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Sir Arthur John Gielgud
John Gielgud
OM CH (/ˈɡiːlɡʊd/; 14 April 1904 – 21 May 2000) was an English actor and theatre director whose career spanned eight decades. With Ralph Richardson
Ralph Richardson
and Laurence Olivier, he was one of the trio of actors who dominated the British stage for much of the 20th century. A member of the Terry family
Terry family
theatrical dynasty, he gained his first paid acting work as a junior member of his cousin Phyllis Neilson-Terry's company in 1922. After studying at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art he worked in repertory theatre and in the West End before establishing himself at the Old Vic
Old Vic
as an exponent of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
in 1929–31. During the 1930s Gielgud was a stage star in the West End and on Broadway, appearing in new works and classics. He began a parallel career as a director, and set up his own company at the Queen's Theatre, London. He was regarded by many as the finest Hamlet of his era, and was also known for high comedy roles such as John Worthing in The Importance of Being Earnest. In the 1950s Gielgud feared that his career was threatened when he was convicted and fined for a homosexual offence, but his colleagues and the public supported him loyally. When avant-garde plays began to supersede traditional West End productions in the later 1950s he found no new suitable stage roles, and for several years he was best known in the theatre for his one-man Shakespeare
Shakespeare
show Ages of Man. From the late 1960s he found new plays that suited him, by authors including Alan Bennett, David Storey and Harold Pinter. During the first half of his career, Gielgud did not take the cinema seriously. Though he made his first film in 1924, and had successes with The Good Companions
The Good Companions
(1933) and Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
(1953), he did not begin a regular film career until his sixties. Gielgud appeared in more than sixty films between Becket (1964), for which he received his first Academy Award
Academy Award
nomination for playing Louis VII of France, and Elizabeth (1998). As the acid-tongued Hobson in Arthur (1981) he won the Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Supporting Actor. His film work further earned him a Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
and two BAFTAs. Although largely indifferent to awards, Gielgud had the rare distinction of winning an Oscar, an Emmy, a Grammy, and a Tony. He was famous from the start of his career for his voice and his mastery of Shakespearean verse. He broadcast more than a hundred radio and television dramas between 1929 and 1994, and made commercial recordings of many plays, including ten of Shakespeare's. Among his honours, he was knighted in 1953 and the Gielgud Theatre
Gielgud Theatre
was named after him. From 1977 to 1989, he was president of the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art.

Contents

1 Life and career

1.1 Background and early years 1.2 First acting experience 1.3 Early West End roles 1.4 Old Vic 1.5 West End star 1.6 Queen's Theatre
Queen's Theatre
company 1.7 War and post-war 1.8 1950s – film success and personal crisis 1.9 1960s 1.10 1970s – Indian summer 1.11 Later years

2 Honours, character and reputation 3 Books by Gielgud

3.1 Autobiography 3.2 Anthology 3.3 Acting versions

4 Notes and references 5 Sources 6 External links

Life and career[edit] Background and early years[edit] Gielgud was born in South Kensington, London, the third of the four children and youngest of three sons of Frank Henry Gielgud (1860–1949) and his second wife, Kate Terry-Gielgud, née Terry-Lewis (1868–1958). The two elder boys were Lewis, who became a senior official of the Red Cross and UNESCO, and Val, later head of BBC
BBC
radio drama; their sister Eleanor became John's secretary for many years.[1] On his father's side, Gielgud was of Lithuanian and Polish descent. The surname derives from Gelgaudiškis, a village in Lithuania.[1] The Counts Gielgud had owned the Gielgudziszki Castle on the River Niemen, but their estates were confiscated after they took part in a failed uprising against Russian rule in 1830–31.[n 1] Jan Gielgud took refuge in England with his family;[3] one of his grandchildren was Frank Gielgud, whose maternal grandmother was a famous Polish actress, Aniela Aszpergerowa.[2]

Centre: Marion, Kate and Ellen Terry
Ellen Terry
and, far right, Fred Terry
Fred Terry
at Ellen's Silver Jubilee matinée, Drury Lane, 12 June 1906. Everyone shown was a member of the Terry family.

Frank married into a family with wide theatrical connections. His wife, who was on the stage until she married, was the daughter of the actress Kate Terry, and a member of the stage dynasty that included Ellen, Fred and Marion Terry, Mabel Terry-Lewis
Mabel Terry-Lewis
and Edith and Edward Gordon Craig.[5] Frank had no theatrical ambitions and worked all his life as a stockbroker in the City of London.[6] In 1912, aged eight, Gielgud went to Hillside preparatory school in Surrey
Surrey
as his elder brothers had done. For a child with no interest in sport he acquitted himself reasonably well in cricket and rugby for the school.[7] In class, he hated mathematics, was fair at classics, and excelled at English and divinity.[8] Hillside encouraged his interest in drama, and he played several leading roles in school productions, including Mark Antony
Mark Antony
in Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
and Shylock
Shylock
in The Merchant of Venice.[9] After Hillside, Lewis and Val had won scholarships to Eton and Rugby, respectively; lacking their academic achievement, John failed to secure such a scholarship.[10] He was sent as a day boy to Westminster School[n 2] where, as he later said, he had access to the West End "in time to touch the fringe of the great century of the theatre."[12] He saw Sarah Bernhardt
Sarah Bernhardt
act, Adeline Genée
Adeline Genée
dance and Albert Chevalier, Vesta Tilley
Vesta Tilley
and Marie Lloyd
Marie Lloyd
perform in the music halls.[12] The school choir sang in services at Westminster Abbey, which appealed to his fondness for ritual.[13] He showed talent at sketching, and for a while thought of scenic design as a possible career.[14] The young Gielgud's father took him to concerts, which he liked, and galleries and museums, "which bored me rigid."[15] Both parents were keen theatregoers, but did not encourage their children to follow an acting career. Val Gielgud recalled, "Our parents looked distinctly sideways at the Stage as a means of livelihood, and when John showed some talent for drawing his father spoke crisply of the advantages of an architect's office."[16] On leaving Westminster in 1921, Gielgud persuaded his reluctant parents to let him take drama lessons on the understanding that if he was not self-supporting by the age of twenty-five he would seek an office post.[17] First acting experience[edit] Details of Gielgud's work, 1921–25: Stage Gielgud, aged seventeen, joined a private drama school run by Constance Benson, wife of the actor-manager Sir Frank Benson.[18] On the new boy's first day Lady Benson remarked on his physical awkwardness: "she said I walked like a cat with rickets. It dealt a severe blow to my conceit, which was a good thing."[19] Before and after joining the school he played in several amateur productions,[20] and in November 1921 made his debut with a professional company, though he himself was not paid. He played the Herald in Henry V at the Old Vic; he had one line to speak and, he recalled, spoke it badly.[21] He was kept on for the rest of the season in walk-on parts in King Lear, Wat Tyler and Peer Gynt, with no lines.[22]

If your great-aunt happens to be Ellen Terry, your great-uncle Fred Terry, your cousins Gordon Craig and Phyllis Neilson-Terry, and your grandmother the greatest Shakespearean actress in all Lithuania, you are hardly likely to drift into the fish trade.

Gielgud on his theatrical background.[23]

Gielgud's first substantial engagement came through his family. In 1922 his cousin Phyllis Neilson-Terry[n 3] invited him to tour in J. B. Fagan's The Wheel, as understudy, bit-part player and assistant stage manager, an invitation he accepted.[1] A colleague, recognising that the young man had talent but lacked technique, recommended him to the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art
Royal Academy of Dramatic Art
(RADA). Gielgud was awarded a scholarship to the academy and trained there throughout 1923 under Kenneth Barnes, Helen Haye
Helen Haye
and Claude Rains.[24] The actor-manager Nigel Playfair, a friend of Gielgud's family, saw him in a student presentation of J. M. Barrie's The Admirable Crichton. Playfair was impressed and cast him as Felix, the poet-butterfly, in the British premiere of the Čapek brothers' The Insect Play. Gielgud later said that he made a poor impression in the part: "I am surprised that the audience did not throw things at me."[25] The critics were cautious but not hostile to the play;[26] it did not attract the public and closed after a month.[27] While still continuing his studies at RADA, Gielgud appeared again for Playfair in Robert E Lee by John Drinkwater.[27] After leaving the academy at the end of 1923 Gielgud played a Christmas season as Charley in Charley's Aunt
Charley's Aunt
in the West End, and then joined Fagan's repertory company at the Oxford Playhouse.[28] Gielgud was in the Oxford company in January and February 1924, from October 1924 to the end of January 1925, and in August 1925.[29] He played a wide range of parts in classics and modern plays, greatly increasing his technical abilities in the process.[30] The role he most enjoyed was Trofimov in The Cherry Orchard, his first experience of Chekhov: "It was the first time I ever went out on stage feeling that perhaps, after all, I could really be an actor."[31] Early West End roles[edit] Details of Gielgud's work, 1924–29: Stage, Radio, Film Between Gielgud's first two Oxford seasons, the producer Barry Jackson cast him as Romeo
Romeo
to the Juliet
Juliet
of Gwen Ffrangcon-Davies
Gwen Ffrangcon-Davies
at the Regent's Theatre, London, in May 1924. The production was not a great success, but the two performers became close friends and frequently worked together throughout their careers.[32] Gielgud made his screen debut during 1924 as Daniel Arnault in Walter Summers's silent film Who Is the Man? (1924).[33]

Noël Coward
Noël Coward
with Lilian Braithwaite, his, and later Gielgud's, co-star in The Vortex

In May 1925 the Oxford production of The Cherry Orchard
The Cherry Orchard
was brought to the Lyric Theatre, Hammersmith. Gielgud again played Trofimov.[34] His distinctive speaking voice attracted attention and led to work for BBC Radio, which his biographer Sheridan Morley calls "a medium he made his own for seventy years."[1] In the same year Noël Coward
Noël Coward
chose Gielgud as his understudy in his play The Vortex. For the last month of the West End run Gielgud took over Coward's role of Nicky Lancaster, the drug-addicted son of a nymphomaniac mother. It was in Gielgud's words "a highly-strung, nervous, hysterical part which depended a lot upon emotion."[35] He found it tiring to play because he had not yet learned how to pace himself, but he thought it "a thrilling engagement because it led to so many great things afterwards."[35] The success of The Cherry Orchard
The Cherry Orchard
led to what one critic called a "Chekhov boom" in British theatres, and Gielgud was among its leading players.[36] As Konstantin in The Seagull
The Seagull
in October 1925 he impressed the Russian director Theodore Komisarjevsky, who cast him as Tusenbach in the British premiere of Three Sisters. The production received enthusiastic reviews, and Gielgud's highly praised performance enhanced his reputation as a potential star.[37] There followed three years of mixed fortunes for him, with successes in fringe productions, but West End stardom was elusive.[38] In 1926 the producer Basil Dean
Basil Dean
offered Gielgud the lead role, Lewis Dodd, in a dramatisation of Margaret Kennedy's best-selling novel, The Constant Nymph. Before rehearsals began Dean found that a bigger star than Gielgud was available, namely Coward, to whom he gave the part. Gielgud had an enforceable contractual claim to the role, but Dean, a notorious bully, was a powerful force in British theatre.[39][40] Intimidated, Gielgud accepted the position of understudy, with a guarantee that he would take over the lead from Coward when the latter, who disliked playing in long runs, left.[41] In the event Coward, who had been overworking, suffered a nervous collapse three weeks after the opening night, and Gielgud played the lead for the rest of the run. The play ran for nearly a year in London and then went on tour.[42]

Mrs Patrick Campbell
Mrs Patrick Campbell
and Edith Evans, 1920s co-stars with Gielgud

By this time Gielgud was earning enough to leave the family home and take a small flat in the West End. He had his first serious romantic relationship, living with John Perry, an unsuccessful actor, later a writer, who remained a lifelong friend after their affair ended. Morley makes the point that, like Coward, Gielgud's principal passion was the stage; both men had casual dalliances, but were more comfortable with "low-maintenance" long-term partners who did not impede their theatrical work and ambitions.[43] In 1928 Gielgud made his Broadway debut as the Grand Duke Alexander in Alfred Neumann's The Patriot. The play was a failure, closing after a week, but Gielgud liked New York and received favourable reviews from critics including Alexander Woollcott
Alexander Woollcott
and Brooks Atkinson.[44] After returning to London he starred in a succession of short runs, including Ibsen's Ghosts with Mrs Patrick Campbell
Mrs Patrick Campbell
(1928), and Reginald Berkeley's The Lady with a Lamp (1929) with Edith Evans
Edith Evans
and Gwen Ffrangcon-Davies.[1] In 1928 he made his second film, The Clue of the New Pin.[n 4] This, billed as "the first British full-length talkie",[48] was an adaptation of an Edgar Wallace
Edgar Wallace
mystery story; Gielgud played a young scoundrel who commits two murders and very nearly a third before he himself is killed.[n 5] Old Vic[edit] Details of Gielgud's work, 1929–31: Stage, Radio, Film In 1929 Harcourt Williams, newly appointed as director of productions at the Old Vic, invited Gielgud to join the company for the forthcoming season. The Old Vic, in an unfashionable area of London south of the Thames, was run by Lilian Baylis
Lilian Baylis
to offer plays and operas to a mostly working-class audience at low ticket prices.[51] She paid her performers very modest wages, but the theatre was known for its unrivalled repertory of classics, mostly Shakespeare, and Gielgud was not the first West End star to take a large pay cut to work there. It was, in Morley's words, the place to learn Shakespearean technique and try new ideas.[1]

The Old Vic
Old Vic
(photographed in 2012), where Gielgud honed his skill as a Shakespearean

During his first season at the Old Vic, Gielgud played Romeo
Romeo
to the Juliet
Juliet
of Adele Dixon, Antonio in The Merchant of Venice, Cleante in The Imaginary Invalid, the title role in Richard II, and Oberon
Oberon
in A Midsummer Night's Dream.[29] His Romeo
Romeo
was not well reviewed, but as Richard II Gielgud was recognised by critics as a Shakespearean actor of undoubted authority.[52] The reviewer in The Times
The Times
commented on his sensitiveness, strength and firmness, and called his performance "work of genuine distinction, not only in its grasp of character, but in its control of language."[53] Later in the season he was cast as Mark Antony in Julius Caesar, Orlando in As You Like It, the Emperor in Androcles and the Lion and the title role in Pirandello's The Man with the Flower in His Mouth.[29] In April 1930 Gielgud finished the season playing Hamlet.[29] Williams's production used the complete text of the play. This was regarded as a radical innovation; extensive cuts had been customary for earlier productions. A running time of nearly five hours did not dampen the enthusiasm of the public, the critics or the acting profession. Sybil Thorndike
Sybil Thorndike
said, "I never hoped to see Hamlet played as in one's dreams ... I've had an evening of being swept right off my feet into another life – far more real than the life I live in, and moved, moved beyond words."[54] The production gained such a reputation that the Old Vic
Old Vic
began to attract large numbers of West End theatregoers. Demand was so great that the cast moved to the Queen's Theatre in Shaftesbury Avenue, where Williams staged the piece with the text discreetly shortened. The effect of the cuts was to give the title role even more prominence.[55] Gielgud's Hamlet was richly praised by the critics. Ivor Brown called it "a tremendous performance ... the best Hamlet of [my] experience."[56] James Agate wrote, "I have no hesitation whatsoever in saying that it is the high water-mark of English Shakespearean acting of our time."[57]

