Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (/joʊˈhɑːnɪs
ˈɡuːtənˌbɜːrɡ, -ˈhænɪs-/ yoh-HA(H)N-iss GOO-tən-burg;
c. 1400 – February 3, 1468) was a German blacksmith, goldsmith,
printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe with the
printing press. His introduction of mechanical movable type printing
to Europe started the
Printing Revolution and is regarded as a
milestone of the second millennium, ushering in the modern period of
human history. It played a key role in the development of the
Renaissance, Reformation, the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific
revolution and laid the material basis for the modern knowledge-based
economy and the spread of learning to the masses.
Gutenberg in 1439 was the first European to use movable type. Among
his many contributions to printing are: the invention of a process for
mass-producing movable type; the use of oil-based ink for printing
books; adjustable molds; mechanical movable type; and the use of
a wooden printing press similar to the agricultural screw presses of
the period. His truly epochal invention was the combination of
these elements into a practical system that allowed the mass
production of printed books and was economically viable for printers
and readers alike. Gutenberg's method for making type is traditionally
considered to have included a type metal alloy and a hand mould for
casting type. The alloy was a mixture of lead, tin, and antimony that
melted at a relatively low temperature for faster and more economical
casting, cast well, and created a durable type.
Renaissance Europe, the arrival of mechanical movable type printing
introduced the era of mass communication which permanently altered the
structure of society. The relatively unrestricted circulation of
information—including revolutionary ideas—transcended borders,
captured the masses in the
Reformation and threatened the power of
political and religious authorities; the sharp increase in literacy
broke the monopoly of the literate elite on education and learning and
bolstered the emerging middle class. Across Europe, the increasing
cultural self-awareness of its people led to the rise of
proto-nationalism, accelerated by the flowering of the European
vernacular languages to the detriment of Latin's status as lingua
franca. In the 19th century, the replacement of the hand-operated
Gutenberg-style press by steam-powered rotary presses allowed printing
on an industrial scale, while Western-style printing was adopted all
over the world, becoming practically the sole medium for modern bulk
The use of movable type was a marked improvement on the handwritten
manuscript, which was the existing method of book production in
Europe, and upon woodblock printing, and revolutionized European
book-making. Gutenberg's printing technology spread rapidly throughout
Europe and later the world.
His major work, the
Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible),
has been acclaimed for its high aesthetic and technical quality.
1 Early life
2.1 Court case
2.2 Later life
3 Printed books
Printing method with movable type
6 See also
9 Further reading
10 External links
Gutenberg in a 16th-century copper engraving
Gutenberg was born in the German city of Mainz, the youngest son of
the upper-class merchant Friele Gensfleisch zur Laden, and his second
wife, Else Wyrich, who was the daughter of a shopkeeper. It is assumed
that he was baptized in the area close to his birthplace of St.
Christoph. According to some accounts, Friele was a goldsmith for
the bishop at Mainz, but most likely, he was involved in the cloth
trade. Gutenberg's year of birth is not precisely known, but it was
sometime between the years of 1394 and 1404. In the 1890s the city of
Mainz declared his official and symbolic date of birth to be June 24,
John Lienhard, technology historian, says "Most of Gutenberg's early
life is a mystery. His father worked with the ecclesiastic mint.
Gutenberg grew up knowing the trade of goldsmithing." This is
supported by historian Heinrich Wallau, who adds, "In the 14th and
15th centuries his [ancestors] claimed a hereditary position as ...
retainers of the household of the master of the archiepiscopal mint.
In this capacity they doubtless acquired considerable knowledge and
technical skill in metal working. They supplied the mint with the
metal to be coined, changed the various species of coins, and had a
seat at the assizes in forgery cases."
Wallau adds, "His surname was derived from the house inhabited by his
father and his paternal ancestors 'zu Laden, zu Gutenberg'. The house
of Gänsfleisch was one of the patrician families of the town, tracing
its lineage back to the thirteenth century." Patricians
Mainz were often named after houses they owned.
