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Jogaila
Jogaila
(Lithuanian pronunciation: [joːˈgaːɪˈɫaː] ( listen), later Władysław II Jagiełło
Władysław II Jagiełło
(Polish pronunciation: [vwaˈdɨswaf jaˈɡʲɛwːɔ] ( listen))[nb 1] (c. 1352/1362 – 1 June 1434) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania
Grand Duke of Lithuania
(1377–1434) and then the King of Poland (1386–1434), first alongside his wife Jadwiga until 1399, and then sole King of Poland. He ruled in Lithuania from 1377. Born a pagan, in 1386 he converted to Catholicism and was baptized as Władysław in Kraków, married the young Queen Jadwiga, and was crowned King of Poland
King of Poland
as Władysław II Jagiełło.[1] In 1387 he converted Lithuania to Christianity. His own reign in Poland started in 1399, upon the death of Queen Jadwiga, and lasted a further thirty-five years and laid the foundation for the centuries-long Polish–Lithuanian union. He was a member of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland that bears his name and was previously also known as the Gediminid dynasty
Gediminid dynasty
in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The dynasty ruled both states until 1572,[nb 2] and became one of the most influential dynasties in late medieval and early modern Central and Eastern Europe.[2] During his reign, the Polish-Lithuanian state was the largest state in the Christian world.[3] Jogaila
Jogaila
was the last pagan ruler of medieval Lithuania. After he became King of Poland, as a result of the Union of Krewo, the newly formed Polish-Lithuanian union confronted the growing power of the Teutonic Knights. The allied victory at the Battle of Grunwald
Battle of Grunwald
in 1410, followed by the Peace of Thorn, secured the Polish and Lithuanian borders and marked the emergence of the Polish–Lithuanian alliance as a significant force in Europe. The reign of Władysław II Jagiełło extended Polish frontiers and is often considered the beginning of Poland's Golden Age.

Contents

1 Early life

1.1 Lithuania 1.2 Baptism and marriage

2 Ruler of Lithuania and Poland

2.1 Accession 2.2 Challenges

3 King of Poland

3.1 Early actions 3.2 Against the Teutonic Order 3.3 Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic war 3.4 Battle of Grunwald 3.5 Dissent 3.6 Last conflicts 3.7 Succession and death

4 Family tree (incomplete) 5 See also 6 Notes 7 Footnotes 8 References

Early life[edit] Lithuania[edit] Little is known of Jogaila's early life, and even his year of birth is uncertain. Previously historians assumed he was born in 1352, but some recent research suggests a later date—about 1362.[4] He was a descendant of the Gediminid dynasty
Gediminid dynasty
and was probably born in Vilnius. His parents were Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his second wife, Uliana, daughter of Alexander I, Grand Prince of Tver. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
to which Jogaila
Jogaila
succeeded as Grand Duke in 1377 was a political entity composed of two leading, but very different nationalities and two political systems: ethnic Lithuania in the north-west and the vast Ruthenian territories of former Kievan Rus', comprising the lands of modern Ukraine, Belarus, and parts of western Russia.[5] At first, Jogaila—like his father—based his rule in the southern and eastern territories of Lithuania, while his uncle, Kęstutis, the Duke of Trakai, continued to rule the north-western region.[nb 3] Jogaila's succession, however, soon placed this system of dual rule under strain.[2]