Mabel Terry-Lewis, Gielgud's aunt and co-star in The Importance of Being Earnest

Hamlet was a role with which Gielgud was associated over the next decade and more. After the run at the Queen's finished he turned to another part for which he became well known, John Worthing in The Importance of Being Earnest. Gielgud's biographer Jonathan Croall comments that the two roles illustrated two sides of the actor's personality: on the one hand the romantic and soulful Hamlet, and on the other the witty and superficial Worthing.[58] The formidable Lady Bracknell was played by his aunt, Mabel Terry-Lewis. The Times observed, "Mr Gielgud and Miss Terry-Lewis together are brilliant ... they have the supreme grace of always allowing Wilde to speak in his own voice."[59] Returning to the Old Vic
Old Vic
for the 1930–31 season, Gielgud found several changes to the company. Donald Wolfit, who loathed him and was himself disliked by his colleagues, was dropped, as was Adele Dixon.[60] Gielgud was uncertain of the suitability of the most prominent new recruit, Ralph Richardson, but Williams was sure that after this season Gielgud would move on; he saw Richardson as a potential replacement.[60] The two actors had little in common. Richardson recalled, "He was a kind of brilliant butterfly, while I was a very gloomy sort of boy",[61] and "I found his clothes extravagant, I found his conversation flippant. He was the New Young Man of his time and I didn't like him."[62] The first production of the season was Henry IV, Part 1, in which Gielgud as Hotspur had the best of the reviews.[63] Richardson's notices, and the relationship of the two leading men, improved markedly when Gielgud, who was playing Prospero
Prospero
in The Tempest, helped Richardson with his performance as Caliban:

He gave me about two hundred ideas, as he usually does, twenty-five of which I eagerly seized on, and when I went away I thought, "This chap, you know, I don't like him very much but by God he knows something about this here play." ... And then out of that we formed a friendship.[62]

The friendship and professional association lasted for more than fifty years, until the end of Richardson's life.[64] Gielgud's other roles in this season were Lord Trinket in The Jealous Wife, Richard II again, Antony in Antony and Cleopatra, Malvolio
Malvolio
in Twelfth Night, Sergius in Arms and the Man, Benedick in Much Ado About Nothing
Much Ado About Nothing
– another role for which he became celebrated – and he concluded the season as King Lear. His performance divided opinion. The Times commented, "It is a mountain of a part, and at the end of the evening the peak remains unscaled";[65] in The Manchester Guardian, however, Brown wrote that Gielgud "is a match for the thunder, and at length takes the Dover road with a broken tranquillity that allowed every word of the King's agony to be clear as well as poignant."[66] West End star[edit] Details of Gielgud's work, 1931–37: Stage, Director, Radio, Film Returning to the West End, Gielgud starred in J B Priestley's The Good Companions, adapted for the stage by the author and Edward Knoblock.[n 6] The production ran from May 1931 for 331 performances, and Gielgud described it as his first real taste of commercial success.[68] He played Inigo Jollifant, a young schoolmaster who abandons teaching to join a travelling theatre troupe. This crowd-pleaser drew disapproval from the more austere reviewers, who felt Gielgud should be doing something more demanding,[69] but he found playing a conventional juvenile lead had challenges of its own and helped him improve his technique.[70] During the run of the play he made another film, Insult (1932), a melodrama about the French Foreign Legion, and he starred in a cinema version of The Good Companions
The Good Companions
in 1933, with Jessie Matthews.[29][n 7] A letter to a friend reveals Gielgud's view of film acting: "There is talk of my doing Inigo in the film of The Good Companions, which appals my soul but appeals to my pocket."[73] In his first volume of memoirs, published in 1939, Gielgud devoted two pages to describing the things about filming that he detested.[74] Unlike his contemporaries Richardson and Laurence Olivier, he made few films until after the Second World War, and did not establish himself as a prominent film actor until many years after that.[75] As he put it in 1994, "I was stupid enough to toss my head and stick to the stage while watching Larry and Ralph sign lucrative Korda contracts."[76]

Peggy Ashcroft
Peggy Ashcroft
in 1936

In 1932 Gielgud turned to directing. At the invitation of George Devine, the president of the Oxford University Dramatic Society, Gielgud took charge of a production of Romeo
Romeo
and Juliet
Juliet
by the society, featuring two guest stars: Peggy Ashcroft
Peggy Ashcroft
as Juliet
Juliet
and Edith Evans as the Nurse. The rest of the cast were students, led by Christopher Hassall as Romeo, and included Devine, William Devlin and Terence Rattigan.[77] The experience was satisfactory to Gielgud: he enjoyed the attentions of the undergraduates, had a brief affair with one of them, James Lees-Milne,[78] and was widely praised for his inspiring direction and his protégés' success with the play.[79] Already notorious for his innocent slips of the tongue (he called them "Gielgoofs"), in a speech after the final performance he referred to Ashcroft and Evans as "Two leading ladies, the like of whom I hope I shall never meet again."[80] During the rest of 1932 Gielgud played in a new piece, Musical Chairs by Ronald Mackenzie, and directed one new and one classic play, Strange Orchestra by Rodney Ackland in the West End, and The Merchant of Venice at the Old Vic, with Malcolm Keen
Malcolm Keen
as Shylock
Shylock
and Ashcroft as Portia.[81] In 1932 he starred in Richard of Bordeaux by Elizabeth MacKintosh.[n 8] This, a retelling in modern language of the events of Richard II, was greeted as the most successful historical play since Shaw's Saint Joan nine years earlier, more faithful to the events than Shakespeare
Shakespeare
had been.[83] After an uncertain start in the West End it rapidly became a sell-out hit and played in London and on tour over the next three years.[29] Between seasons of Richard, in 1934 Gielgud returned to Hamlet in London and on tour, directing and playing the title role. The production was a box-office success, and the critics were lavish in their praise.[84] In The New York Times, Charles Morgan wrote, "I have never before heard the rhythm and verse and the naturalness of speech so gently combined. ... If I see a better performance of this play than this before I die, it will be a miracle."[85] Morley writes that junior members of the cast such as Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
and Frith Banbury would gather in the wings every night "to watch what they seemed intuitively already to know was to be the Hamlet of their time."[86]

Mr Olivier was about twenty times as much in love with Peggy Ashcroft as Mr Gielgud is. But Mr Gielgud spoke most of the poetry far better than Mr Olivier ... Yet – I must out with it – the fire of Mr Olivier's passion carried the play along as Mr Gielgud's doesn't quite.

Herbert Farjeon on the rival Romeos.[87]

The following year Gielgud staged perhaps his most famous Shakespeare production, a Romeo
Romeo
and Juliet
Juliet
in which he co-starred with Ashcroft and Olivier. Gielgud had spotted Olivier's potential and gave him a major step up in his career.[n 9] For the first weeks of the run Gielgud played Mercutio
Mercutio
and Olivier played Romeo, after which they exchanged roles.[n 10] As at Oxford, Ashcroft and Evans were Juliet and the nurse. The production broke all box-office records for the play, running at the New Theatre for 189 performances.[n 11] Olivier was enraged at the notices after the first night, which praised the virility of his performance but fiercely criticised his speaking of Shakespeare's verse, comparing it with his co-star's mastery of the poetry. The friendship between the two men was prickly, on Olivier's side, for the rest of his life.[90]

Gielgud in a publicity photograph for Secret Agent (1936)

In May 1936 Gielgud played Trigorin in The Seagull, with Evans as Arkadina and Ashcroft as Nina. Komisarjevsky directed, which made rehearsals difficult as Ashcroft, with whom he had been living, had just left him. Nonetheless, Morley writes, the critical reception was ecstatic.[91] In the same year Gielgud made his last pre-war film, co-starring with Madeleine Carroll
Madeleine Carroll
in Alfred Hitchcock's Secret Agent. The director's insensitivity to actors made Gielgud nervous and further increased his dislike of filming.[92] The two stars were praised for their performances, but Hitchcock's "preoccupation with incident" was felt by critics to make the leading roles one-dimensional, and the laurels went to Peter Lorre
Peter Lorre
as Gielgud's deranged assistant.[93] From September 1936 to February 1937 Gielgud played Hamlet in North America, opening in Toronto before moving to New York and Boston. He was nervous about starring on Broadway for the first time, particularly as it became known that the popular actor Leslie Howard was to appear there in a rival production of the play. When Gielgud opened at the Empire Theatre in October the reviews were mixed,[n 12] but, as the actor wrote to his mother, the audience response was extraordinary. "They stay at the end and shout every night and the stage door is beset by fans."[95] Howard's production opened in November; it was, in Gielgud's words, a débâcle, and the "battle of the Hamlets" heralded in the New York press was over almost as soon as it had begun. Howard's version closed within a month; the run of Gielgud's production beat Broadway records for the play.[96] Queen's Theatre
Queen's Theatre
company[edit] Details of Gielgud's work, 1937–38: Stage, Director, Radio

Interior of the Queen's Theatre

After his return from America in February 1937 Gielgud starred in He Was Born Gay by Emlyn Williams.[97] This romantic tragedy about French royalty after the Revolution was quite well received during its pre-London tour,[98] but was savaged by the critics in the West End.[99] The Times
The Times
said, "This is one of those occasions on which criticism does not stand about talking, but rubs its eyes and withdraws hastily with an embarrassed, incredulous, and uncomprehending blush. What made Mr Emlyn Williams
Emlyn Williams
write this play or Mr Gielgud and Miss Ffrangcon-Davies appear in it is not to be understood."[100] The play closed after twelve performances. Its failure, so soon after his Shakespearean triumphs, prompted Gielgud to examine his career and his life. His domestic relationship with Perry was comfortable but unexciting, he saw no future in a film career, and the Old Vic
Old Vic
could not afford to stage the classics on the large scale to which he aspired. He decided that he must form his own company to play Shakespeare
Shakespeare
and other classic plays in the West End.[101] Gielgud invested £5,000, most of his earnings from the American Hamlet; Perry, who had family money, put in the same sum.[102] From September 1937 to April 1938 Gielgud was the tenant of the Queen's Theatre, where he presented a season consisting of Richard II, The School for Scandal, Three Sisters, and The Merchant of Venice.[102] His company included Harry Andrews, Peggy Ashcroft, Glen Byam Shaw, George Devine, Michael Redgrave
Michael Redgrave
and Harcourt Williams, with Angela Baddeley and Gwen Ffrangcon-Davies
Gwen Ffrangcon-Davies
as guests. His own roles were King Richard, Joseph Surface, Vershinin and Shylock.[29] Gielgud's performances drew superlatives from reviewers and colleagues. Agate considered his Richard II, "probably the best piece of Shakespearean acting on the English stage today."[103] Olivier said that Gielgud's Joseph Surface was "the best light comedy performance I've ever seen, or ever shall see."[104] The venture did not make much money,[105] and in July 1938 Gielgud turned to more conventional West End enterprises, in unconventional circumstances. He directed Spring Meeting, a farce by Perry and Molly Keane, presented by Binkie Beaumont, for whom Perry had just left Gielgud. Somehow the three men remained on excellent terms.[106] In September of the same year Gielgud appeared in Dodie Smith's sentimental comedy Dear Octopus.[29] The following year he directed and appeared in The Importance of Being Earnest
The Importance of Being Earnest
at the Queen's, with Evans playing Lady Bracknell for the first time. They were gratified when Allan Aynesworth, who had played Algernon in the 1895 premiere, said that the new production "caught the gaiety and exactly the right atmosphere. It's all delightful!"[107] War and post-war[edit] Details of Gielgud's work, 1939–49: Stage, Director, Radio, Film At the start of the Second World War Gielgud volunteered for active service, but was told that men of his age, thirty-five, would not be wanted for at least six months. The government quickly came to the view that most actors would do more good performing to entertain the troops and the general public than serving, whether suitable or not, in the armed forces.[108][n 13] Gielgud directed Michael Redgrave
Michael Redgrave
in a 1940 London production of The Beggar's Opera for the Glyndebourne Festival. This was a chaotic affair: Gielgud's direction confused his star, and when Redgrave lost his voice Gielgud had to step in and sing the role as best he could. Gielgud felt that something serious or even solemn was necessary for wartime London, where most entertainment was light-hearted. Together with Harley Granville-Barker
Harley Granville-Barker
and Guthrie he reopened the Old Vic
Old Vic
with Shakespeare. His King Lear
King Lear
once again divided the critics, but his Prospero
Prospero
was a considerable success. He played the role quite differently from his attempt on the same stage in 1930: in place of the "manic conjurer"[110] his Prospero
Prospero
was "very far from the usual mixture of Father Christmas, a Colonial Bishop, and the President of the Magicians' Union ... a clear, arresting picture of a virile Renaissance notable", according to Brown.[111] The critics singled out, among the other players, Jack Hawkins
Jack Hawkins
as Caliban, Marius Goring as Ariel, Jessica Tandy
Jessica Tandy
as Miranda and Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
as Ferdinand.[112] Following the example of several of his stage colleagues, Gielgud joined tours of military camps. He gave recitals of prose and poetry, and acted in a triple bill of short plays, including two from Coward's Tonight at 8.30, but he found at first that less highbrow performers like Beatrice Lillie
Beatrice Lillie
were better than he at entertaining the troops.[113] He returned to filming in 1940, as Disraeli in Thorold Dickinson's The Prime Minister. In this morale-boosting film he portrayed the politician from ages thirty to seventy; this was, in Morley's view, the first time he seemed at home before the camera.[113] Gielgud made no more films for the next ten years; he turned down the role of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
in the 1945 film of Shaw's Caesar and Cleopatra with Vivien Leigh. He and Leigh were close friends, and Shaw tried hard to persuade him to play the part, but Gielgud had taken a strong dislike to the director, Gabriel Pascal.[114] Caesar was eventually played by Gielgud's former teacher, Claude Rains.[n 14] Throughout 1941 and 1942 Gielgud worked continuously, in Barrie's Dear Brutus, another Importance of Being Earnest in the West End, and Macbeth
Macbeth
on tour.[29] Returning, with more assurance than before, to entertaining the troops, he so far departed from his classical style as to join Lillie and Michael Wilding singing a comic trio.[116] His 1943 revival of William Congreve's Love for Love
Love for Love
on tour and then in London received high praise from reviewers.[1] In 1944 he was approached by Ralph Richardson, who had been asked by the governors of the Old Vic
Old Vic
to form a new company. Unwilling to take sole charge, Richardson proposed a managing triumvirate of Gielgud, Olivier and himself. Gielgud declined: "It would be a disaster, you would have to spend your whole time as referee between Larry and me."[117]

Gielgud and Dolly Haas
Dolly Haas
in Crime and Punishment, Broadway, 1947

A 1944–45 season at the Haymarket for Beaumont included a Hamlet that many considered his finest. Agate wrote, "Mr Gielgud is now completely and authoritatively master of this tremendous part. ... I hold that this is, and is likely to remain, the best Hamlet of our time."[118] Also in the season were A Midsummer Night's Dream, The Duchess of Malfi
The Duchess of Malfi
and the first major revival of Lady Windermere's Fan (1945).[29] These productions attracted much praise, but at this point in his career Gielgud was somewhat overshadowed by his old colleagues. Olivier was celebrated for his recent film of Henry V, and with Richardson (and John Burrell in Gielgud's stead) was making the Old Vic
Old Vic
"the most famous theatre in the Anglo-Saxon world" according to the critic Harold Hobson.[119] In late 1945 and early 1946 Gielgud toured for ENSA in the Middle and Far East with Hamlet and Coward's Blithe Spirit. During this tour he played Hamlet on stage for the last time.[29] He was Raskolnikoff in a stage version of Crime and Punishment, in the West End in 1946 and on Broadway the following year.[29] Agate thought it the best thing Gielgud had done so far, other than Hamlet.[120] Between these two engagements Gielgud toured North America in The Importance of Being Earnest and Love for Love. Edith Evans
Edith Evans
was tired of the role of Lady Bracknell, and refused to join him; Margaret Rutherford
Margaret Rutherford
played the part to great acclaim.[121] Gielgud was in demand as a director, with six productions in 1948–49. They included The Heiress in 1949, when he was brought in at the last moment to direct Richardson and Ashcroft, saving what seemed a doomed production; it ran for 644 performances.[122] His last big hit of the 1940s was as Thomas Mendip in The Lady's Not for Burning, which he also directed. The London cast included the young Claire Bloom
Claire Bloom
and Richard Burton, who went with Gielgud when he took the piece to the US the following year.[123] 1950s – film success and personal crisis[edit] Details of Gielgud's work, 1950–59: Stage, Director, Radio, Film, Television

