The Info List - John Steinbeck

John Ernst Steinbeck Jr. (/ˈstaɪnbɛk/; February 27, 1902 – December 20, 1968) was an American author. He won the 1962 Nobel Prize in Literature "for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception."[2] He has been called "a giant of American letters,"[3] and many of his works are considered classics of Western literature.[4] During his writing career, he authored 27 books, including 16 novels, six non-fiction books, and two collections of short stories. He is widely known for the comic novels Tortilla Flat
Tortilla Flat
(1935) and Cannery Row (1945), the multi-generation epic East of Eden (1952), and the novellas Of Mice and Men
Of Mice and Men
(1937) and The Red Pony
The Red Pony
(1937). The Pulitzer Prize-winning The Grapes of Wrath
The Grapes of Wrath
(1939)[5] is considered Steinbeck's masterpiece and part of the American literary canon.[6] In the first 75 years after it was published, it sold 14 million copies.[7] Most of Steinbeck's work is set in central California, particularly in the Salinas Valley
Salinas Valley
and the California Coast Ranges
California Coast Ranges
region. His works frequently explored the themes of fate and injustice, especially as applied to downtrodden or everyman protagonists.


1 Early life 2 Career

2.1 Writing 2.2 Ed Ricketts 2.3 1940s–1960s work 2.4 Nobel Prize

3 Personal life 4 Death and legacy

4.1 Opinions on Nobel Prize 4.2 Literary influences 4.3 Commemoration

5 Religious views 6 Political views

6.1 Government harassment

7 Major works

7.1 In Dubious Battle 7.2 Of Mice and Men 7.3 The Grapes of Wrath 7.4 East of Eden 7.5 Travels with Charley

8 Bibliography 9 Filmography 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References

12.1 Further reading

13 External links

13.1 Libraries 13.2 Videos

Early life Steinbeck was born on February 27, 1902, in Salinas, California.[8] He was of German, English, and Irish descent.[9] Johann Adolf Großsteinbeck (1828–1913), Steinbeck's paternal grandfather, shortened the family name to Steinbeck when he immigrated to the United States. The family farm in Heiligenhaus, Mettmann, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, is still named "Großsteinbeck." His father, John Ernst Steinbeck (1862–1935), served as Monterey County treasurer. John's mother, Olive Hamilton (1867–1934), a former school teacher, shared Steinbeck's passion for reading and writing.[10] The Steinbecks were members of the Episcopal Church,[11] although Steinbeck later became agnostic.[12] Steinbeck lived in a small rural town, no more than a frontier settlement, set in some of the world's most fertile land.[13] He spent his summers working on nearby ranches and later with migrant workers on Spreckels sugar beet farms. There he learned of the harsher aspects of the migrant life and the darker side of human nature, which supplied him with material expressed in such works as Of Mice and Men.[13] He explored his surroundings, walking across local forests, fields, and farms.[13] While working at Spreckels Sugar Company, he sometimes worked in their laboratory, which gave him time to write.[14] He had considerable mechanical aptitude and fondness for repairing things he owned.[14]

The Steinbeck House at 132 Central Avenue, Salinas, California, the Victorian home where Steinbeck spent his childhood. Steinbeck graduated from Salinas High School in 1919 and went on to study English Literature
English Literature
at Stanford University
Stanford University
near Palo Alto, leaving without a degree in 1925. He traveled to New York City
New York City
where he took odd jobs while trying to write. When he failed to publish his work, he returned to California and worked in 1928 as a tour guide and caretaker[14] at Lake Tahoe, where he met Carol Henning, his first wife.[10][14][15] They married in January 1930 in Los Angeles, where, with friends, he attempted to make money by manufacturing plaster mannequins.[14] When their money ran out six months later due to a slow market, Steinbeck and Carol moved back to Pacific Grove, California, to a cottage owned by his father, on the Monterey Peninsula
Monterey Peninsula
a few blocks outside the Monterey
city limits. The elder Steinbecks gave John free housing, paper for his manuscripts, and from 1928, loans that allowed him to write without looking for work. During the Great Depression, Steinbeck bought a small boat, and later claimed that he was able to live on the fish and crab that he gathered from the sea, and fresh vegetables from his garden and local farms. When those sources failed, Steinbeck and his wife accepted welfare, and on rare occasions, stole bacon from the local produce market.[14] Whatever food they had, they shared with their friends.[14] Carol became the model for Mary Talbot in Steinbeck's novel Cannery Row.[14] In 1930, Steinbeck met the marine biologist Ed Ricketts, who became a close friend and mentor to Steinbeck during the following decade, teaching him a great deal about philosophy and biology.[14] Ricketts, usually very quiet, yet likable, with an inner self-sufficiency and an encyclopedic knowledge of diverse subjects, became a focus of Steinbeck's attention. Ricketts had taken a college class from Warder Clyde Allee, a biologist and ecological theorist, who would go on to write a classic early textbook on ecology. Ricketts became a proponent of ecological thinking, in which man was only one part of a great chain of being, caught in a web of life too large for him to control or understand.[14] Meanwhile, Ricketts operated a biological lab on the coast of Monterey, selling biological samples of small animals, fish, rays, starfish, turtles, and other marine forms to schools and colleges. Between 1930 and 1936, Steinbeck and Ricketts became close friends. Steinbeck's wife began working at the lab as secretary-bookkeeper.[14] Steinbeck helped on an informal basis.[16] They formed a common bond based on their love of music and art, and John learned biology and Ricketts' ecological philosophy.[17] When Steinbeck became emotionally upset, Ricketts sometimes played music for him.[18]

Career Writing Steinbeck's first novel, Cup of Gold, published in 1929, is loosely based on the life and death of privateer Henry Morgan. It centers on Morgan's assault and sacking of the city of Panama, sometimes referred to as the 'Cup of Gold', and on the women, fairer than the sun, who were said to be found there.[19] Between 1930 and 1933, Steinbeck produced three shorter works. The Pastures of Heaven, published in 1932, consists of twelve interconnected stories about a valley near Monterey, which was discovered by a Spanish corporal while chasing runaway Indian slaves. In 1933 Steinbeck published The Red Pony, a 100-page, four-chapter story weaving in memories of Steinbeck's childhood.[19] To a God Unknown, named after a Vedic
hymn,[14] follows the life of a homesteader and his family in California, depicting a character with a primal and pagan worship of the land he works. Although he had not achieved the status of a well-known writer, he never doubted that he would achieve greatness.[14] Steinbeck achieved his first critical success with Tortilla Flat (1935), a novel set in post-war Monterey, California, that won the California Commonwealth Club's Gold Medal.[19] It portrays the adventures of a group of classless and usually homeless young men in Monterey
after World War I, just before U.S. prohibition. They are portrayed in ironic comparison to mythic knights on a quest and reject nearly all the standard mores of American society in enjoyment of a dissolute life devoted to wine, lust, camaraderie and petty theft. In presenting the 1962 Nobel Prize to Steinbeck, the Swedish Academy cited "spicy and comic tales about a gang of paisanos, asocial individuals who, in their wild revels, are almost caricatures of King Arthur's Knights of the Round Table. It has been said that in the United States this book came as a welcome antidote to the gloom of the then prevailing depression."[1] Tortilla Flat
Tortilla Flat
was adapted as a 1942 film of the same name, starring Spencer Tracy, Hedy Lamarr
Hedy Lamarr
and John Garfield, a friend of Steinbeck. With some of the proceeds, he built a summer ranch-home in Los Gatos.[citation needed] Steinbeck began to write a series of "California novels" and Dust Bowl fiction, set among common people during the Great Depression. These included In Dubious Battle, Of Mice and Men
Of Mice and Men
and The Grapes of Wrath. He also wrote an article series called The Harvest Gypsies
The Harvest Gypsies
for the San Francisco News about the plight of the migrant worker. Of Mice and Men
Of Mice and Men
was a drama about the dreams of two migrant agricultural laborers in California. It was critically acclaimed[19] and Steinbeck's 1962 Nobel Prize citation called it a "little masterpiece".[1] Its stage production was a hit, starring Wallace Ford
Wallace Ford
as George and Broderick Crawford
Broderick Crawford
as George's companion, the mentally childlike, but physically powerful itinerant farmhand Lennie. Steinbeck refused to travel from his home in California to attend any performance of the play during its New York run, telling director George S. Kaufman
George S. Kaufman
that the play as it existed in his own mind was "perfect" and that anything presented on stage would only be a disappointment. Steinbeck wrote two more stage plays ( The Moon Is Down
The Moon Is Down
and Burning Bright). Of Mice and Men
Of Mice and Men
was also adapted as a 1939 Hollywood film, with Lon Chaney, Jr. as Lennie (he had filled the role in the Los Angeles stage production) and Burgess Meredith
Burgess Meredith
as George.[20] Meredith and Steinbeck became close friends for the next two decades.[14] Another film based on the novella was made in 1992 starring Gary Sinise as George and John Malkovich
John Malkovich
as Lennie.

