The Info List - Jodrell Bank

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The Jodrell Bank Observatory
(originally the Jodrell Bank Experimental Station, then the Nuffield Radio Astronomy Laboratories from 1966 to 1999; /ˈdʒɒdrəl/) is a British observatory that hosts a number of radio telescopes, and is part of the Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics
at the University of Manchester. The observatory was established in 1945 by Sir Bernard Lovell, a radio astronomer at the University of Manchester
University of Manchester
who wanted to investigate cosmic rays after his work on radar during the Second World War. It has since played an important role in the research of meteors, quasars, pulsars, masers and gravitational lenses, and was heavily involved with the tracking of space probes at the start of the Space Age. The managing director of the observatory is Professor Simon Garrington. The main telescope at the observatory is the Lovell Telescope, which is the third largest steerable radio telescope in the world. There are three other active telescopes at the observatory; the Mark II, as well as 42 ft (13 m) and 7 m diameter radio telescopes. Jodrell Bank Observatory
is also the base of the Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer
Network (MERLIN), a National Facility run by the University of Manchester
University of Manchester
on behalf of the Science and Technology Facilities Council. The site of the observatory, which includes the Jodrell Bank Visitor Centre and an arboretum, is in the civil parish of Lower Withington (the rest being in Goostrey
civil parish), near Goostrey
and Holmes Chapel, Cheshire, North West England. It is reached from the A535. The telescope can be seen when travelling by train, as the Crewe
to Manchester
Line passes right by the site, with Goostrey
station a short distance away.


1 Early years 2 Searchlight
telescope 3 Transit Telescope 4 Lovell Telescope 5 Mark II and III telescopes 6 Mark IV, V and VA telescopes 7 Other single dishes 8 MERLIN 9 Very Long Baseline Interferometry 10 Square Kilometre Array 11 Research 12 Visitor facilities, and events 13 Threat of closure 14 Fictional references 15 Appraisal 16 See also 17 References

17.1 Books 17.2 Journal articles

18 External links

Early years[edit]

Observations at Jodrell Bank in 1945

See also: Timeline of Jodrell Bank Observatory Jodrell Bank was first used for academic purposes in 1939 when the University of Manchester's Department of Botany purchased three fields at the site from the Leighs. The name of the site came from a nearby ground rise called Jodrell Bank, which was named after William Jauderell and whose descendants, the Leighs, lived at the mansion that is now Terra Nova School nearby. The site was extended in 1952 by the purchase of a farm from a local farmer, George Massey. The new land included the site upon which the Lovell Telescope
Lovell Telescope
was sited.[1] The first use of the site for astrophysics was in 1945, when Bernard Lovell wished to use some equipment left over from World War II, including a gun laying radar, to investigate cosmic rays.[2] The equipment he was using was a GL II radar system working at a wavelength of 4.2 m, provided by J. S. Hey.[3][4] He originally intended to use the equipment in Manchester; however, electrical interference from the trams that then ran down Oxford Road prevented him from doing so. Consequently, he moved the equipment to Jodrell Bank, 25 miles (40 km) south of the city, on 10 December 1945.[4][5] Lovell's main topic of research at the time were transient radio echoes, which he confirmed were from ionized meteor trails by October 1946.[6] The first staff were Alf Dean and Frank Foden and meteors were observed by the naked eye while Lovell observed the electromagnetic signal on the equipment.[7] Coincidentally, the first time he turned the radar on at Jodrell Bank – 14 December 1945 – the Geminids
meteor shower was at a maximum.[5] Over the next few years, he accumulated more ex-military radio hardware, including a portable cabin, commonly known as a "Park Royal" in the military (see Park Royal Vehicles). The first permanent building on the site was near to this cabin, and was named after it.[6] Today, Jodrell Bank is primarily used for investigating radio waves from the planets and stars. Searchlight
telescope[edit] A searchlight was loaned to Jodrell Bank in 1946 by the Army;[8] a broadside array was constructed on the mount of this searchlight by J. Clegg,[8] consisting of a number of Yagi antennas.[9] This was first used for astronomical observations in October 1946.[10] On 9 and 10 October 1946, the telescope was used to observe the ionisation in the atmosphere caused by meteors in the Giacobinids meteor shower. When the antenna was turned by 90 degrees at the maximum of the shower, the number of detections dropped to the background level, proving that the transient signals detected by radar were indeed from meteors.[9] Shortly after this, the telescope was used to determine the radiant points for meteors. This was possible as the echo rate is at a minimum at the radiant point, and a maximum at 90 degrees to it.[8] The telescope, as well as other receivers on the site, was also used to study auroral streamers that were visible at the site in early August 1947.[11][12] Transit Telescope[edit] The Transit Telescope
Transit Telescope
was a 218 ft (66 m) parabolic reflector zenith telescope built at Jodrell Bank in 1947. At the time, it was the largest radio telescope in the world. It consisted of a wire mesh suspended from a ring of 24 ft (7.3 m) scaffold poles, which focussed radio signals to a focal point 126 ft (38 m) above the ground. The telescope mainly looked directly upwards, but the direction of the beam could be changed by small amounts by tilting the mast to change the position of the focal point. The focal mast was originally going to be wood, but this was changed to a steel mast before construction was complete.[1] The telescope was replaced by the fully steerable 250 ft (76 m) Lovell Telescope, and the Mark II telescope was subsequently built on the same location. The telescope was able to map a ± 15-degree strip around the zenith at 72 and 160 MHz, with a resolution at 160 MHz of 1 degree.[13] It was used to discover radio noise from the Great Nebula in Andromeda—the first definite detection of an extragalactic radio source—and the remains of Tycho's Supernova
Tycho's Supernova
in the radio frequency; at the time it had not been discovered by optical astronomy.[14] Lovell Telescope[edit]

