Jhelum /ˈdʒeɪləm/ (Urdu: جِہلم, Punjabi: جہلم)
is a city on the right bank of the
Jhelum River, in the district of
the same name in the north of Punjab province, Pakistan.
known for providing a large number of soldiers to the British Army
before independence, and later to the
Pakistan armed forces - due
to which it is also known as City of Soldiers or Land of
Jhelum is a few miles upstream from the site of the ancient Battle of
Hydaspes between the armies of
Alexander and King Porus. A city
called Bucephala was founded nearby to commemorate the death of
Alexander's horse, Bucephalus. Other notable sites nearby include the
16th-century Rohtas Fort, the
Tilla Jogian complex of ancient temples,
and the 16th-century
Grand Trunk Road
Grand Trunk Road which passes through the city.
According to the 1998 census of Pakistan, the population of
145,647 and in 2012 its population is 188,803. The name of the
city is derived from the words Jal (pure water) and Ham (snow), as the
river that flows through the river originates in the Himalayas.
There are a number of industries in and around
Jhelum city, including
a tobacco factory, wood, marble, glass and flour mills.
2.3 Later Periods
2.4 British Raj
6 Geography and climate
6.1 Major floods
7 Important sites
8 Travel and tourism
11.1 Higher and technical education
13 Major industries
15 See also
17 External links
Anjum Sultan Shahbaz recorded some stories of the name
Jhelum in his
Many writers have different opinions about the name of Jhelum. One
suggestion is that in ancient days Jhelumabad was known as Jalham. The
Jhelum is reportedly derived from the words Jal(pure water) and
Ham (snow). The name thus refers to the waters of a river (flowing
besides the city) which have their origins in the snow-capped
However, some writers believe that when "Dara-e-Azam" reached a
certain place on the river bank after winning many battles, he fixed
his flag at that place and called it "Ja-e-Alam" which means "Place of
the Flag". With the passage of time it became
Jhelum from "Ja-e-Alam".
According to tradition, Hazrat Saeed Bin Abi Waqas, brother of Hazrat
Saad Bin Abi Waqas, was sent to China to preach Islam, during his
journey he arrived at the city of Jhelum, he saw the reflection of a
city in the river and said "هذا جهيلم" (this is Jheelum),
which means "City besides the river, in full moonlight"
Ahmed Shah Abdali
Ahmed Shah Abdali also used "Jheelum" in place of
Jhelum and "Harian"
Kharian in his diary.
Shahbaz, Anjum Sultan (September 2003). Tareekh-e-Jhelum. history of
Jhelum (2nd ed.). Book Corner, Main Bazar, Jhelum. p. 92.
Jats and Ahirs, who now hold the Salt Range
and its northern plateau respectively, appear to have been the
earliest inhabitants of Jhelum. The history of
Jhelum dates back
to the semi-mythical period of the Mahabharata.
represents the nearby
Salt Range as the refuge of the five Pandava
brothers during the period of their exile. The next major point in the
history of the district was the
Battle of the Hydaspes
Battle of the Hydaspes between
Alexander and the local ruler, Porus.
Abisares (or Abhisara; in
Greek Αβισαρης), called Embisarus (Eμ Oβισαρoς) by
Diodorus, was an Indian people king of abhira descent beyond
the river Hydaspes, whose territory lay in the mountains, sent
Alexander both before and after the conquest of
326 BC, although inclined to espouse the side of the latter. Alexander
not only allowed him to retain his kingdom, but increased it, and on
his death appointed his son as his successor. The
Gakhars appear to
represent an early wave of conquerors from the west, and who still
inhabit a large tract in the mountain north to tilla range. Gakhars
were the dominant race during the early
Muslim era and they long
continued to retain their independence, both in
Jhelum itself and in
the neighbouring district of Rawalpindi.
In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty
empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin. In 1005 he
conquered the Shahis in
Kabul and followed it by the conquests of
Punjab region including Jhelum. The
Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal
Empire ruled the region. The
Punjab region became predominantly Muslim
due to missionary
Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of
Mughals were Persianized Turks who claimed descent from both Timur
and Genghis Khan and strengthened the Persianate culture of Muslim
India. Being very few in number, they adopted a policy of converting
the local jats and
Gakhars mandatory as recorded in the Baburnama.