Steinbeck in 1939 Steinbeck followed this wave of success with The Grapes of Wrath (1939), based on newspaper articles about migrant agricultural workers that he had written in San Francisco. It is commonly considered his greatest work. According to The New York Times, it was the best-selling book of 1939 and 430,000 copies had been printed by February 1940. In that month, it won the National Book
Award, favorite fiction book of 1939, voted by members of the American Booksellers Association.[21] Later that year, it won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction[22] and was adapted as a film directed by John Ford, starring Henry Fonda
Henry Fonda
as Tom Joad; Fonda was nominated for the best actor Academy Award. Grapes was controversial. Steinbeck's New Deal
New Deal
political views, negative portrayal of aspects of capitalism, and sympathy for the plight of workers, led to a backlash against the author, especially close to home.[23] Claiming the book was both obscene and misrepresented conditions in the county, the Kern County
Kern County
Board of Supervisors banned the book from the county's publicly funded schools and libraries in August 1939. This ban lasted until January 1941.[24] Of the controversy, Steinbeck wrote, "The vilification of me out here from the large landowners and bankers is pretty bad. The latest is a rumor started by them that the Okies hate me and have threatened to kill me for lying about them. I'm frightened at the rolling might of this damned thing. It is completely out of hand; I mean a kind of hysteria about the book is growing that is not healthy."[25] The film versions of The Grapes of Wrath
The Grapes of Wrath
and Of Mice and Men
Of Mice and Men
(by two different movie studios) were in production simultaneously, allowing Steinbeck to spend a full day on the set of The Grapes of Wrath
The Grapes of Wrath
and the next day on the set of Of Mice and Men.[citation needed]

Ed Ricketts In the 1930s and 1940s, Ed Ricketts
Ed Ricketts
strongly influenced Steinbeck's writing. Steinbeck frequently took small trips with Ricketts along the California coast to give himself time off from his writing[26] and to collect biological specimens, which Ricketts sold for a living. Their joint book about a collecting expedition to the Gulf of California in 1940, which was part travelogue and part natural history, published just as the U.S. entered World War II, never found an audience and did not sell well.[26] However, in 1951, Steinbeck republished the narrative portion of the book as The Log from the Sea of Cortez, under his name only (though Ricketts had written some of it). This work remains in print today.[27] Although Carol accompanied Steinbeck on the trip, their marriage was beginning to suffer, and ended a year later, in 1941, even as Steinbeck worked on the manuscript for the book.[14] In 1942, after his divorce from Carol he married Gwyndolyn "Gwyn" Conger.[28] With his second wife Steinbeck had two sons, Thomas ("Thom") Myles Steinbeck (1944–2016) and John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
IV (1946–1991). Ricketts was Steinbeck's model for the character of "Doc" in Cannery Row (1945) and Sweet Thursday
Sweet Thursday
(1954), "Friend Ed" in Burning Bright, and characters in In Dubious Battle
In Dubious Battle
(1936) and The Grapes of Wrath (1939). Ecological themes recur in Steinbeck's novels of the period.[29] Steinbeck's close relations with Ricketts ended in 1941 when Steinbeck moved away from Pacific Grove and divorced his wife Carol.[26] Ricketts' biographer Eric Enno Tamm notes that, except for East of Eden (1952), Steinbeck's writing declined after Ricketts' untimely death in 1948.[29]

1940s–1960s work This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "John Steinbeck" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (February 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Steinbeck's novel The Moon Is Down
The Moon Is Down
(1942), about the Socrates-inspired spirit of resistance in an occupied village in Northern Europe, was made into a film almost immediately. It was presumed that the unnamed country of the novel was Norway and the occupiers the Nazis. In 1945, Steinbeck received the King Haakon VII Freedom Cross
King Haakon VII Freedom Cross
for his literary contributions to the Norwegian resistance movement.[30] In 1943, Steinbeck served as a World War II war correspondent for the New York Herald Tribune
New York Herald Tribune
and worked with the Office of Strategic Services (predecessor of the CIA).[31] It was at that time he became friends with Will Lang, Jr.
Will Lang, Jr.
of Time/Life magazine. During the war, Steinbeck accompanied the commando raids of Douglas Fairbanks, Jr.'s Beach Jumpers
Beach Jumpers
program, which launched small-unit diversion operations against German-held islands in the Mediterranean. At one point, he accompanied Fairbanks on an invasion of an island off the coast of Italy and helped capture Italian and German prisoners, using a Tommy Gun. Some of his writings from this period were incorporated in the documentary Once There Was a War
Once There Was a War
(1958). Steinbeck returned from the war with a number of wounds from shrapnel and some psychological trauma. He treated himself, as ever, by writing. He wrote Alfred Hitchcock's movie, Lifeboat (1944), and the film, A Medal for Benny
A Medal for Benny
(1945), with screenwriter Jack Wagner about paisanos from Tortilla Flat
Tortilla Flat
going to war. He later requested that his name be removed from the credits of Lifeboat, because he believed the final version of the film had racist undertones. In 1944, suffering from homesickness for his Pacific Grove/ Monterey
life of the 1930s, he wrote Cannery Row
Cannery Row
(1945), which became so famous that in 1958 Ocean View Avenue in Monterey, the setting of the book, was renamed Cannery Row. After the war, he wrote The Pearl (1947), knowing it would be filmed eventually. The story first appeared in the December 1945 issue of Woman's Home Companion magazine as "The Pearl of the World." It was illustrated by John Alan Maxwell. The novel is an imaginative telling of a story which Steinbeck had heard in La Paz in 1940, as related in The Log From the Sea of Cortez, which he described in Chapter 11 as being "so much like a parable that it almost can't be". Steinbeck traveled to Cuernavaca,[32] Mexico for the filming with Wagner who helped with the script; on this trip he would be inspired by the story of Emiliano Zapata, and subsequently wrote a film script (Viva Zapata!) directed by Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
and starring Marlon Brando
Marlon Brando
and Anthony Quinn. In 1947, Steinbeck made the first of many[quantify] trips to the Soviet Union, this one with photographer Robert Capa. They visited Moscow, Kiev, Tbilisi, Batumi
and Stalingrad, some of the first Americans to visit many parts of the USSR since the communist revolution. Steinbeck's 1948 book about their experiences, A Russian Journal, was illustrated with Capa's photos. In 1948, the year the book was published, Steinbeck was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters. In 1952 Steinbeck's longest novel, East of Eden, was published. According to his third wife, Elaine, he considered it his magnum opus, his greatest novel. In 1952, John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
appeared as the on-screen narrator of 20th Century Fox's film, O. Henry's Full House. Although Steinbeck later admitted he was uncomfortable before the camera, he provided interesting introductions to several filmed adaptations of short stories by the legendary writer O. Henry. About the same time, Steinbeck recorded readings of several of his short stories for Columbia Records; the recordings provide a record of Steinbeck's deep, resonant voice. Following the success of Viva Zapata!, Steinbeck collaborated with Kazan on East of Eden, James Dean's film debut.

Rocinante, camper truck in which Steinbeck traveled across the United States in 1960 Travels with Charley: In Search of America is a travelogue of his 1960 road trip with his poodle Charley. Steinbeck bemoans his lost youth and roots, while dispensing both criticism and praise for America. According to Steinbeck's son Thom, Steinbeck made the journey because he knew he was dying and wanted to see the country one last time.[33] Steinbeck's last novel, The Winter of Our Discontent
The Winter of Our Discontent
(1961), examines moral decline in America. The protagonist Ethan grows discontented with his own moral decline and that of those around him.[34] The book has a very different tone from Steinbeck's amoral and ecological stance in earlier works like Tortilla Flat
Tortilla Flat
and Cannery Row. It was not a critical success. Many reviewers recognized the importance of the novel, but were disappointed that it was not another Grapes of Wrath.[34] In the Nobel Prize presentation speech next year, however, the Swedish Academy cited it most favorably: "Here he attained the same standard which he set in The Grapes of Wrath. Again he holds his position as an independent expounder of the truth with an unbiased instinct for what is genuinely American, be it good or bad."[1] Apparently taken aback by the critical reception of this novel, and the critical outcry when he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1962,[35] Steinbeck published no more fiction in the remaining six years before his death.