Around 1427, the name zu Gutenberg, after the family house in Mainz,
is documented to have been used for the first time.
In 1411, there was an uprising in
Mainz against the patricians, and
more than a hundred families were forced to leave. As a result, the
Gutenbergs are thought to have moved to
Eltville am Rhein
Eltville am Rhein (Alta
Villa), where his mother had an inherited estate. According to
historian Heinrich Wallau, "All that is known of his youth is that he
was not in
Mainz in 1430. It is presumed that he migrated for
political reasons to Strasbourg, where the family probably had
connections." He is assumed to have studied at the University of
Erfurt, where there is a record of the enrolment of a student called
Johannes de Altavilla in 1418—Altavilla is the
Latin form of
Eltville am Rhein.
Nothing is now known of Gutenberg's life for the next fifteen years,
but in March 1434, a letter by him indicates that he was living in
Strasbourg, where he had some relatives on his mother's side. He also
appears to have been a goldsmith member enrolled in the Strasbourg
militia. In 1437, there is evidence that he was instructing a wealthy
tradesman on polishing gems, but where he had acquired this knowledge
is unknown. In 1436/37 his name also comes up in court in connection
with a broken promise of marriage to a woman from Strasbourg,
Ennelin. Whether the marriage actually took place is not recorded.
Following his father's death in 1419, he is mentioned in the
Early wooden printing press, depicted in 1568. Such presses could
produce up to 240 impressions per hour.
Printing press and Spread of the printing press
Around 1439, Gutenberg was involved in a financial misadventure making
polished metal mirrors (which were believed to capture holy light from
religious relics) for sale to pilgrims to Aachen: in 1439 the city was
planning to exhibit its collection of relics from Emperor Charlemagne
but the event was delayed by one year due to a severe flood and the
capital already spent could not be repaid. When the question of
satisfying the investors came up, Gutenberg is said to have promised
to share a "secret". It has been widely speculated that this secret
may have been the idea of printing with movable type. Also around
1439–40, the Dutch
Laurens Janszoon Coster
Laurens Janszoon Coster came up with the idea of
printing. Legend has it that the idea came to him "like a ray of
Until at least 1444 Gutenberg lived in Strasbourg, most likely in the
St. Arbogast parish. It was in
Strasbourg in 1440 that he is said to
have perfected and unveiled the secret of printing based on his
research, mysteriously entitled Aventur und Kunst (enterprise and
art). It is not clear what work he was engaged in, or whether some
early trials with printing from movable type may have been conducted
there. After this, there is a gap of four years in the record. In
1448, he was back in Mainz, where he took out a loan from his
brother-in-law Arnold Gelthus, quite possibly for a printing press or
related paraphernalia. By this date, Gutenberg may have been familiar
with intaglio printing; it is claimed that he had worked on copper
engravings with an artist known as the Master of Playing Cards.
"All that has been written to me about that marvelous man seen at
Frankfurt [sic] is true. I have not seen complete Bibles but only a
number of quires of various books of the Bible. The script was very
neat and legible, not at all difficult to follow—your grace would be
able to read it without effort, and indeed without glasses."
Future pope Pius II in a letter to Cardinal Carvajal, March 1455
By 1450, the press was in operation, and a German poem had been
printed, possibly the first item to be printed there. Gutenberg
was able to convince the wealthy moneylender
Johann Fust for a loan of
800 guilders. Peter Schöffer, who became Fust's son-in-law, also
joined the enterprise. Schöffer had worked as a scribe in
is believed to have designed some of the first typefaces.
Gutenberg's workshop was set up at Hof Humbrecht, a property belonging
to a distant relative. It is not clear when Gutenberg conceived the
Bible project, but for this he borrowed another 800 guilders from
Fust, and work commenced in 1452. At the same time, the press was also
printing other, more lucrative texts (possibly
Latin grammars). There
is also some speculation that there may have been two presses, one for
the pedestrian texts, and one for the Bible. One of the profit-making
enterprises of the new press was the printing of thousands of
indulgences for the church, documented from 1454 to 1455.
