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John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(/ˈdʌləs/; February 25, 1888 – May 24, 1959) was an American diplomat. A Republican, he served as United States Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
from 1953 to 1959. He was a significant figure in the early Cold War
Cold War
era, advocating an aggressive stance against communism throughout the world. Born in Washington, D.C., Dulles joined the New York City
New York City
law firm of Sullivan & Cromwell after graduating from George Washington University Law School. His grandfather, John W. Foster, and his uncle, Robert Lansing, both served as United States
United States
Secretary of State, while his brother, Allen Dulles, served as the Director of Central Intelligence from 1953 to 1961. John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
served on the War Industries Board during World War I
World War I
and he was a U.S. legal counsel at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. He became a member of the League of Free Nations Association, which supported American membership in the League of Nations. Dulles also helped design the Dawes Plan, which sought to stabilize Europe by reducing German war reparations. Dulles served as the chief foreign policy adviser to Thomas E. Dewey, the Republican presidential nominee in 1944 and 1948. He also helped draft the preamble to the United Nations Charter
United Nations Charter
and served as a delegate to the United Nations General Assembly. In 1949, Dewey appointed Dulles to fill the Senate vacancy caused by the resignation of Sen. Robert F. Wagner. He served for four months but left office after being defeated in a special election by Herbert H. Lehman. After Eisenhower won the 1952 presidential election, he chose Dulles as Secretary of State. As Secretary of State, Dulles concentrated on building and strengthening Cold War
Cold War
alliances, most prominently the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. He was the architect of the Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Treaty Organization, an anti-Communist defensive alliance between the United States
United States
and several nations in and near Southeast Asia. He also helped instigate the 1953 Iranian coup d'état and the 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état. He favored a strategy of massive retaliation in response to Soviet aggression. He advocated support of the French in their war against the Viet Minh in Indochina but rejected the Geneva Accords that France
France
and the communists agreed to, and instead supported South Vietnam after the Geneva Conference in 1954. Suffering from colon cancer, Dulles resigned from office in 1959 and died later that year.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Marriage and family 3 Career