Nobel Prize In 1962, Steinbeck won the Nobel Prize for literature for his "realistic and imaginative writing, combining as it does sympathetic humor and keen social perception." The selection was heavily criticized, and described as "one of the Academy's biggest mistakes" in one Swedish newspaper.[35] The reaction of American literary critics was also harsh. The New York Times
The New York Times
asked why the Nobel committee gave the award to an author whose "limited talent is, in his best books, watered down by tenth-rate philosophising", noting that "[T]he international character of the award and the weight attached to it raise questions about the mechanics of selection and how close the Nobel committee is to the main currents of American writing. ... [W]e think it interesting that the laurel was not awarded to a writer ... whose significance, influence and sheer body of work had already made a more profound impression on the literature of our age".[35] Steinbeck, when asked on the day of the announcement if he deserved the Nobel, replied: "Frankly, no."[14][35] Biographer Jackson Benson notes, "[T]his honor was one of the few in the world that one could not buy nor gain by political maneuver. It was precisely because the committee made its judgment ... on its own criteria, rather than plugging into 'the main currents of American writing' as defined by the critical establishment, that the award had value."[14][35] In his acceptance speech later in the year in Stockholm, he said:

.mw-parser-output .templatequote overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px .mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0 the writer is delegated to declare and to celebrate man's proven capacity for greatness of heart and spirit—for gallantry in defeat, for courage, compassion and love. In the endless war against weakness and despair, these are the bright rally flags of hope and of emulation. I hold that a writer who does not believe in the perfectibility of man has no dedication nor any membership in literature.— Steinbeck Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech[36]

Fifty years later, in 2012, the Nobel Prize opened its archives and it was revealed that Steinbeck was a "compromise choice" among a shortlist consisting of Steinbeck, British authors Robert Graves
Robert Graves
and Lawrence Durrell, French dramatist Jean Anouilh
Jean Anouilh
and Danish author Karen Blixen.[35] The declassified documents showed that he was chosen as the best of a bad lot.[35] "There aren't any obvious candidates for the Nobel prize and the prize committee is in an unenviable situation," wrote committee member Henry Olsson.[35] Although the committee believed Steinbeck's best work was behind him by 1962, committee member Anders Österling believed the release of his novel The Winter of Our Discontent
The Winter of Our Discontent
showed that "after some signs of slowing down in recent years, [Steinbeck has] regained his position as a social truth-teller [and is an] authentic realist fully equal to his predecessors Sinclair Lewis
Sinclair Lewis
and Ernest Hemingway."[35] Although modest about his own talent as a writer, Steinbeck talked openly of his own admiration of certain writers. In 1953, he wrote that he considered cartoonist Al Capp, creator of the satirical Li'l Abner, "possibly the best writer in the world today."[37] At his own first Nobel Prize press conference he was asked his favorite authors and works and replied: "Hemingway's short stories and nearly everything Faulkner wrote."[14] In September 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
awarded Steinbeck the Presidential Medal of Freedom.[38] In 1967, at the behest of Newsday
magazine, Steinbeck went to Vietnam to report on the war. He thought of the Vietnam
War as a heroic venture and was considered a hawk for his position on the war. His sons served in Vietnam
before his death, and Steinbeck visited one son in the battlefield. At one point he was allowed to man a machine-gun watch position at night at a firebase while his son and other members of his platoon slept.[39]

Personal life John and Elaine Steinbeck in 1950 In May 1948, Steinbeck returned to California on an emergency trip to be with his friend Ed Ricketts, who had been seriously injured when a train struck his car. Ricketts died hours before Steinbeck arrived. Upon returning home, Steinbeck was confronted by Gwyn, who asked for a divorce, which became final in August. Steinbeck spent the year after Ricketts' death in deep depression. In June 1949, Steinbeck met stage-manager Elaine Scott at a restaurant in Carmel, California. Steinbeck and Scott eventually began a relationship and in December 1950 Steinbeck and Scott married, within a week of the finalizing of Scott's own divorce from actor Zachary Scott. This third marriage for Steinbeck lasted until his death in 1968.[19] In 1962, Steinbeck began acting as friend and mentor to the young writer and naturalist Jack Rudloe, who was trying to establish his own biological supply company, now Gulf Specimen Marine Laboratory
Gulf Specimen Marine Laboratory
in Florida. Their correspondence continued until Steinbeck's death.[40] In 1966, Steinbeck traveled to Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
to visit the site of Mount Hope, a farm community established in Israel
by his grandfather, whose brother, Friedrich Großsteinbeck, was murdered by Arab marauders in 1858 in what became known as the Outrages at Jaffa.[41]

Death and legacy The Steinbeck family graves in the Hamilton plot at the Salinas Cemetery John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
died in New York City
New York City
on December 20, 1968, of heart disease and congestive heart failure. He was 66, and had been a lifelong smoker. An autopsy showed nearly complete occlusion of the main coronary arteries.[19] In accordance with his wishes, his body was cremated, and interred on March 4, 1969[42] at the Hamilton family gravesite in Salinas, with those of his parents and maternal grandparents. His third wife, Elaine, was buried in the plot in 2004. He had written to his doctor that he felt deeply "in his flesh" that he would not survive his physical death, and that the biological end of his life was the final end to it.[26] The day after Steinbeck's death in New York City, reviewer Charles Poore wrote in The New York Times: "John Steinbeck's first great book was his last great book. But Good Lord, what a book that was and is: The Grapes of Wrath." Poore noted a "preachiness" in Steinbeck's work, "as if half his literary inheritance came from the best of Mark Twain—and the other half from the worst of Cotton Mather." But he asserted that "Steinbeck didn't need the Nobel Prize—the Nobel judges needed him." Steinbeck's incomplete novel based on the King Arthur
King Arthur
legends of Malory and others, The Acts of King Arthur
King Arthur
and His Noble Knights, was published in 1976. Many of Steinbeck's works are required reading in American high schools. In the United Kingdom, Of Mice and Men
Of Mice and Men
is one of the key texts used by the examining body AQA for its English Literature
English Literature
GCSE. A study by the Center for the Learning and Teaching of Literature in the United States found that Of Mice and Men
Of Mice and Men
was one of the ten most frequently read books in public high schools.[43] Contrariwise, Steinbeck's works have been frequently banned in the United States. The Grapes of Wrath
The Grapes of Wrath
was banned by school boards: in August 1939, Kern County
Kern County
Board of Supervisors banned the book from the county's publicly funded schools and libraries.[24] It was burned in Salinas on two different occasions.[44][45] In 2003, a school board in Mississippi
banned it on the grounds of profanity.[46] According to the American Library Association Steinbeck was one of the ten most frequently banned authors from 1990 to 2004, with Of Mice and Men
Of Mice and Men
ranking sixth out of 100 such books in the United States.[47][48]

Opinions on Nobel Prize The award of the 1962 Nobel Prize for Literature
Nobel Prize for Literature
to Steinbeck was controversial in the United States. The award citation lauded Steinbeck "for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception". Many critics complained that the author's best works were behind him. The New York Times ran an article by Arthur Mizener titled "Does a Writer with a Moral Vision of the 1930s Deserve the Nobel Prize?" that claimed Steinbeck was undeserving of the prestigious prize as he was a "limited talent" whose works were "watered down by tenth-rate philosophizing". Many American critics now consider these attacks to be politically motivated.[49] The British newspaper The Guardian, in a 2013 article that revealed that Steinbeck had been a compromise choice for the Nobel Prize, called him a "Giant of American letters".[50] Despite ongoing attacks on his literary reputation, Steinbeck's works continue to sell well and he is widely taught in American and British schools as a bridge to more complex literature. Works such as Of Mice and Men
Of Mice and Men
are short and easy to read, and compassionately illustrate universal themes that are still relevant in the 21st century.[4]

Literary influences Steinbeck grew up in California's Salinas Valley, a culturally diverse place with a rich migratory and immigrant history. This upbringing imparted a regionalistic flavor to his writing, giving many of his works a distinct sense of place.[13][19] Salinas, Monterey
and parts of the San Joaquin Valley
San Joaquin Valley
were the setting for many of his stories. The area is now sometimes referred to as "Steinbeck Country".[26] Most of his early work dealt with subjects familiar to him from his formative years. An exception was his first novel, Cup of Gold, which concerns the pirate Henry Morgan, whose adventures had captured Steinbeck's imagination as a child. In his subsequent novels, Steinbeck found a more authentic voice by drawing upon direct memories of his life in California. His childhood friend, Max Wagner, a brother of Jack Wagner and who later became a film actor, served as inspiration for The Red Pony. Later he used actual American conditions and events in the first half of the 20th century, which he had experienced first-hand as a reporter. Steinbeck often populated his stories with struggling characters; his works examined the lives of the working class and migrant workers during the Dust Bowl
Dust Bowl
and the Great Depression. His later work reflected his wide range of interests, including marine biology, politics, religion, history and mythology. One of his last published works was Travels with Charley, a travelogue of a road trip he took in 1960 to rediscover America.