Edmond O'Brien
Edmond O'Brien
(Casca, left) and Gielgud (Cassius) in Julius Caesar (1953)

At the Shakespeare
Shakespeare
Memorial Theatre, Stratford-upon-Avon, Gielgud did much to reclaim his position as a leading Shakespearean. His cold, unsympathetic Angelo in Peter Brook's production of Measure for Measure (1950) showed the public a new, naturalistic manner in his playing.[124] He followed this with three other Shakespeare productions with Brook, which were well received.[1] His own attempt at direction in Stratford, for Richardson's Macbeth
Macbeth
in 1952, was much less successful, with poor notices for the star and worse ones for the director.[125] In 1953 Gielgud made his first Hollywood film, the sole classical actor in Joseph L. Mankiewicz's Julius Caesar, playing Cassius. Marlon Brando (Mark Antony) was in awe of him,[126] and James Mason
James Mason
(Brutus) was disheartened at Gielgud's seemingly effortless skill.[127] Gielgud, for his part, felt he learned much about film technique from Mason.[128] Gielgud enjoyed his four-month stay in California, not least, as Morley comments, for the relaxed attitude there to homosexuality.[129] Returning to London later in 1953 Gielgud took over management of the Lyric, Hammersmith, for a classical season of Richard II, Congreve's The Way of the World, and Thomas Otway's Venice Preserv'd, directing the first, acting in the last, and doing both in the second. Feeling he was too old for Richard, he cast the young Paul Scofield; both the actor and the production were a critical and commercial success.[130] During the season Gielgud was knighted in the 1953 Coronation Honours.[131] On the evening of 20 October 1953, Gielgud, usually highly discreet about casual sex, was arrested in Chelsea for cruising in a public lavatory. Until the 1960s sexual activity of any kind between men was illegal in Britain.[n 15] The Home Secretary
Home Secretary
of the day, David Maxwell Fyfe, was fervently homophobic, urging the police to arrest anyone who contravened the Victorian laws against homosexuality.[132] Gielgud was fined; when the press reported the story, he thought his disgrace would end his career. When the news broke he was in Liverpool
Liverpool
on the pre-London tour of a new play, A Day by the Sea. According to the biographer Richard Huggett, Gielgud was so paralysed by nerves that the prospect of going onstage as usual seemed impossible, but his fellow players, led by Sybil Thorndike, encouraged him:

She grabbed him and whispered fiercely, "Come on, John darling, they won't boo me", and led him firmly on to the stage. To everybody's astonishment and indescribable relief, the audience gave him a standing ovation. They cheered, they applauded, they shouted. The message was quite clear. The English public had always been loyal to its favourites, and this was their chance to show that they didn't care tuppence what he had done in his private life ... they loved him and respected him dearly. It was a moment never to be forgotten by those who witnessed it.[133]

His career was safe, but the episode briefly affected Gielgud's health; he suffered a nervous breakdown some months afterwards. He never spoke publicly about the incident, and it was quickly sidelined by the press and politely ignored by writers during his lifetime. Privately he made donations to gay campaign groups, but did not endorse them in public. In his later years he said to the actor Simon Callow, "I do admire people like you and Ian McKellen
Ian McKellen
for coming out, but I can't be doing with that myself."[134] Between December 1953 and June 1955 Gielgud concentrated on directing and did not appear on stage. His productions ranged from a revival of Charley's Aunt
Charley's Aunt
with John Mills
John Mills
to The Cherry Orchard
The Cherry Orchard
with Ffrangcon-Davies, and Twelfth Night
Twelfth Night
with Olivier.[29] His return to the stage was in a production of King Lear, which was badly hampered by costumes and scenery by Isamu Noguchi
Isamu Noguchi
that the critics found ludicrous.[135] A revival of Much Ado About Nothing
Much Ado About Nothing
with Ashcroft in 1955 was much better received; in The Manchester Guardian, Philip Hope-Wallace called it "Shakespearean comedy for once perfectly realised."[136] In 1955 Gielgud made his second appearance in a film of Shakespeare, portraying Clarence in Olivier's Richard III.[29] In the second half of the 1950s Gielgud's career was in the doldrums as far as new plays were concerned.[137] British theatre was moving away from the West End glamour of Beaumont's productions to more avant-garde works. Olivier had a great success in John Osborne's The Entertainer in 1957,[138] but Gielgud was not in tune with the new wave of writers.[n 16] He remained in demand as a Shakespearean, but there were few new plays suitable for him. He directed and played the lead in Coward's Nude with Violin in 1956, which was dismissed by the critics as old-fashioned, though it ran for more than a year.[140] He made two film appearances, playing a cameo comedy scene with Coward as a prospective manservant in Michael Anderson's Around the World in 80 Days (1956), and as the father of Elizabeth Barrett Browning
Elizabeth Barrett Browning
in Sidney Franklin's 1957 remake of The Barretts of Wimpole Street. He did not consider his performance as the tyrannical father convincing, and confessed that he undertook it only for the large fee ("it will set me up for a couple of years") and to keep him before the public in America, where he had not performed for over four years.[29][141]

Much Ado About Nothing: Gielgud as Benedick and Margaret Leighton
Margaret Leighton
as Beatrice, 1959

During 1957 Gielgud directed Berlioz's The Trojans at Covent Garden and played Prospero
Prospero
at Drury Lane,[29] but the production central to his career over the late 1950s and into the 1960s was his one-man show The Ages of Man. He first appeared in this in 1956 and revived it every year until 1967. It was an anthology of Shakespearean speeches and sonnets, compiled by George Rylands, in which, wearing modern evening clothes on a plain stage, Gielgud recited the verses, with his own linking commentary.[142] He performed it all over Britain, mainland Europe, Australasia and the US, including a performance at the White House
White House
in 1965.[29] He found there were advantages to performing solo: "You've no idea how much easier it is without a Juliet. When there's a beautiful girl above you on a balcony, or lying on a tomb with candles round her, naturally the audience look at her the whole time, and Romeo
Romeo
has to pull out all the stops to get any attention."[143] His performance on Broadway won him a Special
Special
Tony Award in 1959, and an audio recording in 1979 received a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album.[1][144] He made many other recordings, both before and after this, including ten Shakespeare
Shakespeare
plays.[145] Gielgud continued to try, without much success, to find new plays that suited him as an actor, but his direction of Peter Shaffer's first play, Five Finger Exercise
Five Finger Exercise
(1958), received acclaim.[146] While in the US for the Shaffer play, Gielgud revived Much Ado About Nothing, this time with Margaret Leighton
Margaret Leighton
as his Beatrice. Most of the New York critics praised the production, and they all praised the co-stars.[147] He gave his first performances on television during 1959, in Rattigan's The Browning Version for CBS
CBS
and N C Hunter's A Day by the Sea for ITV.[148] He appeared in more than fifty more plays on television over the next four decades.[149] 1960s[edit] Details of Gielgud's work, 1960–69: Stage, Director, Radio, Film, Television

Gielgud (left) as Joseph Surface, and Ralph Richardson
Ralph Richardson
as Sir Peter Teazle, The School for Scandal, 1962

During the early 1960s Gielgud had more successes as a director than as an actor. He directed the first London performance of Britten's opera A Midsummer Night's Dream
A Midsummer Night's Dream
(1961) at Covent Garden[n 17] and Hugh Wheeler's Big Fish, Little Fish on Broadway, the latter winning him a Tony for Best Direction of a Play in 1961.[1] His performance as Othello at Stratford in the same year was less successful; Franco Zeffirelli's production was thought ponderous and Gielgud "singularly unvehement."[151] As Gaev in The Cherry Orchard
The Cherry Orchard
to the Ranevskaya of Ashcroft he had the best of the notices; his co-star and the production received mixed reviews.[152] The following year Gielgud directed Richardson in The School for Scandal, first at the Haymarket and then on a North American tour, which he joined as, in his words, "the oldest Joseph Surface in the business."[153] In 1962 Gielgud met Martin Hensler (1932–99), an interior designer exiled from Hungary. He was temperamental, and Gielgud's friends often found him difficult, but the two became a long-term couple and lived together until Hensler's death. Under his influence Gielgud moved his main residence from central London to Wotton Underwood
Wotton Underwood
in Buckinghamshire.[154][155] Gielgud received an Oscar nomination for his performance as King Louis VII of France in Becket (1964), with Richard Burton
Richard Burton
in the title role. Morley comments, "A minor but flashy role, this had considerable and long-lasting importance; his unrivalled theatrical dignity could greatly enhance a film."[1] In 1964 Gielgud directed Burton in Hamlet on Broadway. Burton's performance received reviews ranging from polite to hostile, but the production was a box-office success, and a film was made of it.[156] Gielgud finally began to take the cinema seriously, for financial and sometimes artistic reasons. He told his agent to accept any reasonable film offers.[157] His films of the mid-1960s were as British expatriate writer Sir Francis Hinsley in Tony Richardson's The Loved One (1965), which Croall termed a disaster[158] despite later acclaim, and Orson Welles's Falstaff
Falstaff
film, Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966), which was unsuccessful at the time but has since been recognised as "one of the best, albeit most eccentric, of all Shakespearean movies", according to Morley.[159][n 18] Much of Gielgud's theatre work in the later 1960s was as a director: Chekhov's Ivanov at the Phoenix in London and the Shubert in New York, Peter Ustinov's Half Way Up the Tree at the Queen's and Mozart's Don Giovanni at the Coliseum.[29] One potentially outstanding acting role, Ibsen's Bishop Nicholas, fell through in 1967 when Olivier, with whom he was to co-star at the National Theatre in The Pretenders, was ill.[160] Gielgud played Orgon in Tartuffe
Tartuffe
and the title role in Seneca's Oedipus during the National's 1967–68 season, but according to Croall neither production was satisfactory.[161] After this, Gielgud at last found a modern role that suited him and which he played to acclaim: the Headmaster in Alan Bennett's first play, Forty Years On (1968).[162] The notices for both play and star were excellent.[163] In The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph
John Barber wrote, "Gielgud dominates all with an unexpected caricature of a mincing pedant, his noble features blurred so as to mimic a fussed and fatuous egghead. From the great mandarin of the theatre, a delicious comic creation."[164] Having finally embraced film-making, Gielgud appeared in six films in 1967–69. His most substantial role was Lord Raglan in Tony Richardson's The Charge of the Light Brigade.[165] His other roles, in films including Michael Anderson's The Shoes of the Fisherman (1968) as a fictional pope and Richard Attenborough's Oh! What a Lovely War (1969) as Count Leopold Berchtold, were cameo appearances in character roles.[166] 1970s – Indian summer[edit] Details of Gielgud's work, 1970–79: Stage, Director, Radio, Film, Television In 1970 Gielgud played another modern role in which he had great success; he joined Ralph Richardson
Ralph Richardson
at the Royal Court in Chelsea in David Storey's Home. The play is set in the gardens of a nursing home for mental patients, though this is not clear at first. The two elderly men converse in a desultory way, are joined and briefly enlivened by two more extrovert female patients, are slightly scared by another male patient, and are then left together, conversing even more emptily. The Punch critic, Jeremy Kingston, wrote:

At the end of the play, as the climax to two perfect, delicate performances, Sir Ralph and Sir John are standing, staring out above the heads of the audience, cheeks wet with tears in memory of some unnamed misery, weeping soundlessly as the lights fade on them. It makes a tragic, unforgettable close.[167]

The play transferred to the West End and then to Broadway. In The New York Times Clive Barnes wrote, "The two men, bleakly examining the little nothingness of their lives, are John Gielgud
John Gielgud
and Ralph Richardson giving two of the greatest performances of two careers that have been among the glories of the English-speaking theater."[168] The original cast recorded the play for television in 1972.[169]

