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Joachim Wilhelm Gauck GCB (German: [joˈʔaxiːm ɡaʊ̯k]; born 24 January 1940) is a retired German civil rights activist and nonpartisan politician who served as President of Germany
President of Germany
from 2012 to 2017. A former Lutheran pastor, he came to prominence as an anti-communist civil rights activist in East Germany.[1][2][3][4] During the Peaceful Revolution
Peaceful Revolution
in 1989, he was a co-founder of the New Forum opposition movement in East Germany, which contributed to the downfall of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany
Socialist Unity Party of Germany
(SED) and later with two other movements formed the electoral list Alliance 90. In 1990 he was a member of the only freely elected East German People's Chamber in the Alliance 90/Greens faction. Following German reunification, he was elected as a member of the Bundestag
Bundestag
by the People's Chamber
People's Chamber
in 1990 but resigned after a single day chosen by the Bundestag
Bundestag
to be the first Federal Commissioner for the Stasi
Stasi
Records, serving from 1990 to 2000. He earned recognition in this position as a " Stasi
Stasi
hunter" and "tireless pro-democracy advocate", exposing the crimes of the communist secret police.[5][6][7][8] He was nominated as the candidate of the SPD and the Greens for President of Germany
President of Germany
in the 2010 election, but lost in the third draw to Christian Wulff, the candidate of the government coalition. His candidacy was met by significant approval of the population and the media; Der Spiegel
Der Spiegel
described him as "the better President"[9] and the Bild
Bild
called him "the president of hearts."[10][11][12] Later, after Christian Wulff
Christian Wulff
stepped down, Gauck was elected as President with 991 of 1228 votes in the Federal Convention in the 2012 election, as a nonpartisan consensus candidate of the CDU, the CSU, the FDP, the SPD and the Greens. A son of a survivor of a Soviet Gulag,[13][14][15][16][17] Gauck's political life was formed by his own family's experiences with totalitarianism. Gauck was a founding signatory of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism, together with Václav Havel
Václav Havel
and other statesmen, and of the Declaration on Crimes of Communism. He has called for increased awareness of communist crimes in Europe, and for the necessity of delegitimizing the communist era.[1] He is the author and co-author of several books, including The Black Book of Communism. His 2012 book Freedom. A Plea calls for the defense of freedom and human rights around the globe.[18][19] He has been described by Chancellor Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
as a "true teacher of democracy" and a "tireless advocate of freedom, democracy, and justice."[20] The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal
has described him as "the last of a breed: the leaders of protest movements behind the Iron Curtain who went on to lead their countries after 1989."[21] He has received numerous honours, including the 1997 Hannah Arendt Prize.

Contents

1 Childhood and life in East Germany
East Germany
(1940–1989) 2 Career during and after the Peaceful Revolution
Peaceful Revolution
of 1989 3 Political views and reception 4 2010 presidential candidate 5 President of Germany

5.1 Election 5.2 Presidential visits to foreign countries 5.3 State receptions

6 Personal life 7 Selected publications 8 Honours

8.1 Foreign honours

9 References 10 External links

Childhood and life in East Germany
East Germany
(1940–1989)[edit] Joachim Gauck
Joachim Gauck
was born into a family of sailors in Rostock, the son of Olga (née Warremann; born 1910) and Joachim Gauck, Sr. (born 1907). His father was an experienced ship's captain and distinguished naval officer ( Kapitän zur See – captain at sea), who after World War II worked as an inspector at the Neptun Werft
Neptun Werft
shipbuilding company. Both parents were members of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
(NSDAP).[22] Following the Soviet occupation at the end of World War II, the communists were installed into power in what became the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). When Joachim Gauck
Joachim Gauck
was eleven years old, in 1951, his father was arrested by Soviet occupation forces; he was not to return until 1955.[23] He was convicted by a Russian military tribunal of espionage for receiving a letter from the West and also of anti-Soviet demagogy for being in the possession of a western journal on naval affairs, and deported to a Gulag
Gulag
in Siberia,[24] where he was mistreated to the extent that he was considered physically disabled after one year, according to his son.[25] For nearly three years, the family knew nothing about what had happened to him and whether he was still alive. He was freed in 1955, following the state visit of Konrad Adenauer to Moscow. Adenauer negotiated the release of thousands of German prisoners of war and civilians who had been deported.[26] Gauck graduated with an Abitur
Abitur
from Innerstädtisches Gymnasium in Rostock. According to Joachim Gauck, his political activities were inspired by the ordeal of his father,[27] and he stated that he grew up with a "well-founded anti-communism".[28] Already in school in East Germany, he made no secret of his anti-communist position, and he steadfastly refused to join the communist youth movement, the Free German Youth. He wanted to study German and become a journalist, but because he wasn't a communist, he wasn't allowed to do so.[10] Instead he chose to study theology and become a pastor in the Protestant church in Mecklenburg. He has stated that his primary intention was not to become a pastor, but the theology studies offered an opportunity to study philosophy and the church was one of the few institutions in East Germany
East Germany
where communist ideology was not dominant.[29] Nevertheless, he did eventually become a pastor. His work as a pastor in East Germany
East Germany
was very difficult due to the hostility of the communist regime towards the church, and for many years he was under constant observation and was harassed by the Stasi (the secret police).[30][31] The Stasi
Stasi
described Gauck in their file on him as an "incorrigible anti-communist" ("unverbesserlicher Antikommunist").[32] He has said that "at the age of nine, I knew socialism was an unjust system."[10] In his memoirs, he writes that "the fate of our father was like an educational cudgel. It led to a sense of unconditional loyalty towards the family which excluded any sort of idea of fraternisation with the system."[33] Career during and after the Peaceful Revolution
Peaceful Revolution
of 1989[edit]