3.1 Early career 3.2 1920s 3.3 1930s 3.4 1940s 3.5 1950–52 3.6 Secretary of State

4 Death and legacy 5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External links

Early life[edit] Born in Washington, D.C., he was one of five children and the eldest son born to Presbyterian minister Allen Macy Dulles and his wife, Edith (née Foster). His paternal grandfather, John Welsh Dulles, had been a Presbyterian missionary in India. His maternal grandfather, John W. Foster, doted on Dulles and his brother Allen, who would later become the director of the Central Intelligence Agency. The brothers attended public schools in Watertown, New York. Dulles attended Princeton University
Princeton University
and graduated as a member of Phi Beta Kappa in 1908.[1] At Princeton, Dulles competed on the American Whig-Cliosophic Society debate team.[2] He then attended the George Washington University Law School in Washington, D.C. Marriage and family[edit] Both his grandfather, Foster, and his uncle, Robert Lansing, the husband of Eleanor Foster, had held the position of Secretary of State. His younger brother, Allen Welsh Dulles, served as Director of Central Intelligence under Dwight D. Eisenhower, and his younger sister Eleanor Lansing Dulles was noted for her work in the successful reconstruction of the economy of post-war Europe during her twenty years with the State Department. On June 26, 1912, Dulles married Janet Pomeroy Avery (1891–1969), a first cousin of David Rockefeller.[3] They had two sons and a daughter. Their older son John W. F. Dulles (1913–2008) was a professor of history and specialist in Brazil
Brazil
at the University of Texas at Austin.[4] Their daughter Lillias Dulles Hinshaw (1914–1987) became a Presbyterian minister. Their son Avery Dulles (1918–2008) converted to Roman Catholicism, entered the Jesuit order, and became the first American theologian to be appointed a Cardinal. Career[edit] Early career[edit] Upon graduating from law school and passing the bar examination, Dulles joined the New York City
New York City
law firm of Sullivan & Cromwell, where he specialized in international law. After the start of World War I, Dulles tried to join the United States
United States
Army, but was rejected because of poor eyesight. Instead, Dulles received an Army commission as Major
Major
on the War Industries Board. Dulles later returned to Sullivan & Cromwell and became a partner with an international practice. In 1915, Dulles's uncle, Robert Lansing, the then-Secretary of State, recruited him to travel to Nicaragua, Costa Rica
Costa Rica
and Panama, ostensibly on Sullivan & Cromwell company business, but in reality to sound out Latin American heads of state on aiding the US war effort against Germany[citation needed]. Dulles advised Washington to support Costa Rica's dictator, Federico Tinoco, on the grounds that he was anti-German, and also encouraged Nicaragua's dictator, Emianiano Camorro, to issue a proclamation suspending diplomatic relations with Germany. In Panama, Dulles offered waiver of the tax imposed by the United States
United States
on the annual Canal fee, in exchange for a Panamanian declaration of war on Germany. 1920s[edit] In 1918, President Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
appointed Dulles as legal counsel to the United States
United States
delegation to the Versailles Peace Conference
Versailles Peace Conference
where he served under his uncle, Secretary of State Robert Lansing. Dulles made an early impression as a junior diplomat. While some recollections indicate he clearly and forcefully argued against imposing crushing reparations on Germany, other recollections indicate he ensured Germany's reparation payments would extend for decades as perceived leverage militating against future German borne hostilities.[citation needed] Afterwards, he served as a member of the War Reparations Committee at Wilson's request. He was also an early member, along with future First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, of the League of Free Nations Association, founded in 1918 and after 1923 known as the Foreign Policy Association, which supported American membership in the League of Nations. As a partner in Sullivan & Cromwell, Dulles expanded upon his late grandfather Foster's expertise, specializing in international finance. He played a major role in designing the Dawes Plan, which reduced German reparations payments and temporarily resolved the reparations issue by having American firms lend money to German states and private companies. Under that compromise, the money was invested and the profits sent as reparations to Britain and France, which used the funds to repay their own war loans from the U.S. In the 1920s Dulles was involved in setting up a billion dollars' worth of these loans. Dulles, a deeply religious man, attended numerous international conferences of churchmen during the 1920s and 1930s. In 1924, he was the defense counsel in the church trial of Rev. Harry Emerson Fosdick, who had been charged with heresy by opponents in his denomination (the event which sparked the continuing Fundamentalist–Modernist Controversy in the international Christian Churches over the literal interpretation of Scripture versus the newly developed "Historical-Critical" method including recent scientific and archeological discoveries). The case settled when Fosdick, a liberal Baptist, resigned his pulpit in the Presbyterian Church congregation, which he had never joined. 1930s[edit] After the Wall Street Crash of 1929, Dulles's previous practice brokering and documenting international loans ended. After 1931 Germany
Germany
stopped making some of its scheduled payments. In 1934 Germany unilaterally stopped payments on private debts of the sort that Dulles was handling In 1935, with the Nazis in power, Sullivan & Cromwell's junior partners forced Dulles to cut all business ties with Germany. Dulles was then prominent in the religious peace movement and an isolationist, but the junior partners were led by his brother Allen, so he reluctantly acceded to their wishes.[5][6] 1940s[edit] Dulles was a prominent Republican and a close associate of Gov. Thomas E. Dewey of New York, who became the Republican presidential nominee in the elections of 1944 and 1948. During the 1944 and 1948 campaigns Dulles served as Dewey's chief foreign policy adviser. In 1944, Dulles took an active role in establishing the Republican plank calling for the establishment of a Jewish commonwealth in Palestine.[7] In 1945, Dulles participated in the San Francisco Conference as an adviser to Arthur H. Vandenberg
Arthur H. Vandenberg
and helped draft the preamble to the United Nations Charter. He attended the United Nations General Assembly as a United States
United States
delegate in 1946, 1947 and 1950. Dulles strongly opposed the United States
United States
atomic attacks on Japan. In the immediate aftermath of the bombings he drafted a public statement that called for international control of nuclear energy under United Nations auspices. Dulles wrote:[8]

If we, as a professedly Christian nation, feel morally free to use atomic energy in that way, men elsewhere will accept that verdict. Atomic weapons will be looked upon as a normal part of the arsenal of war and the stage will be set for the sudden and final destruction of mankind.