Modern depiction of Władysław II Jagiełło

At the start of his reign, Jogaila
Jogaila
was preoccupied with unrest in the Lithuanian Rus' lands. In 1377–78, Andrei of Polotsk, the eldest son of Algirdas, challenged Jogaila's authority and sought to become Grand Duke. In 1380, Andrei and another brother, Dmitry, sided with Prince Dmitri of Moscow against Jogaila's alliance with emir Mamai, de facto khan of the Golden Horde.[6] Jogaila
Jogaila
failed to support Mamai, lingering in the vicinity of the battlefield, which led to Mamai's army's significant defeat at the hands of Prince Dmitri in the Battle of Kulikovo. The Muscovites' Pyrrhic victory over the Golden Horde, in the long term, signified, however, the beginning of a slow climb to power by the Grand Duchy of Moscow, which became within a century the most serious rival and threat to the integrity, well-being and survival of Lithuania. However, in 1380 Muscovy was greatly weakened by tremendous losses suffered during the battle and thus, in the same year, Jogaila
Jogaila
was free to begin a struggle for supremacy with Kęstutis. In the north-west, Lithuania faced constant armed incursions from the Teutonic Knights—founded after 1226 to fight and convert the pagan Baltic tribes
Baltic tribes
of Prussians, Yotvingians
Yotvingians
and Lithuanians. In 1380, Jogaila
Jogaila
secretly concluded the secret Treaty of Dovydiškės, directed against Kęstutis.[2] When Kęstutis
Kęstutis
discovered the plan, the Lithuanian Civil War began. He seized Vilnius, overthrew Jogaila, and pronounced himself grand duke in his place.[7] In 1382, Jogaila
Jogaila
raised an army from his father's vassals and confronted Kęstutis
Kęstutis
near Trakai. Kęstutis
Kęstutis
and his son Vytautas
Vytautas
entered Jogaila's encampment for negotiations but were tricked and imprisoned in the Kreva Castle, where Kęstutis
Kęstutis
was found dead, probably murdered, a week later.[8] Vytautas
Vytautas
escaped to the Teutonic fortress of Marienburg and was baptised there under the name Wigand.[7] Jogaila
Jogaila
formulated the Treaty of Dubysa, which rewarded the Knights for their aid in defeating Kęstutis
Kęstutis
and Vytautas
Vytautas
by promising Christianisation and granting them Samogitia
Samogitia
west of the Dubysa
Dubysa
river. However, when Jogaila
Jogaila
failed to ratify the treaty, the Knights invaded Lithuania in the summer of 1383. In 1384, Jogaila
Jogaila
reconciled with Vytautas
Vytautas
promising to return his patrimony in Trakai. Vytautas
Vytautas
then turned against the Knights, attacking and looting several Prussian castles.[9] Baptism and marriage[edit] See also: Jadwiga of Poland Jogaila's Russian mother Uliana of Tver
Tver
urged him to marry Sofia, daughter of Prince Dmitri of Moscow, who required him first to convert to Orthodoxy.[nb 4] That option, however, was unlikely to halt the crusades against Lithuania by the Teutonic Knights, who regarded Orthodox Christians
Orthodox Christians
as schismatics and little better than heathens.[2][7] Jogaila
Jogaila
chose therefore to accept a Polish proposal to become a Catholic
Catholic
and marry the eleven-year-old Queen Jadwiga of Poland.[nb 5] The nobles of Lesser Poland
Lesser Poland
made this offer to Jogaila for many reasons. They wanted to neutralize the dangers posed by Lithuania itself and to secure the fertile territories of Galicia–Volhynia.[10] The Polish nobles saw the offer as an opportunity for increasing their privileges[11] and avoiding Austrian influence, brought by Jadwiga's previous fiancé William, Duke of Austria.[12] On 14 August 1385 in Kreva Castle, Jogaila
Jogaila
confirmed his prenuptial promises in the Union of Krewo
Union of Krewo
(Union of Kreva). The promises included the adoption of Christianity, repatriation of lands "stolen" from Poland by its neighbours, and terras suas Lithuaniae et Russiae Coronae Regni Poloniae perpetuo applicare, a clause interpreted by historians to mean anything from a personal union between Lithuania and Poland to a complete incorporation of Lithuania into Poland.[13] The agreement at Kreva has been described both as far-sighted and as a desperate gamble.[nb 6] Jogaila
Jogaila
was duly baptised at the Wawel Cathedral
Wawel Cathedral
in Kraków
Kraków
on 15 February 1386 and from then on formally used the name Władysław or Latin versions of it.[14][nb 7] The marriage took place three days later, and on 4 March 1386 Jogaila
Jogaila
was crowned King Władysław by archbishop Bodzanta. He was also to be legally adopted by Jadwiga's mother, Elizabeth of Bosnia, so retaining the throne in the event of Jadwiga's death.[7] The royal baptism triggered the conversion of most of Jogaila's court and noblemen, as well as mass baptisms in Lithuanian rivers,[15] a beginning of the final Christianization of Lithuania. Though the ethnic Lithuanian nobility
Lithuanian nobility
were the main converts to Catholicism—both paganism and the Orthodox rite remained strong among the peasants—the king's conversion and its political implications created lasting repercussions for the history of both Lithuania and Poland.[15] Ruler of Lithuania and Poland[edit] Accession[edit]

Poland and Lithuania 1386–1434

Władysław II Jagiello and Queen Jadwiga reigned as co-monarchs; and though Jadwiga probably had little real power, she took an active part in Poland's political and cultural life. In 1387, she led two successful military expeditions to Red Ruthenia, recovered lands her father Louis I of Hungary
Louis I of Hungary
had transferred from Poland to Hungary, and secured the homage of Petru I, Voivode of Moldavia.[16] In 1390, she also personally opened negotiations with the Teutonic Order. Most political responsibilities, however, fell to Jagiello, with Jadwiga attending to the cultural and charitable activities for which she is still revered.[16] Soon after Jagiello's accession to the Polish throne, Jagiello granted Vilnius
Vilnius
a city charter like that of Kraków, modeled on the Magdeburg Law; and Vytautas
Vytautas
issued a privilege to a Jewish commune of Trakai
Trakai
on almost the same terms as privileges issued to the Jews of Poland in the reigns of Boleslaus the Pious and Casimir the Great.[17] Władysław's policy of unifying the two legal systems was partial and uneven at first but achieved a lasting influence.[16] By the time of the Union of Lublin
Union of Lublin
in 1569, there was not much difference between the administrative and judicial systems in force in Lithuania and Poland.[18] One effect of Jagiello's measures was to be the advancement of Catholics in Lithuania at the expense of Orthodox elements; in 1387 and 1413, for example, Lithuanian Catholic
Catholic
boyars were granted special judicial and political privileges denied to the Orthodox boyars.[19] As this process gained momentum, it was accompanied by the rise of both Rus' and Lithuanian identity in the fifteenth century.[20] Challenges[edit]