Joachim Gauck
Joachim Gauck
(1990)

During the Peaceful Revolution
Peaceful Revolution
of 1989, he became a member of the New Forum, a democratic opposition movement, and was elected as its spokesman. He also took part in major demonstrations against the communist regime of GDR. In the free elections on 18 March 1990, he was elected to the People's Chamber
People's Chamber
of the GDR, representing the Alliance 90
Alliance 90
(that consisted of the New Forum, Democracy Now and the Initiative for Peace and Human Rights), where he served until the dissolution of the GDR in October 1990.

Joachim Gauck
Joachim Gauck
as a member of the East German People's Chamber
People's Chamber
in 1990

On 2 October 1990, the day before the dissolution of the GDR, the People's Chamber
People's Chamber
elected him Special
Special
Representative for the Stasi Records. After the dissolution of the GDR the following day, he was appointed Special
Special
Representative of the Federal Government for the Stasi
Stasi
Records by President Richard von Weizsäcker
Richard von Weizsäcker
and Chancellor Helmut Kohl. As such, he was in charge of the archives of the Stasi and tasked with investigating communist crimes. In 1992, his office became known as the Federal Commissioner for the Stasi
Stasi
Records. He served in this position until 2000, when he was succeeded by Marianne Birthler. Gauck served as a member of the Bundestag, the Parliament of Germany, from 3 to 4 October 1990 (the 1990 People's Chamber
People's Chamber
was granted the right to nominate a certain number of MPs as part of the reunification process). He stepped down following his appointment as Special Representative of the Federal Government. As such, he was the shortest serving Member of Parliament of Germany ever.

Joachim Gauck
Joachim Gauck
attending a press conference of the International Society for Human Rights, where he lectured about the Stasi
Stasi
campaign to discredit the Society

He refused the position of President of the Federal Agency for Civic Education as well as offers to be nominated as a candidate for parliament by the SPD. Voices inside the CSU proposed him as a possible conservative presidential candidate (against SPD career politician Johannes Rau) in 1999,[34] and his name was also mentioned as a possible candidate for CDU/CSU
CDU/CSU
and Free Democratic Party in subsequent years. For instance the Saxon FDP state party proposed him as a liberal-conservative candidate in 2004, before the leaders of the parties agreed on Horst Köhler.[35] Since 2003, he has been chairman of the association Gegen Vergessen – Für Demokratie ("Against Forgetting – For Democracy"), and he served on the Management Board of the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia 2001–2004.[36] Political views and reception[edit] He has written on Soviet-era concentration camps such as the NKVD Special
Special
Camp No. 1, the crimes of communism, and political oppression in East Germany, and contributed to the German edition of The Black Book of Communism.

Joachim Gauck
Joachim Gauck
(2008)

In 2007, Joachim Gauck
Joachim Gauck
was invited to deliver the main speech during a commemoration ceremony at the Landtag of Saxony
Landtag of Saxony
in memory of the Reunification of Germany
Reunification of Germany
and the fall of the communist government.[37] All parties participated, except The Left (the successor of the communist Socialist Unity Party (SED)), whose members walked out in protest against Gauck delivering the speech.[38] Gauck supports the observation of The Left by the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution and the corresponding state authorities.[39] Gauck has lauded the SPD for distancing itself from The Left.[40] Joachim Gauck
Joachim Gauck
is a founding signatory of both the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism
Communism
(2008),[41] with Václav Havel, and the Declaration on Crimes of Communism
Declaration on Crimes of Communism
(2010),[42] both calling for the condemnation of communism, education about communist crimes and punishment of communist criminals. The Prague Declaration proposed the establishment of the European Day of Remembrance for Victims of Stalinism and Nazism, that was subsequently designated by the European Parliament. In 2010, Gauck criticized the political left of ignoring communist crimes.[43] Gauck is a supporter of the idea to establish a Centre Against Expulsions in Berlin.[44] On the occasion of his 70th birthday in 2010, Gauck was praised by Chancellor Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
as a "true teacher of democracy" and a "tireless advocate of freedom, democracy and justice".[20]

Joachim Gauck
Joachim Gauck
(2010)