In 1455 Gutenberg completed his 42-line Bible, known as the Gutenberg
Bible. About 180 copies were printed, most on paper and some on
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this
section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material
may be challenged and removed. (February 2018) (Learn how and when to
remove this template message)
Some time in 1456, there was a dispute between Gutenberg and Fust, and
Fust demanded his money back, accusing Gutenberg of misusing the
funds. Meanwhile the expenses of the
Bible project had proliferated,
and Gutenberg's debt now exceeded 20,000 guilders. Fust sued at the
archbishop's court. A November 1455 legal document records that there
was a partnership for a "project of the books," the funds for which
Gutenberg had used for other purposes, according to Fust. The court
decided in favor of Fust, giving him control over the
workshop and half of all printed Bibles.
Thus Gutenberg was effectively bankrupt, but it appears he retained
(or re-started) a small printing shop, and participated in the
printing of a
Bible in the town of
Bamberg around 1459, for which he
seems at least to have supplied the type. But since his printed books
never carry his name or a date, it is difficult to be certain, and
there is consequently a considerable scholarly debate on this subject.
It is also possible that the large Catholicon dictionary, 300 copies
of 754 pages, printed in
Mainz in 1460, was executed in his workshop.
Meanwhile, the Fust–Schöffer shop was the first in Europe to bring
out a book with the printer's name and date, the
Mainz Psalter of
August 1457, and while proudly proclaiming the mechanical process by
which it had been produced, it made no mention of Gutenberg.
In 1462, during the devastating
Mainz Diocesan Feud,
Mainz was sacked
by archbishop Adolph von Nassau, and Gutenberg was exiled. An old man
by now, he moved to
Eltville where he may have initiated and
supervised a new printing press belonging to the brothers
In January 1465, Gutenberg's achievements were recognized and he was
given the title Hofmann (gentleman of the court) by von Nassau. This
honor included a stipend, an annual court outfit, as well as 2,180
litres of grain and 2,000 litres of wine tax-free. It is believed
he may have moved back to
Mainz around this time, but this is not
Gutenberg died in 1468 and was buried in the Franciscan church at
Mainz, his contributions largely unknown. This church and the cemetery
were later destroyed, and Gutenberg's grave is now lost.
In 1504, he was mentioned as the inventor of typography in a book by
Professor Ivo Wittig. It was not until 1567 that the first portrait of
Gutenberg, almost certainly an imaginary reconstruction, appeared in
Heinrich Pantaleon's biography of famous Germans.
Main article: Gutenberg Bible
Gutenberg Bible, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
Between 1450 and 1455, Gutenberg printed several texts, some of which
remain unidentified; his texts did not bear the printer's name or
date, so attribution is possible only from typographical evidence and
external references. Certainly several church documents including a
papal letter and two indulgences were printed, one of which was issued
in Mainz. In view of the value of printing in quantity, seven editions
in two styles were ordered, resulting in several thousand copies being
printed. Some printed editions of Ars Minor, a schoolbook on Latin
Aelius Donatus may have been printed by Gutenberg; these
have been dated either 1451–52 or 1455.
In 1455, Gutenberg completed copies of a beautifully executed folio
Bible (Biblia Sacra), with 42 lines on each page. Copies sold for 30
florins each, which was roughly three years' wages for an average
clerk. Nonetheless, it was significantly cheaper than a manuscript
Bible that could take a single scribe over a year to prepare. After
printing, some copies were rubricated or hand-illuminated in the same
elegant way as manuscript Bibles from the same period.
48 substantially complete copies are known to survive, including two
British Library that can be viewed and compared online. The
text lacks modern features such as pagination, indentations, and
An undated 36-line edition of the
Bible was printed, probably in
Bamberg in 1458–60, possibly by Gutenberg. A large part of it was
shown to have been set from a copy of Gutenberg's Bible, thus
disproving earlier speculation that it was the earlier of the two.
