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Joan Maud Littlewood (6 October 1914 – 20 September 2002) was an English theatre director, who trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Arts, and is best known for her work in developing the Theatre Workshop. She has been called "The Mother of Modern Theatre".[1] Her production of Oh, What a Lovely War! in 1963 was one of her most influential pieces. Littlewood and her company lived and slept in the Theatre Royal while it was restored. Productions of The Alchemist and Richard II, the latter starring Harry H. Corbett
Harry H. Corbett
in the title role, established the reputation of the company.[2] She also conceived and developed the concept of the Fun Palace in collaboration with architect Cedric Price,[3] an experimental model of a participatory social environment that, although never realized, has become an important influence in the architecture of the 20th and 21st centuries.[citation needed] Miss Littlewood, a new musical written about Littlewood by Sam Kenyon, will be performed by the Royal Shakespeare Company
Royal Shakespeare Company
in 2018.[4]

Contents

1 Early years 2 Career 3 Later life 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

Early years[edit] Littlewood was born in Stockwell, London, and trained as an actress at RADA, but left after an unhappy start and moved to Manchester
Manchester
in 1934, where she met folksinger Jimmie Miller, who would later become known as Ewan MacColl. After joining his troupe, Theatre of Action, Littlewood and Miller were soon married. After a brief move to London, they returned to Manchester
Manchester
and set up the Theatre Union in 1936. Career[edit]

Joan Littlewood
Joan Littlewood
and the Theatre Royal

In 1941, Littlewood was banned from broadcasting on the BBC. The ban was lifted two years later, when MI5
MI5
said she had broken off her association with the Communist Party. She was under surveillance by MI5
MI5
from 1939 until the 1950s.[5] In 1945, after the end of World War II, Littlewood, her husband the communist folk singer Ewan MacColl, and other Theatre Union members formed Theatre Workshop and registered it while staying at Ormesby Hall. The following eight years were spent touring. Shortly afterwards, when Gerry Raffles joined the troupe, MacColl and Littlewood divorced, though they still worked together for many years and Littlewood was godmother to MacColl's two children. Littlewood and Raffles were life partners until his death in 1975. In 1953, after an attempt to establish a permanent base in Glasgow, Theatre Workshop took up residence at the Theatre Royal in Stratford, east London, where it gained an international reputation,[2] performing plays across Europe and in the Soviet Union. One of Littlewood's most famous productions was the British première of Bertolt Brecht's Mother Courage and Her Children
Mother Courage and Her Children
(1955), which she directed and also played the lead role. Her production of Fings Ain't Wot They Used T'Be, a musical about the London
London
underworld, became a hit and ran from 1959 to 1962, transferring to the West End. The works for which she is now best remembered are probably Shelagh Delaney's A Taste of Honey
A Taste of Honey
(1958), which gained critical acclaim, and the satirical musical Oh, What a Lovely War! (1963), her stage adaptation of a work for radio by Charles Chilton. Both were subsequently made into films. She received a Tony Award nomination for Best Direction of a Musical for Oh, What a Lovely War!, becoming the first woman nominated for the award. Theatre Workshop also championed the work of Irish playwright Brendan Behan, and Littlewood is often rumoured to have a significant role in his work. Later life[edit] After Raffles's death in 1975, Littlewood left Theatre Workshop and stopped directing. After a time of drifting she settled in France and became the companion of Baron Philippe de Rothschild, the vintner and poet, and wrote his memoirs, Milady Vine. In the mid-1980s, she commenced work on her 1994 autobiography, Joan's Book.[6] Littlewood died, in 2002, of natural causes at the age of 87 in the London
London
flat of Peter Rankin. References[edit]

Philip Jackson's sculpture of Joan Littlewood
Joan Littlewood
at Theatre Royal Stratford