Thus it is credited to the Mughals, who were largely responsible for
the conversion of the jatts to Islam.
With the collapse of the
Mughal Empire after the death of Aurangzeb,
the Durrani empire had occupied the plains but were quickly ousted by
After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the
Sikh invaded and occupied
Jhelum District. The Muslims faced severe restrictions during the Sikh
rule. In 1849
Jhelum passed with the rest of the
Sikh territories to
the British. In 1857 the 14th Native Infantry stationed at
mutinied, and displayed a vigorous defence against a force sent from
Rawalpindi to disarm them, but decamped for the night following the
action, with the main body being subsequently arrested by the Kashmiri
authorities, into whose territory they had escaped.
A Sikh-era fort in
During British rule,
Jhelum was connected by the North-Western Railway
to other cities in the Indian Empire, 1,367 miles from Calcutta, 1,413
from Bombay, and 849 from Karachi. The population according to the
1901 census of
India was 14,951.
According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India:
The present town is of modern origin, the old town, which may have
been the Bucephala of
Alexander having been, on the left or opposite
bank of the river. Under
Sikh rule the place was quite unimportant,
being mainly occupied by a settlement of boatmen, and at the time of
annexation contained about 500 houses. It was then chosen as the site
of a cantonment and as the headquarters of the civil administration.
For some years it was the seat of the Commissioner of the Division,
but in 1859 his headquarters were transferred to Rawalpindi. Under
Jhelum has steadily advanced in prosperity; and is the
entrepôt for most of the trade of the District, though, since the
completion of the Sind-Sāgar branch of the North-Western Railway; the
salt trade no longer passes through it. It is an important timber
dépôt, the timber from the Kashmir forests which is floated down the
river being collected here. A good deal of boat-building is carried
on. The cantonment, which is 3 miles from the civil station, contains
the church and post office. The normal strength of the garrison is one
Native cavalry and four Native infantry regiments. The municipality
was founded in 1867. During the ten years ending 1902–3 the receipts
averaged Rs. 32,100, and the expenditure Rs, 31,900. Receipts and
expenditure from cantonment funds in the same period averaged Rs.
31,900 and Rs. 6,100 respectively. The chief income of the
municipality in 1903-4 was Rs. 34,200 chiefly from octroi; and the
expenditure was Rs. 41,000. The town has two Anglo vernacular schools,
a municipal high school, and a middle school maintained by the
American Presbyterian Mission. Besides the civil hospital, the mission
also maintains a hospital.
Marble lectern in memory of 35 British soldiers
During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, also known as the Indian Mutiny,
35 British soldiers of the Regular 24th Regiment of Foot were killed
at the Battle of
Jhelum by mutineers from the Honourable East India
Companies 14th Bengal Native Infantry (roughly 500 of the soldiers
mutinied with roughly 100 of the
Sikh soldiers remaining loyal). Among
the dead was Captain Francis Spring, the eldest son of Colonel William
Spring.. A lectern inside
St. John's Church Jhelum
St. John's Church Jhelum shows the names
of those 35 soldiers. St. John's Church is located in the Jhelum
Pakistan beside the river Jhelum. It was built in 1860 and
remains a landmark in the city. It was built as a Protestant church,
and was in use throughout the British period. For the past forty years
it has been closed to the public and in poor condition, however it has
since[when?] been renovated and reopened and is now maintained.
The British soldier William Connolly won a
Victoria Cross for his
bravery during this battle. Mirza Dildar Baig, also known as Khaki
Shah, took part in the mutiny at
Jhelum and was later celebrated by
Indian Nationalists. He was captured and arrested with the remaining
mutineers by authorities in Kashmir and later hanged near the river
Jhelum. His grave is in a shrine in
Jhelum Dildarnagar, and a small
town in Uttar Pradesh is also named after him.
The railway bridge on the river
Jhelum was built in 1873 by the
British engineer William St. John Galwey. He also made the great
Empress Bridge over the river Sutlej.