Printing method with movable type
Movable metal type, and composing stick, descended from Gutenberg's
95 Theses which sparked off the
Reformation in a print
edition from 1522. Within the span of only two years, Luther's tracts
were distributed in 300,000 printed copies throughout
European output of books printed with movable types from Gutenberg to
Gutenberg's early printing process, and what tests he printed with
movable type, are not known in great detail. His later Bibles were
printed in such a way as to have required large quantities of type,
some estimates suggesting as many as 100,000 individual sorts.
Setting each page would take, perhaps, half a day, and considering all
the work in loading the press, inking the type, pulling the
impressions, hanging up the sheets, distributing the type, etc., it is
thought that the Gutenberg–Fust shop might have employed as many as
Gutenberg's technique of making movable type remains unclear. In the
following decades, punches and copper matrices became standardized in
the rapidly disseminating printing presses across Europe. Whether
Gutenberg used this sophisticated technique or a somewhat primitive
version has been the subject of considerable debate.
In the standard process of making type, a hard metal punch (made by
punchcutting, with the letter carved back to front) is hammered into a
softer copper bar, creating a matrix. This is then placed into a
hand-held mould and a piece of type, or "sort", is cast by filling the
mould with molten type-metal; this cools almost at once, and the
resulting piece of type can be removed from the mould. The matrix can
be reused to create hundreds, or thousands, of identical sorts so that
the same character appearing anywhere within the book will appear very
uniform, giving rise, over time, to the development of distinct styles
of typefaces or fonts. After casting, the sorts are arranged into type
cases, and used to make up pages which are inked and printed, a
procedure which can be repeated hundreds, or thousands, of times. The
sorts can be reused in any combination, earning the process the name
of "movable type". (For details, see Typography.)
"Modern Book Printing" − sculpture commemorating its inventor
The invention of the making of types with punch, matrix and mold has
been widely attributed to Gutenberg. However, recent evidence suggests
that Gutenberg's process was somewhat different. If he used the punch
and matrix approach, all his letters should have been nearly
identical, with some variation due to miscasting and inking. However,
the type used in Gutenberg's earliest work shows other
In 2001, the physicist
Blaise Agüera y Arcas
Blaise Agüera y Arcas and Princeton librarian
Paul Needham, used digital scans of a Papal bull in the Scheide
Library, Princeton, to carefully compare the same letters (types)
appearing in different parts of the printed text. The
irregularities in Gutenberg's type, particularly in simple characters
such as the hyphen, suggested that the variations could not have come
either from ink smear or from wear and damage on the pieces of metal
on the types themselves. Although some identical types are clearly
used on other pages, other variations, subjected to detailed image
analysis, suggested that they could not have been produced from the
same matrix. Transmitted light pictures of the page also appeared to
reveal substructures in the type that could not arise from traditional
punchcutting techniques. They hypothesized that the method involved
impressing simple shapes to create alphabets in "cuneiform" style in a
matrix made of some soft material, perhaps sand. Casting the type
would destroy the mould, and the matrix would need to be recreated to
make each additional sort. This could explain the variations in the
type, as well as the substructures observed in the printed images.
Thus, they speculated that "the decisive factor for the birth of
typography", the use of reusable moulds for casting type, was a more
progressive process than was previously thought. They suggested
that the additional step of using the punch to create a mould that
could be reused many times was not taken until twenty years later, in
the 1470s. Others have not accepted some or all of their suggestions,
and have interpreted the evidence in other ways, and the truth of the
matter remains uncertain.
Page-setting room - c. 1920
A 1568 history by
Hadrianus Junius of Holland claims that the basic
idea of the movable type came to Gutenberg from Laurens Janszoon
Coster via Fust, who was apprenticed to Coster in the 1430s and may
have brought some of his equipment from
Haarlem to Mainz. While Coster
appears to have experimented with moulds and castable metal type,
there is no evidence that he had actually printed anything with this
technology. He was an inventor and a goldsmith. However, there is one
indirect supporter of the claim that Coster might be the inventor. The
author of the
Cologne Chronicle of 1499 quotes Ulrich Zell, the first
printer of Cologne, that printing was performed in
Mainz in 1450, but
that some type of printing of lower quality had previously occurred in
the Netherlands. However, the chronicle does not mention the name of
Coster, while it actually credits Gutenberg as the "first
inventor of printing" in the very same passage (fol. 312). The first
securely dated book by Dutch printers is from 1471, and the Coster
connection is today regarded as a mere legend.