^ Staff writers (21 September 2002). "Obituary: Theatre's defiant genius". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 2009-02-16.  ^ a b Stevens, Christopher (2010). Born Brilliant: The Life Of Kenneth Williams. John Murray. p. 356. ISBN 1-84854-195-3.  ^ Duffy, Stella. "Fun palaces: Joan Littlewood's dream for culture gets second chance". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 April 2016.  ^ "Miss Littlewood: About the Play". rsc.org.uk. Retrieved 25 September 2017.  ^ Richard Norton-Taylor (4 March 2008). " MI5
MI5
Surveillance of Joan Littlewood During War Led to Two-Year BBC
BBC
Ban". The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-02-17.  ^ Alan Strachan (23 September 2002). "Joan Littlewood: Bold and innovative director celebrated for her work at the Theatre Royal, Stratford". The Independent. Retrieved 2009-02-16. 

Further reading[edit]

Goorney, Howard, and Ewan MacColl (1990). Agit-Prop to Theatre Workshop: Political Playscripts, 1930-50. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-2211-8 Littlewood, Joan (2003). Joan's Book: The Autobiography of Joan Littlewood. London: Methuen. ISBN 0-413-77318-3 MacColl, Ewan (1990). Journeyman: An Autobiography. London: Sidgwick & Jackson. ISBN 0-283-06036-0

External links[edit]

BBC
BBC
Obituary: Theatre's defiant genius (21 September 2002) Joan Littlewood
Joan Littlewood
at Find a Grave Joan Littlewood
Joan Littlewood
at the Internet Broadway Database
Internet Broadway Database
Joan Littlewood
Joan Littlewood
on IMDb History of Theatre Workshop at Stratford East Theatre Archive Project Interview with Harry Greene A tribute to Joan Littlewood
Joan Littlewood
by Jackie Fletcher Joan Littlewood
Joan Littlewood
(1914 - 2002) (The British Theatre guide) BBC
BBC
Radio3: a personal, detailed portrayal (26 Oct. 2014) 'Behind the Seams' a 1938 BBC
BBC
radio documentary, in which Joan Littlewood interviews miners at Willington Colliery, Co Durham.

v t e

Society of London
London
Theatre Special
Special
Award

Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1979) Ralph Richardson
Ralph Richardson
(1980) Charles Wintour (1982) Joan Littlewood
Joan Littlewood
(1983) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1985) Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1988) Peggy Ashcroft
Peggy Ashcroft
(1991) Ninette de Valois
Ninette de Valois
(1992) Kenneth MacMillan (1993) Sam Wanamaker
Sam Wanamaker
(1994) Harold Pinter
Harold Pinter
(1996) Margaret Harris (1997) Ed Mirvish
Ed Mirvish
/ David Mirvish (1998) Peter Hall (1999) Rupert Rhymes (2002) Sam Mendes
Sam Mendes
(2003) Judi Dench
Judi Dench
(2004) Alan Bennett
Alan Bennett
(2005) Ian McKellen
Ian McKellen
(2006) John Tomlinson (2007) Andrew Lloyd Webber
Andrew Lloyd Webber
(2008) Alan Ayckbourn
Alan Ayckbourn
(2009) Maggie Smith
Maggie Smith
(2010) Stephen Sondheim
Stephen Sondheim
(2011) Monica Mason
Monica Mason
/ Tim Rice
Tim Rice
(2012) Michael Frayn / Gillian Lynne
Gillian Lynne
(2013) Nicholas Hytner & Nick Starr / Michael White (2014) Sylvie Guillem
Sylvie Guillem
/ Kevin Spacey
Kevin Spacey
(2015) Kenneth Branagh
Kenneth Branagh
(2017)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 51950413 LCCN: n84048493 ISNI: 0000 0001 1642 2652 GND: 119463555 SUDOC: 079895794 BNF: cb14655118b (data) MusicBrainz: 0ed9e11e-6854-49de-9809-76c179ca5cc5 NKC: xx0164826 BNE: XX1345130 SN

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