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The Jodrell Bank Observatory
Observatory
(originally the Jodrell Bank Experimental Station, then the Nuffield Radio Astronomy Laboratories from 1966 to 1999; /ˈdʒɒdrəl/) is a British observatory that hosts a number of radio telescopes, and is part of the Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics
Astrophysics
at the University of Manchester. The observatory was established in 1945 by Sir Bernard Lovell, a radio astronomer at the University of Manchester
University of Manchester
who wanted to investigate cosmic rays after his work on radar during the Second World War. It has since played an important role in the research of meteors, quasars, pulsars, masers and gravitational lenses, and was heavily involved with the tracking of space probes at the start of the Space Age. The managing director of the observatory is Professor Simon Garrington. The main telescope at the observatory is the Lovell Telescope, which is the third largest steerable radio telescope in the world. There are three other active telescopes at the observatory; the Mark II, as well as 42 ft (13 m) and 7 m diameter radio telescopes. Jodrell Bank Observatory
Observatory
is also the base of the Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer
Interferometer
Network (MERLIN), a National Facility run by the University of Manchester
University of Manchester
on behalf of the Science and Technology Facilities Council. The site of the observatory, which includes the Jodrell Bank Visitor Centre and an arboretum, is in the civil parish of Lower Withington (the rest being in Goostrey
Goostrey
civil parish), near Goostrey
Goostrey
and Holmes Chapel, Cheshire, North West England. It is reached from the A535. The telescope can be seen when travelling by train, as the Crewe
Crewe
to Manchester
Manchester
Line passes right by the site, with Goostrey
Goostrey
station a short distance away.

Contents

1 Early years 2 Searchlight
Searchlight
telescope 3 Transit Telescope 4 Lovell Telescope 5 Mark II and III telescopes 6 Mark IV, V and VA telescopes 7 Other single dishes 8 MERLIN 9 Very Long Baseline Interferometry 10 Square Kilometre Array 11 Research 12 Visitor facilities, and events 13 Threat of closure 14 Fictional references 15 Appraisal 16 See also 17 References

17.1 Books 17.2 Journal articles

18 External links

Early years[edit]

Observations at Jodrell Bank in 1945

See also: Timeline of Jodrell Bank Observatory Jodrell Bank was first used for academic purposes in 1939 when the University of Manchester's Department of Botany purchased three fields at the site from the Leighs. The name of the site came from a nearby ground rise called Jodrell Bank, which was named after William Jauderell and whose descendants, the Leighs, lived at the mansion that is now Terra Nova School nearby. The site was extended in 1952 by the purchase of a farm from a local farmer, George Massey. The new land included the site upon which the Lovell Telescope
Lovell Telescope
was sited.[1] The first use of the site for astrophysics was in 1945, when Bernard Lovell wished to use some equipment left over from World War II, including a gun laying radar, to investigate cosmic rays.[2] The equipment he was using was a GL II radar system working at a wavelength of 4.2 m, provided by J. S. Hey.[3][4] He originally intended to use the equipment in Manchester; however, electrical interference from the trams that then ran down Oxford Road prevented him from doing so. Consequently, he moved the equipment to Jodrell Bank, 25 miles (40 km) south of the city, on 10 December 1945.[4][5] Lovell's main topic of research at the time were transient radio echoes, which he confirmed were from ionized meteor trails by October 1946.[6] The first staff were Alf Dean and Frank Foden and meteors were observed by the naked eye while Lovell observed the electromagnetic signal on the equipment.[7] Coincidentally, the first time he turned the radar on at Jodrell Bank – 14 December 1945 – the Geminids
Geminids
meteor shower was at a maximum.[5] Over the next few years, he accumulated more ex-military radio hardware, including a portable cabin, commonly known as a "Park Royal" in the military (see Park Royal Vehicles). The first permanent building on the site was near to this cabin, and was named after it.[6] Today, Jodrell Bank is primarily used for investigating radio waves from the planets and stars. Searchlight
Searchlight
telescope[edit] A searchlight was loaned to Jodrell Bank in 1946 by the Army;[8] a broadside array was constructed on the mount of this searchlight by J. Clegg,[8] consisting of a number of Yagi antennas.[9] This was first used for astronomical observations in October 1946.[10] On 9 and 10 October 1946, the telescope was used to observe the ionisation in the atmosphere caused by meteors in the Giacobinids meteor shower. When the antenna was turned by 90 degrees at the maximum of the shower, the number of detections dropped to the background level, proving that the transient signals detected by radar were indeed from meteors.[9] Shortly after this, the telescope was used to determine the radiant points for meteors. This was possible as the echo rate is at a minimum at the radiant point, and a maximum at 90 degrees to it.[8] The telescope, as well as other receivers on the site, was also used to study auroral streamers that were visible at the site in early August 1947.[11][12] Transit Telescope[edit] The Transit Telescope
Transit Telescope
was a 218 ft (66 m) parabolic reflector zenith telescope built at Jodrell Bank in 1947. At the time, it was the largest radio telescope in the world. It consisted of a wire mesh suspended from a ring of 24 ft (7.3 m) scaffold poles, which focussed radio signals to a focal point 126 ft (38 m) above the ground. The telescope mainly looked directly upwards, but the direction of the beam could be changed by small amounts by tilting the mast to change the position of the focal point. The focal mast was originally going to be wood, but this was changed to a steel mast before construction was complete.[1] The telescope was replaced by the fully steerable 250 ft (76 m) Lovell Telescope, and the Mark II telescope was subsequently built on the same location. The telescope was able to map a ± 15-degree strip around the zenith at 72 and 160 MHz, with a resolution at 160 MHz of 1 degree.[13] It was used to discover radio noise from the Great Nebula in Andromeda—the first definite detection of an extragalactic radio source—and the remains of Tycho's Supernova
Tycho's Supernova
in the radio frequency; at the time it had not been discovered by optical astronomy.[14] Lovell Telescope[edit]