Commemoration Cannery Row
Cannery Row
in Monterey National Steinbeck Center
National Steinbeck Center
in Salinas, CaliforniaSteinbeck's boyhood home, a turreted Victorian building in downtown Salinas, has been preserved and restored by the Valley Guild, a nonprofit organization. Fixed menu lunches are served Monday through Saturday, and the house is open for tours on Sunday afternoons during the summer.[51] The National Steinbeck Center, two blocks away at 1 Main Street
Main Street
is the only museum in the U.S. dedicated to a single author. Dana Gioia (chair of the National Endowment for the Arts) told an audience at the center, "This is really the best modern literary shrine in the country, and I've seen them all." Its "Steinbeckiana" includes "Rocinante", the camper-truck in which Steinbeck made the cross-country trip described in Travels with Charley. His father's cottage on Eleventh Street in Pacific Grove, where Steinbeck wrote some of his earliest books, also survives.[26] In Monterey, Ed Ricketts' laboratory survives (though it is not yet open to the public) and at the corner which Steinbeck describes in Cannery Row, also the store which once belonged to Lee Chong, and the adjacent vacant lot frequented by the hobos of Cannery Row. The site of the Hovden Sardine
Cannery next to Doc's laboratory is now occupied by the Monterey
Bay Aquarium. In 1958 the street that Steinbeck described as "Cannery Row" in the novel, once named Ocean View Avenue, was renamed Cannery Row
Cannery Row
in honor of the novel. The town of Monterey has commemorated Steinbeck's work with an avenue of flags depicting characters from Cannery Row, historical plaques, and sculptured busts depicting Steinbeck and Ricketts.[26] On February 27, 1979 (the 77th anniversary of the writer's birth), the United States Postal Service
United States Postal Service
issued a stamp featuring Steinbeck, starting the Postal Service's Literary Arts series honoring American writers.[52] Steinbeck was inducted in to the DeMolay International
DeMolay International
Hall of Fame in 1995.[53] On December 5, 2007, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger
Arnold Schwarzenegger
and First Lady Maria Shriver
Maria Shriver
inducted Steinbeck into the California Hall of Fame, located at the California Museum for History, Women and the Arts.[54] His son, author Thomas Steinbeck, accepted the award on his behalf. To commemorate the 112th anniversary of Mr. Steinbeck's birthday on February 27, 2014, Google displayed an interactive doodle utilizing animation which included illustrations portraying scenes and quotes from several novels by the author.[55][56][57] Steinbeck and his friend Ed Ricketts
Ed Ricketts
appear as a fictionalized characters in the 2016 novel, Monterey
Bay about the founding of the Monterey
Bay Aquarium, by Lindsay Hatton (Penguin Press).[58]

Religious views Steinbeck was affiliated to the St. Paul's Episcopal Church and he stayed attached throughout his life to Episcopalianism. Especially in his works of fiction, Steinbeck was highly conscious of religion and incorporated it into his style and themes. The shaping of his characters often drew on the Bible
and the theology of Anglicanism, combining elements of Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
and Protestantism. Steinbeck distanced himself from religious views when he left Salinas for Stanford. However, the work he produced still reflected the language of his childhood at Salinas, and his beliefs remained a powerful influence within his fiction and non-fiction work. His Episcopal views are prominently displayed in The Grapes of Wrath, in which themes of conversion and self-sacrifice play a major part in the characters Casy and Tom who achieve spiritual transcendence through conversion.[59]

Political views John Steinbeck, with his 19-year-old son John (left), visits his friend, President Johnson, in the Oval Office, May 16, 1966. John Jr. is shortly to leave for active duty in Vietnam. Steinbeck's contacts with leftist authors, journalists, and labor union figures may have influenced his writing. He joined the League of American Writers, a Communist organization, in 1935.[60] Steinbeck was mentored by radical writers Lincoln Steffens
Lincoln Steffens
and his wife Ella Winter. Through Francis Whitaker, a member of the Communist Party USA's John Reed Club
John Reed Club
for writers, Steinbeck met with strike organizers from the Cannery and Agricultural Workers' Industrial Union.[61] In 1939, he signed a letter with some other writers in support of the Soviet invasion of Finland and the Soviet-established puppet government.[62] Documents released by the Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
in 2012 indicate that Steinbeck offered his services to the Agency in 1952, while planning a European tour, and the Director of Central Intelligence, Walter Bedell Smith, was eager to take him up on the offer.[63] What work, if any, Steinbeck may have performed for the CIA during the Cold War is unknown. Steinbeck was a close associate of playwright Arthur Miller. In June 1957, Steinbeck took a personal and professional risk by supporting him when Miller refused to name names in the House Un-American Activities Committee trials.[44] Steinbeck called the period one of the "strangest and most frightening times a government and people have ever faced."[44] In 1967, when he was sent to Vietnam
to report on the war, his sympathetic portrayal of the United States Army
United States Army
led the New York Post to denounce him for betraying his liberal past. Steinbeck's biographer, Jay Parini, says Steinbeck's friendship with President Lyndon B. Johnson[64] influenced his views on Vietnam.[19] Steinbeck may also have been concerned about the safety of his son serving in Vietnam.[65]

Government harassment Steinbeck complained publicly about government harassment.[66] Thomas Steinbeck, the author's eldest son, said that J. Edgar Hoover, director of the FBI
at the time, could find no basis for prosecuting Steinbeck and therefore used his power to encourage the U.S. Internal Revenue Service to audit Steinbeck's taxes every single year of his life, just to annoy him. According to Thomas, a true artist is one who "without a thought for self, stands up against the stones of condemnation, and speaks for those who are given no real voice in the halls of justice, or the halls of government. By doing so, these people will naturally become the enemies of the political status quo."[67] In a 1942 letter to United States Attorney General Francis Biddle, John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
wrote: "Do you suppose you could ask Edgar's boys to stop stepping on my heels? They think I am an enemy alien. It is getting tiresome."[68] The FBI
denied that Steinbeck was under investigation.

Major works In Dubious Battle Main article: In Dubious Battle Salinas migrant workers, photo by Dorothea Lange In 1936, Steinbeck published the first of what came to be known as his Dustbowl trilogy, which included Of Mice and Men
Of Mice and Men
and The Grapes of Wrath. This first novel tells the story of a fruit pickers' strike in California which is both aided and damaged by the help of "the Party," generally taken to be the Communist Party, although this is never spelled out in the book.

Of Mice and Men Main article: Of Mice and Men Of Mice and Men
Of Mice and Men
is a tragedy that was written as a play in 1937. The story is about two traveling ranch workers, George and Lennie, trying to earn enough money to buy their own farm/ranch. As it is set in 1930s America, it provides an insight into The Great Depression, encompassing themes of racism, loneliness, prejudice against the mentally ill, and the struggle for personal independence. Along with The Grapes of Wrath, East of Eden, and The Pearl, Of Mice and Men
Of Mice and Men
is one of Steinbeck's best known works. It was made into a movie three times, in 1939 starring Burgess Meredith, Lon Chaney Jr., and Betty Field, in 1982 starring Randy Quaid, Robert Blake and Ted Neeley, and in 1992 starring Gary Sinise
Gary Sinise
and John Malkovich.

The Grapes of Wrath Main article: The Grapes of Wrath The Grapes of Wrath
The Grapes of Wrath
is set in the Great Depression
Great Depression
and describes a family of sharecroppers, the Joads, who were driven from their land due to the dust storms of the Dust Bowl. The title is a reference to the Battle Hymn of the Republic. Some critics found it too sympathetic to the workers' plight and too critical of capitalism,[69] but it found a large audience of its own. It won both the National Book Award and Pulitzer Prize
Pulitzer Prize
for fiction (novels) and was adapted as a film starring Henry Fonda
Henry Fonda
and Jane Darwell
Jane Darwell
and directed by John Ford.

East of Eden Main article: East of Eden (novel) Steinbeck deals with the nature of good and evil in this Salinas Valley saga. The story follows two families: the Hamiltons – based on Steinbeck's own maternal ancestry[70] – and the Trasks, reprising stories about the Biblical Adam and his progeny. The book was published in 1952. It was made into a 1955 movie directed by Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
and starring James Dean.

Travels with Charley Main article: Travels with Charley: In Search of America In 1960, Steinbeck bought a pickup truck and had it modified with a custom-built camper top – which was rare at the time – and drove across the United States with his faithful 'blue' standard poodle, Charley. Steinbeck nicknamed his truck Rocinante
after Don Quixote's "noble steed". In this sometimes comical, sometimes melancholic book, Steinbeck describes what he sees from Maine
to Montana
to California, and from there to Texas
and Louisiana
and back to his home on Long Island. The restored camper truck is on exhibit in the National Steinbeck Center
National Steinbeck Center
in Salinas.