The Independent
The Independent
has described Joachim Gauck
Joachim Gauck
as "Germany's answer to Nelson Mandela".[45] The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal
has described him as "the last of a breed: the leaders of protest movements behind the Iron Curtain who went on to lead their countries after 1989," comparing him to Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
and Václav Havel.[21] Corriere della Sera
Corriere della Sera
has referred to him as the "German Havel."[46] Gauck is a member of Atlantik-Brücke, an organisation promoting German-American friendship. Gauck supported the economic reforms initiated by the red-green government of Chancellor Gerhard Schröder. He also supported the 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, to end Yugoslav atrocities in Kosovo. He also supports the German military presence in Afghanistan. Gauck is a proponent of market economy, and is sceptical towards the occupy movement. In 2010, he said SPD politician Thilo Sarrazin had "demonstrated courage" in opening a debate on immigration.[47] However, he criticized several of Sarrazin's views.[48] In an interview with Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
Liberty
in 2007, Gauck said that "we have to delegitimatize [the communist era] not only because of the many victims and criminal acts, but [also because] modern politics in the entire Soviet empire was basically taken backward."[1] According to The Wall Street Journal, he "has dedicated his life to showing that the Soviet system's evils were no less than the Third Reich's."[21] In his 2012 book Freedom. A Plea, he outlines his thoughts on freedom, democracy, human rights and tolerance. In 2012, Gauck said that "Muslims who are living here are a part of Germany", but refused to say whether Islam was a part of Germany, as asserted by previous president Christian Wulff. The Central Council of Muslims in Germany welcomed the remarks.[49] In May 2015, Gauck urged Germans to openly acknowledge that "millions of soldiers of the Red Army
Red Army
lost their lives during Nazi internment."[50] 2010 presidential candidate[edit] Main article: German presidential election, 2010

"Citizens for Gauck," a demonstration in support of Gauck in front of the Brandenburger Tor
Brandenburger Tor
in 2010

On 3 June 2010, Joachim Gauck
Joachim Gauck
was nominated for President of Germany in the 2010 election by the SPD and the Greens.[51] Gauck is not a member of either the SPD or the Greens (although his former party in East Germany
East Germany
eventually merged with the Greens after reunification),[52] and has stated that he would have accepted a nomination by the CDU as well.[53] Gauck once described himself as a "leftist, liberal conservative"[52] and after his nomination, stated: "I'm neither red nor green, I'm Joachim Gauck".[54] The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung described him as a liberal conservative.[55] Gauck is widely respected across the political spectrum,[56] and is very popular also among CDU/CSU
CDU/CSU
and FDP politicians due to his record as an upstanding, moral person during the communist dictatorship as well as his record as a " Stasi
Stasi
hunter" in the 1990s.[57] His main contender, Christian Wulff, and politicians of all the government parties, stated that they greatly respected Gauck and his life and work.[58] Jörg Schönbohm, former Chairman of the CDU of Brandenburg, also supported Gauck.[59] The only party that in principle rejected Gauck as a possible president was the legal successor of the East German communist party, Die Linke, which interpreted the nomination of the SPD and Greens as a refusal to cooperate with Die Linke.[60] CSU politician Philipp Freiherr von Brandenstein argued that the election of Joachim Gauck would prevent any cooperation between SPD/Greens and the party Die Linke for years to come: "Gauck has likely made it perfectly clear to [Sigmar] Gabriel that he will never appoint any of the apologists of the communist tyranny as government members".[59] Die Linke nominated their own candidate, former journalist Luc Jochimsen,[61] and chose to abstain in the third ballot.[62][63] Die Linke's refusal to support Gauck drew strong criticism from the SPD and Greens.[64][65] Sigmar Gabriel, the SPD chairman, described Die Linke's position as "bizarre and embarrassing," stating that he was "shocked" that the party would declare Joachim Gauck
Joachim Gauck
their main enemy due to his investigation of communist injustice.[66] According to Gabriel, Die Linke had manifested itself once again as the successor of the East German communist party.[64] A politician of Die Linke compared the choice between Gauck and Wulff to the choice between Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
and Joseph Stalin, drawing strong condemnation from the SPD and Greens.[67] In the election on 30 June 2010, Gauck was defeated by Christian Wulff in the third ballot, with a margin of 624 to 490.[68] Gauck was originally proposed as a presidential candidate for the Greens by Andreas Schulze, then communications adviser to the Greens in the Bundestag. Schulze was appointed as Gauck's spokesman in 2010, and again in 2012.[69] President of Germany[edit] Election[edit] Main article: German presidential election, 2012

Joachim Gauck
Joachim Gauck
(2012)