The Lovell Telescope

Main article: Lovell Telescope The "Mark I" telescope, now known as the Lovell Telescope, was the largest steerable dish radio telescope in the world, 76.2 metres (250 ft) in diameter, when it was completed in 1957;[15] it is now the third largest, after the Green Bank telescope in West Virginia and the Effelsberg
Effelsberg
telescope in Germany.[16] Part of the gun turret mechanisms from the battleships HMS Revenge and HMS Royal Sovereign were reused in the motor system for the telescope.[17] The telescope became operational in mid-1957, just in time for the launch of the Soviet Union's Sputnik 1, the world's first artificial satellite. The telescope was the only one in the world able to track Sputnik's booster rocket by radar;[18][19] first locating it just before midnight on 12 October 1957.[20][21] In the following years, the telescope was used to track a variety of space probes. Between 11 March and 12 June 1960, it tracked the United States' NASA-launched Pioneer 5
Pioneer 5
probe. The telescope was also used to send commands to the probe, including those to separate the probe from its carrier rocket and turn on its more powerful transmitter when the probe was eight million miles away. It also received data from the probe, being the only telescope in the world capable of doing so at the time.[22] In February 1966, Jodrell Bank was asked by the Soviet Union to track the USSR unmanned moon lander Luna 9
Luna 9
and recorded on its facsimile transmission of photographs from the moon's surface. The photos were sent to the British press and published before the Soviets themselves had made the photos public.[23] In 1969, the Soviet Union's Luna 15
Luna 15
was also tracked. A recording of the moment when Jodrell Bank's scientists observed the mission was released on 3 July 2009.[24] With the personal support of Sir Bernard Lovell,[clarification needed] the telescope also tracked Russian satellites.[clarification needed] Satellite and space probe observations were shared with the US Department of Defense satellite tracking research and development activity at Project Space Track. Despite the publicity surrounding the telescope's tracking of space probes, this only took up a fraction of the Lovell telescope's observing time, with the remainder used for scientific observations. These include using radar to measure the distance to the moon and to Venus;[25][26] observations of astrophysical masers around star-forming regions and giant stars;[27] observations of pulsars (including the discovery of millisecond pulsars[28] and the first pulsar in a globular cluster);[29] observations of quasars and gravitational lenses (including the detection of the first gravitational lens[30] and the first Einstein ring).[31] The telescope has also been used for SETI
SETI
observations.[32] Mark II and III telescopes[edit] Main articles: Mark II (radio telescope)
Mark II (radio telescope)
and Mark III (radio telescope)

The Mark II radio telescope

The Mark II is an elliptical radio telescope, with a major axis 38.1 metres (125 ft) and a minor axis of 25.4 metres (83 ft).[33] It was constructed in 1964. Aside from operating as a standalone telescope, it has also been used as an interferometer with the Lovell Telescope, and is now primarily used as part of MERLIN
MERLIN
(see below).[34][35] The Mark III telescope was the same size as the Mark II, but was constructed to be transportable.[36] However, it was never moved, and remained at its original site in Wardle, near Nantwich, where it was used as part of MERLIN. It was built in 1966, and was decommissioned in 1996.[37] . Mark IV, V and VA telescopes[edit]

A model of the proposed Mark V radio telescope

The Mark IV, V and VA telescopes were three proposals that were put forward in the 1960s through to the 1980s to build an even larger radio telescope than the Lovell. The Mark IV would have been a 1,000 feet (300 m) diameter standalone telescope, built as a national project. The Mark V would have been a 400 feet (120 m) moveable telescope. The original concept of this telescope had it on a 3/4-mile long railway line adjoining Jodrell Bank; however, concerns about the future levels of interference meant that a site in Wales
Wales
would have been used (the preferred site was near Meifod). Several design proposals were put forward, one by Husband and Co., the other by Freeman Fox, who had designed the Parkes Observatory
Observatory
telescope. The Mark VA followed on from the Mark V, but with a smaller dish of 375 feet (114 m) and a design using prestressed concrete, similar to the Mark II (the previous two designs more closely resembled the Lovell telescope).[38] None of the three telescopes was constructed, although several design studies were carried out and some scale models were made. This was partly due to the changing political climate over the time (the period was from a Labour Party government under Harold Wilson
Harold Wilson
to a Conservative Party one under Margaret Thatcher), and partly to the financial constraints of astronomical research in the UK at the time. Also, at a vital time, it became necessary to upgrade the Lovell Telescope to the Mark IA, which subsequently overran in terms of cost.[38] Other single dishes[edit]