Vytautas
Vytautas
the Great

Jagiello's baptism failed to end the crusade of the Teutonic Knights, who claimed his conversion was a sham, perhaps even a heresy, and renewed their incursions on the pretext that pagans remained in Lithuania.[7][21] From then on, however, the Order found it harder to sustain the cause of a crusade and faced the growing threat to its existence posed by the Kingdom of Poland and a genuinely Christian Lithuania alliance.[22][23] Władysław sponsored the creation of the diocese of Vilnius
Vilnius
under bishop Andrzej Wasilko, the former confessor of Elisabeth of Hungary. The bishopric, which included Samogitia, then largely controlled by the Teutonic Order, was subordinated to the see of Gniezno
Gniezno
and not to that of Teutonic Königsberg.[7] The decision may not have improved Władysław's relations with the Order, but it served to introduce closer ties between Lithuania and Poland, enabling the Polish church to freely assist its Lithuanian counterpart.[15] In 1389, Władysław's rule in Lithuania faced a revived challenge from Vytautas, who resented the power given to Skirgaila
Skirgaila
in Lithuania at the expense of his own patrimony.[9] Vytautas
Vytautas
started a civil war in Lithuania, aiming to become the Grand Duke. On 4 September 1390, the joint forces of Vytautas
Vytautas
and the Teutonic Grand Master, Konrad von Wallenrode, laid siege to Vilnius, which was held by Władysław's regent Skirgaila
Skirgaila
with combined Polish, Lithuanian and Ruthenian troops.[2] Although the Knights lifted the siege of the castle after a month, they reduced much of the outer city to ruins. This bloody conflict was eventually brought to a temporary halt in 1392 with the Treaty of Ostrów, by which Władysław handed over the government of Lithuania to his cousin in exchange for peace: Vytautas
Vytautas
was to rule Lithuania as the Grand Duke (magnus dux) until his death, under the overlordship of the Supreme Duke (dux supremus) in the person of the Polish monarch.[24] Skirgaila
Skirgaila
was moved from the Duchy of Trakai
Trakai
to become prince of Kiev.[25] Vytautas
Vytautas
initially accepted his status but soon began to pursue Lithuania's independence from Poland.[16][26] The protracted period of war between the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
and the Teutonic Knights was ended on 12 October 1398 by the Treaty of Salynas, named after the islet in the Neman River
Neman River
where it was signed. Lithuania agreed to cede Samogitia
Samogitia
and assist the Teutonic Order in a campaign to seize Pskov, while the Order agreed to assist Lithuania in a campaign to seize Novgorod.[16] Shortly afterwards, Vytautas
Vytautas
was crowned as a king by local nobles; but the following year his forces and those of his ally, Khan Tokhtamysh
Tokhtamysh
of the White Horde, were crushed by the Timurids at the Battle of the Vorskla River, ending his imperial ambitions in the east and obliging him to submit to Władysław's protection once more.[2][26] King of Poland[edit] Early actions[edit] On 22 June 1399, Jadwiga gave birth to a daughter, baptised Elizabeth Bonifacia, but within a month the mother and daughter died, leaving Władysław sole ruler of the Kingdom of Poland and without an heir nor much legitimacy to rule the kingdom. Jadwiga's death undermined Władysław's right to the throne, and as a result old conflicts between the nobility of Lesser Poland, generally sympathetic to Władysław, and the gentry of Greater Poland
Greater Poland
began to surface. In 1402, Władysław answered the rumblings against his rule by marrying Anna of Celje, a granddaughter of Casimir III of Poland, a political match that re-legitimised his reign. The Union of Vilnius
Vilnius
and Radom of 1401 confirmed the status of Vytautas
Vytautas
as grand duke under Władysław's overlordship, while assuring the title of grand duke to the heirs of Władysław rather than those of Vytautas: should Władysław die without heirs, the Lithuanian boyars were to elect a new monarch.[27][28] Since no heir had yet been produced by either monarch, the implications of the union were unforeseeable, but it forged bonds between the Polish and Lithuanian nobility
Lithuanian nobility
and a permanent defensive alliance between the two states, strengthening Lithuania's hand for a new war against the Teutonic Order in which Poland officially took no part.[22][26] While the document left the liberties of the Polish nobles untouched, it granted increased power to the boyars of Lithuania, whose grand dukes had till then been unencumbered by checks and balances of the sort attached to the Polish monarchy. The Union of Vilnius
Vilnius
and Radom therefore earned Władysław a measure of support in Lithuania.[16] In late 1401, the new war against the Order overstretched the resources of the Lithuanians, who found themselves fighting on two fronts after uprisings in the eastern provinces. Another of Władysław's brothers, the malcontent Švitrigaila, chose this moment to stir up revolts behind the lines and declare himself grand duke.[21] On 31 January 1402, he presented himself in Marienburg, where he won the backing of the Knights with concessions similar to those made by Jogaila
Jogaila
and Vytautas
Vytautas
during earlier leadership contests in the Grand Duchy.[27] Against the Teutonic Order[edit]