Following the resignation of President Christian Wulff
Christian Wulff
on 17 February 2012, Joachim Gauck
Joachim Gauck
was nominated on 19 February as the joint candidate for President of Germany
President of Germany
by the government parties CDU, CSU and FDP, and the opposition SPD and the Alliance '90/The Greens. This happened after the FDP, the SPD and the Greens had strongly supported Gauck and urged the conservatives to support him.[70] The SPD chairman, Sigmar Gabriel, said Gauck was his party's preferred candidate already on 17 February, citing Gauck's "great confidence among the citizens."[71] Reportedly, Chancellor Merkel gave in to FDP chairman (and Vice-Chancellor) Philipp Rösler's staunch support for Gauck; the agreement was announced after the FDP presidium had unanimously voted for Gauck earlier on 19 February.[72][73] He was thus supported by all major parties represented in the Federal Convention, except Die Linke, the successor party to the former East German communist party.[1] According to a poll conducted for Stern, the nomination of Gauck was met with high approval. The majority of the voters of all political parties represented in the Bundestag
Bundestag
approved of his nomination, with the Green voters being most enthusiastic (84% approval) and Die Linke's voters least (55% approval); overall, 69% support him, while 15% oppose him.[74] His nomination was "broadly welcomed" by the German media,[75] which were described as "jubilant."[76] However, his candidacy was criticized by Die Linke, and met with some other individual criticism; he was criticized by individual CSU members for not being married to the woman he lives with,[77][78] and by individual politicians of the Greens, notably for his earlier statements on Thilo Sarrazin
Thilo Sarrazin
and the occupy movement.[77] The SPD chairman, Sigmar Gabriel, however, stated that the reason that Die Linke was the only party that did not support Gauck was its "sympathy for the German Democratic Republic."[79][80] David Gill was appointed head of Gauck's transition team,[81] and later became head of the Bundespräsidialamt.[82] On 18 March 2012, Gauck was elected President of Germany
President of Germany
with 991 of 1228 votes in the Federal Convention.[83] Upon accepting his election, he assumed the presidency immediately.[84] The new President took the oath of office required by article 56 of Germany's Constitution on Friday 23 March 2012 in the presence of the assembled members of the Bundestag
Bundestag
and the Bundesrat.[85][86][87] On 6 June 2016, President Gauck announced he would not stand for re-election in 2017, citing his age as the reason.[88] Presidential visits to foreign countries[edit] Main article: List of presidential trips made by Joachim Gauck He has visited a significant number of countries as President. In 2014, he boycotted the 2014 Winter Olympics
2014 Winter Olympics
in Sochi, Russia, in order to make a statement against human rights violations in Russia.[89][90] On 3 August 2014, he joined French President François Hollande
François Hollande
to mark the outbreak of the war between Germany and France in 1914 during World War I
World War I
by laying the first stone of a memorial in Hartmannswillerkopf, for French and German soldiers killed in the war.[91] State receptions[edit]

Gauck with Queen Elizabeth II at Römer, Frankfurt, during the 2015 royal visit to Germany.

Gauck regularly welcomed state officials in different parts of Germany, especially for remarkable events in history. On 18 September 2014, Gauck welcomed the heads of states of (partly) German-speaking countries Austria, Switzerland, Belgium, Luxembourg and Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
to his home region of Mecklenburg. It was the first time Belgium
Belgium
and Luxembourg
Luxembourg
participated in the annual event. They met in Bad Doberan, Warnemünde
Warnemünde
and the city of Rostock
Rostock
to address the challenges of demographic change in Europe and to commemorate the peaceful revolution of 1989.[92] Personal life[edit] Gauck married Gerhild "Hansi" Gauck (née Radtke), his childhood sweetheart whom he met at age ten,[93] but the couple has been separated since 1991.[94] They were married in 1959, at 19, despite his father's opposition, and have four children: sons Christian (born 1960) and Martin (born 1962), and daughters Gesine (born 1966) and Katharina (born 1979). Christian, Martin and Gesine were able to leave East Germany
East Germany
and emigrate to West Germany
West Germany
in the late 1980s, while Katharina, still a child, remained with her parents. His children were discriminated against and denied the right to education by the communist regime because their father was a pastor.[95] His son Christian, who along with his brother decided to leave the GDR in early 1984 and was able to do so in 1987, studied medicine in West Germany and became a physician.[96] Since 2000, his domestic partner has been Daniela Schadt, a journalist.[97] Gauck is a member of the Evangelical Church in Germany, and served as a pastor for the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Mecklenburg—a member church of that federation.[98] Selected publications[edit]

1991: Die Stasi-Akten. Das unheimliche Erbe der DDR. (= rororo 13016) Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg 1991 ISBN 3-499-13016-5 1992: Von der Würde der Unterdrückten (contributor) 1993: Verlust und Übermut. Ein Kapitel über den Untertan als Bewohner der Moderne (contributor) 1998: Das Schwarzbuch des Kommunismus – Unterdrückung, Verbrechen und Terror (contributor of the chapter "Vom schwierigen Umgang mit der Wahrnehmung", on political oppression in East Germany), Piper Verlag, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-492-04053-5 2007: Reite Schritt, Schnitter Tod! Leben und Sterben im Speziallager Nr. 1 des NKWD Mühlberg/Elbe (contributor), Elisabeth Schuster (ed.), German War Graves Commission, ISBN 978-3-936592-02-3 (on the NKVD Special
Special
Camp No. 1, a Soviet NKVD
NKVD
concentration camp) 2007: Diktaturerfahrungen der Deutschen im 20. Jahrhundert und was wir daraus lernen können (Schriftenreihe zu Grundlagen, Zielen und Ergebnissen der parliamentarischen Arbeit der CDU-Fraktion des Sächsischen Landtages; Band 42), Dresden 2007 2009: Die Flucht der Insassen: Freiheit als Risiko (Weichenstellungen in die Zukunft. Eine Veröffentlichung der Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung e.V.). Sankt Augustin-Berlin 2009. ISBN 978-3-941904-20-0 2009: Winter im Sommer, Frühling im Herbst. Erinnerungen. [Winter in Summer, Spring in Autumn. Memoirs]. München: Siedler 2009 ISBN 978-3-88680-935-6 2012: Freiheit. Ein Plädoyer [Freedom. A Plea]. Kösel, München 2012, ISBN 978-3-466-37032-0.