Dulles never lost his anxiety about the destructive power of nuclear weapons, but his views on international control and on employing the threat of atomic attack changed in the face of the Berlin blockade, the Soviet detonation of an A-bomb, and the advent of the Korean war. These convinced him that the communist bloc was pursuing expansionist policies.[9] Governor Dewey appointed Dulles to the United States Senate
United States Senate
to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Democratic incumbent Sen. Robert F. Wagner, who resigned due to ill health. Dulles served from July 7 to November 8, 1949. He lost the 1949 special election to finish the term to Democratic nominee Herbert H. Lehman. In the late 1940s, as a general conceptual framework for contending with world communism, Dulles developed the policy known as rollback to serve as the Republican Party's alternative to the Democrats' containment model. It proposed taking the offensive to push Communism back rather than defensively containing it within its areas of control and influence.[10] 1950–52[edit] In 1950, Dulles published War or Peace, a critical analysis of the American policy of containment, which at the time the foreign policy elite in Washington favored, particularly in the Democratic administration of President Harry S. Truman, whose foreign policy Dulles criticized. Dulles instead advocated a policy of "liberation". Secretary of State[edit]

Dulles with U.S. President Eisenhower in 1956

When Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
became U.S. President in January 1953, Dulles was appointed and confirmed as his Secretary of State. As Secretary of State, Dulles still carried out the “containment” policy of neutralizing the Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
during the Korean War, which had been established by President Truman in the Treaty of Peace with Japan of 1951. Dulles also supervised the completion of the Japanese Peace Treaty, in which full independence was restored to Japan under United States
United States
terms.[11] As Secretary of State, Dulles concentrated on building up the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and forming other alliances (a phenomenon described as his "Pactomania") as part of his strategy of controlling Soviet expansion by threatening massive retaliation in the event of a war. In the 1950s, he worked alongside people in Vietnam, and others, to reduce French influence in Vietnam as well as asking the United States to attempt to cooperate with the French in the aid of strengthening Diem's Army. Over time Dulles concluded that it was time to "ease France
France
out of Vietnam".[12] In 1950 he also helped initiate the ANZUS
ANZUS
Treaty for mutual protection with Australia
Australia
and New Zealand. Dulles strongly opposed communism, believing it was "Godless terrorism".[13] One of his first major policy shifts towards a more aggressive position against communism occurred in March 1953, when Dulles supported Eisenhower's decision to direct the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), then headed by his brother Allen Dulles, to draft plans to overthrow the Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh
Mohammed Mossadegh
of Iran.[14] This led directly to the coup d'état via Operation Ajax
Operation Ajax
in support of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who became the Shah of Iran. In 1954, Dulles became the architect of the Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Treaty Organization (SEATO). The treaty, signed by representatives of Australia, Britain, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand and the United States, provided for collective action against aggression. In 1954 Dulles participated in the instigation of a military coup by the Guatemalan army through the CIA, claiming that the democratically-elected President Jacobo Árbenz's government and the Guatemalan Revolution
Guatemalan Revolution
were veering toward communism. Dulles had previously represented the United Fruit Company
United Fruit Company
as a lawyer, while his brother, CIA Director Allen Dulles, was on the company's board of directors.[15] Thomas Dudley Cabot, former CEO of United Fruit, held positions of director of International Security Affairs in the State Department. John Moore Cabot, a brother of Thomas Dudley Cabot, was secretary of Inter-American Affairs during much of the couple planning in 1953 and 1954.[16] Dulles was named Time's Man of the Year for 1954.[17] Dulles was one of the pioneers of massive retaliation and brinkmanship. In an article written for Life magazine, Dulles defined his policy of brinkmanship: "The ability to get to the verge without getting into the war is the necessary art."[18] Dulles' hard line alienated many leaders of nonaligned countries when on June 9, 1955, he argued in a speech that "neutrality has increasingly become obsolete and, except under very exceptional circumstances, it is an immoral and shortsighted conception."[19] Throughout the 1950s Dulles was in frequent conflict with those non-aligned statesmen he deemed excessively sympathetic to Communism, including India's V.K. Krishna Menon. In November 1956, Dulles strongly opposed the Anglo-French invasion of the Suez Canal zone in response to the Suez Crisis. During the most crucial days he was hospitalized after surgery and did not participate in Washington's decision-making. However, by 1958 Dulles had become an outspoken opponent of President Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
of Egypt
Egypt
and prevented him from receiving arms from the United States. This policy allowed the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
to gain influence in Egypt.[20][not in citation given] Dulles served as the Chairman and Co-founder of the Commission on a Just and Durable Peace of the Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America (later the National Council of Churches), the Chairman of the Board for the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, and a Trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation
Rockefeller Foundation
from 1935 to 1952. Dulles was also a founding member of Foreign Policy Association and Council of Foreign Relations. Death and legacy[edit] Dulles contracted colon cancer, for which he was first operated on in November 1956 when it had caused a bowel perforation.[21] He experienced abdominal pain at the end of 1958 and was hospitalized with a diagnosis of diverticulitis. In January 1959, Dulles returned to work, but with more pain and declining health underwent abdominal surgery in February at Walter Reed Hospital
Walter Reed Hospital
when the cancer's recurrence became evident. After recuperating in Florida, Dulles returned to Washington for work and radiation therapy. With further declining health and evidence of bone metastasis, he resigned from office on April 15, 1959.[21] Dulles died at Walter Reed on May 24, 1959, at the age of 71.[22] Funeral services were held in Washington National Cathedral
Washington National Cathedral
on May 27, 1959, and Dulles was interred at Arlington National Cemetery.[23] Dulles was posthumously awarded the Medal of Freedom
Medal of Freedom
and the Sylvanus Thayer Award in 1959. A central West Berlin
West Berlin
road was named John-Foster-Dulles-Allee in 1959 with a ceremony attended by Christian Herter, Dulles' successor as Secretary of State. The Washington Dulles International Airport
Washington Dulles International Airport
in Dulles, Virginia
Dulles, Virginia
and John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
High, Middle, and Elementary Schools in Sugar Land, Texas (including the street (Dulles Avenue) where the school campuses are located), were named in his honor, as is John Foster Dulles Elementary School in Cincinnati, Ohio.[24] New York named the Dulles State Office Building in Watertown, New York
Watertown, New York
in his honor. In 1960 the U.S. Post Office Department issued a commemorative stamp honoring Dulles. The singer Carol Burnett
Carol Burnett
rose to prominence in the 1950s singing a novelty song, "I Made a Fool of Myself Over John Foster Dulles".[25] When asked about the song on Meet the Press, Dulles responded with good humor: “I never discuss matters of the heart in public.”[26] This quote is sometimes attributed to Dulles: "The United States
United States
of America does not have friends; it has interests." The words were spoken by President Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
of France, but when Dulles traveled to Mexico in 1958, anti-American protesters held up signs reading "The U.S. has no friends, only interests."[27] See also[edit]