Royal seal of Władysław II Jagiełło

The war ended in the Treaty of Raciąż
Treaty of Raciąż
on 22 May 1404. Władysław acceded to the formal cession of Samogitia
Samogitia
and agreed to support the Order's designs on Pskov; in return, Konrad von Jungingen
Konrad von Jungingen
undertook to sell Poland the disputed Dobrzyń Land
Dobrzyń Land
and the town of Złotoryja, once pawned to the Order by Władysław Opolski, and to support Vytautas
Vytautas
in a revived attempt on Novgorod.[27] Both sides had practical reasons for signing the treaty at that point: the Order needed time to fortify its newly acquired lands, the Poles and Lithuanians
Lithuanians
to deal with territorial challenges in the east and in Silesia. Also in 1404, Władysław held talks at Vratislav with Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia, who offered to return Silesia
Silesia
to Poland if Władysław supported him in his power struggle within the Holy Roman Empire.[29] Władysław turned the deal down with the agreement of both Polish and Silesian nobles, unwilling to burden himself with new military commitments in the west.[30] Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic war[edit] Main articles: Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War
Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War
and Battle of Grunwald

Battle of Grunwald, 1410. Painting by Jan Matejko

In December 1408, Władysław and Vytautas
Vytautas
held strategic talks in Navahrudak Castle, where they decided to foment a Samogitian uprising against Teutonic rule to draw German forces away from Pomerelia. Władysław promised to repay Vytautas
Vytautas
for his support by restoring Samogitia
Samogitia
to Lithuania in any future peace treaty.[31] The uprising, which began in May 1409, at first provoked little reaction from the Knights, who had not yet consolidated their rule in Samogitia
Samogitia
by building castles; but by June their diplomats were busy lobbying Władysław's court at Oborniki, warning his nobles against Polish involvement in a war between Lithuania and the Order.[32] Władysław, however, bypassed his nobles and informed new Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen that if the Knights acted to suppress Samogitia, Poland would intervene. This stung the Order into issuing a declaration of war against Poland on 6 August, which Władysław received on 14 August in Nowy Korczyn.[32] The castles guarding the northern border were in such bad condition that the Knights easily captured those at Złotoryja, Dobrzyń and Bobrowniki, the capital of Dobrzyń Land, while German burghers invited them into Bydgoszcz
Bydgoszcz
(German: Bromberg). Władysław arrived on the scene in late September, retook Bydgoszcz
Bydgoszcz
within a week, and came to terms with the Order on 8 October. During the winter, the two armies prepared for a major confrontation. Władysław installed a strategic supply depot at Płock
Płock
in Masovia
Masovia
and had a pontoon bridge constructed and transported north down the Vistula.[33] Meanwhile, both sides unleashed diplomatic offensives. The Knights dispatched letters to the monarchs of Europe, preaching their usual crusade against the heathens;[34] Władysław countered with his own letters to the monarchs, accusing the Order of planning to conquer the whole world.[35] Such appeals successfully recruited many foreign knights to each side. Wenceslas IV of Bohemia signed a defensive treaty with the Poles against the Teutonic Order; his brother, Sigismund of Luxembourg, allied himself with the Order and declared war against Poland on 12 July, though his Hungarian vassals refused his call to arms.[36] Battle of Grunwald[edit] Main article: Battle of Grunwald

The Teutonic Order's castle at Marienburg

When the war resumed in June 1410, Władysław advanced into the Teutonic heartland at the head of an army of about 20,000 mounted nobles, 15,000 armed commoners, and 2,000 professional cavalry mainly hired from Bohemia. After crossing the Vistula
Vistula
over the pontoon bridge at Czerwińsk, his troops met up with those of Vytautas, whose 11,000 light cavalry included Lithuanians, Ruthenians, and Tatars.[37] The Teutonic Order's army numbered about 18,000 cavalry, mostly Germans and 5,000 infantry. On 15 July, at the Battle of Grunwald
Battle of Grunwald
after one of the largest and most ferocious battles of the Middle Ages,[38] the allies won a victory so overwhelming that the Teutonic Order's army was virtually annihilated, with most of its key commanders killed in combat, including Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen
Ulrich von Jungingen
and Grand Marshal Friedrich von Wallenrode. Thousands of troops were reported to have been slaughtered on either side.[37] The road to the Teutonic capital Marienburg now lay open, the city undefended; but for reasons the sources do not explain, Władysław hesitated to pursue his advantage.[39] On 17 July, his army began a laboured advance, arriving at Marienburg only on 25 July, by which time the new Grand Master, Heinrich von Plauen, had organised a defence of the fortress.[40][41] The apparent half-heartedness of the ensuing siege, called off by Władysław on 19 September, has been ascribed variously to the impregnability of the fortifications,[40] to high casualty figures among the Lithuanians, to Władysław's unwillingness to risk further casualties, or to his desire to keep the Order weakened but undefeated as to not upset the balance of power between Poland (which would most likely acquire most of the Order possessions if it was totally defeated) and Lithuania; but a lack of sources precludes a definitive explanation.[42][42] Dissent[edit]

Polish and Lithuanian conflict with Teutonic Prussia, 1377–1434.