Honours[edit]

1991: Theodor Heuss
Theodor Heuss
Medal 1995: Federal Cross of Merit 1996: Hermann Ehlers Prize 1997: Hannah Arendt Prize 1999: Honorary doctorate of the University of Rostock 1999: Imre Nagy Prize of Hungary 2000: Dolf Sternberger Prize 2001: Erich Kästner Prize 2002: „Goldenes Lot" des Verbandes Deutscher Vermessungsingenieure 2003: Courage Preis 2005: Honorary doctorate of the University of Augsburg 2008: Thomas Dehler Prize 2009: Das Glas der Vernunft 2010: Geschwister-Scholl Preis 2017: Honorary doctorate of the Maastricht University

Foreign honours[edit]

 Monaco : Grand Cross of the Order of Saint-Charles
Order of Saint-Charles
(9 July 2012) [99]  Italy : Collar Grand Cross Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (20 February 2013)  Estonia: Collar of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana
Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana
(3 July 2013)  Norway: Grand Cross of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav
Order of St. Olav
(11 June 2014)  United Kingdom: Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (25 June 2015)  Ireland: Honorary Degree from NUI Galway (15 July 2015)  Romania: Collar of the Order of the Star of Romania
Romania
(22 June 2016)[100]  Belgium : Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold, 2016  Sweden: Knight of the Order of the Seraphim, (5 October 2016)  Netherlands: Knight Grand Cross in the Order of the Netherlands Lion, 2017.[101]

References[edit]

