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Academic study of Jewish mysticism, especially since Gershom Scholem's Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism (1941), distinguishes between different forms of mysticism across different eras of Jewish history. Of these, Kabbalah, which emerged in 12th-century Europe, is the most well known, but not the only typologic form, or the earliest to emerge. Among previous forms were Merkabah
Merkabah
mysticism (c. 100 BCE – 1000 CE), and Ashkenazi Hasidim
Ashkenazi Hasidim
(early 13th century CE) around the time of Kabbalistic emergence. Kabbalah
Kabbalah
means "received tradition", a term previously used in other Judaic contexts, but which the Medieval Kabbalists adopted for their own doctrine to express the belief that they were not innovating, but merely revealing the ancient hidden esoteric tradition of the Torah. This issue is crystallised until today by alternative views on the origin of the Zohar, the main text of Kabbalah. Traditional Kabbalists regard it as originating in Tannaic times, redacting the Oral Torah, so do not make a sharp distinction between Kabbalah
Kabbalah
and early Rabbinic Jewish mysticism. Academic scholars regard it as a synthesis from Medieval times, but assimilating and incorporating into itself earlier forms of Jewish mystical tradition, as well as other philosophical elements. The theosophical aspect of Kabbalah
Kabbalah
itself developed through two historical forms: "Medieval/Classic/Zoharic Kabbalah" (c.1175 – 1492 – 1570), and Lurianic Kabbalah
Kabbalah
(1569 CE – today) which assimilated Medieval Kabbalah
Kabbalah
into its wider system and became the basis for modern Jewish Kabbalah. After Luria, two new mystical forms popularised Kabbalah
Kabbalah
in Judaism: antinomian-heretical Sabbatean movements (1666 – 18th century CE), and Hasidic Judaism
Hasidic Judaism
(1734 CE – today). In contemporary Judaism, the only main forms of Jewish mysticism
Jewish mysticism
followed are esoteric Lurianic Kabbalah
Kabbalah
and its later commentaries, the variety of schools in Hasidic Judaism, and Neo-Hasidism
Neo-Hasidism
(incorporating Neo-Kabbalah) in non-Orthodox Jewish denominations. Two non-Jewish syncretic traditions also popularised Judaic Kabbalah through its incorporation as part of general Western esoteric culture from the Renaissance
Renaissance
onwards: theological Christian Cabala
Christian Cabala
(c. 15th  – 18th century) which adapted Judaic Kabbalistic doctrine to Christian belief, and its diverging occultist offshoot Hermetic Qabalah (c. 15th century – today) which became a main element in esoteric and magical societies and teachings. As separate traditions of development outside Judaism, drawing from, syncretically adapting, and different in nature and aims from Judaic mysticism, they are not listed on this page.

Contents

1 Three aims in Jewish mysticism 2 Historical forms of Jewish mysticism
Jewish mysticism
timeline 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links

Three aims in Jewish mysticism[edit] The Kabbalistic form of Jewish mysticism
Jewish mysticism
itself divides into three general streams: the Theosophical/Speculative Kabbalah
Kabbalah
(seeking to understand and describe the divine realm), the Meditative/Ecstatic Kabbalah
Kabbalah
(seeking to achieve a mystical union with God), and the Practical/Magical Kabbalah
Kabbalah
(seeking to theurgically alter the divine realms and the World). These three different, but inter-relating, methods or aims of mystical involvement are also found throughout the other pre-Kabbalistic and post-Kabbalistic stages in Jewish mystical development, as three general typologies. As in Kabbalah, the same text can contain aspects of all three approaches, though the three streams often distill into three separate literatures under the influence of particular exponents or eras. Within Kabbalah, the theosophical tradition is distinguished from many forms of mysticism in other religions by its doctrinal form as a mystical "philosophy" of Gnosis
Gnosis
esoteric knowledge. Instead, the tradition of Meditative Kabbalah
Kabbalah
has similarity of aim, if not form, with usual traditions of general mysticism; to unite the individual intuitively with God. The tradition of theurgic Practical Kabbalah
Kabbalah
in Judaism, censored and restricted by mainstream Jewish Kabbalists, has similarities with non-Jewish Hermetic Qabalah
Hermetic Qabalah
magical Western Esotericism. However, as understood by Jewish Kabbalists, it is censored and forgotten in contemporary times because without the requisite purity and holy motive, it would degenerate into impure and forbidden magic. Consequently, it has formed a minor tradition in Jewish mystical history. Historical forms of Jewish mysticism
Jewish mysticism
timeline[edit]