Vietnam War Brinkmanship New Look

References[edit]

^ John Dulles, Arlington National Cemetery
Arlington National Cemetery
Website, accessed Oct 11, 2009 ^ "Freshman Debate". Daily Princetonian. May 19, 1905. Retrieved April 1, 2014.  ^ Rothbard, Murray N. (20 March 2017). "Rockefeller, Morgan, and War". Mises Institute. Retrieved 23 November 2017.  ^ "90-year-old Still Active at University" Archived September 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., The Daily Texan ^ Peter Grose, Gentleman Spy, The Life of Allen Dulles
Allen Dulles
(1994), pp 91–3, 119–22 ^ Ronald W. Pruessen, John Foster Dulles: The Road to Power (1982), pp. 115, 123 ^ Isaac Alteras, Eisenhower and Israel: U.S.-Israeli Relations, 1953–1960 (University Press of Florida, 1993), ISBN 0-8130-1205-8, pp 53–55 ^ John Lewis Gaddis (1999). Cold War
Cold War
Statesmen Confront the Bomb: Nuclear Diplomacy Since 1945. Oxford University Press. p. 65.  ^ Neal Rosendorf, "John Foster Dulles' Nuclear Schizophrenia," in John Lewis Gaddis et al., Cold War
Cold War
Statesmen Confront the Bomb: Nuclear Diplomacy since 1945 (Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. 64–69 ^ Detlef Junker, Philipp Gassert, and Wilfried Mausbach, eds., The United States
United States
and Germany
Germany
in the Era of the Cold War, 1945–1968: A Handbook, Vol. 1: 1945–1968 (Cambridge University Press, 2004), pp.? ^ Immerman, Richard H. John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
Piety, Pragmatism, and Power in U.S. Foreign Policy (Biographies in American Foreign Policy). New York: SR Books, 1998. p, 37 ^ Immerman, Richard H. (1999). John Foster Dulles: Piety, Pragmatism, and Power in U.S. Foreign Policy. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources. p. 98.  ^ Gary B. Nash, et al., The American People, Concise Edition Creating a Nation and a Society, Combined Volume (6th Edition). New York: Longman, 2007, p 829 ^ The C.I.A. in Iran ^ Cohen, Rich (2012). The Fish that Ate the Whale. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux. p. 186.  ^ Dube, Arindrajit, Kaplan, Ethan, and Suresh Naidu (2011), Quarterly Journal of Economics, 126 (3) pp. 1375--1409, Coups, Corporations, and Classified Information ^ TIME.com: Man of the Year – Jan. 3, 1955 – Page 1 ^ Stephen E. Ambrose (2010). Rise to Globalism: American Foreign Policy Since 1938, Ninth Revised Edition. Penguin. p. 109.  ^ Ian Shapiro (2009). Containment: Rebuilding a Strategy against Global Terror. Princeton University
Princeton University
Press. pp. 145–.  ^ Cole Christian Kingseed (1995). Eisenhower and the Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
of 1956. LSU Press. p. 117.  ^ a b Lerner BH. When Illness Goes Public: Celebrity Patients and How We Look at Medicine. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2006. p. 81ff. ISBN 0-8018-8462-4.  ^ UPI< Year in Review, http://www.upi.com/Audio/Year_in_Review/Events-of-1959/Death-of-John-Foster-Dulles/12295509433704-3/ ^ [1] ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 29, 2009. Retrieved 2008-12-18.  ^ Adir, Karin (1988). The Great Clowns of American Television. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. pp. 51–2.  ^ Boyle, Katherine." Carol Burnett
Carol Burnett
awarded the Mark Twain Prize for American Humor at the Kennedy Center" Washington Post, October 21, 2013 ^ "Dulles in Rio". New York Times. August 10, 1958. 