Undergraduate teaching telescope, with the Lovell telescope in the background

A 50 ft (15 m) alt-azimuth dish was constructed at the observatory in 1964. It was used for astronomical research and to track the Zond 1, Zond 2, Ranger 6
Ranger 6
and Ranger 7
Ranger 7
space probes,[39] and also Apollo 11.[40] After an accident that irreparably damaged the 50 ft telescope's surface, the 50 ft telescope was demolished in 1982 and was replaced with a more accurate telescope named the "42 ft". The 42 ft (12.8 m) dish is mainly used to observe pulsars, and is normally continually monitoring the Crab Pulsar.[41] When the 42 ft was installed, a smaller dish called the "7 m" (actually 6.4 m, or 21 ft, in diameter) was installed and is now used for undergraduate teaching. The 42 ft and 7 m telescopes were originally used at the Woomera Rocket Testing Range in Australia.[42] The 7 m was originally constructed in 1970 by Marconi Company.[43] A Polar Axis telescope was built at Jodrell Bank in 1962. This had a circular 50 ft (15.2 m) dish on a polar mount,[44] and was mostly used for moon radar experiments. It has since been decommissioned. There has also been an optical telescope at the observatory; an 18-inch (460 mm) reflecting optical telescope was donated to the observatory in 1951.[45] However, this telescope was not used much, and was in turn donated to the Salford Astronomical Society around 1971.[46] MERLIN[edit] Main article: MERLIN The Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer
Interferometer
Network (MERLIN) is an array of radio telescopes spread across England and the Welsh borders. The array is run from Jodrell Bank on behalf of the Science and Technology Facilities Council as a National Facility.[47] The array consists of up to seven radio telescopes and includes the Lovell Telescope, Mark II, Cambridge, Defford, Knockin, Darnhall, and Pickmere
Pickmere
(previously known as Tabley). The longest baseline is therefore 217 kilometres (135 mi) and MERLIN
MERLIN
can operate at frequencies between 151 MHz and 24 GHz.[37] At a wavelength of 6 cm (5 GHz frequency), MERLIN
MERLIN
has a resolution of 50 milliarcseconds which is comparable to that of the HST at optical wavelengths.[47] Very Long Baseline Interferometry[edit] Main articles: European VLBI Network
European VLBI Network
and Very Long Baseline Interferometry Jodrell Bank has been involved with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) since the late 1960s; the Lovell telescope took part in the first transatlantic interferometer experiment in 1968, with other telescopes being those at Algonquin and Penticton in Canada.[48] The Lovell Telescope
Lovell Telescope
and the Mark II telescopes are regularly used for VLBI with telescopes across Europe (the European VLBI Network), giving a resolution of around 0.001 arcseconds.[34] Square Kilometre Array[edit] Main article: Square Kilometre Array In April 2011, Jodrell Bank was named as the location of the control centre for the planned Square Kilometre Array, or SKA Project Office (SPO).[49] The SKA is being planned by a collaboration of 20 countries and when completed it is intended to be the most powerful radio telescope ever built. In April 2015 it was further announced that Jodrell Bank would be the permanent home of the SKA headquarters[50] for the period of operation expected for the telescope (over 50 years[51]). Research[edit] Main article: Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics The Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, of which the Observatory
Observatory
is a part, is one of the largest astrophysics research groups in the UK.[52] About half of the research of the group is in the area of radio astronomy—including research into pulsars, the Cosmic Microwave
Microwave
Background Radiation, gravitational lenses, active galaxies and astrophysical masers. The group also carries out research at different wavelengths, looking into star formation and evolution, planetary nebulae and astrochemistry.[53] The first director of Jodrell Bank was Bernard Lovell, who established the observatory in 1945. He was succeeded in 1980 by Sir Francis Graham-Smith, followed by Professor Rod Davies
Rod Davies
around 1990 and Professor Andrew Lyne
Andrew Lyne
in 1999.[54] Professor Phil Diamond took over the role on 1 October 2006, at the time when the Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics
Astrophysics
was formed. Prof Ralph Spencer was Acting Director during 2009 and 2010. In October 2010, Prof. Albert Zijlstra became Director of the Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics. Professor Lucio Piccirillo was the Director of the Observatory
Observatory
from Oct 2010 to Oct 2011 when Prof Simon Garrington became its managing director. In May 2017 Jodrell Bank entered into a partnership with the Breakthrough Listen
Breakthrough Listen
initiative and will share information with Jodrell Bank’s team, who wish to conduct an independent SETI
SETI
search via its 76-m radio telescope and e- MERLIN
MERLIN
array. There is an active development programme researching and constructing telescope receivers and instrumentation. The observatory has been involved in the construction of several Cosmic Microwave
Microwave
Background experiments, including the Tenerife Experiment, which ran from the 1980s to 2000, and the amplifiers and cryostats for the Very Small Array.[55] It has also constructed the front-end modules of the 30 and 44 GHz receivers for the Planck spacecraft.[56] Receivers were also designed at Jodrell Bank for the Parkes Telescope in Australia.[57] Visitor facilities, and events[edit]

