Jewish folklore are legend
, oral history
s, popular belief
s, fairy tales
, tall tales
, and customs
that are the tradition
s of Judaism. Folktales
are characterized by the presence of unusual personages, by the sudden transformation of men into beasts and vice versa, or by other unnatural incidents. A number of aggadic stories
bear folktale characteristics, especially those relating to Og
, King of Bashan, which have the same exaggerations as have the ''lügenmärchen'' of modern German folktales.
There is considerable evidence of Jewish people bringing and helping the spread of Eastern folktales in Europe.
[Joseph Jacobs, "Folk-Tales", ''Jewish Encyclopedia'']
Besides these tales from foreign sources, Jews either collected or composed others which were told throughout the European ghetto
s, and were collected in Yiddish in the "Maasebücher".
Numbers of the folktales contained in these collections were also published separately. It is, however, difficult to call many of them folktales in the sense given above, since nothing fairy-like or supernormal occurs in them.
There are a few definitely Jewish legends of the Middle Ages which partake of the character of folktales, such as those of the Jewish pope Andreas
and of the golem
, or that relating to the wall of the Rashi chapel, which moved backward in order to save the life of a poor woman who was in danger of being crushed by a passing carriage in the narrow way. Several of these legends were collected by (''Sagen und Legenden der Jüdischen Vorzeit'').
In the late 19th century many folk-tales were gathered among Jews or published from Hebrew manuscripts by in the ''Revue des Etudes Juives'', in the ''Revue des Traditions Populaires'', and in ''Melusine''; by Moses Gaster
in ''Folk-Lore'' and in the reports of Montefiore College
; and by Max Grunwald
in ''Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Jüdische Volkskunde''; by L. Wiener
in the same periodical; and by F. S. Krauss
in ''Urquell'', both series.
Aggadah and folklore compilations
* ''The Legends of the Jews
by Rabbi Louis Ginzberg
, is an original synthesis of a vast amount of aggadah from the Mishnah
, the two Talmuds and Midrash
. Ginzberg had an encyclopedic knowledge of all rabbinic literature, and his masterwork included a massive array of aggadot. However he did not create an anthology which showed these aggadot distinctly. Rather, he paraphrased them and rewrote them into one continuous narrative that covered five volumes, followed by two volumes of footnotes that give specific sources.
*The ''Ein Yaakov
'' is a compilation of the aggadic material in the Babylonian Talmud together with commentary.
*''Sefer Ha-Aggadah'', "The Book of Legends" is a classic compilation of aggadah from the Mishnah, the two Talmuds and the Midrash literature. It was edited by Hayim Nahman Bialik
and Yehoshua Hana Rawnitzki
. Bialik and Ravnitzky worked to compile a comprehensive and representative overview of aggadah; they spent three years compiling their work. When they found the same aggadah in multiple versions, from multiple sources, they usually selected the later form, the one found in the Babylonian Talmud. However they also presented a great some aggadot sequentially, giving the early form from the Jerusalem Talmud, and later versions from the Babylonian Talmud, and from a classic midrash compilation. In each case each every aggadah is given with its original source. In their original edition, they translated the Aramaic aggadot into modern Hebrew. Sefer Ha-Aggadah was first published in 1908-11 in Odessa
, Russia, then reprinted numerous times in Israel
. In 1992 it was translated into English as "The Book of Legends", by William G, Braude.
* ''Mimekor Yisrael'', by Micha Josef (bin Gorion) Berdyczewski
. Berdyczewski was interested in compiling the folklore
and legends of the Jewish people, from the earliest times up until the dawn of the modern era. His collection included a large array of aggadot, although they were limited to those he considered within the domain of folklore.
* Jewish mythology
* Valley of the ants
, a Jewish legend
Category:Middle Eastern folklore