Bibliography[edit]

Richard H. Immerman, John Foster Dulles: Piety, Pragmatism, and Power in U.S. Foreign Policy (1998) ISBN 0-8420-2601-0 Louis Jefferson, The John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
Book
Book
of Humor (1986) St. Martin's Press, ISBN 0-312-44355-2 Stephen Kinzer, Overthrow. Henry Holt and Company
Henry Holt and Company
(2006). ISBN 0-8050-8240-9 Stephen Kinzer, The Brothers: John Foster Dulles, Allen Dulles, and Their Secret World War (2013), Times Books, ISBN 0-805-09497-0 Frederick Marks, Power and Peace: The Diplomacy of John Foster Dulles (1995) ISBN 0-275-95232-0 Ronald W. Pruessen, John Foster Dulles: The Road to Power (1982), The Free Press ISBN 0-02-925460-4 Alan Stang, The actor; the true story of John Foster Dulles, Secretary of State, 1953–1959 Western Islands (1968) OCLC 434600 Hoopes Townsend, Devil and John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1973) ISBN 0-316-37235-8.

External links[edit]

United States
United States
Congress. " John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(id: D000522)". Biographical Directory of the United States
United States
Congress. 

Library resources about John Foster Dulles

Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

By John Foster Dulles

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Works by John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
at Internet Archive A film clip "Longines Chronoscope with John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(February 1, 1952)" is available at the Internet Archive John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
Papers at the Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library, Princeton University Papers of John Foster Dulles, Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Presidential Library Annotated bibliography for John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
at Find a Grave FBI files on John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
at the Internet Archive

U.S. Senate

Preceded by Robert F. Wagner U.S. Senator (Class 3) from New York 1949 Served alongside: Irving Ives Succeeded by Herbert H. Lehman

Party political offices

Preceded by Thomas J. Curran Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from New York (Class 3) 1949 Succeeded by Joe R. Hanley

Political offices

Preceded by Dean Acheson United States
United States
Secretary of State 1953–1959 Succeeded by Christian Herter

Awards and achievements

Preceded by Konrad Adenauer Time Person of the Year 1954 Succeeded by Harlow Curtice

Preceded by Ernest Lawrence Recipient of the Sylvanus Thayer Award 1959 Succeeded by Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.

v t e

United States
United States
Senators from New York

Class 1

Schuyler Burr Schuyler Hobart North Watson Morris Bailey Armstrong Mitchill German Sanford Van Buren Dudley Tallmadge Dickinson Fish P. King Morgan Fenton Kernan Platt Miller Hiscock Murphy Depew O'Gorman Calder Copeland Mead Ives Keating Kennedy Goodell Buckley Moynihan H. Clinton Gillibrand