Gielgud in 1973, by Allan Warren

In the first half of the decade Gielgud made seven films and six television dramas. Morley describes his choice as indiscriminate, but singles out for praise his performances in 1974 as the Old Cardinal in Joseph Losey's Galileo and the manservant Beddoes in Sidney Lumet's Murder on the Orient Express.[170] In a 1971 BBC
BBC
presentation of James Elroy Flecker's Hassan, Gielgud played the Caliph to Richardson's Hassan. The critic of The Illustrated London News
The Illustrated London News
said that viewers would "shiver at a towering performance by Gielgud, as a Caliph with all the purring beauty and ruthlessness of a great golden leopard."[171] In the theatre Gielgud directed Coward's Private Lives and Somerset Maugham's The Constant Wife
The Constant Wife
(both 1973, London and 1974, New York).[29] His final production as a director was Pinero's The Gay Lord Quex (1975).[172] Gielgud continued his long stage association with Richardson in Harold Pinter's No Man's Land (1975), directed by Hall at the National. Richardson played Hirst, a prosperous but isolated and vulnerable author, and Gielgud was Spooner, a down-at-heel sponger and opportunist. Hall found the play "extremely funny and also extremely bleak."[173][n 19] The production was a critical and box-office success and, over a period of three years, played at the Old Vic, in the West End, at the Lyttelton Theatre
Lyttelton Theatre
in the new National Theatre complex, on Broadway and on television.[29] In Julian Mitchell's Half-Life (1977) at the National, Gielgud was warmly praised by reviewers; he reprised the role at the Duke of York's Theatre
Duke of York's Theatre
in the West End in 1978 and on tour the following year.[175] In the latter part of the decade Gielgud worked more for cinema and television than on stage. His film work included what Morley calls "his most embarrassing professional appearance",[1] in Caligula (1979), Gore Vidal's story of Ancient Rome, spiced with pornographic scenes.[176] In Gielgud's ten other films from this period, his most substantial role was Clive Langham in Alain Resnais' Providence (1977). Gielgud thought it "by far the most exciting film I have ever made."[177] He won a New York Film Critics Circle award for his performance as a dying author, "drunk half the time ... throwing bottles about, and roaring a lot of very coarse dialogue."[177] His other film parts included the Head Master of Eton in Jack Gold's Aces High (1976) and Tomlinson in Otto Preminger's The Human Factor (1979).[29] For television his roles included Lord Henry Wotton in The Picture of Dorian Gray (1976), John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt
in Richard II (1978) and Chorus in Romeo
Romeo
and Juliet
Juliet
(1978).[29] Later years[edit] Details of Gielgud's work, 1980–2000: Stage, Radio, Film, Television In the 1980s Gielgud appeared in more than twenty films. Morley singles out as noteworthy The Elephant Man (1980), as the chairman of the Royal London Hospital, Chariots of Fire
Chariots of Fire
(1981), as the Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, Gandhi (1982), as Lord Irwin (the latter two winning Academy Awards
Academy Awards
as Best Picture), The Shooting Party
The Shooting Party
(1984) and Plenty (1985), directed by David Lynch, Hugh Hudson, Richard Attenborough, Alan Bridges and Fred Schepisi
Fred Schepisi
respectively. Tony Palmer's Wagner (1983) was the only film in which Gielgud, Richardson, and Olivier played scenes together.[n 20] Gielgud made cameo appearances in films of little merit, lending distinction while not damaging his own reputation.[1] He told an interviewer, "They pay me very well for two or three days' work a month, so why not? It's nice at my age to be able to travel all over the world at other people's expense."[178] Gielgud's most successful film performance of the decade was Steve Gordon's comedy Arthur (1981), which starred Dudley Moore
Dudley Moore
as a self-indulgent playboy. Gielgud played Hobson, Moore's butler. He turned the part down twice before finally accepting it, nervous, after the Caligula débâcle, of the strong language used by the acerbic Hobson.[178] He won an Oscar as Best Supporting Actor and other awards for the performance.[n 21] He placed little value on awards, and avoided presentation ceremonies whenever he could: "I really detest all the mutual congratulation baloney and the invidious comparisons which they evoke."[180] For television Gielgud played nineteen roles during the 1980s; they included Edward Ryder in an eleven-part adaptation of Waugh's Brideshead Revisited
Brideshead Revisited
(1982); The Times
The Times
said that he gave the role "a desolate and calculated malice which carries almost singlehandedly [the] first two episodes".[178] At the end of the decade he played a rakish journalist, Haverford Downs, in John Mortimer's Summer's Lease, for which he won an Emmy Award after its 1991 American broadcast.[181] Gielgud's final West End play was Hugh Whitemore's The Best of Friends (1988). He played Sir Sydney Cockerell, director of the Fitzwilliam Museum, in a representation of a friendship between Cockerell, Bernard Shaw and Laurentia McLachlan, a Benedictine nun.[182] Gielgud had some trouble learning his lines;[183] at one performance he almost forgot them, momentarily distracted by seeing in a 1938 copy of The Times, read by his character, a review of his own portrayal of Vershinin in Three Sisters fifty years earlier.[184] In 1990 Gielgud appeared in the James Scott-directed Strike It Rich, an adaptation of a Graham Greene
Graham Greene
novel co-starring Molly Ringwald
Molly Ringwald
and Robert Lindsay.[185] That same year he made his last film appearance in a leading role, playing Prospero
Prospero
in Prospero's Books, Peter Greenaway's adaptation of The Tempest. Reviews for the film were mixed, but Gielgud's performance in one of his signature roles was much praised.[186] He continued to work on radio, as he had done throughout his career; Croall lists more than fifty BBC
BBC
radio productions of plays starring Gielgud between 1929 and 1994.[187] To mark his ninetieth birthday he played Lear for the last time; for the BBC
BBC
Kenneth Branagh
Kenneth Branagh
gathered a cast that included Judi Dench, Eileen Atkins and Emma Thompson
Emma Thompson
as Lear's daughters, with actors such as Bob Hoskins, Derek Jacobi
Derek Jacobi
and Simon Russell Beale
Simon Russell Beale
in supporting roles.[188] He made further cameo appearances on television, and in films including Branagh's Hamlet (as King Priam, 1996),[n 22] Dragonheart
Dragonheart
(as the voice of King Arthur, 1996), and Shine (as Cecil Parkes, 1996). His last feature film appearance was as Pope Pius V
Pope Pius V
in Shekhar Kapur's Elizabeth (1999).[29] In 2000 he had a non-speaking role alongside Pinter in a film of Beckett's short play Catastrophe directed by David Mamet.[190] Gielgud's companion of forty years, Martin Hensler, died in 1999. After this, Gielgud went into a physical and psychological decline;[191] he died at home in May the following year, at the age of 96. At his request there was no memorial service, and his funeral at Wotton parish church was private, for family and close friends.[192] His ashes were scattered in the rose garden of his home, where those of Martin Hensler had been sprinkled after his death the previous year.[193] Honours, character and reputation[edit] Main article: John Gielgud, roles and awards Gielgud's state honours were Knight Bachelor
Knight Bachelor
(UK, 1953), Legion of Honour (France, 1960), Companion of Honour
Companion of Honour
(UK, 1977), and Order of Merit (UK, 1996). He was awarded honorary degrees by St Andrews, Oxford and Brandeis universities.[194] From 1977 to 1989 Gielgud was president of the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art—a symbolic position—and was the academy's first honorary fellow (1989).[194] In 1996 the Globe Theatre in Shaftesbury Avenue was renamed the Gielgud Theatre. He had not acted on stage for eight years, and felt out of touch with the West End: he commented on the renaming of the theatre, "At last there is a name in lights on the Avenue which I actually recognise, even if it is my own."[1] Gielgud was uninterested in religion or politics. As a boy he had been fascinated by the rituals at Westminster Abbey, but his brief attraction to religion quickly faded, and as an adult he was a non-believer.[195] His indifference to politics was illustrated at a formal dinner not long after the Second World War when he asked a fellow guest, "Whereabouts are you living now?", unaware that, as he was talking to the prime minister, Clement Attlee, the answer was "10 Downing Street".[196] In his Who's Who entry Gielgud listed his hobbies as music and painting, but his concentration on his work, which Emlyn Williams
Emlyn Williams
called fanatical, left little scope for leisure activities.[194][197] His dedication to his art was not solemn. The critic Nicholas de Jongh wrote that Gielgud's personality was "such infinite, mischievous fun",[198] and Coward's biographer Cole Lesley recalled the pleasure of Gielgud's company, "the words tumbling out of his mouth in an avalanche, frequently having to wipe away his own tears of laughter at the funniness of the disasters he recounted, disasters always against himself."[199] Together with Richardson and Olivier, Gielgud was internationally recognised as one of the "great trinity of theatrical knights"[200] who dominated the British stage for more than fifty years during the middle and later decades of the 20th century.[200][201] The critic Michael Coveney wrote, for Gielgud's ninety-fifth birthday:

I have seen Olivier, Ralph Richardson, Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
and Peggy Ashcroft but John Gielgud
John Gielgud
is something else. Gielgud is the lone survivor of those great actors whose careers laid the foundation stones of modern theatre. He is acclaimed as the greatest speaker of Shakespearean verse this century. People my age and younger can only take on trust the impact of the Hamlet whose influence lasted more than 30 years. Even the recordings do not quite convey the mellifluous magic of the voice once described by Guinness as a "silver trumpet muffled in silk." He is indelibly linked with the roles of Prospero
Prospero
and King Lear
King Lear
– regarded as pinnacles of theatrical achievement – yet he is also widely remembered for his wonderful comic touch as Jack Worthing in Wilde's The Importance of Being Earnest. But his influence goes far beyond his performances. Without Gielgud there would be no National Theatre or Royal Shakespeare
Shakespeare
Company. He was a pioneer in establishing the first permanent companies in the West End.[202]

In an obituary in The Independent
The Independent
Alan Strachan, having discussed Gielgud's work for cinema, radio and television, concluded that "any consideration of Gielgud's rich and often astonishing career must return to the stage; as he wrote at the close of An Actor and his Time (1979), he saw the theatre as 'more than an occupation or a profession; for me it has been a life'."[200] Books by Gielgud[edit]

Autobiography[edit]

Early Stages. London: Macmillan. 1939. OCLC 250105547.  Stage Directions. London: Heinemann. 1963. OCLC 255709348.  Distinguished Company. London: Heinemann. 1972. ISBN 0435183532.  An Actor and His Time. London: Sidgwick and Jackson. 1979. ISBN 0283985739.  Backward Glances. London: Hodder & Stoughton. 1989. ISBN 0340429259.  John Miller, ed. (1991). Acting Shakespeare. New York: Scribner, Maxwell, Macmillan. ISBN 0684195119.  Richard Mangan, ed. (1994). John Gielgud's Notes from the Gods – Playgoing in the Twenties. London: Nick Hern. ISBN 1854591053.  Richard Mangan, ed. (2004). Gielgud's Letters. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0297829890. 

Anthology[edit]

Sir John Gielgud's Ages of Man. New York: Caedmon. 1979. OCLC 15733016. 

Acting versions[edit]

Chekhov, Anton (1963). The Cherry Orchard. New York: Theatre Arts Books. OCLC 1669979.  Chekhov, Anton (1966). Ivanov. New York: Theatre Arts Books. OCLC 1380663.  Based on a translation by Edward Nicolaeff.

Notes and references[edit] Notes

^ The date is given by Gielgud as 1830,[2] and by his biographer Jonathan Croall
Jonathan Croall
as 1831.[3] The historian Saulius Sužiedėlis dates the uprising as November 1830 to November 1831.[4] ^ He was briefly a boarder, but he persuaded his parents to let him live at home, which was only three miles (4.8 kilometres) from the school.[11] ^ Phyllis Neilson-Terry
Phyllis Neilson-Terry
was Gielgud's first cousin once removed, being a first cousin of his mother.[5] ^ According to Morley, but not to Gielgud or Croall, Gielgud's second film appearance was in the title role of Komisarjevsky's film Michael Strogoff (1926).[45] No such film is listed by the British Film Institute, and this seems to refer to a live performance given as a prologue to the gala screening of Universal Film de France's 1926 Michel Strogoff at the Albert Hall. The film was directed by Viktor Tourjansky;[46] Komisarjevsky directed the live prologue, in which a scene from the film was enacted "with prominent British stage players taking the principal roles and scores of dancing girls and others making up the colorful Tartar atmosphere."[47] ^ Both Gielgud and Morley refer to the film as silent,[49] but according to the British Film Institute, it had sound, by the British Phototone sound-on-disc system, and beat Alfred Hitchcock's Blackmail to the distinction of being Britain's first full-length talkie.[50] ^ Knoblock was the subject of one of the most repeated Gielgud stories, which, pressed by Emlyn Williams, Gielgud confessed was true. While Knoblock and Gielgud were dining one day at The Ivy
The Ivy
a man passed their table, and Gielgud said, "Thank God he didn't stop, he's a bigger bore than Eddie Knoblock – oh, not you, Eddie!" Williams asked how Knoblock reacted, and Gielgud replied, "He just looked slightly puzzled, and went on boring."[67] ^ In a retrospective survey of Gielgud's film career, Brian Baxter wrote in 2000 that Inigo was Gielgud's first memorable screen role, helped by the direction of Victor Saville, whom Baxter calls the best British director of the period next to Alfred Hitchcock.[71] The film was well received by critics; Mordaunt Hall of The New York Times
The New York Times
got Gielgud mixed up with his brother Val but thought his performance "a joy to behold ... extraordinarily real".[72] ^ MacKintosh wrote under the pen name Gordon Daviot.[82] ^ Olivier's biographer Michael Billington writes under the heading "Rescued by Gielgud" that Olivier "had appeared in a string of commercial flops, had flirted unrewardingly with Hollywood, and had largely avoided the classics."[88] ^ The original casting applied from 18 October to 28 November 1935; the two leading men then switched roles for alternating periods of several weeks at a time during the run. For the last week, ending on 28 March 1936, Olivier was Mercutio
Mercutio
and Gielgud Romeo.[89] ^ The previous record was 161 performances, by Henry Irving
Henry Irving
and Gielgud's great-aunt Ellen Terry
Ellen Terry
in 1882.[89] ^ Brooks Atkinson
Brooks Atkinson
commented that Gielgud's performance "requires comparison with the best. But there is a coarser ferocity to Shakespeare's tragedy that is sound theatre, and that is wanting in Mr Gielgud's art."[94] ^ Among Gielgud's colleagues who managed to join up, Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
and Anthony Quayle
Anthony Quayle
earned distinguished war records, but, more typically in Morley's view, the authorities were very glad to release Richardson and Olivier from the Fleet Air Arm
Fleet Air Arm
to rejoin the theatre.[108] Gielgud told Jeremy Paxman
Jeremy Paxman
in 1999 that he had recently discovered that Binkie Beaumont secretly told the authorities that Gielgud was unfit for military service, purely to retain his services for Beaumont's productions.[109] ^ Although Rains had enjoyed a long and successful career as a film actor, Gielgud was so out of touch with the film world that, according to Peter Ustinov, he once said in an interview that at drama school he had a wonderful teacher. "His name was Claude Rains. ... I don't know what happened to him. I think he failed and went to America."[115] ^ The principal law against homosexual acts was the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885, in which Section 11 made any kind of sexual activity between men illegal. It was not repealed until the passage of the Sexual Offences Act 1967.[132] ^ In 1955 Gielgud advised Richardson not to accept the role of Estragon in Beckett's Waiting for Godot, describing the piece as rubbish. Richardson later deeply regretted taking his friend's advice, recognising the work as "the greatest play of my generation."[139] ^ The assistant director, John Copley, recalled Gielgud's remark on Britten's music for the rude mechanicals, "Why did he write this dreadful music for those beautiful words?", but both the music and the staging won enthusiastic reviews.[150] ^ Gielgud played Henry IV of England; Welles played Sir John Falstaff.[29] ^ The long pauses in the middle of the dialogue troubled both actors during early rehearsals, and they had to relearn their stage technique to accommodate them. Gielgud told Hall, "I never pause in the West End. The first time I played there I took a big pause, and a woman cried out in the balcony, 'Oh, you beast. You've come all over my umbrella!'"[174] ^ The three are seen together in long shot near the opening of Olivier's film of Richard III but with no shared dialogue. ^ He also won a Golden Globe and awards from both the New York and Los Angeles Critics' Circles.[179] ^ Priam and his wife Hecuba, played by Judi Dench, were interpolations of the director, portrayed in flashback during the Player King's speech.[189]