The Lovell Telescope

Main article: Lovell Telescope The "Mark I" telescope, now known as the Lovell Telescope, was the largest steerable dish radio telescope in the world, 76.2 metres (250 ft) in diameter, when it was completed in 1957;[15] it is now the third largest, after the Green Bank telescope in West Virginia and the Effelsberg
telescope in Germany.[16] Part of the gun turret mechanisms from the battleships HMS Revenge and HMS Royal Sovereign were reused in the motor system for the telescope.[17] The telescope became operational in mid-1957, just in time for the launch of the Soviet Union's Sputnik 1, the world's first artificial satellite. The telescope was the only one in the world able to track Sputnik's booster rocket by radar;[18][19] first locating it just before midnight on 12 October 1957.[20][21] In the following years, the telescope was used to track a variety of space probes. Between 11 March and 12 June 1960, it tracked the United States' NASA-launched Pioneer 5
Pioneer 5
probe. The telescope was also used to send commands to the probe, including those to separate the probe from its carrier rocket and turn on its more powerful transmitter when the probe was eight million miles away. It also received data from the probe, being the only telescope in the world capable of doing so at the time.[22] In February 1966, Jodrell Bank was asked by the Soviet Union to track the USSR unmanned moon lander Luna 9
Luna 9
and recorded on its facsimile transmission of photographs from the moon's surface. The photos were sent to the British press and published before the Soviets themselves had made the photos public.[23] In 1969, the Soviet Union's Luna 15
Luna 15
was also tracked. A recording of the moment when Jodrell Bank's scientists observed the mission was released on 3 July 2009.[24] With the personal support of Sir Bernard Lovell,[clarification needed] the telescope also tracked Russian satellites.[clarification needed] Satellite and space probe observations were shared with the US Department of Defense satellite tracking research and development activity at Project Space Track. Despite the publicity surrounding the telescope's tracking of space probes, this only took up a fraction of the Lovell telescope's observing time, with the remainder used for scientific observations. These include using radar to measure the distance to the moon and to Venus;[25][26] observations of astrophysical masers around star-forming regions and giant stars;[27] observations of pulsars (including the discovery of millisecond pulsars[28] and the first pulsar in a globular cluster);[29] observations of quasars and gravitational lenses (including the detection of the first gravitational lens[30] and the first Einstein ring).[31] The telescope has also been used for SETI
observations.[32] Mark II and III telescopes[edit] Main articles: Mark II (radio telescope)
Mark II (radio telescope)
and Mark III (radio telescope)

The Mark II radio telescope

The Mark II is an elliptical radio telescope, with a major axis 38.1 metres (125 ft) and a minor axis of 25.4 metres (83 ft).[33] It was constructed in 1964. Aside from operating as a standalone telescope, it has also been used as an interferometer with the Lovell Telescope, and is now primarily used as part of MERLIN
(see below).[34][35] The Mark III telescope was the same size as the Mark II, but was constructed to be transportable.[36] However, it was never moved, and remained at its original site in Wardle, near Nantwich, where it was used as part of MERLIN. It was built in 1966, and was decommissioned in 1996.[37] . Mark IV, V and VA telescopes[edit]