A view of the telescope from the Arboretum

New visitor's centre being constructed at Jodrell Bank in March 2011

The original visitors' centre, opened on 19 April 1971 by the Duke of Devonshire,[58] attracted around 120,000 visitors per year. It covered the history of Jodrell Bank and had a 3D theatre hosting simulated trips to Mars. Due to an asbestos-related concern for the safety of the buildings, the visitors' centre (including the planetarium) was mostly demolished in 2003 leaving a remnant of its far end; a large marquee was set up in its grounds. A new science centre was being planned at the time. Those rebuilding plans were shelved when Victoria University of Manchester
Manchester
and UMIST
UMIST
merged to become the University of Manchester
University of Manchester
in 2004, leaving the interim centre, which received around 70,000 visitors a year.[59]

The Lovell Telescope
Lovell Telescope
illuminated during Jodrell Bank Live

In October 2010, the old visitor centre closed and work on a new visitor centre started. The new Jodrell Bank Discovery Centre opened on Monday 11 April 2011.[60] It includes a new entrance building, the Planet Pavilion, a new Space Pavilion for exhibitions and events, and a glass-walled cafe with a view of the Lovell Telescope
Lovell Telescope
and an outdoor dining area, an education space, and landscaping of the gardens including a new Galaxy Maze.[61] A large orrery was installed in 2013.[62] As well as being open to the public every day, the discovery centre also organises various public outreach events, including public lectures, star parties, and "ask an astronomer" sessions.[63] There is a path (not a whole circle) around the Lovell telescope, approximately 20 m from the telescope's outer railway. Along the path are some information boards explaining how the telescope works and the research that is done with it. The 35 acres (140,000 m2) Jodrell Bank Arboretum, created in 1972, houses the UK's national collections of crab apple Malus and mountain ash Sorbus
Sorbus
species, and the Heather Society's Calluna collection. The arboretum also features a small scale model of the solar system, the scale being approximately 1:5,000,000,000. As part of the SpacedOut project, at Jodrell Bank is also the Sun in a 1:15,000,000 scale model of the solar system covering Britain.[64] On 7 July 2010, it was announced that the observatory was being considered as an applicant for the 2011 United Kingdom Tentative List for World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
status.[65] It was announced on 22 March 2011 that it was on the shortlist to be put forward by the UK government.[66] In July 2011 the visitor centre and observatory hosted "Jodrell Bank Live" – a rock concert with bands including The Flaming Lips, British Sea Power, Wave Machines, OK GO
OK GO
and Alice Gold.[67] On 23 July 2012 Elbow performed live at the Observatory
Observatory
and filmed a documentary of the event and the facility which was released as a live CD/DVD of the concert. On 31 August 2013 Jodrell Bank hosted a concert performed by the Halle Orchestra to commemorate what would have been Lovell's 100th birthday. As well as a number of operatic performances during the day, the evening Halle performance saw numbers such as themes from Star Trek, Star Wars
Star Wars
and Doctor Who
Doctor Who
among others. The main Lovell telescope was rotated to face the onlooking crowd and used as a huge projection screen showing various animated planetary effects. During the interval the 'screen' was used to show a history of Lovell's work and Jodrell Bank. There is an astronomy podcast from the observatory, named The Jodcast.[68] The BBC
BBC
television programme Stargazing Live
Stargazing Live
is hosted in the control room of the observatory. The programme has had four series, in January 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014.[69] Threat of closure[edit] On 3 March 2008, it was reported that Britain's Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), faced with an £80 million shortfall in its budget, was considering withdrawing its planned £2.7 million annual funding of Jodrell Bank's e- MERLIN
MERLIN
project. The project, which aims to replace the microwave links between Jodrell Bank and a number of other radio telescopes with high-bandwidth fibre-optic cables, greatly increasing the sensitivity of observations, is seen as critical to the survival of the establishment in its present form. Sir Bernard Lovell was quoted as saying "It will be a disaster … The fate of the Jodrell Bank telescope is bound up with the fate of e-MERLIN. I don't think the establishment can survive if the e- MERLIN
MERLIN
funding is cut".[70][71] On Monday 14 April 2008, Cheshire's 106.9 Silk FM
106.9 Silk FM
unveiled to its listeners their own campaign song to save Jodrell Bank, entitled "The Jodrell Bank Song" and sung by a group dubbed "The Astronomers". Along with the song, the Silk FM team also produced a music video filmed in front of the iconic Lovell telescope. Silk FM released the song for download from Monday 21 April 2008. All proceeds went towards saving Jodrell Bank. On 9 July 2008, it was reported that, following an independent review, the STFC had reversed its initial position and would after all guarantee funding of £2.5 million annually for three years.[72] Fictional references[edit] Jodrell Bank has been mentioned [clarification needed] in several popular works of fiction, including Doctor Who
Doctor Who
(The Tenth Planet, Remembrance of the Daleks, The Poison Sky, The Eleventh Hour). It was intended to be a filming location for Logopolis
Logopolis
(Tom Baker's final Doctor Who
Doctor Who
serial) but budget restrictions prevented this and another location with a superimposed model of a radio telescope was used instead. It was also mentioned in The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy[73] (as well as The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy
The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy
film), The Creeping Terror and Meteor. Jodrell Bank also featured heavily in the music video to Electric Light Orchestra's 1983 single Secret Messages. The Prefab Sprout song Technique (from debut album Swoon) opens with the line "Her husband works at Jodrell Bank/He's home late in the morning". The Observatory
Observatory
is the site of several episodes in the novel Boneland, by Alan Garner
Alan Garner
(2012), and the central character, Colin Whisterfield, is an astrophysicist on its staff. Appraisal[edit] Since 13 July 1988 the Lovell Telescope
Lovell Telescope
has been designated as a Grade I listed building.[74] On 10 July 2017 the Mark II Telescope was also designated at the same grade.[75] On the same date five other buildings on the site were designated at Grade II; namely the Searchlight
Searchlight
Telescope,[76] the Control Building,[77] the Park Royal Building,[78] the Electrical Workshop,[79] and the Link Hut.[80] Grade I is the highest of the three grades of listing, and is applied to buildings that are of "exceptional interest", and Grade II, the lowest grade, is applied to buildings "of special interest".[81] See also[edit]