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Anti-communist
pastor who could turn out to be Angela Merkel's nemesis – World news, News". Belfasttelegraph.co.uk. 30 June 2010. Retrieved 20 February 2012.  ^ Connolly, Kate (20 June 2010). "Joachim Gauck: the dissident hero who holds the destiny of Germany in his hands". The Guardian. London.  ^ "Eastern Inspiration: Gauck the Therapist Wants to Put Germany On the Couch – SPIEGEL ONLINE – News – International". Spiegel.de. 29 June 2010. Retrieved 20 February 2012.  ^ "Rival candidate for president new headache for Merkel". Reuters. 6 June 2010.  ^ "Gauck-Buch: Plädoyer für Freiheit und Menschenrechte". Volksstimme.de. Archived from the original on 14 September 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2012.  ^ " Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
backs 'German Nelson Mandela' for president". Globalpost.com. Retrieved 21 February 2012.  ^ a b "Presidential Vote 'Could Turn into a Disaster for Merkel'". Der Spiegel. 7 June 2010. Retrieved 30 June 2010.  ^ a b c The Gauck File, The Wall Street Journal, 22 February 2012, p. 14 ^ "Das Geheimnis um den Onkel". Focus Online. 2010-06-28.  ^ "Der Herr der Akten erzählt sein Leben". ZDF
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Joachim Gauck
– Oppositionskandidat für das Amt des Bundespräsidenten". randomhouse.de (in German). Retrieved 30 June 2010.  ^ „Wir Deutsche können Freiheit", Interview, Ostseezeitung Rostock, 23/24 January 2010 ^ Eckhard Jesse, Eine Revolution und ihre Folgen: 14 Bürgerrechtler ziehen Bilanz, 2000 ^ "Joachim Gauck: Vom Bürgerrechtler zum Staatsoberhaupt". otz.de. 21 February 2012. Retrieved 20 March 2012.  ^ Baring, Arnulf (8 November 2009). "Unbelehrbarer Antikommunist". Die Welt (in German). Retrieved 30 June 2010.  ^ Cammann, Alexander (24 January 2010). "Joachim Gauck: Eine Freiheitslehre". Die Zeit
Die Zeit
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Joachim Gauck
– eine patriotische Ich-AG". News.de.msn.com. Retrieved 30 June 2010. [dead link] ^ Kate Connolly, Joachim Gauck: the dissident hero who holds the destiny of Germany in his hands, The Guardian, 20 June 2010 ^ "Bundespräsidenten-Kandidat Gauck: "Ich kann zählen"". taz. 5 June 2010. Retrieved 30 June 2010.  ^ Das Gupta, Oliver (8 June 2010). "FDP-Politiker Zastrow – "Gauck ist ein Liberaler wie wir"". Süddeutsche Zeitung
Süddeutsche Zeitung
(in German). Retrieved 30 June 2010.  ^ Commemoration of the 20th Anniversary of the Commissioner for Civil Rights Protection in Poland, Government of Poland, 2008 ^ "Sächsischer Landtag feiert Tag der Deutschen Einheit – Festredner Joachim Gauck: "Freiheit wagen – Verantwortung leben"". Landtag of Saxony
Landtag of Saxony
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Joachim Gauck
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Joachim Gauck
ablehnt – Politik – Berliner Morgenpost – Berlin". Morgenpost.de. Retrieved 21 February 2012.  ^ Nachrichtenfernsehen, n-tv. "Distanzierung von Linkspartei: Gauck begrüßt Haltung der SPD". Retrieved 10 January 2017.  ^ "Prague Declaration – Declaration Text". praguedeclaration.org. 3 June 2008. Retrieved 28 January 2010.  ^ "Declaration on Crimes of Communism". crimesofcommunism.eu. 25 February 2010. Retrieved 3 June 2010.  ^ Schneibergová, Martina (3 June 2008). "Gauck in Prag: Auch Linke im Westen brauchen Nachhilfeunterricht – Radio Prag". Radio Prague
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Anti-communist
pastor who could turn out to be Merkel's nemesis". The Independent. Retrieved 30 June 2010.  ^ "Merkel sceglie Gauck Un pastore luterano a prova di scandali". Archiviostorico.corriere.it. 24 December 2009. Retrieved 20 March 2012.  ^ "Leserdebatte: Als Gauck Sarrazin "Mut" attestierte – Politik – Tagesspiegel" (in German). Tagesspiegel.de. Retrieved 21 February 2012.  ^ "Designierter Bundespräsident: Das Internet-Märchen vom bösen Joachim Gauck
Joachim Gauck
– Nachrichten Politik – Deutschland – WELT ONLINE" (in German). Welt.de. Retrieved 21 February 2012.  ^ "German president sparks debate with Islam comments". 1 June 2012.  ^ "Nazis 'merciless' toward wartime Soviets, says Gauck". Deutsche Welle. 6 May 2015.  ^ "Koalition präsentiert Wulff als ihren Kandidaten". tagesschau (in German). 7 June 2010. Retrieved 30 June 2010.  ^ a b Siebert, Sven (4 June 2010). "Rot-Grün setzt auf Joachim Gauck". Sächsische Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 30 June 2010.  ^ Kleine, Rolf (4 June 2010). "Kandidat Joachim Gauck: Für die CDU würde ich auch antreten!". Bild. Retrieved 30 June 2010.  ^ "Auftritt des Kandidaten: "Ich bin weder rot noch grün, sondern Joachim Gauck"". Die Welt
Die Welt
(in German). 4 June 2010. Retrieved 30 June 2010.  ^ Carstens, Peter (5 June 2010). "Die FDP hatte keine Wahl". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
(in German). Retrieved 30 June 2010.  ^ "Merkel nominates Wulff for president". Thelocal.de. 3 June 2010. Retrieved 30 June 2010.  ^ Solms-Laubach, Franz (4 June 2010). "Kandidaten-Poker um das Präsidenten-Amt: Wackelt Wulffs Mehrheit?". Bild. Retrieved 30 June 2010.  ^ Draxler, Alfred; Baldauf, Angi (4 June 2010). "Kandidatfür das Amt des Bundespräsidenten Christian Wulff: Ich will Mut und Optimismus verbreiten!". Bild
Bild
(in German). Retrieved 30 June 2010.  ^ a b "Der Krimi um die Präsidentenwahl". Die Welt
Die Welt
(in German). 6 June 2010. Retrieved 30 June 2010.  ^ "Die Linke sieht ein Signal gegen Rot-Rot-Grün". Die Welt
Die Welt
(in German). 5 June 2010. Retrieved 30 June 2010.  ^ ""DDR war kein Unrechtsstaat": Jochimsen definiert Unrecht" (in German). n-tv.de. Retrieved 20 February 2012.  ^ Linke verhindert Gauck, Wulff wird Präsident, Manager Magazin. ^ "Bundespräsidentenwahl: Linke Jochimsen zieht Kandidatur zurück". Der Spiegel
Der Spiegel
(in German). Retrieved 30 June 2010.  ^ a b Gauck-Boykott vertieft die Gräben, n24.de. ^ Causa Gauck entlarvt Rot-Rot-Grün als Illusion, Die Welt. ^ "Bundespräsident: Gabriel: Lafontaine-Kritik an Gauck peinlich – Deutschland – FOCUS Online – Nachrichten". Focus.de. 17 June 2010. Retrieved 20 February 2012.  ^ Opposition streitet über Gauck, n-tv.de. ^ "Merkel candidate Wulff wins presidency on third attempt". BBC News. 30 June 2010. Retrieved 30 June 2010.  ^ Der Gauck-Macher, Bild. ^ "German government, opposition agree on Joachim Gauck
Joachim Gauck
as candidate for the country's presidency". Newsday.com. Retrieved 20 February 2012.  ^ Gauck Favorit der SPD für Wulff-Nachfolge Archived 23 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine., DTS, 18 February 2012 ^ sueddeutsche.de GmbH, Munich, Germany. "FDP beharrt auf Gauck: Rösler feiert gefährlichen Sieg – Politik". sueddeutsche.de. Retrieved 20 February 2012. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ "Gauck-Nominierung: Union wirft FDP "gewaltigen Vertrauensbruch" vor – Nachrichten Politik – Deutschland – WELT ONLINE" (in German). Welt.de. Retrieved 20 February 2012.  ^ Applaus für Joachim Gauck, stern.de ^ "German press hails Joachim Gauck
Joachim Gauck
presidency nomination". 20 February 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2017 – via www.bbc.co.uk.  ^ "Germany's 'president of hearts' seeks to restore the faith". Expatica.com. Retrieved 21 February 2012.  ^ a b Gauck in der Kritik, news.at ^ "Joachim Gaucks "wilde Ehe" irritiert die CSU". Morgenpost.de. Retrieved 21 February 2012.  ^ Gabriel greift Linke an: Betonköpfe, die Stasi-Aufklärung unanständig finden, Focus, 26 February 2012 ^ Gabriel: Linke lehnt Gauck wegen Sympathie für DDR ab, Agence France-Presse, 26 February 2012 ^ David Gill – Gaucks Vertrauter fürs Schloss Bellevue, Die Welt vom 25. Februar 2012 ^ Bingener, Reinhard (19 March 2012). "David Gill: Gaucks zielstrebiger Vertrauter". Retrieved 10 January 2017 – via FAZ.NET.  ^ Entscheidung in Berlin, Der Spiegel, 18 March 2012 ^ "Gauck ist neuer deutscher Bundespräsident «". Diepresse.com. Retrieved 20 March 2012.  ^ "www.bundespraesident.de: Der Bundespräsident / Startseite". Retrieved 10 January 2017.  ^ "www.bundespraesident.de: Der Bundespräsident / Terminkalender / Vereidigung von Bundespräsident Joachim Gauck". Retrieved 10 January 2017.  ^ Article on the Bundestag's website with information on the election and on the swearing-in scheduled for 23 March 2012. Retrieved on 19 March 2012. Archived 9 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Kate Connolly (6 June 2016). "Headache for Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
as German president Joachim Gauck
Joachim Gauck
steps down". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 June 2016.  ^ Germany, SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg. "Kritik an Russland: Gauck boykottiert Olympische Spiele in Sotschi – SPIEGEL ONLINE – Politik". Retrieved 10 January 2017.  ^ Oltermann, Philip (8 December 2013). "German president boycotts Sochi
Sochi
Winter Olympics". Retrieved 10 January 2017 – via The Guardian.  ^ "French, German Presidents Mark World War I
World War I
Anniversary". France News.Net. Retrieved 3 August 2014.  ^ " Joachim Gauck
Joachim Gauck
welcomes presidents to Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
to address demographic change and commemorate the Wende". Official Presidential Website. Retrieved 18 September 2014.  ^ "Hansi Gauck versteht Trauschein-Debatte nicht – Politik Inland" (in German). Bild.de. 22 February 2012. Retrieved 20 March 2012.  ^ Hansi Gauck will von Scheidung nichts wissen, Die Welt, 22 February 2012, retrieved 16 November 2015  ^ "Vater-Sohn-Verhältnis – Bruchstellen – Christian Gauck über seinen Vater – Deutschland – Politik – Hamburger Abendblatt". Abendblatt.de. 28 February 2011. Retrieved 20 February 2012.  ^ "Joachim Gauck: Wenn Vater sagt "Gesine, steh doch mal auf!" – Nachrichten Politik – Deutschland – WELT ONLINE" (in German). Welt.de. 25 February 2012. Retrieved 20 March 2012.  ^ "Joachim Gauck: Sein Liebespfad nach Nürnberg". Nürnberger Nachrichten (in German). 7 June 2010. Retrieved 30 June 2010.  ^ Gessat, Michael (19 February 2012), Gauck's civic engagement wins him wide support, DW, retrieved 28 February 2012  ^ Nomination by Sovereign Ordonnance n° 3839 of 9 July 2012 (French) ^ "Iohannis i-a decorat pe preşedintele Germaniei şi pe partenera sa" (in Romanian). Mediafax. 22 June 2016. Retrieved 22 June 2016.  ^ http://nos.nl/artikel/2157029-nederland-eert-duitse-president-gauck-met-grootkruis-en-eredoctoraat.html

