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James Felix Bridger (March 17, 1804 – July 17, 1881) was an American mountain man, trapper, Army scout and wilderness guide who explored and trapped the Western United States
United States
in the first half of the 19th century. Bridger is known for participating in numerous early expeditions into the western interior as well as mediating between Native American tribes and encroaching European-American
European-American
settlers, and by the end of his life had earned a reputation as one of the foremost frontiersmen in the American Old West. He was of English ancestry, and his family had been in North America since the early colonial period.[1] Bridger was described as having a strong constitution that allowed him to survive the extreme conditions he encountered while exploring the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
from what would become southern Colorado
Colorado
to the Canadian border. He had conversational knowledge of French, Spanish and several native languages. He was a contemporary of many famous European-American
European-American
explorers of the early west and would come to know many of them, including Kit Carson, George Armstrong Custer, Hugh Glass, John Frémont, Joseph Meek, John Sutter, Peter Skene Ogden, Jedediah Smith, and William Sublette. In 1830, Smith and his associates sold their fur company to Bridger and his associates, who named it the Rocky Mountain Fur Company. Bridger was part of the second generation of American mountain men and pathfinders that followed the Lewis and Clark expedition
Lewis and Clark expedition
of 1804.

Contents

1 Early life and career

1.1 Hugh Glass
Hugh Glass
ordeal 1.2 Yellowstone
Yellowstone
and the Great Salt Lake

2 Business ventures 3 Guide and adviser

3.1 Bridger Pass
Bridger Pass
and the Bridger Trail

4 Marriages, Indian wives, and family 5 Death 6 Legacy

6.1 Historical reputation 6.2 Places and things named for Jim Bridger 6.3 Media portrayals

7 See also 8 References 9 Sources 10 Further reading 11 External links

Early life and career[edit] James Felix Bridger was born on March 17, 1804, in Richmond, Virginia.[2] His parents were James Bridger, an innkeeper in Richmond, and his wife Chloe.[2] About 1812, the family moved near to St. Louis at the eastern edge of America's vast new western frontier.[2] At the age of 13, Bridger was orphaned when his parents died.[2] Receiving no formal education, unable to read or write, he was apprenticed to a blacksmith.[3] He was illiterate the whole of his life.[3] On March 20, 1822, at the age of 18, he left his apprenticeship after responding to an advertisement in a St. Louis newspaper, the Missouri Republican, and joined General William Henry Ashley's fur trapping expedition to the upper Missouri River. The party included Jedediah Smith and many others who would later become famous mountain men.[2] For the next 20 years, he repeatedly traversed the continental interior between the Canada–U.S. border and the southern boundary of present-day Colorado, and from the Missouri River
Missouri River
westward to Idaho and Utah, either as an employee of or a partner in the fur trade.[2] Hugh Glass
Hugh Glass
ordeal[edit] Further information: Hugh Glass
Hugh Glass
and Arikara
Arikara
War

Bridger volunteered to stay with the dying Hugh Glass
Hugh Glass
after he was mauled by a grizzly bear in 1823

Bridger continued his employment with Ashley's fur trapping venture for several seasons. On one expedition, the young Bridger played a significant role in the ordeal of fellow trapper Hugh Glass. On June 2, 1823, Ashley's men were attacked by Arikara
Arikara
warriors along the Missouri River. Fifteen men were killed and the rest of the fur trappers fled down the river and hid in shelters until U.S. military support defeated the Arikara. In August 1823, near the forks of the Grand River in present-day Perkins County, South Dakota
Perkins County, South Dakota
while scouting for game for the expedition's larder, Glass surprised a grizzly bear with two cubs. The bear charged, picked him up and threw him to the ground. He fired into the air to scare the bear away to save his expedition partners but was left badly mauled and unconscious. Ashley asked for two volunteers to stay with Glass until he died and to then bury him. Bridger and John Fitzgerald stepped forward and as the rest of the party moved on, began digging Glass's grave.[4] Later, claiming they were interrupted by an Arikara
Arikara
attack, the pair grabbed Glass's rifle, knife, and other equipment and took flight. Bridger and Fitzgerald later caught up with the party and incorrectly reported to Ashley that Glass had died.[5] Despite his injuries, Glass regained consciousness. After recovering, Glass set out again to find Fitzgerald and Bridger, motivated either by murderous revenge or the desire to get his weapons back. He eventually found Bridger at the mouth of the Bighorn River, but apparently forgave him because of his youth.[6] Glass also found Fitzgerald and reportedly spared his life because of the penalty for killing a soldier of the United States
United States
Army. Yellowstone
Yellowstone
and the Great Salt Lake[edit]