The 19th-century printer and typefounder
Fournier Le Jeune
Fournier Le Jeune suggested
that Gutenberg was not using type cast with a reusable matrix, but
wooden types that were carved individually. A similar suggestion was
made by Nash in 2004. This remains possible, albeit entirely
It has also been questioned whether Gutenberg used movable types at
all. In 2004, Italian professor Bruno Fabbiani claimed that
examination of the 42-line
Bible revealed an overlapping of letters,
suggesting that Gutenberg did not in fact use movable type (individual
cast characters) but rather used whole plates made from a system
somewhat like a modern typewriter, whereby the letters were stamped
successively into the plate and then printed. However, most
specialists regard the occasional overlapping of type as caused by
paper movement over pieces of type of slightly unequal height.
"What the world is today, good and bad, it owes to Gutenberg.
Everything can be traced to this source, but we are bound to bring him
homage, … for the bad that his colossal invention has brought about
is overshadowed a thousand times by the good with which mankind has
Mark Twain (1835−1910)
Although Gutenberg was financially unsuccessful in his lifetime, the
printing technologies spread quickly, and news and books began to
travel across Europe much faster than before. It fed the growing
Renaissance, and since it greatly facilitated scientific publishing,
it was a major catalyst for the later scientific revolution.
The capital of printing in Europe shifted to Venice, where visionary
Aldus Manutius ensured widespread availability of the
major Greek and
Latin texts. The claims of an Italian origin for
movable type have also focused on this rapid rise of Italy in
movable-type printing. This may perhaps be explained by the prior
eminence of Italy in the paper and printing trade. Additionally,
Italy's economy was growing rapidly at the time, facilitating the
spread of literacy.
Christopher Columbus had a geographical book
(printed by movable types) bought by his father. That book is in a
Spanish museum. Finally, the city of
Mainz was sacked in 1462, driving
many (including a number of printers and punch cutters) into exile.
Printing was also a factor in the Reformation. Martin Luther's 95
Theses were printed and circulated widely; subsequently he issued
broadsheets outlining his anti-indulgences position (certificates of
indulgences were one of the first items Gutenberg had printed). The
broadsheet contributed to development of the newspaper.
A Gutenberg press replica at the
Featherbed Alley Printshop
Featherbed Alley Printshop Museum, in
In the decades after Gutenberg, many conservative patrons looked down
on cheap printed books; books produced by hand were considered more
Today there is a large antique market for the earliest printed
objects. Books printed prior to 1500 are known as incunabula.
There are many statues of Gutenberg in Germany, including the famous
Bertel Thorvaldsen (1837) in Mainz, home to the eponymous
Johannes Gutenberg University of
Mainz and the
Gutenberg Museum on the
history of early printing. The latter publishes the
Gutenberg-Jahrbuch, the leading periodical in the field.
United States Postal Service stamp issued in 1952 commemorating the
500th anniversary of Gutenberg's first printed Bible
Project Gutenberg, the oldest digital library, commemorates
In 1952, the United States Postal Service issued a five hundredth
anniversary stamp commemorating
Johannes Gutenberg invention of the
movable-type printing press.
In 1961 the Canadian philosopher and scholar
Marshall McLuhan entitled
his pioneering study in the fields of print culture, cultural studies,
and media ecology, The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic
Regarded as one of the most influential people in human history,
Gutenberg remains a towering figure in the popular image. In 1999, the
A&E Network ranked Gutenberg the No. 1 most influential person of
the second millennium on their "Biographies of the Millennium"
countdown. In 1997,
Time–Life magazine picked Gutenberg's invention
as the most important of the second millennium.