Cup of Gold



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The Pastures of Heaven


Short stories


The Red Pony




To a God Unknown




Tortilla Flat




In Dubious Battle




Of Mice and Men




The Long Valley


Short stories


Their Blood is Strong




The Grapes of Wrath




The Forgotten Village




Sea of Cortez: A Leisurely Journal of Travel and Research




The Moon Is Down




Bombs Away: The Story of a Bomber Team




Cannery Row




The Wayward Bus




The Pearl




A Russian Journal




Burning Bright




The Log from the Sea of Cortez




East of Eden




Sweet Thursday




The Short Reign of Pippin IV: A Fabrication




Once There Was A War




The Winter of Our Discontent




Travels with Charley: In Search of America




America and Americans




Journal of a Novel: The East of Eden Letters




Viva Zapata!




Steinbeck: A Life in Letters




The Acts of King Arthur
King Arthur
and His Noble Knights




Working Days: The Journals of The Grapes of Wrath




Steinbeck in Vietnam: Dispatches from the War




Filmography 1939—Of Mice and Men—directed by Lewis Milestone, featuring Burgess Meredith, Lon Chaney, Jr., and Betty Field 1940—The Grapes of Wrath—directed by John Ford, featuring Henry Fonda, Jane Darwell
Jane Darwell
and John Carradine 1941—The Forgotten Village—directed by Alexander Hammid and Herbert Kline, narrated by Burgess Meredith, music by Hanns Eisler 1942—Tortilla Flat—directed by Victor Fleming, featuring Spencer Tracy, Hedy Lamarr
Hedy Lamarr
and John Garfield 1943—The Moon is Down—directed by Irving Pichel, featuring Lee J. Cobb and Sir Cedric Hardwicke 1944—Lifeboat—directed by Alfred Hitchcock, featuring Tallulah Bankhead, Hume Cronyn, and John Hodiak 1944—A Medal for Benny—directed by Irving Pichel, featuring Dorothy Lamour
Dorothy Lamour
and Arturo de Cordova 1947—La Perla (The Pearl, Mexico)—directed by Emilio Fernández, featuring Pedro Armendáriz
Pedro Armendáriz
and María Elena Marqués 1949—The Red Pony—directed by Lewis Milestone, featuring Myrna Loy, Robert Mitchum, and Louis Calhern 1952—Viva Zapata!—directed by Elia Kazan, featuring Marlon Brando, Anthony Quinn
Anthony Quinn
and Jean Peters 1955—East of Eden—directed by Elia Kazan, featuring James Dean, Julie Harris, Jo Van Fleet, and Raymond Massey 1957—The Wayward Bus—directed by Victor Vicas, featuring Rick Jason, Jayne Mansfield, and Joan Collins 1961—Flight—featuring Efrain Ramírez and Arnelia Cortez 1962—Ikimize bir dünya (Of Mice and Men, Turkey) 1972—Topoli (Of Mice and Men, Iran) 1982—Cannery Row—directed by David S. Ward, featuring Nick Nolte and Debra Winger 1992—Of Mice and Men—directed by Gary Sinise
Gary Sinise
and starring John Malkovich and Gary Sinise 2016—In Dubious Battle—directed by James Franco
James Franco
and featuring Franco, Nat Wolff
Nat Wolff
and Selena Gomez See also

Pigasus – A personal stamp used by Steinbeck. Notes

^ a b c d The Swedish Academy cited The Grapes of Wrath
The Grapes of Wrath
and The Winter of Our Discontent most favorably. "The Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
1962: Presentation Speech by Anders Österling, Permanent Secretary of the Swedish Academy". NobelPrize.org. Archived from the original on April 19, 2008. Retrieved April 21, 2008.

^ " Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
1962". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on October 21, 2008. Retrieved October 17, 2008.

^ "Swedish Academy reopens controversy surrounding Steinbeck's Nobel prize". The Guardian. January 3, 2013. Retrieved January 12, 2019.

^ a b "Who, what, why: Why do children study Of Mice and Men?". BBC News. BBC. March 25, 2011. Archived from the original on January 7, 2015. Retrieved December 6, 2014.

^ "Novel". The Pulitzer Prizes. Archived from the original on August 21, 2008.

^ Bryer, R. Jackson (1989). Sixteen Modern American Authors, Volume 2. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. p. 620. ISBN 978-0822310181.

^ Chilton, Martin. "The Grapes of Wrath: 10 surprising facts about John Steinbeck's novel". Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on December 13, 2014. Retrieved December 6, 2014.

^ " John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
Biography". Biography.com
website. A&E Television Networks. February 6, 2018. Retrieved February 26, 2018.

^ " Okie
Faces & Irish Eyes: John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
& Route 66". Irish America. June 2007. Archived from the original on November 21, 2012. Retrieved October 23, 2012.

^ a b " John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
Biography". Archived from the original on March 5, 2010. Retrieved April 14, 2010.. National Steinbeck Centre

^ Alec Gilmore. John Steinbeck's View of God Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. gilco.org.uk

^ Jackson J. Benson (1984). The true adventures of John Steinbeck, writer: a biography. Viking Press. p. 248. ISBN 978-0-670-16685-5. Ricketts did not convert his friend to a religious point of view—Steinbeck remained an agnostic and, essentially, a materialist—but Ricketts's religious acceptance did tend to work on his friend, ...

^ a b c d Introduction to John Steinbeck, The Long Valley, pp. 9–10, John Timmerman, Penguin Publishing, 1995

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Jackson J. Benson, The True Adventures of John Steinbeck, Writer New York: The Viking Press, 1984. ISBN 0-14-014417-X, pp. 147, 915a, 915b, 133

^ Introduction to 'The Grapes of Wrath' Penguin edition (1192) by Robert DeMott

^ Jackson J. Benson, The True Adventures of John Steinbeck, Writer New York: The Viking Press, 1984. ISBN 0-14-014417-X, p. 196

^ Jackson J. Benson, The True Adventures of John Steinbeck, Writer New York: The Viking Press, 1984. ISBN 0-14-014417-X, p. 197

^ Jackson J. Benson, The True Adventures of John Steinbeck, Writer New York: The Viking Press, 1984. ISBN 0-14-014417-X, p. 199

^ a b c d e f g h Jay Parini, John Steinbeck: A Biography, Holt Publishing, 1996

^ " Of Mice and Men
Of Mice and Men
(1939)". The Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on October 30, 2007. Retrieved October 10, 2007.

^ "1939 Book
Awards Given by Critics: Elgin Groseclose's 'Ararat' is Picked as Work Which Failed to Get Due Recognition", The New York Times, February 14, 1940, p. 25. ProQuest Historical Newspapers The New York Times (1851–2007).

^ "Novel" Archived August 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(Winners 1917–1947). The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved January 28, 2012.

^ Keith Windschuttle (June 2, 2002). "Steinbeck's myth of the Okies". Archived from the original on February 4, 2004. Retrieved August 10, 2005.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link). The New Criterion.

^ a b "Steinbecks works banned". Archived from the original on October 5, 2006. Retrieved June 4, 2006.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link). pacific.net.au

^ Steiner, Bernd (November 2007). A Survey on John Steinbeck's "The Grapes of Wrath". GRIN Verlag. p. 6. ISBN 9783638844598. Retrieved February 26, 2018.

^ a b c d e f g Susan Shillinglaw (2006). "A Journey into Steinbeck's California". Roaring Forties Press.

^ A website devoted to Sea of Cortez literature, with information on Steinbeck's expedition. Archived July 20, 2009, at the Wayback Machine Retrieved July 6, 2009.

^ Fensch, Thomas (2002). Steinbeck and Covici. New Century exceptional lives. New Century Books. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-930751-35-7.

^ a b Bruce Robison, "Mavericks on Cannery Row," American Scientist, vol. 92, no. 6 (November–December 2004), p. 1: a review of Eric Enno Tamm, Beyond the Outer Shores: The Untold Odyssey of Ed Ricketts, the Pioneering Ecologist who Inspired John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
and Joseph Campbell Archived June 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, Four Walls Eight Windows, 2004.

^ https://www.sumnerandstillman.com/pages/books/13190/john-steinbeck/the-moon-is-down accessed Jan 12, 2019

^ Introduction to The Moon Is Down
The Moon Is Down
(Penguin) published 1995, by Donald V. Coers

^ Title: Cuernavaca, Mexico, 1945 - Mrs. Stanford Steinbeck, Gwyndolyn, Thom and John Steinbeck Collection: California Faces: Selections from The Bancroft Library Portrait Collection Owning Institution: UC Berkeley, Bancroft Library Source: Calisphere Date of access: January 13 2019 00:16 Permalink: https://calisphere.org/item/ark:/13030/tf6q2nb5mz/

^ Steinbeck knew he was dying Archived September 27, 2007, at Archive.today," September 13, 2006. Audio interview with Thom Steinbeck

^ a b Cynthia Burkhead, The students companion to John Steinbeck, Greenwood Press, 2002, p. 24 ISBN 0-313-31457-8

^ a b c d e f g h i Alison Flood (January 3, 2013). "Swedish Academy reopens controversy surrounding Steinbeck's Nobel prize". The Guardian. Archived from the original on July 13, 2013. Retrieved January 3, 2013.