A model of the proposed Mark V radio telescope

The Mark IV, V and VA telescopes were three proposals that were put forward in the 1960s through to the 1980s to build an even larger radio telescope than the Lovell. The Mark IV would have been a 1,000 feet (300 m) diameter standalone telescope, built as a national project. The Mark V would have been a 400 feet (120 m) moveable telescope. The original concept of this telescope had it on a 3/4-mile long railway line adjoining Jodrell Bank; however, concerns about the future levels of interference meant that a site in Wales
would have been used (the preferred site was near Meifod). Several design proposals were put forward, one by Husband and Co., the other by Freeman Fox, who had designed the Parkes Observatory
telescope. The Mark VA followed on from the Mark V, but with a smaller dish of 375 feet (114 m) and a design using prestressed concrete, similar to the Mark II (the previous two designs more closely resembled the Lovell telescope).[38] None of the three telescopes was constructed, although several design studies were carried out and some scale models were made. This was partly due to the changing political climate over the time (the period was from a Labour Party government under Harold Wilson
Harold Wilson
to a Conservative Party one under Margaret Thatcher), and partly to the financial constraints of astronomical research in the UK at the time. Also, at a vital time, it became necessary to upgrade the Lovell Telescope to the Mark IA, which subsequently overran in terms of cost.[38] Other single dishes[edit]

Undergraduate teaching telescope, with the Lovell telescope in the background

A 50 ft (15 m) alt-azimuth dish was constructed at the observatory in 1964. It was used for astronomical research and to track the Zond 1, Zond 2, Ranger 6
Ranger 6
and Ranger 7
Ranger 7
space probes,[39] and also Apollo 11.[40] After an accident that irreparably damaged the 50 ft telescope's surface, the 50 ft telescope was demolished in 1982 and was replaced with a more accurate telescope named the "42 ft". The 42 ft (12.8 m) dish is mainly used to observe pulsars, and is normally continually monitoring the Crab Pulsar.[41] When the 42 ft was installed, a smaller dish called the "7 m" (actually 6.4 m, or 21 ft, in diameter) was installed and is now used for undergraduate teaching. The 42 ft and 7 m telescopes were originally used at the Woomera Rocket Testing Range in Australia.[42] The 7 m was originally constructed in 1970 by Marconi Company.[43] A Polar Axis telescope was built at Jodrell Bank in 1962. This had a circular 50 ft (15.2 m) dish on a polar mount,[44] and was mostly used for moon radar experiments. It has since been decommissioned. There has also been an optical telescope at the observatory; an 18-inch (460 mm) reflecting optical telescope was donated to the observatory in 1951.[45] However, this telescope was not used much, and was in turn donated to the Salford Astronomical Society around 1971.[46] MERLIN[edit] Main article: MERLIN The Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer
Network (MERLIN) is an array of radio telescopes spread across England and the Welsh borders. The array is run from Jodrell Bank on behalf of the Science and Technology Facilities Council as a National Facility.[47] The array consists of up to seven radio telescopes and includes the Lovell Telescope, Mark II, Cambridge, Defford, Knockin, Darnhall, and Pickmere
(previously known as Tabley). The longest baseline is therefore 217 kilometres (135 mi) and MERLIN
can operate at frequencies between 151 MHz and 24 GHz.[37] At a wavelength of 6 cm (5 GHz frequency), MERLIN
has a resolution of 50 milliarcseconds which is comparable to that of the HST at optical wavelengths.[47] Very Long Baseline Interferometry[edit] Main articles: European VLBI Network
European VLBI Network
and Very Long Baseline Interferometry Jodrell Bank has been involved with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) since the late 1960s; the Lovell telescope took part in the first transatlantic interferometer experiment in 1968, with other telescopes being those at Algonquin and Penticton in Canada.[48] The Lovell Telescope
Lovell Telescope
and the Mark II telescopes are regularly used for VLBI with telescopes across Europe (the European VLBI Network), giving a resolution of around 0.001 arcseconds.[34] Square Kilometre Array[edit] Main article: Square Kilometre Array In April 2011, Jodrell Bank was named as the location of the control centre for the planned Square Kilometre Array, or SKA Project Office (SPO).[49] The SKA is being planned by a collaboration of 20 countries and when completed it is intended to be the most powerful radio telescope ever built. In April 2015 it was further announced that Jodrell Bank would be the permanent home of the SKA headquarters[50] for the period of operation expected for the telescope (over 50 years[51]). Research[edit] Main article: Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics The Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, of which the Observatory
is a part, is one of the largest astrophysics research groups in the UK.[52] About half of the research of the group is in the area of radio astronomy—including research into pulsars, the Cosmic Microwave
Background Radiation, gravitational lenses, active galaxies and astrophysical masers. The group also carries out research at different wavelengths, looking into star formation and evolution, planetary nebulae and astrochemistry.[53] The first director of Jodrell Bank was Bernard Lovell, who established the observatory in 1945. He was succeeded in 1980 by Sir Francis Graham-Smith, followed by Professor Rod Davies
Rod Davies
around 1990 and Professor Andrew Lyne
Andrew Lyne
in 1999.[54] Professor Phil Diamond took over the role on 1 October 2006, at the time when the Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics
was formed. Prof Ralph Spencer was Acting Director during 2009 and 2010. In October 2010, Prof. Albert Zijlstra became Director of the Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics. Professor Lucio Piccirillo was the Director of the Observatory
from Oct 2010 to Oct 2011 when Prof Simon Garrington became its managing director. In May 2017 Jodrell Bank entered into a partnership with the Breakthrough Listen
Breakthrough Listen
initiative and will share information with Jodrell Bank’s team, who wish to conduct an independent SETI
search via its 76-m radio telescope and e- MERLIN
array. There is an active development programme researching and constructing telescope receivers and instrumentation. The observatory has been involved in the construction of several Cosmic Microwave
Background experiments, including the Tenerife Experiment, which ran from the 1980s to 2000, and the amplifiers and cryostats for the Very Small Array.[55] It has also constructed the front-end modules of the 30 and 44 GHz receivers for the Planck spacecraft.[56] Receivers were also designed at Jodrell Bank for the Parkes Telescope in Australia.[57] Visitor facilities, and events[edit]