Muslim population supported
Muslim League and
Pakistan Movement. After the independence of
Pakistan in 1947, the
minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to
Muslim refugees from
India settled down in the
Jhelum below the bridge From
Sarai Alamgir side
As well as being district capital,
Jhelum city is also the
Jhelum Tehsil, the city of
Jhelum is administratively
subdivided into 7 Union Councils, namely Jhelum-I, Jhelum-II,
Jhelum-III, Jhelum-IV, Jhelum-V, Jhelum-VI and Jhelum-VII.
Jhelum City Population
The population of the
Jhelum city is about 188,800(2012) and it is
the 32nd largest city of
Pakistan with respect to population. Total
area of city is about 22 km2 (8.5 sq mi). Population
density is 261/km. Population Growth Rate is 1.51 which is very
low as compared to other urban areas of Pakistan. The majority of the
population i.e. 98.47 percent is Muslim. Among the minorities
Christians are in majority sharing 1.36 percent in the district.
The Gakhars, Janjua, Gujjars, Panhwar, Arain, Mughals, Gondals Awan,
Syed, Jat, Kashmiri, Kayani and
Khokhar are among the tribes residing
The literacy rate of
Jhelum is among the highest in Pakistan. At 79%,
it is only lower than that of
Islamabad and neighbouring
Rawalpindi. Somewhat higher than the literacy in Punjab province
(58 percent). The literacy rate has remarkably increased from 38.9
percent in 1981. The rate is much higher in the urban areas for both
males and females. 84% of the population have electricity and 96% have
access to water.
Human Development Index
Human Development Index of
Jhelum is 0.770, which
is highest in
Pakistan after Karachi.
See also: List of cities in
Punjab, Pakistan by area
Shabir plaza Shandar Chowk
Gumbad wali Masjid
During the past few years, the city has experienced rapid expansion
and it has now become a vibrant economic and cultural center. The old
city has narrow streets and crowded bazaars.
The main market area of
Jhelum is centred around "Shandar Chowk", "GTS
Chowk", "Muhammadi Chowk" and includes "Main Bazaar", "Naya Bazaar",
"Raja Bazaar", "Kinari Bazaar", "Sarafa Bazaar", "Chowk-Ehl-e-Hadith"
and Soldier Arcade. Some of the main roads of
Jhelum City are Civil
Line, Railway Road, Old GT Road, Kucheri Road, Iqbal Road and Rohtas
Road. A cantonment was built during the British rule, which has now
been upgraded into a strong Garrison, with an Infantry Division
commanded by a Major General.
Geography and climate
Lying at 32°56′ North latitude and 73°44′ East longitude, Jhelum
is located a 1-hour and 30 minutes drive from the Capital of Pakistan
Islamabad, and 3 hours drive from the heart of Punjab Lahore. Jhelum
is linked with these cities through the National Highway N-5. Several
cities are within 1 to 2 hours drive including Gujrat (home to fan
Chakwal and Mirpur, Azad Kashmir.
Jhelum has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification
Cfa) and is extremely hot and humid in summer, and cold and generally
dry in winter. The maximum recorded temperature in the pre-monsoon
season of April to June is 49.2 °C (120.6 °F), whereas in
winter the minimum temperature recorded is −0.6 °C
(30.9 °F). Average annual rainfall is about 850 millimetres
(33 in) which is much below the required quantity given the
extremely high evaporation levels. Nevertheless, in the rainy season
water torrents flow from the north to
Jhelum River very rapidly and
cause damage to the crops, bridges, roads. This is responsible for the
soil erosion in the district.
Over the years, global climate change has affected
Jhelum as well as
any other place on Earth and below comparison charts from Weatherbase
and NOAA show the difference in rainfall between 1990 and 2015:
Climate data for Jhelum, Pakistan
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Source: Weatherbase 2015
Climate data for Jhelum, Punjab
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average rainfall mm (inches)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source: NOAA (1961–1990)
The biggest floods in
Jhelum in recent years were in 1992.
and surrounding areas were almost completely submerged under flood
Front view of Melange super Market
Akram Shaheed Library
Rohtas Fort is a garrison fort built by the great Afghan king Sher
Shah Suri. This fort is about 4 km in circumference. Qila Rohtas
is situated in a gorge approximately 18 km NW of
7 km from Dina.