References

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Morley, Sheridan and Robert Sharp. "Gielgud, Sir (Arthur) John (1904–2000)" Archived 21 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine., Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, online edition, January 2011, retrieved 2 February 2014 (subscription or UK public library membership required) ^ a b Gielgud (1979), p. 22 ^ a b Croall (2011), pp. 8–9 ^ Sužiedėlis, p. 134 ^ a b Gielgud (1979), pp. 222–223 ^ Croall (2011), p. 10 ^ Gielgud (2004), pp. 5–6 ^ Croall (2011), p. 16 ^ Croall (2011), pp. 17–18 ^ Gielgud (2000), p. 34 ^ Croall (2000), pp. 19–20 ^ a b Gielgud (2000), p. 36 ^ Gielgud (2000), p. 37 ^ Hayman, p. 13 ^ Morley, p. 34 ^ Gielgud (1965), p. 31 ^ Gielgud (1979), p. 48 ^ Hayman, p. 18 ^ "Profile – The old master of rhetoric and robes", The Observer, 14 April 1974, p. 9 ^ Gielgud (2000), p. 41 ^ Gielgud (2000), pp. 45–46 ^ Gaye, p. 643; and Gielgud (2000), p. 46 ^ Morley, p. 1 ^ Gielgud (2000), p. 51 ^ Gielgud (2000), p. 53 ^ Ervine, St John. "The Insect Play", The Observer, 6 May 1923, p. 15; Brown, Ivor. "The Insect Play", The Manchester Guardian, 7 May 1923, p. 14; "The Insect Play", The Times, 7 May 1923, p. 10; and "Theatres", The Times, 9 June 1923, p. 98 ^ a b Morley, p. 33 ^ Morley, p. 38 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Croall (2000), pp. 534–545; Morley, pp. 459–477; and Tanitch, pp. 178–191 ^ Croall (2000), pp. 60–61 ^ Morley, p. 43 ^ Gielgud (1979), p. 63 ^ Gielgud (2000), p. 197 ^ "Lyric Theatre, Hammersmith", The Times, 26 May 1925, p. 14 ^ a b Gielgud (1979), p. 61 ^ Croall (2000), p. 69 ^ Croall (2000), p. 73 ^ Croall (2011), p. 74 ^ Croall (2000), p. 89 ^ Roose-Evans, James. "Dean, Basil Herbert (1888–1978)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, online edition, January 2011, retrieved 12 August 2014 (subscription or UK public library membership required) ^ Croall (2011), pp. 85–86 ^ Gielgud (2000), pp. 93–94 ^ Morley, p. 56 ^ Hayman, p. 46; and Atkinson, Brooks. "The Play – Imperial Tragedy", The New York Times, 20 January 1928, p. 15 (subscription required) Archived 22 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Morley, p. 63 ^ "Michel Strogoff" Archived 22 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine., British Film Institute, retrieved 9 February 2014 ^ "Strogoff Feb 8 Release" Archived 7 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine., Motion Picture News, 13 November 1926, p. 1855 ^ "The Film World", The Times, 6 February 1929, p. 12 ^ Gielgud (2000), p. 198; and Morley, p. 81 ^ White and Buscombe, p. 94 ^ Gilbert, p. 16 ^ Morley, pp. 68–70 ^ "The Old Vic
Old Vic
– Richard II", The Times, 19 November 1929, p. 14 ^ Croall (2000), pp. 126–127 ^ "The Old Vic", The Times, 29 April 1930, p. 12 ^ Brown, Ivor. "Mr John Gielgud's Hamlet", The Manchester Guardian, 29 May 1930, p. 6 ^ Croall (2011), p. 123 ^ Croall (2000), p. 131 ^ "Lyric Theatre, Hammersmith", The Times, 8 June 1930, p. 12 ^ a b Croall (2000), p. 134 ^ Croall (2011), p. 128 ^ a b Hayman, p. 67 ^ Croall (2000), p. 135 ^ Gielgud, John. "A great gentleman, a rare spirit", The Observer, 16 October 1983, p. 9 ^ "The Old Vic", The Times, 14 April 1931, p. 12 ^ Brown, Ivor. "King Lear", The Manchester Guardian, 14 April 1931, p. 8 ^ Croall (2013), p. 44 ^ Gielgud (2000), p. 146 ^ Morley, p. 80 ^ Gielgud (2000), p. 145 ^ Baxter, Brian. "Appreciation: Sir John Gielgud's films", The Guardian, 25 May 2000, p. 26 ^ Hall, Mordaunt. "Film Review", The New York Times, 10 October 1933, p. 24 (subscription required) Archived 6 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Gielgud (2004), p. 16 ^ Gielgud (2000), pp. 199–201 ^ Morley, p. 81 ^ "People think I'm about to die" Archived 8 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine., The Spectator, 16 March 1994, p. 18 ^ "OUDS – Romeo
Romeo
and Juliet", The Times, 11 February 1932, p. 10 ^ Morley, p. 84 ^ Morley, p. 86 ^ Morley, p. 85 ^ "'The Merchant' – New Style: A Rejuvenated Play", The Manchester Guardian, 13 December 1932, p. 18 ^ Morley, p. 95 ^ Morley, pp. 97–100 ^ "Mr Gielgud's Hamlet", The Manchester Guardian, 15 November 1934, p. 8; "New Theatre", The Times, 15 November 1934, p. 12; and "The Week's Theatres: 'Hamlet'", The Observer, 18 November 1934, p. 17 ^ Morgan, Charles. "The Gielgud Hamlet", The New York Times, 2 December 1934, p. X3 (subscription required) Archived 22 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Morley, p. 113 ^ Findlater, p. 57 ^ Billington, Michael. "Olivier, Laurence Kerr, Baron Olivier (1907–1989)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, January 2014, retrieved 13 March 2014 (subscription or UK public library membership required) ^ a b "Mr Gielgud's Plans", The Times, 10 March 1936, p. 14 ^ Morley, pp. 122–123 ^ Morley, p. 133 ^ Morley, pp. 130–131 ^ "'Secret Agent' – Exciting Spy Film by Alfred Hitchcock", The Manchester Guardian, 11 May 1936, p. 13; "New Films in London", The Times, 11 May 1936, p. 10; and "'Secret Agent' at the Gaumont", The Manchester Guardian, 13 October 1936, p. 13 ^ Atkinson, Brooks. "The Play", The New York Times, 9 October 1936, p. 30 (subscription required) Archived 22 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Gielgud (2004), pp. 28–29 ^ Gielgud (2004), pp. 30 and 35; and Morley, pp. 143–144 ^ Croall (2000), pp. 237–238 ^ "'He Was Born Gay' at the Opera House", The Manchester Guardian, 20 April 1937, p. 13 ^ Morley, p. 149 ^ "Queen's Theatre", The Times, 22 May 1937, p. 14 ^ Morley, pp. 150–152 ^ a b Morley, pp. 152–158 ^ Agate, p. 30 ^ Croall (2011), p. 234 ^ Gielgud (2004), p. 48; and Morley, p. 159 ^ Croall (2000), pp. 258–259 ^ Croall (2011), p. 255 ^ a b Morley, p. 168 ^ Morley, p. 450 ^ Morley, p. 172 ^ Brown, Ivor. "At the Play", The Observer, 2 June 1940, p. 10 ^ "Old Vic", The Times, 30 May 1940, p. 4; and Brown, Ivor. "At the Play", The Observer, 2 June 1940, p. 10 ^ a b Morley, pp. 172–174 ^ Croall (2011), p. 300 ^ Ustinov, p. 201 ^ Morley, p. 181 ^ Miller, p. 83 ^ Gielgud (1979), pp. 238–239 ^ Hobson, p. 55 ^ Hayman, p. 154 ^ Atkinson, Brooks. "Style in Comedy – John Gielgud's Version of Oscar Wilde's Play", The New York Times, 9 March 1947, p. XI (subscription required) Archived 22 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine.; and Morley, p. 192 ^ Miller, pp. 130–132; and Gaye, p. 1526 ^ Croall (2011), pp. 353–355 ^ Hayman, p. 171; and Morley, pp. 210–212 ^ "Stratford Festival", The Times, 11 June 1952, p. 8; and Tynan, p. 107 ^ Gielgud (2004), p. 157 ^ Morley, pp. 223–224 ^ Gielgud (1979), p. 199 ^ Morley, p. 225 ^ Morley, pp. 232–233 ^ "The Coronation Honours", The Times, 1 June 1953, p. 8 ^ a b Weeks, pp. 239–240; and Carpenter, p. 334 ^ Huggett, p. 249 ^ Croall (2013), p. 87 ^ "Palace Theatre", The Times, 27 July 1955, p. 5; Hope-Wallace, Philip. "Lear in Eastern Trappings", The Manchester Guardian, 27 July 1955, p. 3; Cashin, Fergus, "It's Gielgud and Claire Bloom
Claire Bloom
in a fantastic 'nightmare'", The Daily Mirror, 27 July 1955, p. 3; and Trewin, J C. "The World of the Theatre", Illustrated London News, 13 August 1955, p. 276 ^ Hope-Wallace, Philip. "'Much Ado' Visits London", The Manchester Guardian, 22 July 1955, p. 5 ^ Harwood, pp. 82–83 ^ Tynan, p. 49 ^ Miller, pp. 162–163 ^ Lesley, p. 370 ^ Gielgud (2000), pp. 441–443; and Gielgud (2004), p. 191 ^ Hope-Wallace, Philip. "A recital by Gielgud", The Manchester Guardian, 9 June 1959, p. 5 ^ Lyttelton and Hart-Davis, p. 104 ^ "John Gielgud" Archived 21 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine., Grammy, retrieved 15 February 2014 ^ Croall (2000), p. 545 ^ Morley, pp. 302–303 ^ "5 Drama Critics Hail 'Much Ado'; But All 7 Praise Gielgud and Margaret Leighton", The New York Times, 19 September 1959 (subscription required) Archived 22 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Tanitch, p. 15 ^ Croall (2000), pp. 542–544 ^ Croall (2013), p. 81; and Porter, Andrew. "Covent Garden", The Musical Times, March 1961, pp. 161–162 (subscription required) ^ Hope-Wallace, Philip. "Zeffirelli's Othello", The Guardian, 11 October 1961, p. 9 ^ "Uneasy Compromise on Chekhov", The Times, 15 December 1961, p. 16; and Tynan, Kenneth. "Orchard in the waste land", The Observer, 17 December 1961, p. 21 ^ Miller, p. 185 ^ Morley, p. 340 ^ Croall (2011), p. 478 ^ Croall (2000), pp. 441–445 ^ Morley, p. 301 ^ Croall (2011), p. 400 ^ Morley, p. 327 ^ Rosenthal, Daniel. "The ones that got away", The Stage, 17 October 2013, pp. 26–27 ^ Croall (2000), pp. 450 and 453 ^ Croall (2011), p. 520 ^ Croall (2000), p. 456 ^ Quoted in Croall (2000), p. 456 ^ Morley, p. 338 ^ Croall (2011) pp. 533 and 553 ^ Kingston, Jeremy, "Theatre", Punch, volume 258, 1970, p. 961 ^ Barnes, Clive. "Theater: 'Home' Arrives" Archived 19 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine., The New York Times, 18 November 1970, p. 41 (subscription required) ^ Miller, p. 369 ^ Morley, p. 369 ^ "Another Arabian Night", The Illustrated London News, 2 January 1971, p. 22 ^ Croall (2000), pp. 494–495 ^ Page, p. 50 ^ Croall (2013), p. 107 ^ Croall (2000), pp. 497–498 ^ Croall (2011), pp. 604–605 ^ a b Gielgud (1979), p. 195 ^ a b c Appleyard, Bryan. "'Brideshead': a brilliant and sensual impact", The Times, 13 October 1981, p. 8 ^ Morley, p. 408 ^ Gielgud (2004), p. 440 ^ Gielgud (2004), p. 483 ^ Gielgud (2004), p. 464 ^ Wardle, Irving. "Platonic perfection", The Times, 11 February 1988, p. 18 ^ Billen, Andrew. "Arts Diary", The Times, 28 March 1988, p. 21 ^ Croall, Jonathan (2012). John Gielgud: Matinee Idol to Movie Star. Bloomsbury Methuen Drama. p. 632. ISBN 1408179458.  ^ Morley, p. 432 ^ Croall (2000), pp. 544–545 ^ Morley, p. 439 ^ Morley, p. 214 ^ Morley, p. 452 ^ Morley, p. 448 ^ Morley, pp. 4 and 453 ^ Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Location 17445). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition. ^ a b c "Gielgud, Sir (Arthur) John", Who Was Who, Oxford University Press, November 2012, retrieved 2 February 2014 (subscription required) ^ Morley, p. 286 ^ Croall (2013), p. 126 ^ Morley, p. 103 ^ De Jongh, Nicholas. "Obituary – Sir John Gielgud" Archived 29 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine., The Guardian, 22 May 2000 ^ Lesley, p. 335 ^ a b c Strachan, Alan. "Obituary: Sir John Gielgud" Archived 10 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine., The Independent, 23 May 2000 ^ Heilpern, John. "In Praise of the Holy Trinity: Olivier, Gielgud, Richardson" Archived 19 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine., The New York Observer, 12 January 1998; Gussow, Mel. "Sir John Gielgud, 96, Dies; Beacon of Classical Stage" Archived 6 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., The New York Times, 23 May 2000; and Beckett, Francis. "John Gielgud: Matinee Idol to Movie Star" Archived 19 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine., The New Statesman, 26 May 2011 ^ Coveney, Michael. "The glory of Gielgud, the lone survivor: as our greatest actor celebrates his 95th birthday", The Daily Mail, 14 April 1999, p. 10

Sources[edit]

Agate, James (1939). The Amazing Theatre. London: Harrap. OCLC 9430902.  Carpenter, Humphrey (1992). Benjamin Britten: A Biography. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0571143245.  Croall, Jonathan (2000). Gielgud – A Theatrical Life, 1904–2000. London: Methuen. ISBN 0413745600.  Croall, Jonathan (2011). John Gielgud – Matinee Idol to Movie Star. London: Methuen. ISBN 1408131064.  Croall, Jonathan (ed) (2013). Gielgoodies – The Wit and Wisdom and Gaffes of John Gielgud. London: Oberon
Oberon
Books. ISBN 1783190078. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Findlater, Richard (1983). These our Actors – A Celebration of the Theatre Acting of Peggy Ashcroft, John Gielgud, Laurence Olivier, Ralph Richardson. London: Elm Tree Books. ISBN 0241111358.  Gaye, Freda (ed) (1967). Who's Who in the Theatre (fourteenth ed.). London: Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons. OCLC 5997224. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Gielgud, John (1979). An Actor and His Time. London: Sidgwick and Jackson. ISBN 0283985739.  Gielgud, John (2000) [1939 and 1989]. Gielgud on Gielgud – volume comprising reprints of Early Stages and Backward Glances. London: Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 0340795026.  Gielgud, John; Richard Mangan (ed) (2004). Gielgud's Letters. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0297829890. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Gielgud, Val (1965). Years in a Mirror. London: Bodley Head. OCLC 1599748.  Gilbert, Susie (2009). Opera for Everybody. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0571224938.  Harwood, Ronald (1984). The Ages of Gielgud – An Actor at Eighty. London: Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 0340348283.  Hayman, Ronald (1971). Gielgud. London: Heinemann. ISBN 0435184008.  Hobson, Harold (1958). Ralph Richardson. London: Rockliff. OCLC 3797774.  Huggett, Richard (1989). Binkie Beaumont – Éminence Grise of the West End Theatre, 1933–1973. London: Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 0340412690.  Lesley, Cole (1976). The Life of Noel Coward. London: Cape. ISBN 0224012886.  Lyttelton, George; Rupert Hart-Davis
Rupert Hart-Davis
(1982). Lyttelton/Hart-Davis Letters, Volume 4. London: John Murray. ISBN 0719539412.  Miller, John (1995). Ralph Richardson – The Authorized Biography. London: Sidgwick and Jackson. ISBN 0283062371.  Morley, Sheridan (2001). John G – The Authorised Biography of John Gielgud. London: Hodder and Stoughton. ISBN 0340368039.  Page, Malcolm (1993). File
File
on Pinter. London: Methuen. ISBN 0413536203.  Sužiedėlis, Saulius (2011). Historical Dictionary of Lithuania. Lanham, Maryland, US: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810849143.  Tanitch, Robert (1988). Gielgud. London: Harrap. ISBN 0245545603.  Tynan, Kenneth (1964). Tynan on Theatre. London: Penguin Books. OCLC 949598.  Ustinov, Peter (1978) [1977]. Dear Me. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin. ISBN 0140049401.  Weeks, Jeffrey (1989). Sex, Politics and Society. London: Longman. ISBN 0582483336.  White, Rob; Edward Buscombe (2003). British Film Institute
British Film Institute
Film Classics. London and New York: BFI and Fitzroy Dearborn. ISBN 1579583288. 

External links[edit]

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John Gielgud
John Gielgud
at the Internet Broadway Database
Internet Broadway Database
John Gielgud
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on IMDb John Gielgud
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at the BFI John Gielgud
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at the TCM Movie Database John Gielgud
John Gielgud
at the British Film Institute's Screenonline

Awards for John Gielgud

v t e

Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Supporting Actor

1936–1950

Walter Brennan
Walter Brennan
(1936) Joseph Schildkraut
Joseph Schildkraut
(1937) Walter Brennan
Walter Brennan
(1938) Thomas Mitchell (1939) Walter Brennan
Walter Brennan
(1940) Donald Crisp
Donald Crisp
(1941) Van Heflin
Van Heflin
(1942) Charles Coburn
Charles Coburn
(1943) Barry Fitzgerald
Barry Fitzgerald
(1944) James Dunn (1945) Harold Russell
Harold Russell
(1946) Edmund Gwenn
Edmund Gwenn
(1947) Walter Huston
Walter Huston
(1948) Dean Jagger
Dean Jagger
(1949) George Sanders
George Sanders
(1950)

1951–1975

Karl Malden
Karl Malden
(1951) Anthony Quinn
Anthony Quinn
(1952) Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
(1953) Edmond O'Brien
Edmond O'Brien
(1954) Jack Lemmon
Jack Lemmon
(1955) Anthony Quinn
Anthony Quinn
(1956) Red Buttons
Red Buttons
(1957) Burl Ives
Burl Ives
(1958) Hugh Griffith
Hugh Griffith
(1959) Peter Ustinov
Peter Ustinov
(1960) George Chakiris
George Chakiris
(1961) Ed Begley
Ed Begley
(1962) Melvyn Douglas
Melvyn Douglas
(1963) Peter Ustinov
Peter Ustinov
(1964) Martin Balsam
Martin Balsam
(1965) Walter Matthau
Walter Matthau
(1966) George Kennedy
George Kennedy
(1967) Jack Albertson
Jack Albertson
(1968) Gig Young
Gig Young
(1969) John Mills
John Mills
(1970) Ben Johnson (1971) Joel Grey
Joel Grey
(1972) John Houseman
John Houseman
(1973) Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro
(1974) George Burns
George Burns
(1975)