Old Faithful Geyser at Yellowstone

Great Salt Lake

Bridger was among the first white men to see the geysers and other natural wonders of the Yellowstone
Yellowstone
region. In the winter of 1824–1825, Bridger gained fame as the first European American to see the Great Salt Lake
Great Salt Lake
(though some now dispute that status in favor of contemporary explorer Étienne Provost), which he reached traveling in a bull boat. Due to its saltiness, Bridger believed it to be an arm of the Pacific Ocean. Historians are unsure if he was alone when he found the Great Salt Lake. Business ventures[edit] In 1830, Jim Bridger
Jim Bridger
and several other trappers bought out Jedediah Smith's fur company, who had bought out Ashley, and established the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, which competed with the Hudson's Bay Company and John Jacob Astor's American Fur Company
American Fur Company
in the lucrative beaver pelt trade. In 1843, Bridger and Louis Vasquez built a trading post, later named Fort Bridger, on the west bank of Blacks Fork
Blacks Fork
of the Green River in what is now Wyoming
Wyoming
to serve pioneers on the Oregon Trail. Guide and adviser[edit] Bridger had explored, trapped, hunted and blazed new trails in the West since 1822, and later worked as a wilderness guide in these areas. He could reportedly assess any wagon train or group, their interests in travel, and give them expert advice on any and all aspects of heading West, over any and all trails, and to any destination the party had in mind, if the leaders sought his advice. In 1846, the Donner Party
Donner Party
came to Fort Bridger
Fort Bridger
and were assured by Bridger and Vasquez that Lansford Hastings' proposed shortcut ahead was "a fine, level road, with plenty of water and grass, with the exception before stated (a forty-mile waterless stretch)." The preceding statement was false, however, as the 40-mile stretch was in fact 80 miles, and the "fine level road" was the roadway to hell which slowed the Donner Party
Donner Party
enough to become trapped in the Sierra Nevada in the winter.[7] In 1859, Bridger was paid to be the chief guide on the Yellowstone-bound Raynolds Expedition, led by Captain William F. Raynolds. Bridger guided the expedition over Union Pass
Union Pass
after finding that mountain passes to the north were blocked by snow. Though unsuccessful in reaching the Yellowstone
Yellowstone
Plateau, the expedition explored Jackson Hole
Jackson Hole
and the Teton Range. Bridger Pass
Bridger Pass
and the Bridger Trail[edit]

Bridger's Pass

In 1850, while guiding the Stansbury Expedition on its return from Utah, Bridger discovered what would eventually become known as Bridger Pass, an alternate overland route which bypassed South Pass and shortened the Oregon Trail
Oregon Trail
by 61 miles. Bridger Pass, in what is now south-central Wyoming, would later become the chosen route across the Continental Divide for both the Union Pacific Railroad
Union Pacific Railroad
and Interstate 80. In 1864, Bridger blazed the Bridger Trail, an alternative route from Wyoming
Wyoming
to the gold fields of Montana
Montana
that avoided the dangerous Bozeman Trail. In 1865, he served as a guide and U.S. Army scout during the first Powder River Expedition
Powder River Expedition
against the Sioux
Sioux
and Cheyenne
Cheyenne
that were blocking the Bozeman Trail
Bozeman Trail
(Red Cloud's War). He was discharged from the Army at Fort Laramie
Fort Laramie
later that year. Suffering from goiter, arthritis, rheumatism and other health problems, Bridger returned to Westport, Missouri, in 1868. He was unsuccessful in collecting back rent from the government for its use of Fort Bridger. Marriages, Indian wives, and family[edit] In 1835, Bridger married a woman from the Flathead Indian
Flathead Indian
tribe, with whom he had three children. After her death in 1846, he married the daughter of a Shoshone
Shoshone
chief, who died in childbirth three years later. In 1850, he married Shoshone
Shoshone
chief Washakie's daughter, with whom he had two more children. Some of his children were sent back east to be educated. Death[edit] Bridger died on his farm near Kansas City, Missouri, on July 17, 1881, at the age of 77. In the Independence Missouri School District, a junior high and then the middle school which replaced it are named after him. Legacy[edit]

Jim Bridger
Jim Bridger
(right) honored along with Pony Express
Pony Express
founder Alexander Majors (left) and Kansas City founder John Calvin McCoy
John Calvin McCoy
at Pioneer Square in Westport in Kansas City