The war ended in 1411 with the Peace of Thorn, in which neither Poland nor Lithuania drove home their negotiating advantage to the full, much to the discontent of the Polish nobles. Poland regained Dobrzyń Land, Lithuania regained Samogitia, and Masovia
Masovia
regained a small territory beyond the Wkra
Wkra
river. Most of the Teutonic Order's territory, however, including towns that had surrendered, remained intact. Władysław then proceeded to release many high-ranking Teutonic Knights and officials for apparently modest ransoms. The cumulative expense of the ransoms, however, proved a drain on the Order's resources.[43] This failure to exploit the victory to his nobles' satisfaction provoked growing opposition to Władysław's regime after 1411, further fuelled by the granting of Podolia, disputed between Poland and Lithuania, to Vytautas, and by the king's two-year absence in Lithuania.[44] In an effort to outflank his critics, Władysław promoted the leader of the opposing faction, bishop Mikołaj Trąba, to the archbishopric of Gniezno
Gniezno
in autumn 1411 and replaced him in Kraków
Kraków
with Wojciech Jastrzębiec, a supporter of Vytautas.[44] He also sought to create more allies in Lithuania. In the Union of Horodło, signed on 2 October 1413, he decreed that the status of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was "tied to our Kingdom of Poland permanently and irreversibly" and granted the Catholic
Catholic
nobles of Lithuania privileges equal to those of the Polish szlachta. The act included a clause prohibiting the Polish nobles from electing a monarch without the consent of the Lithuanian nobles, and the Lithuanian nobles from electing a grand duke without the consent of the Polish monarch.[28][45] Last conflicts[edit] In 1414, a sporadic new war broke out, known as the "Hunger War" from the Knights' scorched-earth tactics of burning fields and mills; but both the Knights and the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
were too exhausted from the previous war to risk a major battle, and the fighting petered out in the autumn.[44] Hostilities did not flare up again until 1419, during the Council of Constance, when they were called off at the papal legate's insistence.[44] The Council of Constance
Council of Constance
proved a turning point in the Teutonic crusades, as it did for several European conflicts. Vytautas
Vytautas
sent a delegation in 1415, including the metropolitan of Kiev and Samogitian witnesses; they arrived at Constance at the end of that year to express their preference for being "baptised with water and not with blood".[46] The Polish envoys, among them Mikołaj Trąba, Zawisza Czarny, and Paweł Włodkowic, lobbied for an end to the forced conversion of heathens and to the Order's aggression against Lithuania and Poland.[47] As a result of the Polish–Lithuanian diplomacy, the council, though scandalised by Włodkowic's questioning of the legitimacy of the monastic state, denied the Order's request for a further crusade and instead entrusted the conversion of the Samogitians to Poland–Lithuania.[48] The diplomatic context at Constance included the revolt of the Bohemian Hussites, who looked upon Poland as an ally in their wars against Sigismund, the emperor elect and new king of Bohemia. In 1421, the Bohemian Diet declared Sigismund deposed and formally offered the crown to Władysław on condition that he accept the religious principles of the Four Articles of Prague, which he was not prepared to do. After Władysław's refusal, Vytautas
Vytautas
was postulated (elected in absentia) as Bohemian king, but he assured the pope that he opposed the heretics. Between 1422 and 1428, Władysław's nephew, Sigismund Korybut, attempted a regency in war-torn Bohemia, with little success.[49] Vytautas
Vytautas
accepted Sigismund's offer of a royal crown in 1429 — apparently with Władysław's blessing — but Polish forces intercepted the crown in transit and the coronation was cancelled.[28][50]

Jadwiga's sarcophagus, Wawel Cathedral

In 1422, Władysław fought another war, known as the Gollub War, against the Teutonic Order, defeating them in under two months before the Order's imperial reinforcements had time to arrive. The resulting Treaty of Melno
Treaty of Melno
ended the Knights' claims to Samogitia
Samogitia
once and for all and defined a permanent border between Prussia and Lithuania. Lithuania was given the province of Samogitia, with the port of Palanga, but the city of Klaipėda
Klaipėda
was left to the Order.[28] This border remained largely unchanged for roughly 500 years, until 1920. The terms of this treaty have, however, been seen as turning a Polish victory into defeat, as a result of Władysław's renunciation of Polish claims to Pomerania, Pomerelia, and Chełmno Land, for which he received only the town of Nieszawa
Nieszawa
in return.[51] The Treaty of Melno closed a chapter in the Knights' wars with Lithuania but did little to settle their long-term issues with Poland. Further sporadic warfare broke out between Poland and the Knights between 1431 and 1435. Cracks in the cooperation between Poland and Lithuania after the death of Vytautas
Vytautas
in 1430 had offered the Knights a revived opportunity for interference in Poland. Władysław supported his brother Švitrigaila as grand duke of Lithuania,[14] but when Švitrigaila, with the support of the Teutonic Order and dissatisfied Rus' nobles,[20] rebelled against Polish overlordship in Lithuania, the Poles, under the leadership of Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki of Kraków, occupied Podolia, which Władysław had awarded to Lithuania in 1411, and Volhynia.[28] In 1432, a pro-Polish party in Lithuania elected Vytautas's brother Žygimantas as grand duke,[14] leading to an armed struggle over the Lithuanian succession which stuttered on for years after Władysław's death.[20][28] Succession and death[edit]