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Joachim Gauck.

Civic offices

New office Federal Commissioner for the Stasi
Stasi
Records 1990–2000 Succeeded by Marianne Birthler

Political offices

Preceded by Christian Wulff President of Germany 2012–2017 Succeeded by Frank-Walter Steinmeier

v t e

Revolutions of 1989

Internal background

Era of Stagnation Communism Anti-communism Criticism of communist party rule Eastern Bloc Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
economies Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
politics Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
media and propaganda Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
emigration and defection KGB Nomenklatura Shortage economy Totalitarianism Eastern European anti-Communist insurgencies

International background

Active measures Cold War List of socialist states People Power Revolution Predictions of the dissolution of the Soviet Union Reagan Doctrine Soviet Empire Terrorism and the Soviet Union Vatican Opposition Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia

Reforms

Uskoreniye Perestroika

Democratization in the Soviet Union Khozraschyot 500 Days Sinatra Doctrine

Glasnost Socialism with Chinese characteristics Đổi mới

Government leaders

Ramiz Alia Nicolae Ceaușescu Mikhail Gorbachev Károly Grósz Erich Honecker János Kádár Miloš Jakeš Egon Krenz Wojciech Jaruzelski Slobodan Milošević Mathieu Kérékou Mengistu Haile Mariam Ne Win Denis Sassou Nguesso Heng Samrin Deng Xiaoping Todor Zhivkov Siad Barre

Opposition methods

Civil resistance Demonstrations Human chains Magnitizdat Polish underground press Protests Samizdat Strike action