In space, he is commemorated in the name of the asteroid 777
Two operas based on Gutenberg are G, Being the Confession and Last
Testament of Johannes Gensfleisch, also known as Gutenberg, Master
Printer, formerly of
Strasbourg and Mainz, from 2001 with music by
Gavin Bryars; and La Nuit de Gutenberg, with music by Philippe
Manoury, premiered in 2011 in Strasbourg.
Laurens Janszoon Coster
History of books
^ "Johann(es) Gutenberg" in the American Heritage Dictionary.
^ Childress 2008, p. 14
^ a b See People of the Millenium for an overview of the wide acclaim.
In 1999, the A&E Network ranked Gutenberg no. 1 on their "People
of the Millennium" countdown. In 1997,
Time–Life magazine picked
Gutenberg's invention as the most important of the second millennium
Archived 2010-03-10 at the Wayback Machine.; the same did four
prominent US journalists in their 1998 resume 1,000 Years, 1,000
People: Ranking The Men and Women Who Shaped The Millennium. The
Johann Gutenberg entry of the
Catholic Encyclopedia describes his
invention as having made a practically unparalleled cultural impact in
the Christian era.
^ McLuhan 1962; Eisenstein 1980; Febvre & Martin 1997; Man 2002
^ Soap, Sex, and Cigarettes: A Cultural History of American
Advertising By Juliann Sivulka, page 5
^ St. Christopher's – Gutenberg's baptismal church
^ a b Hanebutt-Benz, Eva-Maria. "Gutenberg and Mainz". Archived from
the original on 2006-12-11. Retrieved 2006-11-24.
^ a b Childress 2008, p. 62
^ "Lienhard, John H". Uh.edu. 2004-08-01. Retrieved 2012-08-15.
^ a b c d Wallau, Heinrich. "Johann Gutenberg". The Catholic
Encyclopedia. Vol. 7. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 
^ Martin, Henri-Jean (1995). "The arrival of print". The History and
Power of Writing. University of Chicago Press. p. 217.
^ Dudley, Leonard (2008). "The Map-maker's son". Information
revolutions in the history of the West. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.
p. 78. ISBN 978-1-84720-790-6.
^ "Gutenberg und seine Zeit in Daten (Gutenberg and his times;
Timeline)". Gutenberg Museum. Archived from the original on
2006-12-22. Retrieved 2006-11-24.
^ Wolf 1974, pp. 67f.
^ Burke, James (1978). Connections. London: Macmillan Publishers.
p. 101. ISBN 0-333-24827-9.
^ Burke, James (1985). The Day the Universe Changed. Boston, Toronto:
Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-11695-5.
^ Lehmann-Haupt, Hellmut (1966). Gutenberg and the Master of the
Playing Cards. New Haven: Yale University Press.
^ Klooster, John W. (2009). Icons of invention: the makers of the
modern world from Gutenberg to Gates. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
p. 8. ISBN 978-0-313-34745-0.
^ Kelley, Peter. "Documents that Changed the World: Gutenberg
indulgence, 1454". UW Today. University of Washington. Retrieved 28
^ a b c Sumner, Tracy M. (2009). How Did We Get the Bible? (unabridged
ed.). Barbour Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60742-349-2.
^ Meggs, Philip B., Purvis, Alston W.History of Graphic Design.
Hoboken, N.J: Wiley, 2006. p.71.
^ Cormack, Lesley B.; Ede, Andrew (2004). A History of Science in
Society: From Philosophy to Utility. Broadview Press.
^ "Treasures in Full: Gutenberg Bible". British Library. Retrieved
^ a b Kapr, Albert (1996). Johannes Gutenberg: the Man and His
Invention. Scolar Press. p. 322. ISBN 1-85928-114-1.