Jagiełło's sarcophagus, Wawel Cathedral

Władysław's second wife, Anna of Celje, had died in 1416, leaving a daughter, Jadwiga. In 1417, Władysław married Elisabeth of Pilica, who died in 1420 without bearing him a child, and two years later, Sophia of Halshany
Sophia of Halshany
(niece of Uliana Olshanska), who bore him two surviving sons. The death in 1431 of his daughter Jadwiga, the last heir of Piast blood, released Władysław to make his sons by Sophia of Halshany his heirs, though he had to sweeten the Polish nobles with concessions to ensure their agreement, since the monarchy was elective. During an excursion into Przemysl Land
Przemysl Land
in the 48th year of his reign, Władysław caught a cold from which he was unable to recover.[52][14] He finally died in Grodek in 1434, leaving Poland to his elder son, Władysław III, and Lithuania to his younger, Casimir, both still minors at the time.[53][54] The Lithuanian inheritance, however, could not be taken for granted. Władysław's death ended the personal union between the two realms, and it was not clear what would take its place.[55] Family tree (incomplete)[edit] Main article: Family relations of Jogaila

Family tree of Jogaila/Władysław II Jagiello[56]

Gediminas b. c. 1275 d. 1341

Jewna b. c. 1280 d. 1344

Alexander I of Tver b. 1301 d. 22 Oct 1339

Anastasia of Halych

         

     

  Algirdas b. c. 1296 d. May 1377

Uliana Alexandrovna of Tver b. c. 1330 d. 1392

     

   

1 Jadwiga I of Poland b. 1374 d. 17 Jul 1399 OO   18 Feb 1386 2 Anne of Cilli b. 1380/81 d. 21 May 1416 OO   29 Jan 1402 Jogaila/Władysław II Jagiełło b. c. 1351 d. 1 Jun 1434 3 Elisabeth of Pilica b. 1372 d. 12 May 1420 OO   2 May 1417 4 Sophia of Halshany b. c. 1405 d. 21 Sep 1461 OO   7 Feb 1422

                   

   1    2    4    4    4

Elizabeth Bonifacia  b. 22 Jun 1399  d. 13 Jul 1399   Hedwig  b. 8 Apr 1408  d. 8 Dec 1431   Władysław III  b. 31 Oct 1424  d. 10 Nov 1444   Casimir  b. 16 May 1426  d. 2 Mar 1427   Casimir IV  b. 30 Nov 1427  d. 7 Jun 1492  

See also[edit]

History of Lithuania History of Poland (1385–1569) Names and titles of Władysław II Jagiełło List of Belarusian rulers List of Lithuanian rulers King Jagiello Monument List of Poles

Notes[edit]

^ He is known under a number of names: Lithuanian: Jogaila Algirdaitis; Polish: Władysław II Jagiełło; Belarusian: Jahajła (Ягайла). See also: Names and titles of Władysław II Jagiełło. ^ Anna Jagiellon, the last member of royal Jagiellon family, died in 1596. ^ Some historians have called this system a diarchy (Sruogienė-Sruoga 1987; Deveike 1950). However, Rowell suggests that the nature of this dual rule "...reflects political expediency; it certainly does not meet the formal definition of diarchy as 'rule by two independent authorities'...those two leaders were not equal: the grand duke in Vilnius
Vilnius
was supreme" (Rowell 1994, p. 68). ^ The historian John Meyendorff suggests Jogaila
Jogaila
may have already been an Orthodox Christian: "In 1377, Olgerd of Lithuania died, leaving the Grand Principality to his son Jagiello, an Orthodox Christian..." (Meyendorff 1989, p. 205). Dmitri, however, made it a condition of the marriage that Jogaila
Jogaila
"should be baptized in the Orthodox faith and that he should proclaim his Christianity to all men" (Dvornik 1992, p. 221). ^ Jadwiga had actually been crowned king of Poland (rex poloni), because the Polish political system made no provision for a queen regnant Stone 2001, p. 8). ^ It "reflects the exceptional far-sightedness of the political elites ruling both countries" (Kłoczowski 2000, p. 55). It was "a desperate gamble by Jogaila
Jogaila
to avert a seemingly inevitable subjugation" (Lukowski & Zawadzki 2001, p. 38) ^ A Slavic name that roughly translates as glorious rule, Władysław is often Latinised into either Wladislaus or Ladislaus. The choice evoked both Władysław I of Poland, the Elbow-high, who was Queen Jadwiga's great-grandfather and unified the kingdom in 1320, and Saint Ladislaus I of Hungary, a king who sided with the pope against the emperor Henry IV and Christianised Transylvania
Transylvania
(Rowell 2000, pp. 709–712).