For a fuller list of Kabbalistic mystics and texts, see List of Jewish Kabbalists. This timeline shows general developments:

Historical phase[1] Dates Influential developments and texts

Prophetic Judaism[2] 800–6th century BCE Prophetic meditation, divine encounter, mystical elements:

Isaiah Ezekiel Zechariah

Apocalyptic Judaism Beginning 6th century BCE 300–100 BCE Mystical and apocalyptic speculation, heavenly angelology and eschatology:

1 Enoch Daniel

Mystical elements in Second Temple period
Second Temple period
sects c. 200 BCE-c. 100 CE Mystical and pious elements among sects in the late Second Temple period in Judea and the Diaspora:

Hasideans Essenes Philo's Platonic philosophy influence on early Christianity Christian Jewish early Christian mysticism

Early Rabbinic mysticism and mystical elements in classic Rabbinic literature[3] c. 100 BCE – 130s CE influence to 5th century CE References in exoteric Talmud
Talmud
and Midrash
Midrash
to Tannaic early Rabbinic mystical circles, Maaseh Merkabah – Work of the Chariot exegesis and ascent, Maaseh Bereshit – Work of Creation exegesis. Wider continuing mystical elements in aggadah Rabbinic theology and narratives:

Johanan ben Zakai
Johanan ben Zakai
and his disciples Rabbi Akiva ( Simeon bar Yochai
Simeon bar Yochai
traditional/pseudepigraphical attribution of later Kabbalist Zohar)

  Mystical aggadot examples: Four who entered the Pardes Oven of Akhnai Bat Kol Torah: black fire on white fire, God looked in Torah
Torah
to create World Shekhinah accompanies Israel
Israel
in exile The Messiah at the Gates of Rome

Merkabah- Hekhalot
Hekhalot
esoteric texts and methods c. 2nd century-1000 Traditional/pseudepigraphical/anonymous esoteric Merkabah
Merkabah
mysticism Throne and Hekhalot
Hekhalot
Palaces ascent literature and methods. Text protagonists are early Tannaic Rabbis, though texts academically dated variously from Talmudic
Talmudic
100–500 to Gaonic 400–800 periods, and sectarian/rabbinic origins debated:

  Earlier texts: 3 Enoch Hekhalot
Hekhalot
Rabbati (The Greater Palaces) Hekhalot
Hekhalot
Zutari (The Lesser Palaces) Merkavah Rabbah (The Great Chariot)   Later texts: Shi'ur Qomah (Divine Dimensions)

Proto-Kabbalistic 200–600 Maaseh Bereshit – Creation speculation text. Describes 10 sephirot, though without their significance to later Kabbalah. Received rationalist interpretations before becoming a source text for Kabbalah:

Sefer Yetzirah
Sefer Yetzirah
(Book of Formation)

Mystical elements in Medieval Jewish philosophy 11th–13th centuries Mystical elements in the thought of Medieval rationalist Jewish philosophical theologians:

Judah Halevi[4] Moses Maimonides[5]

Jewish Sufi
Sufi
piety 11th to 15th centuries Jewish piety, including meditative experiential elements:

Bahya ibn Paquda 11th century – Chovot HaLevavot (Duties of the Heart) Abraham Maimonides
Maimonides
and the "Jewish Sufis" of Cairo 13th–15th century

Early Kabbalah c. 1174–1200 Emergence of Kabbalistic mystical theosophy in Southern France. The Bahir, regarded in academia as the first Kabbalistic work, incorporates an earlier source text:

Sefer Ha Bahir
Bahir
(Book of Brightness) School of Isaac the Blind

Chassidei Ashkenaz c. 1150–1250 Mystical-ethical piety and speculative theory in Ashkenaz-Germany. Shaped by Merkabah- Hekhalot
Hekhalot
texts, Practical Kabbalah
Kabbalah
magical elements, Rhineland Crusader persecutions and German monastic values:

Samuel of Speyer Judah of Regensburg – Sefer Hasidim (Book of the Pious) Eleazar of Worms

Medieval Kabbalah
Kabbalah
development c. 1200–1492 Alternative philosophical vs. mythological interpretations of Kabbalistic theosophy: "Neoplatonic" quasi-philosophical hierarchy, and Jewish-"Gnostic" mythological interest in the demonic motifs. Centred in Spain's Kabbalistic golden age:

  Early 13th century Girona
Girona
neoplatonic school: Azriel of Gerona Nahmanides
Nahmanides
(Ramban) – Torah
Torah
commentary