1976–2000

Jason Robards
Jason Robards
(1976) Jason Robards
Jason Robards
(1977) Christopher Walken
Christopher Walken
(1978) Melvyn Douglas
Melvyn Douglas
(1979) Timothy Hutton
Timothy Hutton
(1980) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1981) Louis Gossett Jr.
Louis Gossett Jr.
(1982) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1983) Haing S. Ngor
Haing S. Ngor
(1984) Don Ameche
Don Ameche
(1985) Michael Caine
Michael Caine
(1986) Sean Connery
Sean Connery
(1987) Kevin Kline
Kevin Kline
(1988) Denzel Washington
Denzel Washington
(1989) Joe Pesci
Joe Pesci
(1990) Jack Palance
Jack Palance
(1991) Gene Hackman
Gene Hackman
(1992) Tommy Lee Jones
Tommy Lee Jones
(1993) Martin Landau
Martin Landau
(1994) Kevin Spacey
Kevin Spacey
(1995) Cuba Gooding Jr.
Cuba Gooding Jr.
(1996) Robin Williams
Robin Williams
(1997) James Coburn
James Coburn
(1998) Michael Caine
Michael Caine
(1999) Benicio del Toro
Benicio del Toro
(2000)

2001–present

Jim Broadbent
Jim Broadbent
(2001) Chris Cooper
Chris Cooper
(2002) Tim Robbins
Tim Robbins
(2003) Morgan Freeman
Morgan Freeman
(2004) George Clooney
George Clooney
(2005) Alan Arkin
Alan Arkin
(2006) Javier Bardem
Javier Bardem
(2007) Heath Ledger
Heath Ledger
(2008) Christoph Waltz
Christoph Waltz
(2009) Christian Bale
Christian Bale
(2010) Christopher Plummer
Christopher Plummer
(2011) Christoph Waltz
Christoph Waltz
(2012) Jared Leto
Jared Leto
(2013) J. K. Simmons
J. K. Simmons
(2014) Mark Rylance
Mark Rylance
(2015) Mahershala Ali
Mahershala Ali
(2016) Sam Rockwell
Sam Rockwell
(2017)

v t e

BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role

1952–1967

Ralph Richardson
Ralph Richardson
British, Marlon Brando
Marlon Brando
Foreign (1952) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
British, Marlon Brando
Marlon Brando
Foreign (1953) Kenneth More
Kenneth More
British, Marlon Brando
Marlon Brando
Foreign (1954) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
British, Ernest Borgnine
Ernest Borgnine
Foreign (1955) Peter Finch
Peter Finch
British, François Périer
François Périer
Foreign (1956) Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
British, Henry Fonda
Henry Fonda
Foreign (1957) Trevor Howard
Trevor Howard
British, Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
Foreign (1958) Peter Sellers
Peter Sellers
British, Jack Lemmon
Jack Lemmon
Foreign (1959) Peter Finch
Peter Finch
British, Jack Lemmon
Jack Lemmon
Foreign (1960) Peter Finch
Peter Finch
British, Paul Newman
Paul Newman
Foreign (1961) Peter O'Toole
Peter O'Toole
British, Burt Lancaster
Burt Lancaster
Foreign (1962) Dirk Bogarde
Dirk Bogarde
British, Marcello Mastroianni
Marcello Mastroianni
Foreign (1963) Richard Attenborough
Richard Attenborough
British, Marcello Mastroianni
Marcello Mastroianni
Foreign (1964) Dirk Bogarde
Dirk Bogarde
British, Lee Marvin
Lee Marvin
Foreign (1965) Richard Burton
Richard Burton
British, Rod Steiger
Rod Steiger
Foreign (1966) Paul Scofield
Paul Scofield
British, Rod Steiger
Rod Steiger
Foreign (1967)

1968–present

Spencer Tracy
Spencer Tracy
(1968) Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
(1969) Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(1970) Peter Finch
Peter Finch
(1971) Gene Hackman
Gene Hackman
(1972) Walter Matthau
Walter Matthau
(1973) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1974) Al Pacino
Al Pacino
(1975) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1976) Peter Finch
Peter Finch
(1977) Richard Dreyfuss
Richard Dreyfuss
(1978) Jack Lemmon
Jack Lemmon
(1979) John Hurt
John Hurt
(1980) Burt Lancaster
Burt Lancaster
(1981) Ben Kingsley
Ben Kingsley
(1982) Michael Caine
Michael Caine
/ Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
(1983) Haing S. Ngor
Haing S. Ngor
(1984) William Hurt
William Hurt
(1985) Bob Hoskins
Bob Hoskins
(1986) Sean Connery
Sean Connery
(1987) John Cleese
John Cleese
(1988) Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
(1989) Philippe Noiret
Philippe Noiret
(1990) Anthony Hopkins
Anthony Hopkins
(1991) Robert Downey Jr.
Robert Downey Jr.
(1992) Anthony Hopkins
Anthony Hopkins
(1993) Hugh Grant
Hugh Grant
(1994) Nigel Hawthorne (1995) Geoffrey Rush
Geoffrey Rush
(1996) Robert Carlyle
Robert Carlyle
(1997) Roberto Benigni
Roberto Benigni
(1998) Kevin Spacey
Kevin Spacey
(1999) Jamie Bell
Jamie Bell
(2000) Russell Crowe
Russell Crowe
(2001) Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
(2002) Bill Murray
Bill Murray
(2003) Jamie Foxx
Jamie Foxx
(2004) Philip Seymour Hoffman
Philip Seymour Hoffman
(2005) Forest Whitaker
Forest Whitaker
(2006) Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
(2007) Mickey Rourke
Mickey Rourke
(2008) Colin Firth
Colin Firth
(2009) Colin Firth
Colin Firth
(2010) Jean Dujardin
Jean Dujardin
(2011) Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
(2012) Chiwetel Ejiofor
Chiwetel Ejiofor
(2013) Eddie Redmayne
Eddie Redmayne
(2014) Leonardo DiCaprio
Leonardo DiCaprio
(2015) Casey Affleck
Casey Affleck
(2016) Gary Oldman
Gary Oldman
(2017)

v t e

BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role

Ian Holm
Ian Holm
(1968) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1969) Colin Welland (1970) Edward Fox (1971) Ben Johnson (1972) Arthur Lowe
Arthur Lowe
(1973) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1974) Fred Astaire
Fred Astaire
(1975) Brad Dourif
Brad Dourif
(1976) Edward Fox (1977) John Hurt
John Hurt
(1978) Robert Duvall
Robert Duvall
(1979) Ian Holm
Ian Holm
(1981) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1982) Denholm Elliott
Denholm Elliott
(1983) Denholm Elliott
Denholm Elliott
(1984) Denholm Elliott
Denholm Elliott
(1985) Ray McAnally (1986) Daniel Auteuil
Daniel Auteuil
(1987) Michael Palin
Michael Palin
(1988) Ray McAnally (1989) Salvatore Cascio (1990) Alan Rickman
Alan Rickman
(1991) Gene Hackman
Gene Hackman
(1992) Ralph Fiennes
Ralph Fiennes
(1993) Samuel L. Jackson
Samuel L. Jackson
(1994) Tim Roth
Tim Roth
(1995) Paul Scofield
Paul Scofield
(1996) Tom Wilkinson
Tom Wilkinson
(1997) Geoffrey Rush
Geoffrey Rush
(1998) Jude Law
Jude Law
(1999) Benicio del Toro
Benicio del Toro
(2000) Jim Broadbent
Jim Broadbent
(2001) Christopher Walken
Christopher Walken
(2002) Bill Nighy
Bill Nighy
(2003) Clive Owen
Clive Owen
(2004) Jake Gyllenhaal
Jake Gyllenhaal
(2005) Alan Arkin
Alan Arkin
(2006) Javier Bardem
Javier Bardem
(2007) Heath Ledger
Heath Ledger
(2008) Christoph Waltz
Christoph Waltz
(2009) Geoffrey Rush
Geoffrey Rush
(2010) Christopher Plummer
Christopher Plummer
(2011) Christoph Waltz
Christoph Waltz
(2012) Barkhad Abdi
Barkhad Abdi
(2013) J. K. Simmons
J. K. Simmons
(2014) Mark Rylance
Mark Rylance
(2015) Dev Patel
Dev Patel
(2016) Sam Rockwell
Sam Rockwell
(2017)

v t e

BAFTA Fellowship recipients

1971–2000

Alfred Hitchcock
Alfred Hitchcock
(1971) Freddie Young (1972) Grace Wyndham Goldie (1973) David Lean
David Lean
(1974) Jacques Cousteau
Jacques Cousteau
(1975) Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1976) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1976) Denis Forman (1977) Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
(1978) Lew Grade
Lew Grade
(1979) Huw Wheldon
Huw Wheldon
(1979) David Attenborough
David Attenborough
(1980) John Huston
John Huston
(1980) Abel Gance
Abel Gance
(1981) Michael Powell
Michael Powell
& Emeric Pressburger
Emeric Pressburger
(1981) Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
(1982) Richard Attenborough
Richard Attenborough
(1983) Hugh Greene (1984) Sam Spiegel
Sam Spiegel
(1984) Jeremy Isaacs (1985) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1986) Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini
(1987) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1988) Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1989) Paul Fox (1990) Louis Malle
Louis Malle
(1991) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1992) David Plowright (1992) Sydney Samuelson (1993) Colin Young (1993) Michael Grade
Michael Grade
(1994) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1995) Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
(1996) Ronald Neame
Ronald Neame
(1996) John Schlesinger
John Schlesinger
(1996) Maggie Smith
Maggie Smith
(1996) Woody Allen
Woody Allen
(1997) Steven Bochco
Steven Bochco
(1997) Julie Christie
Julie Christie
(1997) Oswald Morris (1997) Harold Pinter
Harold Pinter
(1997) David Rose (1997) Sean Connery
Sean Connery
(1998) Bill Cotton
Bill Cotton
(1998) Eric Morecambe
Eric Morecambe
& Ernie Wise
Ernie Wise
(1999) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1999) Michael Caine
Michael Caine
(2000) Stanley Kubrick
Stanley Kubrick
(2000) Peter Bazalgette
Peter Bazalgette
(2000)

2001–present

Albert Finney
Albert Finney
(2001) John Thaw
John Thaw
(2001) Judi Dench
Judi Dench
(2001) Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(2002) Merchant Ivory Productions (2002) Andrew Davies (2002) John Mills
John Mills
(2002) Saul Zaentz
Saul Zaentz
(2003) David Jason (2003) John Boorman
John Boorman
(2004) Roger Graef (2004) John Barry (2005) David Frost
David Frost
(2005) David Puttnam
David Puttnam
(2006) Ken Loach
Ken Loach
(2006) Anne V. Coates (2007) Richard Curtis
Richard Curtis
(2007) Will Wright (2007) Anthony Hopkins
Anthony Hopkins
(2008) Bruce Forsyth
Bruce Forsyth
(2008) Dawn French
Dawn French
& Jennifer Saunders
Jennifer Saunders
(2009) Terry Gilliam
Terry Gilliam
(2009) Nolan Bushnell
Nolan Bushnell
(2009) Vanessa Redgrave
Vanessa Redgrave
(2010) Shigeru Miyamoto
Shigeru Miyamoto
(2010) Melvyn Bragg
Melvyn Bragg
(2010) Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
(2011) Peter Molyneux
Peter Molyneux
(2011) Trevor McDonald (2011) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(2012) Rolf Harris
Rolf Harris
(2012) Alan Parker
Alan Parker
(2013) Gabe Newell
Gabe Newell
(2013) Michael Palin
Michael Palin
(2013) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(2014) Rockstar Games
Rockstar Games
(2014) Julie Walters
Julie Walters
(2014) Mike Leigh
Mike Leigh
(2015) David Braben (2015) Jon Snow (2015) Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
(2016) John Carmack
John Carmack
(2016) Ray Galton & Alan Simpson (2016) Mel Brooks
Mel Brooks
(2017) Joanna Lumley
Joanna Lumley
(2017) Ridley Scott
Ridley Scott
(2018)

v t e

Drama Desk Award for Unique Theatrical Experience

The Norman Conquests (1976) No Man's Land (1977) Miss Margarida's Way (1978) An Evening With Quentin Crisp
Quentin Crisp
(1979) Request Concert (1981) Whistler (1982) La Tragedie de Carmen
Carmen
(1983) The Garden of Earthly Delights (1985) The Search for Signs of Intelligent Life in the Universe
The Search for Signs of Intelligent Life in the Universe
(1986) Largely New York (1989) Nouvelle Expérience
Nouvelle Expérience
(1991) Tubes (1992) Fool Moon (1993) Stomp (1994) The Waste Land
The Waste Land
(1997) Quidam
Quidam
(1998) Swan Lake (1999) Charlie Victor Romeo
Romeo
(2000) Mnemonic (2001) The Exonerated (2003) Loud Mouth (2004) Slava's Snowshow
Slava's Snowshow
(2005) Christine Jorgensen Reveals
Christine Jorgensen Reveals
(2006) Edward Scissorhands (2007) The 39 Steps (2008) Celebrity Autobiography: In Their Own Words (2009) Love, Loss, and What I Wore
Love, Loss, and What I Wore
(2010) Sleep No More (2011) Gob Squad's Kitchen (You've Never Had It So Good) (2012) Totem (2013) Cirkopolis (2014) Queen of the Night (2015) That Physics Show (2016) The Strange Undoing of Prudencia Hart (2017)

v t e

Drama League's Distinguished Performance Award

Katharine Cornell
Katharine Cornell
(1935) Helen Hayes
Helen Hayes
(1936) Maurice Evans (1937) Cedric Hardwicke
Cedric Hardwicke
(1938) Raymond Massey
Raymond Massey
(1939) Paul Muni
Paul Muni
(1940) Paul Lukas
Paul Lukas
(1941) Judith Evelyn
Judith Evelyn
(1942) Alfred Lunt
Alfred Lunt
(1943) Lynn Fontanne
Lynn Fontanne
(1944) Mady Christians
Mady Christians
(1945) Louis Calhern
Louis Calhern
(1946) Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1947) Judith Anderson
Judith Anderson
(1948) Robert Morley
Robert Morley
(1949) Grace George
Grace George
(1950) Claude Rains
Claude Rains
(1951) Julie Harris (1952) Shirley Booth
Shirley Booth
(1953) Josephine Hull (1954) Viveca Lindfors
Viveca Lindfors
(1955) David Wayne
David Wayne
(1956) Eli Wallach
Eli Wallach
(1957) Ralph Bellamy
Ralph Bellamy
(1958) Cyril Ritchard
Cyril Ritchard
(1959) Jessica Tandy
Jessica Tandy
(1960) Hume Cronyn
Hume Cronyn
(1961) Paul Scofield
Paul Scofield
(1962) Charles Boyer
Charles Boyer
(1963) Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1964) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1965) Richard Kiley
Richard Kiley
(1966) Rosemary Harris
Rosemary Harris
(1967) Zoe Caldwell (1968) Alec McCowen
Alec McCowen
(1969) James Stewart
James Stewart
(1970) Anthony Quayle
Anthony Quayle
(1971) Eileen Atkins / Claire Bloom
Claire Bloom
(1972) Alan Bates
Alan Bates
(1973) Christopher Plummer
Christopher Plummer
(1974) John Wood (1975) Eva Le Gallienne
Eva Le Gallienne
(1976) Tom Courtenay
Tom Courtenay
(1977) Frank Langella
Frank Langella
(1978) Frances Sternhagen
Frances Sternhagen
(1979) Roy Scheider
Roy Scheider
(1980) Ian McKellen
Ian McKellen
(1981) Milo O'Shea
Milo O'Shea
(1982) Edward Herrmann
Edward Herrmann
/ Kate Nelligan (1983) Jeremy Irons
Jeremy Irons
(1984) Derek Jacobi
Derek Jacobi
(1985) Bernadette Peters
Bernadette Peters
(1986) James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones
(1987) John Lithgow
John Lithgow
(1988) Pauline Collins
Pauline Collins
(1989) Robert Morse
Robert Morse
(1990) Stockard Channing
Stockard Channing
(1991) Glenn Close
Glenn Close
(1992) Stephen Rea
Stephen Rea
(1993) Sam Waterston
Sam Waterston
(1994) Cherry Jones
Cherry Jones
(1995) Uta Hagen
Uta Hagen
(1996) Charles Durning
Charles Durning
/ Bebe Neuwirth
Bebe Neuwirth
(1997) Brian Stokes Mitchell
Brian Stokes Mitchell
(1998) Kathleen Chalfant (1999) Eileen Heckart (2000) Mary-Louise Parker
Mary-Louise Parker
/ Gary Sinise
Gary Sinise
(2001) Liam Neeson
Liam Neeson
(2002) Harvey Fierstein
Harvey Fierstein
(2003) Hugh Jackman
Hugh Jackman
(2004) Norbert Leo Butz
Norbert Leo Butz
(2005) Christine Ebersole
Christine Ebersole
(2006) Liev Schreiber
Liev Schreiber
(2007) Patti LuPone
Patti LuPone
(2008) Geoffrey Rush
Geoffrey Rush
(2009) Alfred Molina
Alfred Molina
(2010) Mark Rylance
Mark Rylance
(2011) Audra McDonald
Audra McDonald
(2012) Nathan Lane
Nathan Lane
(2013) Neil Patrick Harris
Neil Patrick Harris
(2014) Chita Rivera
Chita Rivera
(2015) Lin-Manuel Miranda
Lin-Manuel Miranda
(2016) Ben Platt (2017)