^ Duchesne 2006, p. 83
^ Buringh, Eltjo; van Zanden, Jan Luiten: "Charting the "Rise of the
West": Manuscripts and Printed Books in Europe, A Long-Term
Perspective from the Sixth through Eighteenth Centuries", The Journal
of Economic History, Vol. 69, No. 2 (2009), pp. 409–4 45 (417,
^ Singer, C.; Holmyard, E.; Hall, A.; Williams, T. (1958). A History
of Technology, vol.3. Oxford University Press. CS1 maint:
Multiple names: authors list (link)
^ Agüera y Arcas, Blaise; Needham, Paul (November 2002).
"Computational analytical bibliography". Proceedings Bibliopolis
Conference The future history of the book.
The Hague (Netherlands):
^ "What Did Gutenberg Invent?". Retrieved Aug 16, 2011.
^ Adams, James L. (1991). Flying Buttresses, Entropy and O-Rings: the
World of an Engineer. Harvard University Press.
^ Nash, Paul W. "The 'first' type of Gutenberg: a note on recent
research" in The Private Library, Summer 2004, pp. 86-96.
^ a b Juchhoff 1950, pp. 131f.
^ Costeriana. While the
Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition had
attributed the invention of the printing press to Coster, the more
recent editions of the work attribute it to Gutenberg to reflect, as
it says, the common consent that has developed in the 20th century.
Typography – Gutenberg and printing in Germany." Encyclopædia
^ See Nash (2004).
^ Childress 2008, p. 122
^ Thomas, Jeffrey (20 June 2007). "
Project Gutenberg Digital Library
Seeks To Spur Literacy". U.S. Department of State, Bureau of
International Information Programs. Retrieved 20 August 2007.
^ Gavin Bryars (2011-04-18). "Gavin Bryars Introduces". WQXR.
^ "UC San Diego Composer
Philippe Manoury Wins French Grammy" (Press
release). University of California San Diego News Center. 2012-03-20.
Childress, Diana (2008).
Johannes Gutenberg and the
Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Books.
Duchesne, Ricardo (2006). "Asia First?". The Journal of the Historical
Society. 6 (1): 69–91. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5923.2006.00168.x.
Juchhoff, Rudolf (1950). "Was bleibt von den holländischen
Ansprüchen auf die Erfindung der Typographie?". Gutenberg-Jahrbuch:
Wolf, Hans-Jürgen (1974). "Geschichte der Druckpressen" (1st ed.).
Blake Morrison, The Justification of Johann Gutenberg (2000) [Novel,
describing social and technical aspects of the invention of printing]
Albert Kapr, Johann Gutenberg: the Man and his Invention. Translated
from the German by Douglas Martin, Scolar Press, 1996. "Third ed.,
revised by the author for...the English translation.
Eisenstein, Elizabeth (1980). The
Printing Press as an Agent of
Change. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29955-1.
Eisenstein, Elizabeth (2005). The
Printing Revolution in Early Modern
Europe (2nd, rev. ed.). Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 0-521-60774-4. [More recent, abridged version]
Febvre, Lucien; Martin, Henri-Jean (1997). The Coming of the Book: The
Printing 1450–1800. London: Verso.
Man, John (2002). The Gutenberg Revolution: The Story of a Genius and
Invention that Changed the World. London: Headline Review.
McLuhan, Marshall (1962). The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of
Typographic Man (1st ed.). University of
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Johannes Gutenberg.
English homepage of the Gutenberg-Museum Mainz, Germany.
The Digital Gutenberg Project: the
Gutenberg Bible in 1,300 digital
images, every page of the
University of Texas at Austin
University of Texas at Austin copy.
Treasures in Full –
Gutenberg Bible View the British Library's
Digital Versions Online
Texts on Wikisource:
"Gutenberg, Johannes". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
"Gutenburg, Johannes". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. 1907.
"Gutenberg, Johann". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
"Johann Gutenberg". Catholic Encyclopedia. 1913.
"Gutenberg, Johannes". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914.
"Gutenberg, Johannes". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.
"Gutenberg, Johannes". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921.
ISNI: 0000 0001 2120 0528
BNF: cb119782521 (data)
Laurens Janszoon Coster