A view of the telescope from the Arboretum

New visitor's centre being constructed at Jodrell Bank in March 2011

The original visitors' centre, opened on 19 April 1971 by the Duke of Devonshire,[58] attracted around 120,000 visitors per year. It covered the history of Jodrell Bank and had a 3D theatre hosting simulated trips to Mars. Due to an asbestos-related concern for the safety of the buildings, the visitors' centre (including the planetarium) was mostly demolished in 2003 leaving a remnant of its far end; a large marquee was set up in its grounds. A new science centre was being planned at the time. Those rebuilding plans were shelved when Victoria University of Manchester
merged to become the University of Manchester
University of Manchester
in 2004, leaving the interim centre, which received around 70,000 visitors a year.[59]

The Lovell Telescope
Lovell Telescope
illuminated during Jodrell Bank Live

In October 2010, the old visitor centre closed and work on a new visitor centre started. The new Jodrell Bank Discovery Centre opened on Monday 11 April 2011.[60] It includes a new entrance building, the Planet Pavilion, a new Space Pavilion for exhibitions and events, and a glass-walled cafe with a view of the Lovell Telescope
Lovell Telescope
and an outdoor dining area, an education space, and landscaping of the gardens including a new Galaxy Maze.[61] A large orrery was installed in 2013.[62] As well as being open to the public every day, the discovery centre also organises various public outreach events, including public lectures, star parties, and "ask an astronomer" sessions.[63] There is a path (not a whole circle) around the Lovell telescope, approximately 20 m from the telescope's outer railway. Along the path are some information boards explaining how the telescope works and the research that is done with it. The 35 acres (140,000 m2) Jodrell Bank Arboretum, created in 1972, houses the UK's national collections of crab apple Malus and mountain ash Sorbus
species, and the Heather Society's Calluna collection. The arboretum also features a small scale model of the solar system, the scale being approximately 1:5,000,000,000. As part of the SpacedOut project, at Jodrell Bank is also the Sun in a 1:15,000,000 scale model of the solar system covering Britain.[64] On 7 July 2010, it was announced that the observatory was being considered as an applicant for the 2011 United Kingdom Tentative List for World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
status.[65] It was announced on 22 March 2011 that it was on the shortlist to be put forward by the UK government.[66] In July 2011 the visitor centre and observatory hosted "Jodrell Bank Live" – a rock concert with bands including The Flaming Lips, British Sea Power, Wave Machines, OK GO
and Alice Gold.[67] On 23 July 2012 Elbow performed live at the Observatory
and filmed a documentary of the event and the facility which was released as a live CD/DVD of the concert. On 31 August 2013 Jodrell Bank hosted a concert performed by the Halle Orchestra to commemorate what would have been Lovell's 100th birthday. As well as a number of operatic performances during the day, the evening Halle performance saw numbers such as themes from Star Trek, Star Wars
Star Wars
and Doctor Who
Doctor Who
among others. The main Lovell telescope was rotated to face the onlooking crowd and used as a huge projection screen showing various animated planetary effects. During the interval the 'screen' was used to show a history of Lovell's work and Jodrell Bank. There is an astronomy podcast from the observatory, named The Jodcast.[68] The BBC
television programme Stargazing Live
Stargazing Live