^ Steinbeck Nobel Prize Banquet Speech Archived January 9, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Nobelprize.org (December 10, 1962). Retrieved August 26, 2011.

^ "ASIFA-Hollywood Animation Archive: Biography: Al Capp
Al Capp
2- A CAPPital Offense". Archived from the original on March 24, 2009. Retrieved November 18, 2009.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link). animationarchive.org (May 2008).

^ "Remarks at the Presentation of the 1964 Presidential Medal of Freedom Awards. The American Presidency Project". www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved July 9, 2019.

^ Steinbeck, A Life in Letters.

^ T. Manning, Matos S., Addler B. "Hidden Treasure The Steinbeck-Rudloe Letters" Archived September 29, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, Steinbeck Studies, San Jose University, 2005 Vol 16, No 1&2, pg 109–117

^ Perry, Yaron."John Steinbeck's Roots in Nineteenth-Century Palestine." Archived February 25, 2016, at the Wayback Machine Steinbeck Studies 15.1 (Spring 2004): 46–72. www.muse.jhu.edu. Retrieved on August 26, 2011.

^ Burial in timeline at this site, taken from '''Steinbeck: A Life in Letters'''. Steinbeck.org. Retrieved on August 26, 2011.

^ Books taught in Schools Archived October 12, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Center for the Learning and Teaching of Literature. Retrieved 2007.

^ a b c Jackson J. Benson, John Steinbeck, Writer: A Biography, Penguin, 1990 ISBN 0-14-014417-X

^ The Grapes of Wrath
The Grapes of Wrath
Burnt in Salinas Archived October 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, National Steinbeck Centre. Retrieved 2007.

^ Steinbecks work banned in Mississippi
2003 Archived October 18, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, American Library Association. Retrieved 2007.

^ "Steinbeck 10 most banned list". Archived from the original on July 15, 2004. Retrieved October 5, 2007.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link), American Library Association.

^ "100 Most Frequently banned books in the U.S." Archived from the original on March 23, 2008. Retrieved July 22, 2008., American Library Association. Retrieved 2007.

^ Johnson, Eric. "John Steinbeck, despised and dismissed by the right and the left, was a real American radical". Monterey County
Monterey County
Weekly. Retrieved December 6, 2014.

^ https://www.theguardian.com/books/2013/jan/03/swedish-academy-controversy-steinbeck-nobel accessed Jan 12, 2019

^ "John Steinbeck's Home and Birthplace". Archived from the original on October 16, 2006. Retrieved October 3, 2007.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link), Information Point. Retrieved 2007.

^ "Pulitzer Prize-Winning Author Gets 'Stamp of Approval'". United States Postal Service. February 21, 2008. Archived from the original on March 26, 2008. Retrieved March 15, 2008.

^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 10, 2017. Retrieved July 10, 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

^ Steinbeck inducted into California Hall of Fame
California Hall of Fame
Archived September 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, California Museum. Retrieved 2007.

^ Laura Stampler (February 27, 2014). "Google Doodle Celebrates John Steinbeck". Time Inc. Archived from the original on August 27, 2016. Retrieved March 8, 2014.

^ Alison Flood (February 27, 2014). "John Steinbeck: Google Doodle pays tribute to author on 112th anniversary". The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 4, 2014. Retrieved March 8, 2014.

^ Carolyn Kellogg (February 27, 2014). "Google Doodle celebrates the work of John Steinbeck". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on March 8, 2014. Retrieved March 8, 2014.

^ "Penguin Press - Penguin Books USA". Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 6, 2016.

^ Ray, W. "John Steinbeck, Episcopalian: St. Paul's, Salinas, Part One." Steinbeck Review, vol. 10 no. 2, 2013, pp. 118–140. Project MUSE, muse.jhu.edu/article/530751.

^ Dave Stancliff (February 24, 2013). "Remembering John Steinbeck, a great American writer". Times-Standard. Retrieved June 28, 2014.

^ Steinbeck and radicalism Archived February 4, 2004, at the Wayback Machine New Criterion. Retrieved 2007.

^ "Terijoen hallitus sai outoa tukea" [The Terijoki Government received odd support]. Helsingin Sanomat
Helsingin Sanomat
(in Finnish). November 29, 2009.

^ Brian Kannard, Steinbeck: Citizen Spy, Grave Distractions, 2013 ISBN 978-0-9890293-9-1, pp. 15–17. The correspondence is also available at "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 1, 2014. Retrieved October 1, 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

^ Jeanette Rumsby (2016). "Steinbeck's Influences". Steinbeck in the schools. San Jose State University. Retrieved January 12, 2019.

^ Gladstein, Mimi R.; Meredith, James H. (June 14, 2011). "John Steinbeck and the Tragedy of the Vietnam
War". Steinbeck Review. 8 (1): 39–56. doi:10.1111/j.1754-6087.2011.01137.x. ISSN 1546-007X.

^ https://www.biographyonline.net/writers/john-steinbeck.html accessed Jan 12, 2019

^ Huffington Post, September 27, 2010, John Steinbeck, Michael Moore, and the Burgeoning Role of Planetary Patriotism Archived September 30, 2010, at the Wayback Machine

^ Steinbeck Political Beliefs Archived October 22, 2005, at the Wayback Machine, Smoking Gun Part 1. Retrieved 2007.

^ https://study.com/academy/lesson/the-grapes-of-wrath-literary-criticism-critical-analysis.html accessed Jan 12, 2019

^ Nolte, Carl (February 24, 2002). "In Steinbeck Country". Archived from the original on September 22, 2017.

References Library resources about John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

By John Steinbeck Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

.mw-parser-output .refbegin font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul list-style-type:none;margin-left:0 .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none .mw-parser-output .refbegin-100 font-size:100% DeMott, Robert and Steinbeck, Elaine A., eds. John Steinbeck, Novels and Stories 1932–1937 (Library of America, 1994) ISBN 978-1-883011-01-7 DeMott, Robert and Steinbeck, Elaine A., eds. John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath and Other Writings 1936–1941 (Library of America, 1996) ISBN 978-1-883011-15-4 DeMott, Robert, ed. John Steinbeck, Novels 1942–1952 (Library of America, 2002) ISBN 978-1-931082-07-5 DeMott, Robert and Railsback, Brian, eds. John Steinbeck, Travels With Charley and Later Novels, 1947–1962 (Library of America, 2007) ISBN 978-1-59853-004-9 Benson, Jackson J. (ed.) The Short Novels Of John Steinbeck: Critical Essays with a Checklist to Steinbeck Criticism. Durham: Duke UP, 1990 ISBN 0-8223-0994-7. Davis, Robert C. The Grapes of Wrath: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1982. PS3537 .T3234 G734 French, Warren. John Steinbeck's Fiction
Revisited. NY: Twayne, 1994 ISBN 0-8057-4017-1. Hughes, R. S. John Steinbeck: A Study of the Short Fiction. R.S. Hughes. Boston : Twayne, 1989. ISBN 0-8057-8302-4. Meyer, Michael J. The Hayashi Steinbeck Bibliography, 1982–1996. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 1998 ISBN 0-8108-3482-0. Benson, Jackson J. Looking for Steinbeck's Ghost. Reno: U of Nevada P, 2002 ISBN 0-87417-497-X. Ditsky, John. John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
and the Critics. Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2000 ISBN 1-57113-210-4. Heavilin, Barbara A. John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath: A Reference Guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2002 ISBN 0-313-31837-9. Li, Luchen. ed. John Steinbeck: A Documentary Volume. Detroit: Gale, 2005 ISBN 0-7876-8127-X. Steinbeck, John Steinbeck IV
John Steinbeck IV
and Nancy (2001). The Other Side of Eden: Life with John Steinbeck. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-858-5 Tamm, Eric Enno (2005). Beyond the Outer Shores: The Untold Odyssey of Ed Ricketts, the Pioneering Ecologist who Inspired John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
and Joseph Campbell. Thunder's Mouth Press. ISBN 978-1-56025-689-2. Bensen, Jackson J. "John Steinbeck, Writer" Penguin Putnam Inc., second edition, New York, 1990, 0-14-01.4417X,