Sculpture of Bridger by David Alan Clark in Fort Bridger, Wyoming

Historical reputation[edit] Bridger is remembered as one of the most colorful and widely traveled mountain men of the era. In addition to his explorations and his service as a guide and adviser, he was known for his storytelling. His stories about the geysers at Yellowstone, for example, proved to be true. Others were grossly exaggerated or clearly intended to amuse: one of Bridger's stories involved a petrified forest in which there were "petrified birds" singing "petrified songs" (though he may have seen the petrified trees in the Tower Junction area of what is now Yellowstone
Yellowstone
National Park). Over the years, Bridger became so associated with telling tall tales that many stories invented by others were attributed to him. Supposedly one of Bridger's favorite yarns to weave to greenhorns told of his pursuit by one hundred Cheyenne
Cheyenne
warriors. After being chased for several miles, Bridger found himself at the end of a box canyon, with the Indians bearing down on him. At this point, Bridger would go silent, prompting his listener to ask, "What happened then, Mr. Bridger?" Bridger would then reply, "They killed me." Bridger's tale was similar to the actual death of Jedediah Smith, who had died under the lances of Comanche
Comanche
Indians on the Santa Fe Trail
Santa Fe Trail
in 1831. Places and things named for Jim Bridger[edit]

Fort Bridger Fort Bridger, Wyoming Bridger, Montana Bridger Mountains (Wyoming) Bridger Mountains (Montana) Bridger Wilderness Bridger Bowl Ski Area Bridger-Teton National Forest Bridger Pass Jim Bridger
Jim Bridger
Power Station Bridger Lake, a lake and campground near Mountain View, Wyoming[8] Cache Valley
Cache Valley
in Utah
Utah
and Idaho
Idaho
is known as "Bridgerland", a name that is used in many Logan, Utah-based businesses and institutions, such as Bridgerland Television and the Bridgerland Applied Technology College. James Bridger Middle School in Independence, Missouri Jim Bridger
Jim Bridger
Elementary School in Portland, Oregon Jim Bridger
Jim Bridger
Elementary School in West Jordan, Utah Jim Bridger Trail Run outside Bozeman, Montana Bridger Avenue in Las Vegas, Nevada The Jim Bridger
Jim Bridger
cabins, a motel in Gardiner, Montana, outside the entrance to Yellowstone
Yellowstone
National Park. In 2013, Bridger's Battle was announced as the new name for an old college football rivalry between Utah
Utah
State and Wyoming. The winner receives a .50-caliber Rocky Mountain Hawken rifle, the "Bridger rifle", as a traveling trophy.

Media portrayals[edit]

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Raymond Hatton
Raymond Hatton
portrayed Bridger in the 1940 film Kit Carson. Van Heflin
Van Heflin
played Bridger in the 1951 film Tomahawk. Dennis Morgan
Dennis Morgan
portrayed Bridger in the 1955 film The Gun That Won the West. In the late 1950s, Johnny Horton
Johnny Horton
recorded a song called "Jim Bridger" about the life of Jim Bridger. Lyrics include the injunction "..Let's drink to old Jim Bridger
Jim Bridger
yes, lift your glasses high" – "As long as there's a USA don't let his memory die" – "That he was making history never once occurred to him" – "But I doubt if we'd have been here if it weren't for men like Jim..."[9] Karl Swenson
Karl Swenson
played Bridger in the episode "The Jim Bridger
Jim Bridger
Story" of NBC's Wagon Train, broadcast on May 10, 1961. Jim Bridger
Jim Bridger
is also briefly mentioned in Sydney Pollack's 1972 film Jeremiah Johnson, in which Will Geer's character introduces himself as "Bear Claw Crislap, blood kin to the grizz (grizzly bear) that bit Jim Bridger's ass." James Wainwright played Bridger in the 1976 TV movie Bridger, opposite Ben Murphy
Ben Murphy
as Kit Carson. Bridger was portrayed on television by the western actor Gregg Palmer in the 1977 episode " Kit Carson
Kit Carson
and the Mountain Man" of NBC's Walt Disney's Wonderful World of Color. Christopher Connelly portrayed Kit Carson and Robert Reed
Robert Reed
played John C. Frémont. Reb Brown portrayed Bridger in the 1978 TV miniseries Centennial. In the 1982 novel Flashman and the Redskins, lead character Harry Paget Flashman is interviewed by Bridger just before heading west with his prostitute-laden wagon train. In the 1984 film Red Dawn, Patrick Swayze's character of Jed Eckert says he used to read of the exploits of both Jim Bridger
Jim Bridger
and Jedediah Smith, for whom he says he was named. In Bushcraft, the 2005 televised series hosted by Ray Mears, Ray traveled along the same trails Jim Bridger
Jim Bridger
pioneered. In the 2009 film Inglourious Basterds, lead character Lt. Aldo Raine (portrayed by Brad Pitt) states: "Now, I am the direct descendant of the mountain man Jim Bridger. That means I got a little Injun in me. And our battle plan will be that of an Apache resistance." None of Bridger's three Indian wives were Apache. In the 2015 film The Revenant, Will Poulter
Will Poulter
portrays Bridger.