is hosted in the control room of the observatory. The programme has had four series, in January 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014.[69] Threat of closure[edit] On 3 March 2008, it was reported that Britain's Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), faced with an £80 million shortfall in its budget, was considering withdrawing its planned £2.7 million annual funding of Jodrell Bank's e- MERLIN
project. The project, which aims to replace the microwave links between Jodrell Bank and a number of other radio telescopes with high-bandwidth fibre-optic cables, greatly increasing the sensitivity of observations, is seen as critical to the survival of the establishment in its present form. Sir Bernard Lovell was quoted as saying "It will be a disaster … The fate of the Jodrell Bank telescope is bound up with the fate of e-MERLIN. I don't think the establishment can survive if the e- MERLIN
funding is cut".[70][71] On Monday 14 April 2008, Cheshire's 106.9 Silk FM
106.9 Silk FM
unveiled to its listeners their own campaign song to save Jodrell Bank, entitled "The Jodrell Bank Song" and sung by a group dubbed "The Astronomers". Along with the song, the Silk FM team also produced a music video filmed in front of the iconic Lovell telescope. Silk FM released the song for download from Monday 21 April 2008. All proceeds went towards saving Jodrell Bank. On 9 July 2008, it was reported that, following an independent review, the STFC had reversed its initial position and would after all guarantee funding of £2.5 million annually for three years.[72] Fictional references[edit] Jodrell Bank has been mentioned [clarification needed] in several popular works of fiction, including Doctor Who
Doctor Who
(The Tenth Planet, Remembrance of the Daleks, The Poison Sky, The Eleventh Hour). It was intended to be a filming location for Logopolis
(Tom Baker's final Doctor Who
Doctor Who
serial) but budget restrictions prevented this and another location with a superimposed model of a radio telescope was used instead. It was also mentioned in The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy[73] (as well as The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy
The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy
film), The Creeping Terror and Meteor. Jodrell Bank also featured heavily in the music video to Electric Light Orchestra's 1983 single Secret Messages. The Prefab Sprout song Technique (from debut album Swoon) opens with the line "Her husband works at Jodrell Bank/He's home late in the morning". The Observatory
is the site of several episodes in the novel Boneland, by Alan Garner
Alan Garner
(2012), and the central character, Colin Whisterfield, is an astrophysicist on its staff. Appraisal[edit] Since 13 July 1988 the Lovell Telescope
Lovell Telescope
has been designated as a Grade I listed building.[74] On 10 July 2017 the Mark II Telescope was also designated at the same grade.[75] On the same date five other buildings on the site were designated at Grade II; namely the Searchlight
Telescope,[76] the Control Building,[77] the Park Royal Building,[78] the Electrical Workshop,[79] and the Link Hut.[80] Grade I is the highest of the three grades of listing, and is applied to buildings that are of "exceptional interest", and Grade II, the lowest grade, is applied to buildings "of special interest".[81] See also[edit]


Llano de Chajnantor Observatory Paranal Observatory La Silla Observatory Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Very Large Telescope European Extremely Large Telescope


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1951–1973. Manchester
University Press. ISBN 0-7190-5670-5. 

Journal articles[edit]

Palmer, H. P.; B. Rowson (1968). "The Jodrell Bank Mark III Radio Telescope". Nature. 217 (5123): 21–22. Bibcode:1968Natur.217...21P. doi:10.1038/217021a0. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jodrell Bank Observatory.

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