Further reading Nathaniel Benchley (Fall 1969). "John Steinbeck, The Art of Fiction No. 45". The Paris Review. Fall 1969 (48). George Plimpton and Frank Crowther (Fall 1975). "John Steinbeck, The Art of Fiction
No. 45 (Continued)". The Paris Review. Fall 1975 (63). External links This article's use of external links may not follow's policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references. (March 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Wikilivres has original media or text related to this article: John Steinbeck (in the public domain in New Zealand) National Steinbeck Center
National Steinbeck Center
in Salinas, California FBI
file on John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
The Steinbeck Quarterly journal, a full-text searchable journal published from 1968–1993 by the John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
Society of America that focuses on Steinbeck criticism and scholarship John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
Biography Early Years: Salinas to Stanford: 1902–1925 from National Steinbeck Center Western American Literature Journal: John Steinbeck Cuernavaca, Mexico, 1945 - Mrs. Stanford Steinbeck, Gwyndolyn, Thom and John Steinbeck Libraries John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
Collection, 1902–1979 (call number M0263; 8.50 linear ft.) and Wells Fargo John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
Collection, 1870–1981 (call number M1063; 5 linear ft.) are housed in the Department of Special Collections and University Archives at Stanford University
Stanford University
Libraries Videos Nobel Laureate page "Writings of John Steinbeck" from C-SPAN's American Writers: A Journey Through History .mw-parser-output .subjectbar background-color:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;clear:both;margin-bottom:0.5em;margin-top:0.5em;width:100%;box-sizing:border-box;font-size:88% BooksView or order collections of articlesJohn SteinbeckPortalsAccess related topicsLiterature portalBooks portalNovels portalFilm portalFind out more on'sSister projectsMediafrom CommonsTextbooksfrom WikibooksQuotationsfrom WikiquoteSource textsfrom Wikisource vteJohn SteinbeckNovels and novellas Cup of Gold (1929) The Red Pony
The Red Pony
(1933) To a God Unknown
To a God Unknown
(1933) Tortilla Flat
Tortilla Flat
(1935) In Dubious Battle
In Dubious Battle
(1936) Of Mice and Men
Of Mice and Men
(1937) The Grapes of Wrath
The Grapes of Wrath
(1939) The Moon Is Down
The Moon Is Down
(1942) Cannery Row
Cannery Row
(1945) The Wayward Bus
The Wayward Bus
(1947) The Pearl (1947) Burning Bright
Burning Bright
(1950) East of Eden (1952) Sweet Thursday
Sweet Thursday
(1954) The Short Reign of Pippin IV: A Fabrication (1957) The Winter of Our Discontent
The Winter of Our Discontent
(1961) The Acts of King Arthur
King Arthur
and His Noble Knights (1976) Short story
Short story
collections The Pastures of Heaven
The Pastures of Heaven
(1932) The Long Valley
The Long Valley
(1938) Screenplays The Forgotten Village
The Forgotten Village
(1941) Lifeboat (1944) The Pearl (1947) The Red Pony
The Red Pony
(1949) Viva Zapata!
Viva Zapata!
(1952) AdaptationsOf Mice and Men Of Mice and Men
Of Mice and Men
(1937 play) Of Mice and Men
Of Mice and Men
(1939 film) Of Mice and Men
Of Mice and Men
(1969 opera) Of Mice and Men
Of Mice and Men
(1992 film) Best Laid Plans (2012 film) The Grapes of Wrath The Grapes of Wrath
The Grapes of Wrath
(1940 film) The Grapes of Wrath
The Grapes of Wrath
(1988 play) The Grapes of Wrath
The Grapes of Wrath
(2007 opera) The Red Pony The Red Pony
The Red Pony
(1949 film) The Red Pony
The Red Pony
(1949 film score) The Red Pony
The Red Pony
(1973 film) Other Tortilla Flat
Tortilla Flat
(1942 film) The Moon Is Down
The Moon Is Down
(1943 film) La perla (The Pearl) (1947 film) East of Eden (1955 film) The Wayward Bus
The Wayward Bus
(1957 film) East of Eden (1981 miniseries) Cannery Row
Cannery Row
(1982 film) The Winter of Our Discontent
The Winter of Our Discontent
(1983 film) In Dubious Battle
In Dubious Battle
(2016 film) Non-fiction The Harvest Gypsies
The Harvest Gypsies
(1936) Sea of Cortez: A Leisurely Journal of Travel and Research (1941) Bombs Away: The Story of a Bomber Team (1942) A Russian Journal
A Russian Journal
(1948) The Log from the Sea of Cortez
The Log from the Sea of Cortez
(1951) Once There Was a War
Once There Was a War
(1958) Travels with Charley
Travels with Charley
(1962) America and Americans
America and Americans
(1966) Journal of a Novel: The East of Eden Letters (1969) Legacy National Steinbeck Center John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
Award John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
Short Story Award Related Elaine Anderson Steinbeck
Elaine Anderson Steinbeck
(third wife) Thomas Steinbeck (son) John Steinbeck IV
John Steinbeck IV
(son) Salinas boyhood home Monte Sereno home Pacific Biological Laboratories Western Flyer (boat) Personal stamp (Pigasus) Cathy Ames (character) An Impression of John Steinbeck: Writer (1969 documentary)

vteLaureates of the Nobel Prize in Literature1901–1925 1901: Sully Prudhomme 1902: Theodor Mommsen 1903: Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson 1904: Frédéric Mistral
Frédéric Mistral
/ José Echegaray 1905: Henryk Sienkiewicz 1906: Giosuè Carducci 1907: Rudyard Kipling 1908: Rudolf Eucken 1909: Selma Lagerlöf 1910: Paul Heyse 1911: Maurice Maeterlinck 1912: Gerhart Hauptmann 1913: Rabindranath Tagore 1914 1915: Romain Rolland 1916: Verner von Heidenstam 1917: Karl Gjellerup / Henrik Pontoppidan 1918 1919: Carl Spitteler 1920: Knut Hamsun 1921: Anatole France 1922: Jacinto Benavente 1923: W. B. Yeats 1924: Władysław Reymont 1925: George Bernard Shaw 1926–1950 1926: Grazia Deledda 1927: Henri Bergson 1928: Sigrid Undset 1929: Thomas Mann 1930: Sinclair Lewis 1931: Erik Axel Karlfeldt 1932: John Galsworthy 1933: Ivan Bunin 1934: Luigi Pirandello 1935 1936: Eugene O'Neill 1937: Roger Martin du Gard 1938: Pearl S. Buck 1939: Frans Eemil Sillanpää 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944: Johannes V. Jensen 1945: Gabriela Mistral 1946: Hermann Hesse 1947: André Gide 1948: T. S. Eliot 1949: William Faulkner 1950: Bertrand Russell 1951–1975 1951: Pär Lagerkvist 1952: François Mauriac 1953: Winston Churchill 1954: Ernest Hemingway 1955: Halldór Laxness 1956: Juan Ramón Jiménez 1957: Albert Camus 1958: Boris Pasternak 1959: Salvatore Quasimodo 1960: Saint-John Perse 1961: Ivo Andrić 1962: John Steinbeck 1963: Giorgos Seferis 1964: Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre
(declined award) 1965: Mikhail Sholokhov 1966: Shmuel Yosef Agnon
Shmuel Yosef Agnon
/ Nelly Sachs 1967: Miguel Ángel Asturias 1968: Yasunari Kawabata 1969: Samuel Beckett 1970: Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn 1971: Pablo Neruda 1972: Heinrich Böll 1973: Patrick White 1974: Eyvind Johnson
Eyvind Johnson
/ Harry Martinson 1975: Eugenio Montale 1976–2000 1976: Saul Bellow 1977: Vicente Aleixandre 1978: Isaac Bashevis Singer 1979: Odysseas Elytis 1980: Czesław Miłosz 1981: Elias Canetti 1982: Gabriel García Márquez 1983: William Golding 1984: Jaroslav Seifert 1985: Claude Simon 1986: Wole Soyinka 1987: Joseph Brodsky 1988: Naguib Mahfouz 1989: Camilo José Cela 1990: Octavio Paz 1991: Nadine Gordimer 1992: Derek Walcott 1993: Toni Morrison 1994: Kenzaburō Ōe 1995: Seamus Heaney 1996: Wisława Szymborska 1997: Dario Fo 1998: José Saramago 1999: Günter Grass 2000: Gao Xingjian 2001–present 2001: V. S. Naipaul 2002: Imre Kertész 2003: J. M. Coetzee 2004: Elfriede Jelinek 2005: Harold Pinter 2006: Orhan Pamuk 2007: Doris Lessing 2008: J. M. G. Le Clézio 2009: Herta Müller 2010: Mario Vargas Llosa 2011: Tomas Tranströmer 2012: Mo Yan 2013: Alice Munro 2014: Patrick Modiano 2015: Svetlana Alexievich 2016: Bob Dylan 2017: Kazuo Ishiguro 2018