The old city has a fascinating labyrinth of narrow streets and crowded
bazaars. Opposite to the
CMH Jhelum Cantt is located the beautiful
mosque of the city, CMH Masjid Jhelum.
Located in the cantonment area is the
St. John's Church Jhelum
St. John's Church Jhelum which
was built in 1860. There was a local stadium near Gul Afshan Colony
which was changed to a cricket stadium named Zamir Jaffri Cricket
Stadium. Altaf Park which was constructed in 1994–95 is in a very
close proximity of Cricket Stadium. Nearly 100 m from Shandar
Chowk, in the center of city, is
Major Akram Shaheed Memorial
Major Akram Shaheed Memorial Park.
Muhammad Akram Memorial Library is also present in this park.
This is also a site of a parade which takes place every year on 6
September at the occasion of Defence Day.
Mangla Dam Water Reservoir
Lehri Nature Park is located 10 kilometers away from G. T. Road
Jhelum and Islamabad, it is 30 kilometers from
Jhelum and 90
Islamabad in the hilly Pothohar region.
Mangla Dam is located on the
Jhelum River about 30 km
(19 mi) from Jhelum, it is the twelfth largest dam in the world.
It was constructed in 1967 across the
Jhelum River. There is the
Mangla View Resort that is the first planned resort development in
Pakistan to offer residences, villas, townhouses, hotels, serviced
apartments & retail outlets. The resort is located on a 340-acre
(1.4 km2) site on the
Mangla Dam area.
Rasul Barrage is located on the
Jhelum River about 30 km
downstream from Jhelum. Two major water canals originate at the Rasul
barrage, Rasul-Qadirabad link canal which is also called Lower-Jhelum
link canal and Rasul-Shahpur branch canal. The area around the Rasul
Barrage lake is also a picnic spot.
Travel and tourism
The lawn of Tulip Riverside Hotel[dead link]
Rickshaws are a popular mode of transport for short routes within
the city. Many of the new rickshaws in the city use Compressed natural
gas (CNG) instead of the petrol engines as CNG is environmentally
clean and cheaper than petrol.
Rickshaws are another important mode of
transportation. The older horse drawn tongas are now defunct although
some can still be privately commissioned. Taxis and privately
commissioned small passenger carrying vans are available.
Bus Stand Jhelum
Daewoo Express Bus Service and other bus services operate from the
city to the entire country. There is a regular bus/Hiace service
available running from early hours of the morning to late in the
night. Daily routes include Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Lahore, Gujrat,
Gujranwala, Sialkot, Mandi Bahauddin, Sargodha, Chakwal, Mirpur and
Regular bus and van services are available within
Jhelum District. It
includes important towns and villages such as: buses from
Pind Dadan Khan, Dina, Sohawa, Lilla, Nakka Khurd, Chakri Rajgan
Khalaspur, Pind Sawika, Bair Faqiran- Green Hills Village) Nagyal,
Sanghoi, Mangla Cantt, Nara, Domeli, Darapur,
Jalalpur Sharif and many
more, while vans go from
Jhelum to Sanghoi, Wagh, Dina, Kharian, Sarai
Alamgir, Chak Jamal, Chak Doulat, Mughalabad, Boken,
Dhanyala and many
other destinations as well as Baragowah.
Jhelum Railway Station
Jhelum Railway Station was built in 1928 during British rule
before the independence of Pakistan. It was connected by the
North-Western Railway to other cities in the Indian empire.
on main line of
Pakistan Railways, and linked to whole country through
Railway line across Pakistan. Many of the railway lines and bridges
were designed and constructed by exceptionally hardworking engineers
during the British time and after independence in railway workshop
The nearest international airport is the
Airport, which is approximately 110 km by road from Jhelum. The
Sialkot International Airport, is approximately 100 km by road
from Jhelum. A small airport called
Gurha Salim Airport is situated
13 km (8 mi) from the city centre. It is not being used
by any commercial airlines, but only for military purposes.
3G Internet Service is available in this city since September 2014.
The PTCL provides the main network of landline telephone with minority
shares of few other operators like WorldCall. All major mobile phone
companies operating in
Pakistan provide service in Jhelum. Broadband
internet access is available from DSL, EVDO to state of the art WiMAX
technology from many ISPs, WiMax and
WiFi operators like PTCL EVO,
Wateen, Mobilink, WorldCall, LinkdotNet etc.
