1932–1933 in Ukraine," Genocide Studies and Prevention: An
International Journal (2015) 9#1 : 114–115 online.
^ Davies & Wheatcroft 2004, p. 441; Davies & Wheatcroft
2006, p. 628.
^ Norman M. Naimark, "Stalin and the Question of Soviet Genocide" pp
39-48 in P. Hollander, ed. (2008). Political Violence: Belief,
Behavior, and Legitimation. Springer. p. 45. CS1 maint:
Extra text: authors list (link)
^ Conquest 1991, p. 315; Service 2004, p. 595.
^ Conquest 1991, p. 315.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 596.
^ Service 2004, pp. 596–597.
^ Service 2004, p. 598.
^ a b Service 2004, p. 7.
^ Service 2004, p. 599.
^ Parfitt, Tom (29 December 2008). "Greatest Russian poll". The
Guardian. UK. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
^ Taylor, Adam (15 February 2017). "Positive views of Stalin among
Russians reach 16-year high, poll shows". The Washington Post.
Retrieved 30 April 2017.
^ a b Khlevniuk 2015, p. x.
^ "Wall of Grief: Putin opens first Soviet victims memorial". BBC
News. 30 October 2017.
^ Service 2004, p. 597.
^ "Georgia divided over Stalin 'local hero' status in Gori". BBC News.
5 March 2013.
^ "Poll Finds Stalin's Popularity High". The Moscow Times. March 2,
^ "The Stalin Puzzle: Deciphering Post-Soviet Public Opinion".
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. March 1, 2013.
^ Lisova, Natasha (28 November 2006). "Ukraine Recognize Famine As
Genocide". Associated Press.
^ Ukraine court finds
Bolsheviks guilty of
Holodomor genocide, RIA
Novosti (13 January 2010)
Yushchenko Praises Guilty Verdict Against Soviet Leaders For Famine,
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (14 January 2010)
^ a b Springtime for Stalin by Timothy D. Snyder, The New York Review
of Books (26 May 2010)
^ Ukraine stands by its view of Stalin as villain – president
RIA Novosti (25 February 2011)
^ (in Ukrainian) About Stalin positive about 1/5 less Ukrainian,
Pravda (4 March 2015)
Brackman, Roman (2001). The Secret
File of Joseph Stalin: A Hidden
Life. London and Portland: Frank Cass Publishers.
Brent, Jonathan; Naumov, Vladimir (2004). Stalin's Last Crime: The
Plot Against the Jewish Doctors, 1948–1953. New York: HarperCollins.
Conquest, Robert (1991). Stalin: Breaker of Nations. New York and
London: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-140-16953-9.
——— (2008). The Great Terror: A Reassessment
(fortieth anniversary ed.). Oxford and New York: Oxford University
Press. ISBN 978-0-195-31699-5.
Davies, Norman (2003) . White Eagle, Red Star: The Polish-Soviet
War 1919-20 and 'the Miracle on the Vistula'. London: Pimlico.
Davies, Robert; Wheatcroft, Stephen (2004). The Industrialisation of
Soviet Russia Volume 5: The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture
1931-1933. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
——— ——— (2006). "Stalin and the
Soviet Famine of 1932-33: A Reply to Ellman". Europe-Asia Studies. 58
(4): 625–633. JSTOR 20451229.
Ellman, Michael (2000). "The 1947 Soviet Famine and the Entitlement
Approach to Famines". Cambridge Journal of Economics. 24 (5):
Gellately, Robert (2007). Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social
Catastrophe. London: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 978-0-224-06283-1.
Fitzpatrick, Sheila (2015). On Stalin's Team: The Years of Living
Dangerously in Soviet Politics. Carlton: Melbourne University Press.
Haslam, Jonathan (1979). "The Comintern and the Origins of the Popular
Front 1934–1935". The Historical Journal. 22 (3): 673–691.
Himmer, Robert (1986). "On the Origin and Significance of the Name
"Stalin"". The Russian Review. 45 (3): 269–286.
Khlevniuk, Oleg V. (2015). Stalin: New Biography of a Dictator.
Translated by Nora Seligman Favorov. New Haven and London: Yale
University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-16388-9.
Leffler, Melvyn P. (2007). For the Soul of Mankind: The United States,
the Soviet Union, and the Cold War. New York: Macmillan.
Li, Hua-yu (2009). "Reactions of Chinese Citizens to the Death of
Stalin: Internal Communist Party Reports". Journal of Cold War
Studies. 11 (2): 70–88. doi:10.1162/jcws.2009.11.2.70.
McCauley, Martin (2003). Stalin and
Stalinism (third ed.). Harlow and
London: Pearson. ISBN 978-0-582-50587-2.
McDermott, Kevin (1995). "Stalin and the Comintern during the 'Third
Period', 1928-33". European History Quarterly. 25 (3): 409–429.
——— (2006). Stalin: Revolutionary in an Era of War.
Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Montefiore, Simon Sebag (2003). Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar.
London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-1-842-12726-1.
——— (2007). Young Stalin. London: Weidenfeld &
Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-85068-7.
Overy, Richard J. (2004). The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's
Russia. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 978-0-393-02030-4.
Pinkus, Benjamin (1984). The Soviet Government and the Jews
1948–1967: A Documented Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 0-521-24713-6.
Rappaport, Helen (1999). Joseph Stalin: A Biographical Companion.
Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio. ISBN 978-1-57607-084-0.
Rieber, Alfred J. (2005). "Stalin as Georgian: The Formative Years".