vte Pulitzer Prize
Pulitzer Prize
for Fiction1918–25 His Family
His Family
by Ernest Poole
Ernest Poole
(1918) The Magnificent Ambersons
The Magnificent Ambersons
by Booth Tarkington
Booth Tarkington
(1919) The Age of Innocence
The Age of Innocence
by Edith Wharton
Edith Wharton
(1921) Alice Adams by Booth Tarkington
Booth Tarkington
(1922) One of Ours
One of Ours
by Willa Cather
Willa Cather
(1923) The Able McLaughlins
The Able McLaughlins
by Margaret Wilson (1924) So Big by Edna Ferber
Edna Ferber
(1925) 1926–50 Arrowsmith by Sinclair Lewis
Sinclair Lewis
(declined) (1926) Early Autumn
Early Autumn
by Louis Bromfield
Louis Bromfield
(1927) The Bridge of San Luis Rey
The Bridge of San Luis Rey
by Thornton Wilder
Thornton Wilder
(1928) Scarlet Sister Mary
Scarlet Sister Mary
by Julia Peterkin (1929) Laughing Boy by Oliver La Farge (1930) Years of Grace by Margaret Ayer Barnes (1931) The Good Earth
The Good Earth
by Pearl S. Buck
Pearl S. Buck
(1932) The Store
The Store
by Thomas Sigismund Stribling
Thomas Sigismund Stribling
(1933) Lamb in His Bosom
Lamb in His Bosom
by Caroline Pafford Miller
Caroline Pafford Miller
(1934) Now in November
Now in November
by Josephine Winslow Johnson (1935) Honey in the Horn
Honey in the Horn
by Harold L. Davis (1936) Gone with the Wind by Margaret Mitchell
Margaret Mitchell
(1937) The Late George Apley
The Late George Apley
by John Phillips Marquand (1938) The Yearling
The Yearling
by Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings
Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings
(1939) The Grapes of Wrath
The Grapes of Wrath
by John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
(1940) In This Our Life by Ellen Glasgow
Ellen Glasgow
(1942) Dragon's Teeth by Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
(1943) Journey in the Dark
Journey in the Dark
by Martin Flavin (1944) A Bell for Adano by John Hersey
John Hersey
(1945) All the King's Men
All the King's Men
by Robert Penn Warren
Robert Penn Warren
(1947) Tales of the South Pacific
Tales of the South Pacific
by James A. Michener
James A. Michener
(1948) Guard of Honor
Guard of Honor
by James Gould Cozzens (1949) The Way West
The Way West
by A. B. Guthrie Jr. (1950) 1951–75 The Town by Conrad Richter (1951) The Caine Mutiny
The Caine Mutiny
by Herman Wouk
Herman Wouk
(1952) The Old Man and the Sea
The Old Man and the Sea
by Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Hemingway
(1953) A Fable
A Fable
by William Faulkner
William Faulkner
(1955) Andersonville by MacKinlay Kantor
MacKinlay Kantor
(1956) A Death in the Family
A Death in the Family
by James Agee
James Agee
(1958) The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters
The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters
by Robert Lewis Taylor (1959) Advise and Consent
Advise and Consent
by Allen Drury
Allen Drury
(1960) To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird
by Harper Lee
Harper Lee
(1961) The Edge of Sadness
The Edge of Sadness
by Edwin O'Connor (1962) The Reivers
The Reivers
by William Faulkner
William Faulkner
(1963) The Keepers of the House
The Keepers of the House
by Shirley Ann Grau (1965) The Collected Stories of Katherine Anne Porter
The Collected Stories of Katherine Anne Porter
by Katherine Anne Porter (1966) The Fixer by Bernard Malamud
Bernard Malamud
(1967) The Confessions of Nat Turner
The Confessions of Nat Turner
by William Styron
William Styron
(1968) House Made of Dawn
House Made of Dawn
by N. Scott Momaday
N. Scott Momaday
(1969) The Collected Stories of Jean Stafford
The Collected Stories of Jean Stafford
by Jean Stafford
Jean Stafford
(1970) Angle of Repose
Angle of Repose
by Wallace Stegner
Wallace Stegner
(1972) The Optimist's Daughter
The Optimist's Daughter
by Eudora Welty
Eudora Welty
(1973) No award given (1974) The Killer Angels
The Killer Angels
by Michael Shaara (1975) 1976–2000 Humboldt's Gift
Humboldt's Gift
by Saul Bellow
Saul Bellow
(1976) No award given (1977) Elbow Room by James Alan McPherson
James Alan McPherson
(1978) The Stories of John Cheever
The Stories of John Cheever
by John Cheever
John Cheever
(1979) The Executioner's Song
The Executioner's Song
by Norman Mailer
Norman Mailer
(1980) A Confederacy of Dunces
A Confederacy of Dunces
by John Kennedy Toole
John Kennedy Toole
(1981) Rabbit Is Rich
Rabbit Is Rich
by John Updike
John Updike
(1982) The Color Purple
The Color Purple
by Alice Walker
Alice Walker
(1983) Ironweed by William Kennedy (1984) Foreign Affairs by Alison Lurie (1985) Lonesome Dove
Lonesome Dove
by Larry McMurtry
Larry McMurtry
(1986) A Summons to Memphis
A Summons to Memphis
by Peter Taylor (1987) Beloved by Toni Morrison
Toni Morrison
(1988) Breathing Lessons
Breathing Lessons
by Anne Tyler (1989) The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love
The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love
by Oscar Hijuelos (1990) Rabbit at Rest by John Updike
John Updike
(1991) A Thousand Acres
A Thousand Acres
by Jane Smiley
Jane Smiley
(1992) A Good Scent from a Strange Mountain
A Good Scent from a Strange Mountain
by Robert Olen Butler
Robert Olen Butler
(1993) The Shipping News
The Shipping News
by E. Annie Proulx
Annie Proulx
(1994) The Stone Diaries
The Stone Diaries
by Carol Shields (1995) Independence Day by Richard Ford
Richard Ford
(1996) Martin Dressler: The Tale of an American Dreamer by Steven Millhauser (1997) American Pastoral
American Pastoral
by Philip Roth
Philip Roth
(1998) The Hours by Michael Cunningham
Michael Cunningham
(1999) Interpreter of Maladies by Jhumpa Lahiri
Jhumpa Lahiri
(2000) 2001–present The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay by Michael Chabon
Michael Chabon
(2001) Empire Falls
Empire Falls
by Richard Russo
Richard Russo
(2002) Middlesex by Jeffrey Eugenides
Jeffrey Eugenides
(2003) The Known World
The Known World
by Edward P. Jones (2004) Gilead by Marilynne Robinson
Marilynne Robinson
(2005) March by Geraldine Brooks (2006) The Road
The Road
by Cormac McCarthy
Cormac McCarthy
(2007) The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao
The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao
by Junot Díaz
Junot Díaz
(2008) Olive Kitteridge by Elizabeth Strout
Elizabeth Strout
(2009) Tinkers by Paul Harding (2010) A Visit from the Goon Squad by Jennifer Egan
Jennifer Egan
(2011) No award given (2012) The Orphan Master's Son
The Orphan Master's Son
by Adam Johnson (2013) The Goldfinch by Donna Tartt (2014) All the Light We Cannot See
All the Light We Cannot See
by Anthony Doerr
Anthony Doerr
(2015) The Sympathizer
The Sympathizer
by Viet Thanh Nguyen
Viet Thanh Nguyen
(2016) The Underground Railroad by Colson Whitehead
Colson Whitehead
(2017) Less by Andrew Sean Greer (2018) The Overstory
The Overstory
by Richard Powers (2019)

vteJohn Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath
The Grapes of Wrath
(1939)Characters Tom Joad Jim Casy Grandpa William James Joad Ruthie Joad Connie Rivers Muley Graves Performances The Grapes of Wrath
The Grapes of Wrath
(1940 film) The Grapes of Wrath
The Grapes of Wrath
(1988 play) The Grapes of Wrath
The Grapes of Wrath
(2007 opera) Music "The Ghost of Tom Joad" Dust Bowl
Dust Bowl
Ballads ("Tom Joad" "Do Re Mi") "Pastures of Plenty" Dust and Dreams Related Great Depression Dust Bowl Blue Willow "Over Logging" "The Battle Hymn of the Republic"

vteJohn Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men
Of Mice and Men
(1937)Film Of Mice and Men
Of Mice and Men
(1939) Of Mice and Men
Of Mice and Men
(1992) Best Laid Plans (2012) Stage Of Mice and Men
Of Mice and Men
(1937 play) Of Mice and Men
Of Mice and Men
(1969 opera) Related Popular culture Hoppy Go Lucky

Authority control BIBSYS: 90081598 BNE: XX897321 BNF: cb119254833 (data) CiNii: DA00818556 GND: 118617338 ISNI: 0000 0001 2144 5760 LCCN: n79081460 LNB: 000000629 MusicBrainz: 3306ba20-06ab-4af8-96f2-e8aeb39461ee NARA: 10581714 NDL: 00457568 NKC: jn19990008205 NLA: 35522183 RSL: 000017040 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV00628 SELIBR: 213897 SNAC: w6js9rqn SUDOC: 02714805X ULAN: 500341772 VIAF: 96992551 WorldCat Identities
WorldCat Identities