v t e

Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Limited Series or Movie

Robert Cummings
Robert Cummings
(1955) Lloyd Nolan
Lloyd Nolan
(1956) Jack Palance
Jack Palance
(1957) Peter Ustinov
Peter Ustinov
(1958) Fred Astaire
Fred Astaire
(1959) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1960) Maurice Evans (1961) Peter Falk
Peter Falk
(1962) Trevor Howard
Trevor Howard
(1963) Jack Klugman
Jack Klugman
(1964) Alfred Lunt
Alfred Lunt
(1965) Cliff Robertson
Cliff Robertson
(1966) Peter Ustinov
Peter Ustinov
(1967) Melvyn Douglas
Melvyn Douglas
(1968) Paul Scofield
Paul Scofield
(1969) Peter Ustinov
Peter Ustinov
(1970) George C. Scott
George C. Scott
(1971) Keith Michell
Keith Michell
(1972) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1973) Anthony Murphy (1973) Hal Holbrook
Hal Holbrook
(1974) William Holden
William Holden
(1974) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1975) Peter Falk
Peter Falk
(1975) Anthony Hopkins
Anthony Hopkins
(1976) Hal Holbrook
Hal Holbrook
(1976) Ed Flanders
Ed Flanders
(1977) Christopher Plummer
Christopher Plummer
(1977) Fred Astaire
Fred Astaire
(1978) Michael Moriarty (1978) Peter Strauss (1979) Powers Boothe
Powers Boothe
(1980) Anthony Hopkins
Anthony Hopkins
(1981) Mickey Rooney
Mickey Rooney
(1982) Tommy Lee Jones
Tommy Lee Jones
(1983) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1984) Richard Crenna
Richard Crenna
(1985) Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
(1986) James Woods
James Woods
(1987) Jason Robards
Jason Robards
(1988) James Woods
James Woods
(1989) Hume Cronyn
Hume Cronyn
(1990) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1991) Beau Bridges
Beau Bridges
(1992) Robert Morse
Robert Morse
(1993) Hume Cronyn
Hume Cronyn
(1994) Raúl Juliá
Raúl Juliá
(1995) Alan Rickman
Alan Rickman
(1996) Armand Assante
Armand Assante
(1997) Gary Sinise
Gary Sinise
(1998) Stanley Tucci
Stanley Tucci
(1999) Jack Lemmon
Jack Lemmon
(2000) Kenneth Branagh
Kenneth Branagh
(2001) Albert Finney
Albert Finney
(2002) William H. Macy
William H. Macy
(2003) Al Pacino
Al Pacino
(2004) Geoffrey Rush
Geoffrey Rush
(2005) Andre Braugher
Andre Braugher
(2006) Robert Duvall
Robert Duvall
(2007) Paul Giamatti
Paul Giamatti
(2008) Brendan Gleeson
Brendan Gleeson
(2009) Al Pacino
Al Pacino
(2010) Barry Pepper
Barry Pepper
(2011) Kevin Costner
Kevin Costner
(2012) Michael Douglas
Michael Douglas
(2013) Benedict Cumberbatch
Benedict Cumberbatch
(2014) Richard Jenkins
Richard Jenkins
(2015) Courtney B. Vance
Courtney B. Vance
(2016) Riz Ahmed
Riz Ahmed
(2017)

v t e

Evening Standard Theatre Award for Best Actor

1955-1959

Richard Burton
Richard Burton
(1955) Paul Scofield
Paul Scofield
(1956) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1957) Michael Redgrave
Michael Redgrave
(1958) Eric Porter (1959)

1960-1969

Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1960) Christopher Plummer
Christopher Plummer
(1961) Paul Scofield
Paul Scofield
(1962) Michael Redgrave
Michael Redgrave
(1963) Nicol Williamson
Nicol Williamson
(1964) Ian Holm
Ian Holm
(1965) Albert Finney
Albert Finney
(1966) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1967) Alec McCowen
Alec McCowen
(1968) Nicol Williamson
Nicol Williamson
(1969)

1970–1979

John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1970) Alan Bates
Alan Bates
(1971) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1972) Alec McCowen
Alec McCowen
(1973) John Wood (1974) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1975) Albert Finney
Albert Finney
(1976) Donald Sinden
Donald Sinden
(1977) Alan Howard (1978) Warren Mitchell
Warren Mitchell
(1979)

1980–1989

Tom Courtenay
Tom Courtenay
(1980) Alan Howard (1981) Alec McCowen
Alec McCowen
(1982) Derek Jacobi
Derek Jacobi
(1983) Ian McKellen
Ian McKellen
(1984) Antony Sher (1985) Albert Finney
Albert Finney
(1986) Michael Gambon
Michael Gambon
(1987) Eric Porter (1988) Ian McKellen
Ian McKellen
(1989)

1990–1999

Richard Harris
Richard Harris
(1990) John Wood (1991) Nigel Hawthorne (1992) Ian Holm
Ian Holm
(1993) Tom Courtenay
Tom Courtenay
(1994) Michael Gambon
Michael Gambon
(1995) Paul Scofield
Paul Scofield
(1996) Ian Holm
Ian Holm
(1997) Kevin Spacey
Kevin Spacey
(1998) Stephen Dillane
Stephen Dillane
(1999)

2000–2009

Simon Russell Beale
Simon Russell Beale
(2000) Alex Jennings (2001) Simon Russell Beale
Simon Russell Beale
(2002) Michael Sheen
Michael Sheen
(2003) Richard Griffiths
Richard Griffiths
(2004) Simon Russell Beale
Simon Russell Beale
(2005) Rufus Sewell
Rufus Sewell
(2006) Patrick Stewart
Patrick Stewart
(2007) Chiwetel Ejiofor
Chiwetel Ejiofor
(2008) Mark Rylance
Mark Rylance
(2009)

2010–9999

Rory Kinnear
Rory Kinnear
(2010) Benedict Cumberbatch
Benedict Cumberbatch
and Jonny Lee Miller
Jonny Lee Miller
(2011) Simon Russell Beale
Simon Russell Beale
(2012) Adrian Lester and Rory Kinnear
Rory Kinnear
(2013) Tom Hiddleston
Tom Hiddleston
(2014) James McAvoy
James McAvoy
(2015) Ralph Fiennes
Ralph Fiennes
(2016) Andrew Garfield
Andrew Garfield
(2017)

v t e

Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture

Akim Tamiroff
Akim Tamiroff
(1943) Barry Fitzgerald
Barry Fitzgerald
(1944) J. Carrol Naish
J. Carrol Naish
(1945) Clifton Webb
Clifton Webb
(1946) Edmund Gwenn
Edmund Gwenn
(1947) Walter Huston
Walter Huston
(1948) James Whitmore
James Whitmore
(1949) Edmund Gwenn
Edmund Gwenn
(1950) Peter Ustinov
Peter Ustinov
(1951) Millard Mitchell
Millard Mitchell
(1952) Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
(1953) Edmond O'Brien
Edmond O'Brien
(1954) Arthur Kennedy
Arthur Kennedy
(1955) Earl Holliman
Earl Holliman
(1956) Red Buttons
Red Buttons
(1957) Burl Ives
Burl Ives
(1958) Stephen Boyd
Stephen Boyd
(1959) Sal Mineo
Sal Mineo
(1960) George Chakiris
George Chakiris
(1961) Omar Sharif
Omar Sharif
(1962) John Huston
John Huston
(1963) Edmond O'Brien
Edmond O'Brien
(1964) Oskar Werner
Oskar Werner
(1965) Richard Attenborough
Richard Attenborough
(1966) Richard Attenborough
Richard Attenborough
(1967) Daniel Massey (1968) Gig Young
Gig Young
(1969) John Mills
John Mills
(1970) Ben Johnson (1971) Joel Grey
Joel Grey
(1972) John Houseman
John Houseman
(1973) Fred Astaire
Fred Astaire
(1974) Richard Benjamin
Richard Benjamin
(1975) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1976) Peter Firth
Peter Firth
(1977) John Hurt
John Hurt
(1978) Melvyn Douglas/ Robert Duvall
Robert Duvall
(1979) Timothy Hutton
Timothy Hutton
(1980) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1981) Louis Gossett Jr.
Louis Gossett Jr.
(1982) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1983) Haing S. Ngor
Haing S. Ngor
(1984) Klaus Maria Brandauer
Klaus Maria Brandauer
(1985) Tom Berenger
Tom Berenger
(1986) Sean Connery
Sean Connery
(1987) Martin Landau
Martin Landau
(1988) Denzel Washington
Denzel Washington
(1989) Bruce Davison
Bruce Davison
(1990) Jack Palance
Jack Palance
(1991) Gene Hackman
Gene Hackman
(1992) Tommy Lee Jones
Tommy Lee Jones
(1993) Martin Landau
Martin Landau
(1994) Brad Pitt
Brad Pitt
(1995) Edward Norton
Edward Norton
(1996) Burt Reynolds
Burt Reynolds
(1997) Ed Harris
Ed Harris
(1998) Tom Cruise
Tom Cruise
(1999) Benicio del Toro
Benicio del Toro
(2000) Jim Broadbent
Jim Broadbent
(2001) Chris Cooper
Chris Cooper
(2002) Tim Robbins
Tim Robbins
(2003) Clive Owen
Clive Owen
(2004) George Clooney
George Clooney
(2005) Eddie Murphy
Eddie Murphy
(2006) Javier Bardem
Javier Bardem
(2007) Heath Ledger
Heath Ledger
(2008) Christoph Waltz
Christoph Waltz
(2009) Christian Bale
Christian Bale
(2010) Christopher Plummer
Christopher Plummer
(2011) Christoph Waltz
Christoph Waltz
(2012) Jared Leto
Jared Leto
(2013) J. K. Simmons
J. K. Simmons
(2014) Sylvester Stallone
Sylvester Stallone
(2015) Aaron Taylor-Johnson
Aaron Taylor-Johnson
(2016) Sam Rockwell
Sam Rockwell
(2017)

v t e

Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Supporting Actor – Series, Miniseries or Television Film

James Brolin
James Brolin
(1970) Edward Asner (1971) James Brolin
James Brolin
(1972) McLean Stevenson
McLean Stevenson
(1973) Harvey Korman
Harvey Korman
(1974) Edward Asner/ Tim Conway
Tim Conway
(1975) Edward Asner (1976) Norman Fell
Norman Fell
(1978) Danny DeVito/ Vic Tayback
Vic Tayback
(1979) Pat Harrington Jr./ Vic Tayback
Vic Tayback
(1980) John Hillerman
John Hillerman
(1981) Lionel Stander
Lionel Stander
(1982) Richard Kiley
Richard Kiley
(1983) Paul Le Mat (1984) Edward James Olmos
Edward James Olmos
(1985) Jan Niklas (1986) Rutger Hauer
Rutger Hauer
(1987) Barry Bostwick/ John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1988) Dean Stockwell
Dean Stockwell
(1989) Charles Durning
Charles Durning
(1990) Louis Gossett, Jr.
Louis Gossett, Jr.
(1991) Maximilian Schell
Maximilian Schell
(1992) Beau Bridges
Beau Bridges
(1993) Edward James Olmos
Edward James Olmos
(1994) Donald Sutherland
Donald Sutherland
(1995) Ian McKellen
Ian McKellen
(1996) George C. Scott
George C. Scott
(1997) Don Cheadle/ Gregory Peck
Gregory Peck
(1998) Peter Fonda
Peter Fonda
(1999) Robert Downey Jr.
Robert Downey Jr.
(2000) Stanley Tucci
Stanley Tucci
(2001) Donald Sutherland
Donald Sutherland
(2002) Jeffrey Wright
Jeffrey Wright
(2003) William Shatner
William Shatner
(2004) Paul Newman
Paul Newman
(2005) Jeremy Irons
Jeremy Irons
(2006) Jeremy Piven
Jeremy Piven
(2007) Tom Wilkinson
Tom Wilkinson
(2008) John Lithgow
John Lithgow
(2009) Chris Colfer
Chris Colfer
(2010) Peter Dinklage
Peter Dinklage
(2011) Ed Harris
Ed Harris
(2012) Jon Voight
Jon Voight
(2013) Matt Bomer
Matt Bomer
(2014) Christian Slater
Christian Slater
(2015) Hugh Laurie
Hugh Laurie
(2016) Alexander Skarsgård
Alexander Skarsgård
(2017)

v t e

Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album

1959−1980

Stan Freberg
Stan Freberg
– The Best of the Stan Freberg
Stan Freberg
Shows (1959) Carl Sandburg
Carl Sandburg
Lincoln Portrait (1960) Robert Bialek (producer) – FDR Speaks (1961) Leonard Bernstein
Leonard Bernstein
– Humor in Music (1962) Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
– The Story-Teller: A Session With Charles Laughton (1963) Edward Albee
Edward Albee
(playwright) – Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(1964) That Was the Week That Was
That Was the Week That Was
BBC
BBC
Tribute to John F. Kennedy (1965) Goddard Lieberson
Goddard Lieberson
(producer) – John F. Kennedy - As We Remember Him (1966) Edward R. Murrow
Edward R. Murrow
Edward R. Murrow
Edward R. Murrow
- A Reporter Remembers, Vol. I The War Years (1967) Everett Dirksen
Everett Dirksen
– Gallant Men (1968) Rod McKuen
Rod McKuen
– Lonesome Cities (1969) Art Linkletter
Art Linkletter
& Diane Linkletter – We Love You Call Collect (1970) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
– Why I Oppose the War in Vietnam (1971) Les Crane
Les Crane
– Desiderata (1972) Bruce Botnick (producer) – Lenny performed by the original Broadway cast (1973) Richard Harris
Richard Harris
Jonathan Livingston Seagull (1974) Peter Cook
Peter Cook
and Dudley Moore
Dudley Moore
– Good Evening (1975) James Whitmore
James Whitmore
Give 'em Hell, Harry!
Give 'em Hell, Harry!
(1976) Henry Fonda, Helen Hayes, James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones
and Orson Welles
Orson Welles
- Great American Documents (1977) Julie Harris – The Belle of Amherst
The Belle of Amherst
(1978) Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
Original Motion Picture Soundtrack (1979) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
– Ages of Man - Readings From Shakespeare
Shakespeare
(1980)

1981−2000

Pat Carroll – Gertrude Stein, Gertrude Stein, Gertrude Stein
Gertrude Stein
(1981) Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Donovan's Brain
Donovan's Brain
(1982) Tom Voegeli (producer) – Raiders of the Lost Ark
Raiders of the Lost Ark
- The Movie on Record performed by Various Artists (1983) William Warfield
William Warfield
Lincoln Portrait (1984) Ben Kingsley
Ben Kingsley
– The Words of Gandhi (1985) Mike Berniker (producer) & the original Broadway cast – Ma Rainey's Black Bottom (1986) Johnny Cash, Jerry Lee Lewis, Chips Moman, Ricky Nelson, Roy Orbison, Carl Perkins
Carl Perkins
and Sam Phillips
Sam Phillips
– Interviews From the Class of '55 Recording Sessions (1987) Garrison Keillor
Garrison Keillor
Lake Wobegon Days (1988) Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
– Speech by Rev. Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
(1989) Gilda Radner
Gilda Radner
– It's Always Something (1990) George Burns
George Burns
– Gracie: A Love Story (1991) Ken Burns
Ken Burns
– The Civil War (1992) Earvin "Magic" Johnson and Robert O'Keefe – What You Can Do to Avoid AIDS (1993) Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou
On the Pulse of Morning
On the Pulse of Morning
(1994) Henry Rollins
Henry Rollins
– Get in the Van (1995) Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou
– Phenomenal Woman (1996) Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
It Takes a Village (1997) Charles Kuralt
Charles Kuralt
– Charles Kuralt's Spring (1998) Christopher Reeve
Christopher Reeve
Still Me
Still Me
(1999) LeVar Burton
LeVar Burton
– The Autobiography of Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(2000)