Class 3

R. King Laurance Armstrong D. Clinton Armstrong Smith R. King Sanford Marcy Wright Foster Dix Seward Harris Conkling Lapham Evarts Hill Platt Root Wadsworth Wagner Dulles Lehman Javits D'Amato Schumer

v t e

United States
United States
Secretaries of State

Secretary of Foreign Affairs 1781–89

R. Livingston Jay

Secretary of State 1789–present

Jefferson Randolph Pickering J. Marshall Madison Smith Monroe Adams Clay Van Buren E. Livingston McLane Forsyth Webster Upshur Calhoun Buchanan Clayton Webster Everett Marcy Cass Black Seward Washburne Fish Evarts Blaine Frelinghuysen Bayard Blaine Foster Gresham Olney Sherman Day Hay Root Bacon Knox Bryan Lansing Colby Hughes Kellogg Stimson Hull Stettinius Byrnes G. Marshall Acheson Dulles Herter Rusk Rogers Kissinger Vance Muskie Haig Shultz Baker Eagleburger Christopher Albright Powell Rice (tenure) Clinton (tenure) Kerry (tenure) Tillerson

v t e

Cabinet of President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1953–61)

Vice President

Richard M. Nixon (1953–61)

Secretary of State

John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1953–59) Christian A. Herter (1959–61)

Secretary of the Treasury

George Magoffin Humphrey (1953–57) Robert B. Anderson
Robert B. Anderson
(1957–61)

Secretary of Defense

Charles E. Wilson (1953–57) Neil H. McElroy
Neil H. McElroy
(1957–59) Thomas S. Gates Jr.
Thomas S. Gates Jr.
(1959–61)

Attorney General

Herbert Brownell Jr.
Herbert Brownell Jr.
(1953–57) William P. Rogers
William P. Rogers
(1957–61)

Postmaster General

Arthur E. Summerfield (1953–61)

Secretary of the Interior

Douglas McKay
Douglas McKay
(1953–56) Fred A. Seaton (1956–61)

Secretary of Agriculture

Ezra Taft Benson
Ezra Taft Benson
(1953–61)

Secretary of Commerce

Sinclair Weeks
Sinclair Weeks
(1953–58) Lewis L. Strauss (1958–59) Frederick H. Mueller
Frederick H. Mueller
(1959–61)

Secretary of Labor

Martin P. Durkin (1953) James P. Mitchell
James P. Mitchell
(1953–61)

Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare

Oveta Culp Hobby
Oveta Culp Hobby
(1953–55) Marion B. Folsom
Marion B. Folsom
(1955–58) Arthur S. Flemming (1958–61)

v t e

Cold War

USA USSR ANZUS NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw Pact Cold War
Cold War
II

1940s

Morgenthau Plan Hukbalahap Rebellion Dekemvriana Percentages Agreement Yalta Conference Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

Forest Brothers Operation Priboi Operation Jungle Occupation of the Baltic states

Cursed soldiers Operation Unthinkable Operation Downfall Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Division of Korea Operation Masterdom Operation Beleaguer Operation Blacklist Forty Iran
Iran
crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Baruch Plan Corfu Channel incident Turkish Straits crisis Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina War Truman Doctrine Asian Relations Conference May 1947 Crises Marshall Plan Comecon 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Tito–Stalin Split Berlin Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(Second round) Malayan Emergency Albanian Subversion

1950s

Papua conflict Bamboo Curtain Korean War McCarthyism Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Dirty War
Dirty War
(Mexico) Bricker Amendment 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam Vietnam War First Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
Crisis Geneva Summit (1955) Bandung Conference Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Suez Crisis "We will bury you" Operation Gladio Arab Cold War

Syrian Crisis of 1957 1958 Lebanon crisis Iraqi 14 July Revolution

Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan Strait
Taiwan Strait
Crisis 1959 Tibetan uprising Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Sino-Soviet split

1960s

Congo Crisis 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion 1960 Turkish coup d'état Soviet–Albanian split Berlin Crisis of 1961 Berlin Wall Portuguese Colonial War

Angolan War of Independence Guinea-Bissau War of Independence Mozambican War of Independence