Cheshire
Cheshire
portal

Llano de Chajnantor Observatory Paranal Observatory La Silla Observatory Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Very Large Telescope European Extremely Large Telescope

References[edit]

^ a b Lovell, The Story of Jodrell Bank ^ Lovell, The Story of Jodrell Bank, p. 2 ^ Astronomer by Chance, p. 110 ^ a b Gunn, 2005 ^ a b Lovell, The Story of Jodrell Bank, p. 3 ^ a b Lovell, The Story of Jodrell Bank, p. 9 ^ "Bernard Lovell". The Economist. 18 August 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2012.  ^ a b c Lovell, The Story of Jodrell Bank, p. 10 ^ a b Astronomer by Chance, p. 129 ^ Astronomer by Chance, p. 128 ^ Lovell, The Story of Jodrell Bank, p. 15 ^ Astronomer by Chance, p. 186 ^ Lovell, Bernard (1950). Blue Book. Archived from the original on 14 January 2010.  (the proposal document for the Lovell Telescope). pp. 4–5 ^ "The Early History". Jodrell Bank Observatory. Archived from the original on 27 October 2008. Retrieved 22 November 2006.  ^ "On This Day—14 March 1960: Radio telescope
Radio telescope
makes space history". BBC
BBC
News. 14 March 1960. Retrieved 2007-05-11.  ^ "The Lovell Telescope
Lovell Telescope
presents a new face to the Universe". Retrieved 2007-05-11.  ^ Lovell, The Story of Jodrell Bank, p. 29 ^ "Jodrell Bank's Cold War history". BBC
BBC
News Channel. 20 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-13.  ^ "The team that tracked Sputnik - and the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile". BBC. 4 October 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.  ^ Lovell, The Story of Jodrell Bank, p. 196 ^ Lovell, Astronomer by Chance, p. 262 ^ Lovell, The Story of Jodrell Bank, p. xii, pp. 239–244 Lovell, Astronomer by Chance, p. 272 "Voice in Space". Time Magazine. 21 March 1960. Retrieved 2007-04-09.  "Big Voice from Space". Time Magazine. 23 May 1960. Retrieved 2007-04-09.  ^ Lovell, The Story of Jodrell Bank, p. 250 "On This Day—3 February 1966: Soviets land probe on Moon". BBC
BBC
News. 3 February 1966. Retrieved 2007-04-09.  "The Lunar Landscape". Time Magazine. 11 February 1966. Retrieved 2007-04-07.  ^ Brown, Jonathan (3 July 2009). "Recording tracks Russia's Moon gatecrash attempt". London: The Independent. Retrieved 2009-07-16. , includes link to recording with Lovell ^ Lovell, Out of the Zenith, pp. 197–198 ^ Lovell, Astronomer by Chance, pp. 277–280 ^ "Introduction to cosmic masers". Jodrell Bank Observatory. 28 January 2005. Retrieved 2007-06-01.  ^ "JBO—Stars". Jodrell Bank Observatory. Retrieved 2007-06-01.  ^ "Milestones". Jodrell Bank Observatory. Archived from the original on 28 October 2008. Retrieved 28 May 2007.  ^ Lovell, Astronomer by Chance, pp. 297–301 ^ "Astronomers see cosmic mirage". BBC
BBC
News. 1 April 1998. Retrieved 2007-04-09.  ^ "Scientists listen intently for ET". BBC
BBC
News. 1 February 1998. Retrieved 2007-04-09.  ^ "The MKII Radio Telescope". Jodrell Bank Observatory. Archived from the original on 27 October 2008. Retrieved 1 June 2007.  ^ a b "The Merlin and VLBI National Facility". Jodrell Bank Observatory. Archived from the original on 1 May 2008. Retrieved 16 July 2009.  ^ "The quest for the resolving power". Jodrell Bank Observatory. Retrieved 2009-07-16.  ^ Palmer and Rowson (1968) ^ a b " MERLIN
MERLIN
user guide—4.1 Location of Telescopes". Retrieved 2007-08-05.  ^ a b Lovell, Jodrell Bank Telescopes ^ "Jodrell Bank's role in early space tracking activities". Jodrell Bank Observatory. Archived from the original on 27 October 2008. Retrieved 10 June 2007.  ^ "The other space race: Transcript". BBC/Open University. Retrieved 2007-06-14.  ^ "Jodrell Bank—Pulsars". Jodrell Bank Observatory. Retrieved 2007-06-10.  ^ "JBO—Lovell Observing Room". Jodrell Bank Observatory. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 10 June 2007.  ^ "NRAL—7 m Telescope". Jodrell Bank Observatory. Retrieved 2008-05-08.  ^ Lovell, Jodrell Bank Telescopes, p. 232 ^ Pullan, A history of the University of Manchester
University of Manchester