In Sarah Davies; James Harris. Stalin: A New History. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press. pp. 18–44.
Roberts, Geoffrey (1992). "The Soviet Decision for a Pact with Nazi
Germany". Soviet Studies. 55 (2): 57–78.
doi:10.1080/09668139208411994. JSTOR 152247.
——— (2002). "Stalin, the Pact with Nazi Germany, and
the Origins of Postwar Soviet Diplomatic Historiography". Journal of
Cold War Studies. 4 (4): 93–103.
Roberts, Geoffrey (2006). Stalin's Wars: From World War to Cold War,
1939–1953. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Sandle, Mark (1999). A Short History of Soviet Socialism. London: UCL
Press. doi:10.4324/9780203500279. ISBN 978-1-85728-355-6.
Service, Robert (2000). Lenin: A Biography. London: Macmillan.
——— (2004). Stalin: A Biography. London: Macmillan.
Snyder, Timothy (2010). Bloodlands: Europe between Hitler and Stalin.
New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 978-1-407-07550-1.
——— (27 January 2011). "Hitler vs. Stalin: Who Was
Worse?". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 13 October
Tauger, Mark B. (2001). "Natural Disaster and Human Actions in the
Soviet Famine of 1931–1933". The Carl Beck Papers in Russian and
East European Studies (1506): 1–65. doi:10.5195/CBP.2001.89.
Volkogonov, Dimitri (1991). Stalin: Triumph and Tragedy. Translated by
Harold Shukman. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
Wettig, Gerhard (2008). Stalin and the
Cold War in Europe. Lanham:
Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-742-55542-6.
Wheatcroft, Stephen (1996). "The Scale and Nature of German and Soviet
Repression and Mass Killings, 1930–45" (PDF). Europe-Asia Studies.
48 (8): 1319–1353. doi:10.1080/09668139608412415.
Applebaum, Anne (2003). Gulag: A History. Doubleday.
Bideleux, Robert; Jeffries, Ian (1998). A History of Eastern Europe:
Crisis and Change. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-203-05024-8.
Boobbyer, Phillip (2000). The Stalin Era. Routledge.
Conquest, Robert (1997). "Victims of Stalinism: A Comment" (PDF).
Europe-Asia Studies. 49 (7): 1317–1319.
Edmonds, Robin. (1991) The big three : Churchill, Roosevelt, and
Stalin in peace & war (1991) online free
Ellman, Michael (2005). "The Role of Leadership Perceptions and of
Intent in the Soviet Famine of 1931–1934" (PDF). Europe-Asia
Studies. 57 (6): 823–841. doi:10.1080/09668130500199392.
Fainsod, Jerry F.; Hough, Merle (1979). How the
Soviet Union is
Governed. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Feis, Herbert. (1957) Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin; the war they waged
and the peace they sought (1957) wartime diplomacy online free
Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi. (2005) Racing the enemy: Stalin, Truman, and the
surrender of Japan online free
Khlevniuk, Oleg V. (2008). Master of the House: Stalin and His Inner
Circle. New Haven and London.
Kotkin, Stephen (2014). Stalin: Paradoxes of Power, 1878–1928.
London: Allen Lane. ISBN 978-0-713-99944-0.
Kotkin, Stephen (2017). Stalin: Waiting for Hitler, 1929-1941. New
York: Penguin. ISBN 1594203806.
Kun, Miklos (2003). Stalin: An Unknown Portrait. Budapest and New
Kuromiya, Hiroaki (2005). Stalin: Profiles in Power. New York.
Murphy, David E. (2006). What Stalin Knew: The Enigma of Barbarossa.
Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-11981-X.
Nekrich, Aleksandr Moiseevich; Ulam, Adam Bruno; Freeze, Gregory L.
(1997). Pariahs, Partners, Predators: German-Soviet Relations,
1922–1941. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-10676-9.
Plamper, Jan (2012). The Stalin Cult: A Study in the Alchemy of Power.
Radzinsky, Edvard (1997). Stalin: The First In-Depth Biography Based
on Explosive New Documents from Russia's Secret Archive. New
Rayfield, Donald (2005). Stalin and His Hangmen: The Tyrant and Those
Who Killed For Him. New York: Penguin. ISBN 9780141914190.
Rieber, A. J. (2001). "Stalin, Man of the Borderlands". American
Historical Review. 106 (4). pp. 1651–1691.
Roberts, Geoffrey. "Stalin at the Tehran, Yalta, and Potsdam
conferences." Journal of
Cold War Studies 9.4 (2007): 6-40.
Tucker, Robert C. (1973). Stalin as Revolutionary: 1879–1929: A
Study in History and Personality.
Tucker, Robert C. (1990). Stalin in Power: The Revolution from Above,
1928–1941. New York.
Ulam, Adam B. (1973). Stalin: The Man and His Era. New York.
van Ree, Erik (2002). The Political Thought of Joseph Stalin: A Study
in Twentieth-Century Revolutionary Patriotism. London and New
Weinberg, Gerhard L. (1994) A World at Arms: A Global History of World
War II (1994) online free
Wheatcroft, Stephen G. (1999). "Victims of
Stalinism and the Soviet
Secret Police: The Comparability and Reliability of the Archival Data.
Not the Last Word" (PDF). Europe-Asia Studies. 51 (2): 340–342.
Wheeler-Bennett, John W. (1946) "Twenty Years of Russo-German
Relations: 1919-1939" Foreign Affairs 25#1 (1946), pp. 23-43 online
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