Cuban Missile Crisis Sino-Indian War Communist insurgency in Sarawak Iraqi Ramadan Revolution Eritrean War of Independence Sand War North Yemen Civil War Aden Emergency 1963 Syrian coup d'état Vietnam War Shifta War Guatemalan Civil War Colombian conflict Nicaraguan Revolution 1964 Brazilian coup d'état Dominican Civil War South African Border War Transition to the New Order Domino theory ASEAN Declaration Laotian Civil War 1966 Syrian coup d'état Argentine Revolution Korean DMZ conflict Greek military junta of 1967–74 Years of Lead (Italy) USS Pueblo incident Six-Day War War of Attrition Dhofar Rebellion Al-Wadiah War Protests of 1968 French May Tlatelolco massacre Cultural Revolution Prague Spring 1968 Polish political crisis Communist insurgency in Malaysia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution Goulash Communism Sino-Soviet border conflict CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Corrective Move

1970s

Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September
Black September
in Jordan Corrective Movement (Syria) Cambodian Civil War Koza riot Realpolitik Ping-pong diplomacy Ugandan-Tanzanian War 1971 Turkish military memorandum Corrective Revolution (Egypt) Four Power Agreement on Berlin Bangladesh Liberation War 1972 Nixon visit to China North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972 Yemenite War of 1972 NDF Rebellion Eritrean Civil Wars 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War 1973 oil crisis Carnation Revolution Spanish transition Metapolitefsi Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Rhodesian Bush War Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Oromo conflict Ogaden War Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Sino-Albanian split Cambodian–Vietnamese War Sino-Vietnamese War Operation Condor Dirty War
Dirty War
(Argentina) 1976 Argentine coup d'état Korean Air Lines Flight 902 Yemenite War of 1979 Grand Mosque seizure Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution New Jewel Movement 1979 Herat uprising Seven Days to the River Rhine Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union

1980s

Soviet–Afghan War 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts 1980 Turkish coup d'état Peruvian conflict Casamance conflict Ugandan Bush War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Eritrean Civil Wars 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War Ndogboyosoi War United States
United States
invasion of Grenada Able Archer 83 Star Wars Iran–Iraq War Somali Rebellion 1986 Black Sea incident 1988 Black Sea bumping incident South Yemen Civil War Bougainville Civil War 8888 Uprising Solidarity

Soviet reaction

Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 People Power Revolution Glasnost Perestroika Nagorno-Karabakh War Afghan Civil War United States
United States
invasion of Panama 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Peaceful Revolution Die Wende

1990s

Mongolian Revolution of 1990 German reunification Yemeni unification Fall of communism in Albania Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Frozen conflicts

Abkhazia China-Taiwan Korea Nagorno-Karabakh South Ossetia Transnistria Sino-Indian border dispute North Borneo dispute

Foreign policy

Truman Doctrine Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Hallstein Doctrine Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War

Ideologies

Capitalism

Chicago school Keynesianism Monetarism Neoclassical economics Reaganomics Supply-side economics Thatcherism

Communism

Marxism–Leninism Castroism Eurocommunism Guevarism Hoxhaism Juche Maoism Trotskyism Naxalism Stalinism Titoism

Other

Fascism Islamism Liberal democracy Social democracy Third-Worldism White supremacy Apartheid

Organizations

ASEAN CIA Comecon EEC KGB MI6 Non-Aligned Movement SAARC Safari Club Stasi

Propaganda

Active measures Crusade for Freedom Izvestia Pravda Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Red Scare TASS Voice of America Voice of Russia

Races

Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race

See also

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Soviet espionage in the United States Soviet Union– United States
United States
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and Russian Federation Russia– NATO
NATO
relations Brinkmanship CIA and the Cultural Cold War Cold War
Cold War
II

Category Commons Portal Timeline List of conflicts

v t e

Time Persons of the Year

1927–1950

Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)

1951–1975

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)

1976–2000

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000)

2001–present

Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)

Book

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 62342717 LCCN: n50030526 ISNI: 0000 0001 2136 0652 GND: 118681168 SELIBR: 184153 SUDOC: 027630374 BNF: cb119630197 (data) BIBSYS: 90097095 MusicBrainz: ccaa5b0a-97c5-434d-b4a9-1463c3e9a716 NDL: 00465851 US Congress: D000522 BNE: XX1776592 SN

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