1951–73, p. 37 ^ "Salford Astronomical Society—Observatory". Salford Observatory. Archived from the original on 2 December 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2007.  ^ a b "MERLIN/VLBI National Facility". Jodrell Bank Observatory. Retrieved 2007-08-05.  ^ Lovell, Out of the Zenith, pp. 67–68 ^ "Jodrell Bank to play key part in creating world's largest radio telescope". Guardian. 3 April 2011. Retrieved 2012-05-25.  ^ "World's largest radio telescope has a permanent home for its headquarters - SKA Telescope". SKA Telescope. Retrieved 2016-04-14.  ^ "Information regarding the SKA Headquarters selection process - SKA Telescope". SKA Telescope. Retrieved 2016-04-14.  ^ "Research groups: School of Physics and Astronomy". The University of Manchester. Archived from the original on 18 August 2007. Retrieved 5 August 2007.  ^ " Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics
Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics
Research". Jodrell Bank Observatory. Retrieved 2007-08-05.  ^ "Director of the Nuffield Radio Astronomy Laboratories, Jodrell Bank". Jodrell Bank Observatory. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2007.  ^ "JBO—VSA Receivers". Jodrell Bank Observatory. Retrieved 2007-06-23.  ^ "Jodrell Bank—Observing the Big Bang". Jodrell Bank Observatory. Retrieved 2007-06-10.  ^ "Jodrell Bank—Anatomy of a Radio Telescope". Jodrell Bank Observatory. Archived from the original on 16 October 2008. Retrieved 10 June 2007.  ^ Lovell, Out of the Zenith ^ "Government 'stifling scientists'". PA News. 28 March 2008. Retrieved 2009-07-13.  ^ "Jodrell Bank unveils £3m discovery centre". BBC
BBC
News. 7 April 2011. Retrieved 2012-05-25.  ^ "Jodrell Bank Discovery Centre is being redeveloped". Retrieved 2011-01-01.  ^ "Jodrell Bank Discovery Centre unveils 'world's biggest' orrery". Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ "Jodrell Bank Observatory
Observatory
Visitors Centre—Events". Jodrell Bank Observatory. Archived from the original on 16 May 2012. Retrieved 25 May 2012.  ^ "SpacedOut Location: The Sun at Jodrell Bank". SpacedOut. Archived from the original on 2005-12-13. Retrieved 2007-06-08.  ^ "Applicants for UK Tentative World Heritage Status". Department for Culture Media and Sport. Retrieved 2010-09-04.  ^ Kennedy, Maev (22 March 2011). "UK nominates 11 sites for Unesco world heritage status". Guardian. Retrieved 2011-03-22.  ^ "Shows: Live from Jodrell Bank". Retrieved 2011-07-10.  ^ "The Jodcast". Jodrell Bank Observatory. Retrieved 2007-06-08.  ^ "Stargazing Live: Behind the scenes at Jodrell Bank". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 14 January 2013.  ^ "Jodrell Bank fears funding loss". BBC
BBC
News. 6 March 2008.  ^ Smith, Lewis; Coates, Sam (7 March 2008). "Professor Sir Bernard Lovell condemns 'disastrous' plan to close Jodrell Bank". London: The Times. Retrieved 2010-05-06.  ^ "Deal to rescue Jodrell Bank helps Britain see its future in the stars". The Times. 9 July 2008.  ^ Adams, Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, p. 30–31 ^ Historic England, "Jodrell Bank Observatory: Lovell Telescope (1221685)", National Heritage List for England, retrieved 16 July 2017  ^ Historic England, "Jodrell Bank Observatory: Mark II Telescope (1443087)", National Heritage List for England, retrieved 16 July 2017  ^ Historic England, "Jodrell Bank Observatory: 71MHz Searchlight Aerial (1443133)", National Heritage List for England, retrieved 16 July 2017  ^ Historic England, "Jodrell Bank Observatory: Control Building (1443868)", National Heritage List for England, retrieved 16 July 2017  ^ Historic England, "Jodrell Bank Observatory: Park Royal Building (1443093)", National Heritage List for England, retrieved 16 July 2017  ^ Historic England, "Jodrell Bank Observatory: Electrical Workshop (Former Main Office) (1444238)", National Heritage List for England, retrieved 16 July 2017  ^ Historic England, "Jodrell Bank Observatory: Link Hut (Cosmic Noise Hut) (1443486)", National Heritage List for England, retrieved 16 July 2017  ^ What is Listing?, Historic England, retrieved 16 July 2017 