WorldCall has laid its
fiberoptics throughout the city of
Jhelum for future project of FTTH
with Triple Play service. In August 2008 PTCL has also launched
IPTV service named
PTCL Smart TV in Jhelum.
Jhelum has got its own
Jhelum Networks which is semi public organisation working for
development of telecommunication and internet services throughout
Jhelum. Company started its services in 2011 and now covering more
than 200sq/km area.
Jhelum Networks is providing
WiFi and cable
internet services throughout the district. Different Cellular Networks
are also Providing 3G internet in city Jhelum.
Main article: Sport in Jhelum
Cricket Stadium Jhelum
Horse and rider in action
Located within the city is a golf course called the River-View Golf
Club, where national golf tournaments are held regularly.
There is also a Cricket + football Stadium Zamir Jaffri Cricket
Stadium where District level tournaments are held. In October 2008,
Pakistan Cricket Board upgraded this stadium for Regional events.
Besides the mainstream sports like football, cricket, hockey, and
squash, a lot of other sports are also played in the rural areas
around the city. These, which are equally popular, include tent
pegging, volleyball, stone-lifting and Kabaddi. Thousands of people
flock to these local grand sporting events as keenly as the average
sports fan anywhere in the world.
These events are usually sponsored by the UK and foreign based
Jhelum has six Degree Colleges for Women, six Degree Colleges for Men,
six Co-education Colleges, six Commerce Colleges, one Law College,
numerous higher secondary schools and over 150 high schools.
Higher and technical education
In technical education there are three technical colleges, Government
Institute of Technology (Chak Daulat), Government Vocational Institute
for Women (Civil Lines Jhelum) and Government Technical Training
Air School System is an Independent Education System that follows
National Curriculum in accordance with Federal Ministry of Education
and is registered as a Private Limited Company under the Companies
Ordinance 1984. Air Foundation School System carries Trade Mark under
the Ordinance 2001/Act 1940, Government of Pakistan. AFSS is ISO 9001
– 2000 certified by Moody International.
University of the Punjab
University of the Punjab has also established a campus in Jhelum
offering programs related to business, commerce, law, and computer
science. The new undergraduate and postgraduate degree programs are
due to commence soon. The literacy rate of
Jhelum is high in
comparison to other cities of the Punjab. 65 kanals of land was
allocated to establish this campus by Government of Punjab.
Jhelum also has two sub-campuses of the Virtual University of
Pakistan, Virtual University Campus at Civil Lines opposite city
Church and other one is Private Virtual Campus namely Wings Institute
of Learning. Virtual University of
Pakistan inaugurated its own
Jhelum in March 2012; VU
Jhelum Campus has started its vital
role to educate people of
Jhelum within their affordability. It is
located in the middle of the city in a beautiful building. VU Jhelum
Campus is well equipped, neat and organised campus. To facilitate the
students, all sort of academics programs are offered at the campus.
Students can continue their study without any power cut and internet
issue. It is the place where students get prepared for their promising
career and meet their respective course fellows.
DHQ Civil Hospital Jada Jhelum
AlKhadim Memorial Hospital
Jhelum has some of the largest hospitals in the area which include
the hospital in the cantonment area of the city managed by the
Pakistan Army or sub organisations. One such hospital is the
Combined Military Hospital Jhelum.
Pakistan Tobacco Company Jhelum
Some of the major industries are:
Pakistan Chipboard (Pvt) Ltd Chipboard factory
Pakistan Tobacco Company Tobacco related products
Map of Tehsil Jhelum
A fort in
Stylo and Hush Puppies, Civil Line
Saleem center, Civil Lines
Ladi's mart, MM#3
Cantonment Square, Jhelum
Mahfooz Plaza, Kazim Kamal Road
View of a match
Zamir Jaffri Cricket Stadium
Tulip lawn Jhelum
Kazim Kamal Park
Jhelum River at
South Asia portal
Inder Kumar Gujral, thirteenth Prime Minister of India
Military College Jhelum
Rabia Qari, the first female
Muslim barrister in South Asia
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Jhelum (Industries)". Archived from the original on 11 May
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