2001−present

Sidney Poitier, Rick Harris & John Runnette (producers) – The Measure of a Man: A Spiritual Autobiography (2001) Quincy Jones, Jeffrey S. Thomas, Steven Strassman (engineers) and Elisa Shokoff (producer) – Q: The Autobiography of Quincy Jones (2002) Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou
and Charles B. Potter (producer) – A Song Flung Up to Heaven / Robin Williams, Nathaniel Kunkel (engineer/mixer) and Peter Asher (producer) – Live 2002 (2003) Al Franken
Al Franken
and Paul Ruben (producer) – Lies and the Lying Liars Who Tell Them (2004) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
– My Life (2005) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Dreams from My Father
Dreams from My Father
(2006) Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
– Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis / Ossie Davis and Ruby Dee
Ruby Dee
- With Ossie and Ruby (2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
and Jacob Bronstein (producer) – The Audacity of Hope (2008) Beau Bridges, Cynthia Nixon
Cynthia Nixon
and Blair Underwood
Blair Underwood
– An Inconvenient Truth by Al Gore
Al Gore
(2009) Michael J. Fox
Michael J. Fox
– Always Looking Up (2010) Jon Stewart
Jon Stewart
– The Daily Show with Jon Stewart
Jon Stewart
Presents Earth (The Audiobook) (2011) Betty White
Betty White
– If You Ask Me (And Of Course You Won't) (2012) Janis Ian
Janis Ian
– Society's Child (2013) Stephen Colbert
Stephen Colbert
– America Again: Re-becoming The Greatness We Never Weren't (2014) Joan Rivers
Joan Rivers
– Diary of a Mad Diva (2015) Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
– A Full Life: Reflections at 90 (2016) Carol Burnett
Carol Burnett
– In Such Good Company: Eleven Years of Laughter, Mayhem, and Fun in the Sandbox (2017) Carrie Fisher
Carrie Fisher
The Princess Diarist
The Princess Diarist
(2018)

v t e

Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actor

Jason Robards
Jason Robards
(1977) Robert Morley
Robert Morley
(1978) Melvyn Douglas
Melvyn Douglas
(1979) Timothy Hutton
Timothy Hutton
(1980) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1981) John Lithgow
John Lithgow
(1982) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1983) Adolph Caesar (1984) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1985) Dennis Hopper
Dennis Hopper
(1986) Morgan Freeman
Morgan Freeman
(1987) Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1988) Danny Aiello
Danny Aiello
(1989) Joe Pesci
Joe Pesci
(1990) Michael Lerner (1991) Gene Hackman
Gene Hackman
(1992) Tommy Lee Jones
Tommy Lee Jones
(1993) Martin Landau
Martin Landau
(1994) Don Cheadle
Don Cheadle
(1995) Edward Norton
Edward Norton
(1996) Burt Reynolds
Burt Reynolds
(1997) Bill Murray
Bill Murray
/ Billy Bob Thornton
Billy Bob Thornton
(1998) Christopher Plummer
Christopher Plummer
(1999) Willem Dafoe
Willem Dafoe
(2000) Jim Broadbent
Jim Broadbent
(2001) Chris Cooper
Chris Cooper
(2002) Bill Nighy
Bill Nighy
(2003) Thomas Haden Church
Thomas Haden Church
(2004) William Hurt
William Hurt
(2005) Michael Sheen
Michael Sheen
(2006) Vlad Ivanov (2007) Heath Ledger
Heath Ledger
(2008) Christoph Waltz
Christoph Waltz
(2009) Niels Arestrup
Niels Arestrup
(2010) Christopher Plummer
Christopher Plummer
(2011) Dwight Henry (2012) James Franco
James Franco
/ Jared Leto
Jared Leto
(2013) J. K. Simmons
J. K. Simmons
(2014) Michael Shannon
Michael Shannon
(2015) Mahershala Ali
Mahershala Ali
(2016) Willem Dafoe
Willem Dafoe
(2017)

v t e

National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Supporting Actor

Gene Hackman
Gene Hackman
(1967) Seymour Cassel
Seymour Cassel
(1968) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1969) Chief Dan George
Chief Dan George
(1970) Bruce Dern
Bruce Dern
(1971) Eddie Albert
Eddie Albert
/ Joel Grey
Joel Grey
(1972) Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro
(1973) Holger Löwenadler
Holger Löwenadler
(1974) Henry Gibson
Henry Gibson
(1975) Jason Robards
Jason Robards
(1976) Edward Fox (1977) Richard Farnsworth
Richard Farnsworth
/ Robert Morley
Robert Morley
(1978) Frederic Forrest
Frederic Forrest
(1979) Joe Pesci
Joe Pesci
(1980) Robert Preston (1981) Mickey Rourke
Mickey Rourke
(1982) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1983) John Malkovich
John Malkovich
(1984) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1985) Dennis Hopper
Dennis Hopper
(1986) Morgan Freeman
Morgan Freeman
(1987) Dean Stockwell
Dean Stockwell
(1988) Beau Bridges
Beau Bridges
(1989) Bruce Davison
Bruce Davison
(1990) Harvey Keitel
Harvey Keitel
(1991) Gene Hackman
Gene Hackman
(1992) Ralph Fiennes
Ralph Fiennes
(1993) Martin Landau
Martin Landau
(1994) Don Cheadle
Don Cheadle
(1995) Martin Donovan
Martin Donovan
/ Tony Shalhoub
Tony Shalhoub
(1996) Burt Reynolds
Burt Reynolds
(1997) Bill Murray
Bill Murray
(1998) Christopher Plummer
Christopher Plummer
(1999) Benicio del Toro
Benicio del Toro
(2000) Steve Buscemi
Steve Buscemi
(2001) Christopher Walken
Christopher Walken
(2002) Peter Sarsgaard
Peter Sarsgaard
(2003) Thomas Haden Church
Thomas Haden Church
(2004) Ed Harris
Ed Harris
(2005) Mark Wahlberg
Mark Wahlberg
(2006) Casey Affleck
Casey Affleck
(2007) Eddie Marsan
Eddie Marsan
(2008) Paul Schneider / Christoph Waltz
Christoph Waltz
(2009) Geoffrey Rush
Geoffrey Rush
(2010) Albert Brooks
Albert Brooks
(2011) Matthew McConaughey
Matthew McConaughey
(2012) James Franco
James Franco
(2013) J. K. Simmons
J. K. Simmons
(2014) Mark Rylance
Mark Rylance
(2015) Mahershala Ali
Mahershala Ali
(2016) Willem Dafoe
Willem Dafoe
(2017)

v t e

New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor

Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
(1935) Walter Huston
Walter Huston
(1936) Paul Muni
Paul Muni
(1937) James Cagney
James Cagney
(1938) James Stewart
James Stewart
(1939) Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1940) Gary Cooper
Gary Cooper
(1941) James Cagney
James Cagney
(1942) Paul Lukas
Paul Lukas
(1943) Barry Fitzgerald
Barry Fitzgerald
(1944) Ray Milland
Ray Milland
(1945) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1946) William Powell
William Powell
(1947) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1948) Broderick Crawford
Broderick Crawford
(1949) Gregory Peck
Gregory Peck
(1950) Arthur Kennedy
Arthur Kennedy
(1951) Ralph Richardson
Ralph Richardson
(1952) Burt Lancaster
Burt Lancaster
(1953) Marlon Brando
Marlon Brando
(1954) Ernest Borgnine
Ernest Borgnine
(1955) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
(1956) Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1957) David Niven
David Niven
(1958) James Stewart
James Stewart
(1959) Burt Lancaster
Burt Lancaster
(1960) Maximilian Schell
Maximilian Schell
(1961) No award (1962) Albert Finney
Albert Finney
(1963) Rex Harrison
Rex Harrison
(1964) Oskar Werner
Oskar Werner
(1965) Paul Scofield
Paul Scofield
(1966) Rod Steiger
Rod Steiger
(1967) Alan Arkin
Alan Arkin
(1968) Jon Voight
Jon Voight
(1969) George C. Scott
George C. Scott
(1970) Gene Hackman
Gene Hackman
(1971) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1972) Marlon Brando
Marlon Brando
(1973) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1974) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1975) Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro
(1976) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1977) Jon Voight
Jon Voight
(1978) Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
(1979) Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro
(1980) Burt Lancaster
Burt Lancaster
(1981) Ben Kingsley
Ben Kingsley
(1982) Robert Duvall
Robert Duvall
(1983) Steve Martin
Steve Martin
(1984) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1985) Bob Hoskins
Bob Hoskins
(1986) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1987) Jeremy Irons
Jeremy Irons
(1988) Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
(1989) Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro
(1990) Anthony Hopkins
Anthony Hopkins
(1991) Denzel Washington
Denzel Washington
(1992) David Thewlis
David Thewlis
(1993) Paul Newman
Paul Newman
(1994) Nicolas Cage
Nicolas Cage
(1995) Geoffrey Rush
Geoffrey Rush
(1996) Peter Fonda
Peter Fonda
(1997) Nick Nolte
Nick Nolte
(1998) Richard Farnsworth
Richard Farnsworth
(1999) Tom Hanks
Tom Hanks
(2000) Tom Wilkinson
Tom Wilkinson
(2001) Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
(2002) Bill Murray
Bill Murray
(2003) Paul Giamatti
Paul Giamatti
(2004) Heath Ledger
Heath Ledger
(2005) Forest Whitaker
Forest Whitaker
(2006) Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
(2007) Sean Penn
Sean Penn
(2008) George Clooney
George Clooney
(2009) Colin Firth
Colin Firth
(2010) Brad Pitt
Brad Pitt
(2011) Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
(2012) Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(2013) Timothy Spall
Timothy Spall
(2014) Michael Keaton
Michael Keaton
(2015) Casey Affleck
Casey Affleck
(2016) Timothée Chalamet
Timothée Chalamet
(2017)

v t e

Society of London Theatre Special
Special
Award

Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1979) Ralph Richardson
Ralph Richardson
(1980) Charles Wintour (1982) Joan Littlewood
Joan Littlewood
(1983) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1985) Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1988) Peggy Ashcroft
Peggy Ashcroft
(1991) Ninette de Valois
Ninette de Valois
(1992) Kenneth MacMillan (1993) Sam Wanamaker
Sam Wanamaker
(1994) Harold Pinter
Harold Pinter
(1996) Margaret Harris (1997) Ed Mirvish
Ed Mirvish
/ David Mirvish (1998) Peter Hall (1999) Rupert Rhymes (2002) Sam Mendes
Sam Mendes
(2003) Judi Dench
Judi Dench
(2004) Alan Bennett
Alan Bennett
(2005) Ian McKellen
Ian McKellen
(2006) John Tomlinson (2007) Andrew Lloyd Webber
Andrew Lloyd Webber
(2008) Alan Ayckbourn
Alan Ayckbourn
(2009) Maggie Smith
Maggie Smith
(2010) Stephen Sondheim
Stephen Sondheim
(2011) Monica Mason
Monica Mason
/ Tim Rice
Tim Rice
(2012) Michael Frayn / Gillian Lynne
Gillian Lynne
(2013) Nicholas Hytner & Nick Starr / Michael White (2014) Sylvie Guillem
Sylvie Guillem
/ Kevin Spacey
Kevin Spacey
(2015) Kenneth Branagh
Kenneth Branagh
(2017)

v t e

Tony Award for Best Direction of a Play

1940s

Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1947) Joshua Logan (1948) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1949)

1950s

José Ferrer
José Ferrer
(1952) Joshua Logan (1953) Alfred Lunt
Alfred Lunt
(1954) Robert Montgomery (1955) Tyrone Guthrie (1956) Vincent J. Donehue (1958) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1959)

1960s

Arthur Penn
Arthur Penn
(1960) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1961) Noel Willman
Noel Willman
(1962) Alan Schneider (1963) Mike Nichols
Mike Nichols
(1964) Mike Nichols
Mike Nichols
(1965) Peter Brook
Peter Brook
(1966) Peter Hall (1967) Mike Nichols
Mike Nichols
(1968) Peter Dews (1969)

1970s

Joseph Hardy (1970) Peter Brook
Peter Brook
(1971) Mike Nichols
Mike Nichols
(1972) A. J. Antoon (1973) José Quintero
José Quintero
(1974) John Dexter (1975) Ellis Rabb (1976) Gordon Davidson (1977) Melvin Bernhardt (1978) Jack Hofsiss (1979)

1980s

Vivian Matalon (1980) Peter Hall (1981) Trevor Nunn and John Caird (1982) Gene Saks (1983) Mike Nichols
Mike Nichols
(1984) Gene Saks (1985) Jerry Zaks
Jerry Zaks
(1986) Lloyd Richards (1987) John Dexter (1988) Jerry Zaks
Jerry Zaks
(1989)

1990s

Frank Galati (1990) Jerry Zaks
Jerry Zaks
(1991) Patrick Mason (1992) George C. Wolfe
George C. Wolfe
(1993) Stephen Daldry
Stephen Daldry
(1994) Gerald Gutierrez (1995) Gerald Gutierrez (1996) Anthony Page (1997) Garry Hynes (1998) Robert Falls (1999)

2000s

Michael Blakemore (2000) Daniel J. Sullivan (2001) Mary Zimmerman
Mary Zimmerman
(2002) Joe Mantello
Joe Mantello
(2003) Jack O'Brien (2004) Doug Hughes (2005) Nicholas Hytner (2006) Jack O'Brien (2007) Anna D. Shapiro (2008) Matthew Warchus
Matthew Warchus
(2009)

2010s

Michael Grandage (2010) Marianne Elliott and Tom Morris (2011) Mike Nichols
Mike Nichols
(2012) Pam MacKinnon (2013) Kenny Leon
Kenny Leon
(2014) Marianne Elliott (2015) Ivo van Hove
Ivo van Hove
(2016) Rebecca Taichman (2017)

v t e

People who have won Academy, Emmy, Grammy, and Tony Awards

listed by duration and year of completion

Competitive EGOTs

Richard Rodgers
Richard Rodgers
(1945–1962) Helen Hayes
Helen Hayes
(1932–1976) Rita Moreno
Rita Moreno
(1961–1977) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1961–1991) Audrey Hepburn
Audrey Hepburn
(1953–1994) Marvin Hamlisch
Marvin Hamlisch
(1973–1995) Jonathan Tunick (1977–1997) Mel Brooks
Mel Brooks
(1967–2001) Mike Nichols
Mike Nichols
(1964–2001) Whoopi Goldberg
Whoopi Goldberg
(1985–2002) Scott Rudin (1984–2012) Robert Lopez
Robert Lopez
(2004–2014)

Honorary recipients

Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
(1963–1970) Liza Minnelli
Liza Minnelli
(1965–1990) James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones
(1969–2011) Alan Menken
Alan Menken
(1989–2012) Harry Belafonte
Harry Belafonte
(1953–2014) Quincy Jones
Quincy Jones
(1964–2016)

Book:EGOT winners

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 12491400 LCCN: n80049919 ISNI: 0000 0001 2276 5328 GND: 134591968 SELIBR: 272032 SUDOC: 060256982 BNF: cb13894453g (data) BIBSYS: 90074474 MusicBrainz: cfd9af15-def1-4b21-b730-348a24469860 BNE: XX1259829 SN

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