Books[edit]

Adams, Douglas (1986). Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy—A Trilogy in Four Parts. Pan Books. ISBN 0-330-31611-7.  Gunn, A. G. (2005). "Jodrell Bank and the Meteor
Meteor
Velocity Controversy". In The New Astronomy: Opening the Electromagnetic Window and Expanding Our View of Planet Earth, Volume 334 of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library. Part 3, pages 107–118. Springer Netherlands. doi:10.1007/1-4020-3724-4_7 Lovell, Bernard (1968). Story of Jodrell Bank. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-217619-6.  Lovell, Bernard (1973). Out of the Zenith: Jodrell Bank, 1957–70. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-217624-2.  Lovell, Bernard (1985). The Jodrell Bank Telescopes. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-858178-5.  Lovell, Bernard (1990). Astronomer by Chance. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-55195-8.  Piper, Roger (1972) [1965]. The Story of Jodrell Bank (Carousel ed.). London: Carousel. ISBN 0-552-54028-5.  Pullan, Brian; Abendstern, Michele (2000). A history of the University of Manchester
Manchester
1951–1973. Manchester
Manchester
University Press. ISBN 0-7190-5670-5. 

Journal articles[edit]

Palmer, H. P.; B. Rowson (1968). "The Jodrell Bank Mark III Radio Telescope". Nature. 217 (5123): 21–22. Bibcode:1968Natur.217...21P. doi:10.1038/217021a0. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jodrell Bank Observatory.

Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics Jodrell Bank Visitor Centre Jodrell Bank Observatory
Observatory
Archives at University of Manchester
University of Manchester
Library.

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Jodrell Bank Observatory

Timeline Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics Jodrell Bank Observatory

Telescopes

BINGO Lovell Telescope Mark II Mark III MERLIN Tenerife Experiment Very Small Array

Directors

Bernard Lovell Francis Graham-Smith Rod Davies Andrew Lyne Phil Diamond Michael Garrett

Engineers

Charles Husband

Astronomers

Richard Battye Robert Hanbury Brown Roger Clifton Jennison Sarah Bridle Richard Davis Dennis Walsh

Other

The Jodcast

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The University of Manchester

Faculties and Schools

Science and Engineering

Chemical Engineering and Analytical Sciences Chemistry Computer Science Electrical and Electronic Engineering Materials Mathematics Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering Physics and Astronomy

Humanities

Anthropology Business

Biology, Medicine and Heath

Medicine Psychology Biological Sciences

Architecture

Research

Academic Health Science Centre Brooks World Poverty Institute Centre for the Advanced Study of the Arab World Henry Royce Institute Institute for Science, Ethics and Innovation Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics Joule Centre Centre for Integrative Systems Biology Centre for New Writing Enterprise Centre Manchester
Manchester
Institute of Biotechnology (MIB) National Graphene Institute Manchester
Manchester
Institute of Innovation Research Research Computing Services Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell-Matrix Research

Buildings

Alan Turing Building Arthur Lewis Building Barnes Wallis Building Faraday Building Grove House Renold Building Sackville Street Building Schuster Laboratory Stephen Joseph Studio Stopford Building Whitworth Hall Maths and Social Sciences Building Mathematics Tower, Manchester
Manchester
(1968-2005)

Facilities

Chancellors Hotel & Conference Centre Computing Machine Laboratory Contact Theatre Firs Botanical Grounds Godlee Observatory Jodrell Bank Observatory John Rylands Library Manchester
Manchester
Academy Manchester
Manchester
Aquatics Centre Manchester
Manchester
Conference Centre Manchester
Manchester
Museum Tabley House UMIST
UMIST
linear system University of Manchester
University of Manchester
Library Whitworth Art Gallery

Student life

Students' Union

The Mancunion
The Mancunion
student newspaper

Christie Cup Fuse FM

Halls of residence

City

Whitworth Park

Victoria Park

Dalton-Ellis Hall Greygarth Hall
Greygarth Hall
(Male) Hulme Hall St. Anselm Hall
St. Anselm Hall
(Male)

Fallowfield

Ashburne Hall Owens Park

History

University of Manchester UMIST Victoria University of Manchester Victoria University Mechanics' Institute, Manchester

Other

Academic dress Manchester
Manchester
University Press People associated with the University of Manchester

Category Commons

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Ceremonial county of Cheshire

Cheshire
Cheshire
Portal

Unitary authorities

Cheshire
Cheshire
East Cheshire
Cheshire
West and Chester Halton Warrington

Major settlements

Alsager Birchwood Bollington Chester Congleton Crewe Ellesmere Port Frodsham Handforth Knutsford Macclesfield Middlewich Nantwich Neston Northwich Poynton Runcorn Sandbach Warrington Widnes Wilmslow Winsford See also: List of civil parishes in Cheshire

