Josef Glazman (1913 – 7 October 1943) was a Lithuanian Jewish
resistance leader in the Vilna Ghetto.
Glazman was born in 1913 in the town of Alytus. He became head
Betar youth movement in
Lithuania in 1937. He was also a
member of the Zionist-Revisionist political movement and was the
editor of the Revisionist newspaper Hamdina.
When Nazi Germany invaded
Lithuania in June 1941, Glazman was in
Vilnius and was taken for forced labor by the Germans. In November, he
Vilnius and was forced into the
Vilna Ghetto where he
organized an underground group of
Betar members. He was also a member
of the Jewish police.
Glazman helped found the
Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye
Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye (FPO) in
January 1942. This was a militarized underground resistance group
against the Germans. Glazman was the deputy commander of the FPO as
well as in-charge of its intelligence gathering. In June 1942, Glazman
changed jobs from the ghetto police force to the ghetto's housing
Glazman's relationship with the head of the Vilna Ghetto, Jacob Gens,
was difficult. In the second half of 1942, Gens tried to send Glazman
to the nearby ghetto at Švenčionys to head up the housing
department. Glazman refused as he feared that it was an attempt to
force him to participate in choosing which Jews would be deported to
forced labor or extermination. Glazman was arrested in October
1942, but was released after the leaders of the Communist
underground in the ghetto interceded with Gens. Glazman was questioned
repeatedly by the Jewish police over the few months, but was not
On 25 July 1943, Gens attempted to send Glazman to a nearby labor
camp, but when Glazman refused to go on his own, he was arrested by
the police. The FPO organized a rescue and freed Glazman while he was
being escorted out of the ghetto by the police. Gens then met with the
FPO and persuaded them that Glazman should go voluntarily to the labor
camp and that Gens would personally guarantee Glazman's safety.
Glazman returned to the ghetto within a few weeks. After Gens'
Yitzhak Wittenberg to the Germans, Glazman led a group of
Jewish fighters out of the ghetto into the nearby forest to form a
Glazman's partisan band was discovered by the Germans on 7 October
1943 and all but one of the group were killed.
^ a b c d e f g Rozett and Spector "Glazman, Josef" Encyclopedia of
the Holocaust pp. 243–244
^ a b Shneidman Three Tragic Heroes pp. 125–126
^ a b c Tushnet Pavement of Hell pp. 229–231
Rozett, Robert; Spector, Shmuel. "Glazman, Josef". Encyclopedia of the
Holocaust. New York: Facts on File. pp. 243–244.
Shneidman, N. N. (2002). The Three Tragic Heroes of the Vilnius
Ghetto: Witenberg, Sheinbaum, Gens. Oakville, ONT: Mosaic Press.
Tushnet, Leonard (1979) . The Pavement of Hell. Geneva: Ferni
Publishing House. ISBN 2-8295-0007-5.
Josef Glazman from the Shoah Resource Cen