See also[edit]

History portal Idaho
Idaho
portal Montana
Montana
portal Utah
Utah
portal Wyoming
Wyoming
portal

Bridger family of Virginia, notable to American colonial and pioneer history Joseph Bridger, a Colonial Governor of Virginia
Virginia
and ancestor of Jim Bridger William Sublette, explorer, fur trader, and fellow mountain man of Wyoming

References[edit]

^ Fischer, David Hackett (1989). Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 633–639. ISBN 978-0-19-506905-1.  ^ a b c d e f Dale 1929, p. 33. ^ a b Dale 1929, pp. 33–34. ^ Monumental Mysteries ^ "Did Jim Bridger
Jim Bridger
Abandon Hugh Glass". HughGlass.org/. Museum of the Mountain Man. Retrieved December 18, 2015.  ^ "Biographical Notes - Hugh Glass". Wandering Lizard History. Archived from the original on 8 May 2006. Retrieved 4 October 2015.  ^ wallis the land beneath heaven 2017 ^ "Uinta-Wasatch-Cache National Forest - Bridger Lake Campground".  ^ "JIM BRIDGER Lyrics - Song by JOHNNY HORTON". 

Sources[edit]

Dale, Harrison Clifford (1929). Allen Johnson, ed. Dictionary of American Biography Bridger, James. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Further reading[edit]

Alter, J. Cecil (1951), James Bridger Trapper, Frontiersman, Scout And Guide A Historical Narrative, College Book Co.  Caesar, Gene (1961), King Of The Mountain Men, E.P. Dutton Co,, Inc  Vestal, Stanley (1946), Jim Bridger
Jim Bridger
Mountain Man, William Morrow & Company  "Affidavit discussing Jim Bridger's property and Fort Bridger" Jim Bridger
Jim Bridger
in Idaho[permanent dead link]

External links[edit]

Find more aboutJim Bridgerat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity

v t e

American folklore and tall tales

Folkloric figures

Alfred Bulltop Stormalong Annie Christmas Br'er Rabbit Brother Jonathan Casey at the Bat Casey Jones Cordwood Pete Evangeline Feathertop Febold Feboldson Francis Marion, the Swamp Fox Ichabod Crane Joe Magarac John Henry Johnny Kaw Mose Humphrey Ola Värmlänning Ole Pete Paul Bunyan
Paul Bunyan
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Fearsome critters

Agropelter Axehandle hound Ball-tailed cat Cactus cat Fur-bearing trout Glawackus Hidebehind Hodag Hoop snake Jackalope Jersey Devil Joint snake Sidehill gouger Skunk ape Snallygaster Splintercat Squonk Teakettler Wampus cat

Legends

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v t e

Yellowstone
Yellowstone
National Park – History and people

Historic events and personalities from Yellowstone
Yellowstone
National Park

Expeditions

Cook–Folsom–Peterson Expedition Washburn–Langford–Doane Expedition Hayden Geological Survey of 1871

Explorers

Robert Adams Jr. Jim Bridger John Colter Lt.Gustavus C. Doane Truman C. Everts Warren Angus Ferris Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden Nathaniel P. Langford Alexander Ross (fur trader) Osborne Russell Cyrus Thomas Henry D. Washburn

Photographers, artists and illustrators

Heinrich C. Berann Albert Bierstadt Frank Jay Haynes William Henry Jackson Thomas Moran

Park management

Mission 66 Horace M. Albright Harry W. Child Harry W. Frantz Harlan Kredit Herbert Maier John W. Meldrum Philetus Norris Robert Reamer Harry Yount

Military administration

Henry Tureman Allen Lloyd Milton Brett Frazier Boutelle Dan Christie Kingman Hiram M. Chittenden Samuel Baldwin Marks Young Wilber Elliott Wilder Fort Yellowstone

Events

History of the National Park Service History of wolves in Yellowstone Teton– Yellowstone
Yellowstone
tornado 1959 Hebgen Lake earthquake Yellowstone
Yellowstone
fires of 1988

List of Yellowstone
Yellowstone
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Yellowstone
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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 64846472 LCCN: n50041436 ISNI: 0000 0000 5539 5864 GND: 120775

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