Rivers

Bollin Croco Dane Dean Dee Gowy Goyt Mersey Weaver Wheelock

Topics

Flag Parliamentary constituencies Places Population of major settlements SSSIs Country houses Listed buildings Grade I listed churches Grade I listed non-ecclesiastical buildings Grade II* listed buildings History Museums Lord Lieutenants High Sheriffs

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Major physics research facilities based in the United Kingdom

Fusion

Joint European Torus
Joint European Torus
(JET) Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST)

Synchrotron light sources

Diamond Light Source ALICE Synchrotron Radiation Source
Synchrotron Radiation Source
(decommissioned)

Lasers

Central Laser Facility

Neutron and muon sources

ISIS

Atmospheric, astronomy and space science

UK Astronomy Technology Centre Chilbolton Observatory Jodrell Bank Observatory ECMWF

Miscellaneous

Medium Energy Ion Scattering Facility

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Radio astronomy

Concepts

Astronomical interferometer
Astronomical interferometer
(History) Very Long Baseline Interferometry
Very Long Baseline Interferometry
(VLBI) Radio telescope
Radio telescope
(Radio window) Astronomical radio source Units (watt and jansky)

Radio telescopes (List)

Individual telescopes

RATAN-600
RATAN-600
Radio Telescope (Russia) 500 m Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST, China) Arecibo Observatory
Observatory
(Puerto Rico, US) Caltech Submillimeter Observatory
Observatory
(CSO, US) Effelsberg
Effelsberg
Telescope (Germany) Large Millimeter Telescope
Large Millimeter Telescope
(Mexico) Yevpatoria RT-70 (Ukraine) Galenki RT-70 (Russia) Suffa RT-70 (Uzbekistan) Green Bank Telescope
Green Bank Telescope
(West Virginia, US) Lovell Telescope
Lovell Telescope
(UK) Ooty Telescope (India) UTR-2 decameter radio telescope (Ukraine) Sardinia Radio Telescope
Sardinia Radio Telescope
(Italy) Usuda Telescope (Japan) Qitai Radio Telescope
Qitai Radio Telescope
(China)

Southern Hemisphere HartRAO (South Africa) Parkes Observatory
Observatory
(Australia) Warkworth Radio Astronomical Observatory
Observatory
(NZ)

Interferometers

Allen Telescope Array
Allen Telescope Array
(ATA, California, US) Atacama Large Millimeter Array
Atacama Large Millimeter Array
(ALMA, Chile) Australia Telescope Compact Array
Australia Telescope Compact Array
(ATCA, Australia) Australian Square Kilometre Array
Square Kilometre Array
Pathfinder (ASKAP, Australia) Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment
Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment
(CHIME, Canada) Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy
Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy
(CARMA, California, US) European VLBI Network
European VLBI Network
(Europe) Event Horizon Telescope
Event Horizon Telescope
(EHT) Green Bank Interferometer
Interferometer
(GBI, West Virginia, US) Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope
Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope
(GMRT, India) Korean VLBI Network
Korean VLBI Network
(KVN, South Korea) Low- Frequency
Frequency
Array (LOFAR, Netherlands) MeerKAT
MeerKAT
(South Africa) Large Latin American Millimeter Array
Large Latin American Millimeter Array
(LLAMA, Argentina/Brazil) Murchison Widefield Array
Murchison Widefield Array
(MWA, Australia) Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer
Interferometer
Network (MERLIN, UK) Molonglo Observatory
Observatory
Synthesis Telescope (MOST, Australia) Northern Cross Radio Telescope
Northern Cross Radio Telescope
(Italy) Northern Extended Millimeter Array
Northern Extended Millimeter Array
(France) One-Mile Telescope
One-Mile Telescope
(UK) Primeval Structure Telescope
Primeval Structure Telescope
(PaST, China) Square Kilometre Array
Square Kilometre Array
(SKA, Australia, South Africa) Submillimeter Array
Submillimeter Array
(SMA, US) Very Large Array (VLA, New Mexico, US) Very Long Baseline Array
Very Long Baseline Array
(VLBA, US) Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope
Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope
(WSRT, Netherlands)

Space-based telescopes

Spektr-R
Spektr-R
(Russia) HALCA (Japan)

Observatories

Algonquin Radio Observatory
Observatory
(Canada) Haystack Observatory
Observatory
(US) Jodrell Bank Observatory
Observatory
(UK) Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory
Observatory
(UK) National Radio Astronomy Observatory
Observatory
(US) Onsala Space Observatory
Observatory
(Sweden) Special
Special
Astrophysical Observatory
Observatory
of the Russian Academy of Science (SAORAS, Russia) Warkworth Radio Astronomical Observatory Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory
Observatory
(PRAO ASC LPI, Russia)

Multi-use

PARL (Canada) DRAO (Canada) ESA New Norcia (Australia)

People

Elizabeth Alexander John G. Bolton Edward George Bowen Ronald Bracewell Jocelyn Bell Burnell Arthur Covington Frank Drake Antony Hewish Karl Guthe Jansky (Unit: jansky) Kenneth Kellermann Frank J. Kerr John D. Kraus Bernard Lovell Jan Oort Joseph Lade Pawsey Ruby Payne-Scott Arno Penzias Govind Swarup Grote Reber Martin Ryle Gart Westerhout Paul Wild Robert Wilson

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