Opposition leaders

Lech Wałęsa Václav Havel Alexander Dubček Ion Iliescu Liu Gang Wu'erkaixi Chai Ling Wang Dan Feng Congde Tank Man Joachim Gauck Sali Berisha Sanjaasürengiin Zorig Vladimir Bukovsky Boris Yeltsin Viacheslav Chornovil Vytautas Landsbergis Zianon Pazniak Zhelyu Zhelev Aung San Suu Kyi Meles Zenawi Isaias Afwerki Ronald Reagan George H. W. Bush Pope John Paul II

Opposition movements

Beijing Students' Autonomous Federation Charter 77 New Forum Civic Forum Democratic Party of Albania Democratic Russia Initiative for Peace and Human Rights Sąjūdis Peaceful Revolution People's Movement of Ukraine Solidarity Popular Front of Latvia Popular Front of Estonia Public Against Violence Belarusian Popular Front National League for Democracy National Salvation Front Unification Church political activities Union of Democratic Forces

Events by location

Central and Eastern Europe

Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East Germany Hungary Poland Romania Soviet Union Yugoslavia

Soviet Union

Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Chechnya Estonia Georgia Latvia Lithuania Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Moldova Russia Tajikstan Turkmenistan Ukraine Uzbekistan

Elsewhere

Afghanistan Angola Benin Burma Cambodia China Congo-Brazzaville Ethiopia Mongolia Mozambique Somalia South Yemen

Individual events

1988 Polish strikes April 9 tragedy Black January Baltic Way 1987–89 Tibetan unrest Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria Polish Round Table Agreement Hungarian Round Table Talks Pan-European Picnic Monday Demonstrations Alexanderplatz demonstration Malta Summit German reunification January Events in Lithuania January Events in Latvia 1991 protests in Belgrade August Coup Dissolution of the Soviet Union

Later events

Colour revolution Decommunization Lustration Democratization Economic liberalization Post-Soviet conflicts Neo-Sovietism Neo-Stalinism Post-communism Yugoslav Wars

v t e

Presidents of the Federal Republic of Germany

Theodor Heuss Heinrich Lübke Gustav Heinemann Walter Scheel Karl Carstens Richard von Weizsäcker Roman Herzog Johannes Rau Horst Köhler Christian Wulff Joachim Gauck Frank-Walter Steinmeier

Acting heads of state

Karl Arnold Jens Böhrnsen Horst Seehofer

v t e

Federal Commissioner for the Stasi
Stasi
Records

Joachim Gauck Marianne Birthler Roland Jahn

v t e

Presidential candidates of the Social Democratic Party of Germany

Friedrich Ebert
Friedrich Ebert
(1919) Otto Braun
Otto Braun
(1925) Paul von Hindenburg
Paul von Hindenburg
(1932) Kurt Schumacher
Kurt Schumacher
(1949) Theodor Heuss
Theodor Heuss
(1954) Carlo Schmid (1959) Heinrich Lübke
Heinrich Lübke
(1964) Gustav Heinemann
Gustav Heinemann
(1969) Walter Scheel
Walter Scheel
(1974) Annemarie Renger
Annemarie Renger
(1979) Richard von Weizsäcker
Richard von Weizsäcker
(1989) Johannes Rau
Johannes Rau
(1994, 1999) Gesine Schwan
Gesine Schwan
(2004, 2009) Joachim Gauck
Joachim Gauck
(2010, 2012)

(non-members endorsed in italics, successful candidacies in bold)

v t e

Presidential candidates of the Alliance '90/The Greens

Luise Rinser
Luise Rinser
(1984) Jens Reich
Jens Reich
(1994) Gesine Schwan
Gesine Schwan
(2004, 2009) Joachim Gauck
Joachim Gauck
(2010, 2012)

(non-members endorsed in italics, successful candidacies in bold)

v t e

Presidential candidates of the CDU/CSU

Theodor Heuss
Theodor Heuss
(1949, 1954) Heinrich Lübke
Heinrich Lübke
(1959, 1964) Gerhard Schröder
Gerhard Schröder
(1969) Richard von Weizsäcker
Richard von Weizsäcker
(1974, 1984, 1989) Karl Carstens
Karl Carstens
(1979) Roman Herzog
Roman Herzog
(1994) Dagmar Schipanski
Dagmar Schipanski
(1999) Horst Köhler
Horst Köhler
(2004, 2009) Christian Wulff
Christian Wulff
(2010) Joachim Gauck
Joachim Gauck
(2012)

(non-members endorsed in italics, successful candidacies in bold)

v t e

Presidential candidates of the Free Democratic Party

Theodor Heuss
Theodor Heuss
(1949, 1954) Max Becker (1959) Ewald Bucher
Ewald Bucher
(1964) Gustav Heinemann
Gustav Heinemann
(1969) Walter Scheel
Walter Scheel
(1974) Richard von Weizsäcker
Richard von Weizsäcker
(1989) Hildegard Hamm-Brücher
Hildegard Hamm-Brücher
(1994) Horst Köhler
Horst Köhler
(2004, 2009) Christian Wulff
Christian Wulff
(2010) Joachim Gauck
Joachim Gauck
(2012)

(non-members endorsed in italics, successful candidacies in bold)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 112273524 LCCN: nr92002220 ISNI: 0000 0001 0860 1458 GND: 119323710 SUDOC: 034426787 BNF: cb12518353v (data)

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