Footnotes[edit]

^ Bojtár 2000, p. 182 ^ a b c d e f Bojtár 2000, pp. 180–186 ^ Boczkowska 2011, p. 27 ^ Tęgowski 1999, pp. 124–125 ^ Stone 2001, p. 4 ^ Plokhy 2006, p. 46 ^ a b c d e f Rowell 2000, pp. 709–712 ^ Bojtár 2000, p. 181 ^ a b Mickūnaitė 1999, p. 157 ^ Lukowski & Zawadzki 2001, p. 42 ^ Dvornik 1992, p. 129 ^ Lukowski & Zawadzki 2001, p. 37 ^ Lukowski & Zawadzki 2001, p. 41; Stone 2001, p. 8 ^ a b c d Sruogienė-Sruoga 1987 ^ a b c Kłoczowski 2000, pp. 54–57 ^ a b c d e f Jasienica 1988, pp. 80–146 ^ Jasienica 1988, pp. 74–80 ^ Dvornik 1992, p. 344 ^ Magocsi 1996, p. 134 ^ a b c Plokhy 2006, p. 98 ^ a b Housley 1992, p. 354 ^ a b Sedlar 1994, p. 388 ^ Turnbull 2004, p. 22 ^ Rowell 2000, p. 732 ^ Stone 2001, p. 10 ^ a b c Dvornik 1992, pp. 222–225 ^ a b c Jasienica 1988, pp. 103–105 ^ a b c d e f Stone 2001, p. 11 ^ New Cambridge Medieval
Medieval
History, 348. ^ Polska Piastów 2005 ^ Karwasińska & Zakrzewski 1935, p. 21 ^ a b Jasienica 1988, pp. 106–107 ^ Turnbull 2003, pp. 32–33 ^ Delbrück 1990, p. 526 ^ Jasienica 1988, p. 108 ^ Jasienica 1988, p. 110 ^ a b Stone 2001, p. 16 ^ Bojtár 2000, p. 182; Turnbull 2003, p. 7 ^ Turnbull 2003, p. 7 ^ a b Stone 2001, p. 17 ^ Turnbull 2003, p. 73 ^ a b Jasienica 1988, pp. 113–120 ^ New Cambridge Medieval
Medieval
History, 364. ^ a b c d Jasienica 1988, pp. 121–124 ^ Dvornik 1992, pp. 342–343; New Cambridge Medieval
Medieval
History, 775–6. ^ Housley 1992, p. 361; Rowell 2000, p. 733 ^ Kłoczowski 2000, p. 73 ^ Housley 1992, pp. 351–361 ^ Bideleux 1998, pp. 233–235; Turnbull & McBride 2004, pp. 11–12 ^ New Cambridge Medieval
Medieval
History, 353. ^ Jasienica 1988, p. 130 ^ Prazmowska 2011, p. 72 ^ Sedlar 1994, p. 282 ^ Rowell 2000, p. 711 ^ Stone 2001, p. 22 ^ Jurzak 2006

References[edit]

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Jogaila
(in Lithuanian), Kaunas: redagavo A. Šapoka  Jasienica, Paweł (1988), Polska Jagiellonów (in Polish), Warsaw: Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy, ISBN 978-83-06-01796-0  Jurzak, Ryszard (2006), "Władysław II Jagiełło", Dynastic Genealogy, retrieved 27 September 2006  Karwasińska, Jadwiga & Zakrzewski, Ignacy (1935), Lites ac res gestae inter Polonos Ordinemque Cruciferorum, Warsaw: Bibliotheca Cornicensis  (in Polish) (in Latin) Kłoczowski, Jerzy (2000), A History of Polish Christianity, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-36429-4  Kosman, Marceli (1976), Drogi zaniku pogaństwa u Bałtów (in Polish), Wrocław: Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich  Kosman, Marceli (1987), Jagiełło królem Polski: z dziejów unii Polski i Litwy (in Polish), Warsaw: Wydawnictwa Szkolne i Pedagogiczne (WSiP), ISBN 978-83-02-03292-9  Lukowski, Jerzy & Zawadzki, Hubert (2001), A Concise History of Poland, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-55917-1  Magocsi, Paul Robert (1996), A History of Ukraine, University of Toronto Press, ISBN 978-0-8020-7820-9  Meyendorff, John (1989), Byzantium and the Rise of Russia (Reprint ed.), Crestwood, NY: Vladimir's Seminary Press, ISBN 978-0-88141-079-2  Mickūnaitė, Giedrė (1999), "From Pamphlet to Origin Theory", in Kooper, Erik Simon, The Medieval
Medieval
Chronicle: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on the Medieval
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Chronicle, Amsterdam: Rodopi, ISBN 978-90-420-0834-2  O'Connor, Kevin (2003), A History of the Baltic States, Greenwood Press, ISBN 978-0-313-32355-3  Plokhy, Serhii (2006), The Origins of the Slavic Nations: Premodern Identities in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-86403-9  Prazmowska, Anita J. (2011), A History of Poland: Second Edition, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 0230345379  Rogalski, Leon (1846), Dzieje Krzyżaków (History of the Teutonic Knights) (in Polish), Warsaw: Samuel Orgelbrand  Rowell, S. C. (2000), "Baltic Europe", in Jones, Michael, The New Cambridge Medieval
Medieval
History VI, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-36290-0  Rowell, S. C. (1994), Lithuania Ascending: A Pagan
Pagan
Empire Within East-central Europe, 1295–1345, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-45011-9  Sedlar, Jean W. (1994), East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000–1500, Seattle: University of Washington Press, ISBN 978-0-295-97290-9  Śląsk w polityce Piastów (" Silesia
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Jogaila
(1350–1434)", Lituanus, 33 (4), retrieved 25 January 2007  Stone, Daniel Z. (2001), The Polish-Lithuanian State, 1386–1795, Seattle: University of Washington Press, ISBN 978-0-295-98093-5  Tęgowski, Jan (1999), Pierwsze pokolenia Giedyminowiczow (in Polish), Poznań-Wrocław: Wydawn. Historyczne, ISBN 978-83-913563-1-9  Turnbull, Stephen (2003), Tannenberg 1410: Disaster for the Teutonic Knights, Osprey, ISBN 978-1-84176-561-7  Turnbull, Stephen (2004), Crusader Castles of the Teutonic Knights (2): Baltic Stone Castles 1184–1560, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 978-1-84176-712-3  Turnbull, Stephen & McBride, Angus (2004), The Hussite
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wladislaus II of Poland.

Władysław II Jagiełło Jagiellon dynasty Cadet branch of the Gediminid dynasty Born: c. 1351/1362 Died: 1 June 1434

Regnal titles

Preceded by Algirdas Grand Duke of Lithuania 1377–1381 Succeeded by Kęstutis

Preceded by Kęstutis Grand Duke of Lithuania 1382–1392 Succeeded by Vytautas

Preceded by Jadwiga King of Poland 1386–1434 with Jadwiga (1386–1399) Succeeded by Władysław III

v t e

Monarchs of Poland

Piast dynasty

Siemowit Lestek Siemomysł Mieszko I Bolesław I the Brave Bezprym Mieszko II Lambert (Bolesław the Forgotten) Casimir I the Restorer Bolesław II the Generous Władysław I Herman Zbigniew Bolesław III Wrymouth

Fragmentation period

Supreme Princes

Władysław II the Exile Bolesław IV the Curly Mieszko III the Old Casimir II the Just Leszek the White Władysław III Spindleshanks Władysław Odonic Mieszko IV Tanglefoot Konrad I Henry the Bearded Henry II the Pious Bolesław V the Chaste Leszek II the Black Henryk IV Probus Przemysł II

See also

Dukes of Silesia Dukes of Greater Poland Dukes of Little Poland Dukes of Masovia Dukes of Cuyavia Dukes of Sieradz-Łęczyca Dukes of Gdańsk Pomerania Dukes of Pomerania

Přemyslid dynasty

Wenceslaus II Wenceslaus III

Restored Piast dynasty

Władysław I the Elbow-high Casimir III the Great

Capet-Anjou dynasty

Louis I the Hungarian Jadwiga

Jagiellonian dynasty

Władysław II Jagiełło Władysław III of Varna Casimir IV John I Albert Alexander Sigismund I the Old Sigismund II Augustus

Elective monarchy

Henry of Valois Anna Jagiellon Stephen Báthory Sigismund III Vasa Władysław IV Vasa John II Casimir Vasa Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki John III Sobieski August II the Strong Stanisław I August III the Saxon Stanisław August Poniatowski

Italics indicates monarchs of questioned historicity or entirely legendary.

v t e

Monarchs of Lithuania

Early Grand Dukes

Mindaugas
Mindaugas
(dynasty) Treniota Vaišvilkas Shvarn Traidenis Daumantas

Gediminids

Butigeidis Butvydas Vytenis Gediminas
Gediminas
(family) Jaunutis Algirdas
Algirdas
(family) Jogaila
Jogaila
(family) Kęstutis
Kęstutis
(family) Skirgaila Vytautas Švitrigaila Sigismund Kęstutaitis Casimir Jagellon Alexander Sigismund I the Old Sigismund II Augustus

Elected

Henry III of Valois Anna the Jagiellonian Stephen Báthory Sigismund III Vasa Ladislaus IV Vasa John II Casimir Vasa Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki John III Sobieski Augustus II the Strong Stanisław Leszczyński August III the Saxon Stanisław August Poniatowski

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 53101699 LCCN: n84211693 ISNI: 0000 0000 6700 9596 GND: 119009927 SUDOC: 029915325 BNF:

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