  13th century Castile gnostic school: Treatise on the Left Emanation

  The Zohar
Zohar
in Spain from c.1286: Moses de León
Moses de León
– Sefer Ha Zohar
Zohar
(Book of Splendour). Castile's gnostic culmination. Subsequent Zohar
Zohar
exegesis dominated other Medieval Kabbalah
Kabbalah
traditions

  Kabbalistic scholarship: Joseph Gikatilla – Shaarei Orah (Gates of Light) c.1290 Spain Sefer HaTemunah
Sefer HaTemunah
(Book of the Figure) 13th–14th century influential doctrine in Kabbalah
Kabbalah
of Cosmic Cycles, later rejected by Cordovero and Luria[6]

  Practical-magical Kabbalah: Sefer Raziel HaMalakh

Medieval Prophetic and Meditative Kabbalah 13th – 16th centuries Medieval Meditative Kabbalah
Kabbalah
developed its own traditions.[7] Abraham Abulafia's meditative system of Prophetic Kabbalah, his alternative to the Theosophical Kabbalah, embodies the non-Zoharic ecstatic stream in Spanish Kabbalism:

  Abulafian Prophetic Kabbalah
Kabbalah
school: Abraham Abulafia
Abraham Abulafia
Mediterranean area late 13th century Judah Albotini Jerusalem 15th–16th century

  Other meditative methods: Isaac of Acco 14th century Joseph Tzayach Damascus and Jerusalem 16th century

Post-1492 and Safed
Safed
Kabbalah 16th century Transition from esoteric Medieval Kabbalism to Kabbalah
Kabbalah
as a national messianic doctrine, after 1492 Expulsion from Spain
Expulsion from Spain
exile. Jewish renaissance of Palestine:

Meir ibn Gabbai 16th century early systemiser

  Safed-Galilee Kabbalists: Joseph Karo legalist and mystic Shlomo Alkabetz Moses Cordovero (Ramak) – Pardes Rimonim. Cordoverian systemisation of Medieval Kabbalah
Kabbalah
until 1570 Isaac Luria
Isaac Luria
(the Ari) – new post-Medieval Lurianic systemisation taught 1570–1572 Hayim Vital main Lurianic compiler and other writings Safed
Safed
Meditative Kabbalah: Vital – Shaarei Kedusha (Gates of Holiness), Luria – Yichudim
Yichudim
method

Maharal's mystical theology 16th century Medieval Kabbalah
Kabbalah
expressed in non-Kabbalistic philosophical theology:

Judah Loew (Maharal) Prague

Early Lurianic and post-medieval Kabbalism 16th-mid-18th centuries Lurianism, the second of Kabbalah's two systems of theosophy after Medieval-Cordoverian Kabbalah, incorporating dynamic myth of exile and redemption in divinity taught by Isaac Luria
Isaac Luria
1570–72, and other post-medieval Kabbalah
Kabbalah
trends:

  Disciples compile Kitvei Ari Lurianic thought: Hayim Vital – Etz Hayim (Tree of Life) Israel
Israel
Sarug spread Lurianism in Europe Lurianic exegesis and meditative methods dominated other post-medieval Kabbalah
Kabbalah
trends

  Popularising Kabbalistic Musar and homiletic literature 1550s–1750s: Moses Cordovero – Tomer Devorah (Palm Tree of Deborah) Eliyahu de Vidas
Eliyahu de Vidas
Reshit Chochmah (Beginning of Wisdom) Isaiah Horowitz
Isaiah Horowitz
(Shelah) – Shnei Luchot HaBrit (Tablets of the Covenant) Central Europe

  Kabbalistic scholarship: Moshe Chaim Luzzatto
Moshe Chaim Luzzatto
(Ramchal) Italian early 18th century public dissemination of Kabbalah Joseph Ergas

  Central-Eastern Europe Practical Kabbalah: Baal Shem

Sabbatean movements 1665 – c. 19th century Kabbalistic messianic-mystical antinomian heresy:

Sabbatai Zevi
Sabbatai Zevi
messianic claimant Nathan of Gaza
Nathan of Gaza
Sabbatean prophet Moderate-crypto and radical-antinomian factions Emden-Eybeschutz controversy and Rabbinic excommunication of Sabbateans Sabbatean successors culminating in Jacob Frank-late 18th century Frankist nihilism

Early and formative Hasidic Judaism 1730s–1850s Eastern European mystical revival movement, popularising and psychologising Kabbalah
Kabbalah
through Panentheism and the Tzadik
Tzadik
mystical leader. Neutralised messianic danger expressed in Sabbateanism:

Early Hasidism: Israel
Israel
ben Eliezer ( Baal Shem
Baal Shem
Tov, Besht) founder of Hasidism Dov Ber of Mezeritch
Dov Ber of Mezeritch
(The Magid) systemiser and architect of Hasidism Jacob Joseph of Polonne Levi Yitzhak of Berditchev

  Main Hasidic schools of thought (mystics after 1850s shown later):

Mainstream Hasidic Tzadikism: Elimelech of Lizhensk – Noam Elimelech (Pleasantness of Elimelech) Yaakov Yitzchak of Lublin
Yaakov Yitzchak of Lublin
(The Chozeh)

Chabad
Chabad
intellectual Hasidism – Russia: Shneur Zalman of Liadi
Shneur Zalman of Liadi
Tanya
Tanya
(Likutei Amarim-Collected Words) theorist of Hasidism[8] Aaron of Staroselye

Breslav imaginative Hasidism – Ukraine: Nachman of Breslav – Likutei Moharan (Collected teachings) Nathan of Breslav

Peshischa-Kotzk introspective Hasidism – Poland, mystical offshoot from: Mordechai Yosef Leiner of Izbica – Mei Hashiloach (Waters of Shiloah), personal illumination

  Hasidic storytelling: Shivchei HaBesht (Praises of the Besht) published 1814 Sippurei Ma'asiyot (Stories that were told) Nachman of Breslav's 13 mystical tales 1816

Later traditional Lurianic Kabbalah 18th century-today Traditionalist esoteric interpretations and practice of Lurianic Kabbalah
Kabbalah
from 18th century until today, apart from Hasidic adaptions:

Brody Kloiz and pre-Hasidic Hasidim circles in Eastern Europe. Introverted esotericism response to Sabbatean heresy

  Mitnagdic-Lithuanian non-Hasidic Kabbalah: Elijah ben Shlomo Zalman (Vilna Gaon, Gra) figurehead of Mitnagdim 18th century Chaim of Volozhin
Chaim of Volozhin
– Nefesh HaChaim (Soul of Life) theorist of Mitnagdism,[8] founder of Yeshiva
Yeshiva
movement

  Mizrahi-Sephardi Oriental Kabbalah: Shalom Sharabi
Shalom Sharabi
18th century (from Yemen) and Beit El Synagogue (Jerusalem) introverted esotericism response to Sabbateanism. Lurianic explanation and elite meditation circle Yosef Hayyim
Yosef Hayyim
(Ben Ish Chai) 19th century Hakham
Hakham
Baghdad Abuhatzeira Moroccan Kabbalist dynasty

  20th century Ashkenazi European Kabbalah
Kabbalah
(apart from Hasidic thought): Shaar Hashamayim Yeshiva
Yeshiva
(Jerusalem) Yehuda Ashlag
Yehuda Ashlag
20th century Israel – HaSulam (The Ladder) Lurianic Zohar

Later Hasidic Judaism 1850s-today Dynastic succession and modernising society turned Hasidism away from pre-1810s mystical revivalism, to post-1850s consolidation and rabbinic conservatism. Mystical focus continued in some schools:

Chabad-Lubavitch – intellectual Hasidism communication Zadok HaKohen late 19th century Izbica school Aharon Roth
Aharon Roth
early 20th century Jerusalem piety Kalonymus Kalman Shapira response to Holocaust Menachem Mendel Schneerson
Menachem Mendel Schneerson
(Lubavitch Rebbe) Hasidic outreach and 1990s messianism Breslav contemporary mystical revivalism

Neo-Hasidism
Neo-Hasidism
and Neo-Kabbalah c. 20th century-today Non-Orthodox Jewish denominations' adapted spiritual teaching of Kabbalistic and Hasidic theology to modernist thought and interpretations:

Early 20th century: Martin Buber
Martin Buber
existential Neo-Hasidism

Post War and contemporary: Abraham Joshua Heschel
Abraham Joshua Heschel
Neo-traditional aggadic Judaism Zalman Schachter-Shalomi
Zalman Schachter-Shalomi
Jewish Renewal Arthur Green
Arthur Green
academic and theologian Lawrence Kushner
Lawrence Kushner
Reform Neo-Kabbalah

Influence on modern and postmodern Jewish philosophy: Jewish existentialism Postmodern Jewish philosophy[9]

Independent scholarship: Sanford Drob – The New Kabbalah[10]

Zionist mysticism c. 1910s-today Teachings and influence of Rav Kook poetic mystic. Unity of religion and secularism, halakha and aggadah, activism and quietism:

Abraham Isaac Kook
Abraham Isaac Kook
Chief Rabbi Mandate Palestine Atchalta De'Geulah religious Zionism

Academic study of Jewish mysticism c. 1920s-today Critical-historical study of Jewish mystical texts began in 19th century, but Gershom Scholem's school in the mid-20th century founded the methodological disciple in academia, returning mysticism to a central position in Jewish historiography and Jewish studies departments. Select historian examples:

First generation: Gershom Scholem
Gershom Scholem
discipline founder Hebrew University Alexander Altmann
Alexander Altmann
American initiator

Second generation: Moshe Idel
Moshe Idel
Hebrew University revisionism Joseph Dan
Joseph Dan
Hebrew University Scholem chair

See also[edit]

Jewish mystical exegesis Kabbalah: Primary texts List of Jewish Kabbalists List of Jewish mysticism
Jewish mysticism
scholars

Notes[edit]

^ Structure of the table based on an expanded version of the table in Kabbalistic Metaphors: Jewish Mystical Themes in Ancient and Modern Thought, Sanford L. Drob, Jason Aronson, 2000; "The Historical Context" p.2-4 ^ There is academic debate whether Prophetic Judaism is phenomenologically a mysticism. While the prophets differed from many (not Hasidic) Jewish mystics in their social role, there are mystical passages in the prophetic books; eg. Ezekiel 1 became the basis of Merkabah
Merkabah
mysticism. The Talmud
Talmud
says that there were hundreds of thousands of prophets among Israel: twice as many as the 600,000 Israelites who left Egypt; but most conveyed messages solely for their own generation, so were not reported in scripture (Judaism 101-Prophets and Prophecy). Scripture identifies only 55 prophets of Israel. In Meditation and the Bible, Aryeh Kaplan
Aryeh Kaplan
reconstructs meditative-mystical methods of the Jewish prophetic schools. ^ There is academic debate about how the mystical references in early exoteric Rabbinic literature relate to, or the degree it can be identified with, the mysticism and methods of subsequent esoteric Merkabah- Hekhalot
Hekhalot
texts. ^ Maimonides' Confrontation with Mysticism, Menachem Kellner, Littman Library: describes Judah Halevi
Judah Halevi
as "Proto-Kabbalistic" in his conception of prophecy and Jewish chosenness in the Kuzari ^ While Menachem Kellner reads Maimonides
Maimonides
as anti-"Proto-Kabbalah" (Maimonides' Confrontation with Mysticism, Littman Library), David R. Blumenthal (Philosophic Mysticism
Mysticism
and anthologies) reads Maimonides
Maimonides
as a rationalist mystic: "The thesis of the book is that medieval philosophers had a type of religious mysticism that was rooted in, yet grew out of, their rationalist thinking. The religious experience of "philosophic mysticism" was the result of this intellectualist and post-intellectualist effort." ([1][2]) ^ The shemitot and the age of the universe, 3 part video class from inner.org ^ Traditionalist historiography Meditation and Kabbalah, Aryeh Kaplan, Samuel Weiser publishers; overview of the Meditative schools in Kabbalah. Some medieval Meditative Kabbalists also followed the Theosophical Kabbalah, though not its greatest exponent Abulafia in his esoteric system. In turn, the 16th century Safed
Safed
culmination of theosophy by Cordovero, Luria and Vital dominated and subsumed the previous divergent Kabbalistic streams into their meditative methods, drawing from the earlier schools. After Luria, Meditative Kabbalah followed his new system of Yichudim. In Kabbalah: New Perspectives, Yale University Press 1988, chapter 5 Mystical Techniques, Moshe Idel reinstates the meditative and experiential dimensions of Kabbalah
Kabbalah
as an inherent companion to the theosophical in academic historiography. Kabbalists often attributed their theosophical doctrines to new meditative revelations. ^ a b Torah
Torah
Lishmah- Torah
Torah
for Torah's Sake, Norman Lamm, Ktav 1989; summarised in Faith and Doubt, Norman Lamm, chapter " Monism
Monism
for Moderns". Identifies Chaim of Volozhin
Chaim of Volozhin
as the main kabbalistic-theological theorist of Mitnagdism, and Schneur Zalman of Liadi as the main theorist of Hasidism, based on interpretation of Lurianic Tzimtzum. For Chaim Volozhin, Divine immanence
Divine immanence
is monistic (the acosmic way God looks at the world, reserved for man only in elite kabbalistic prayer) and Divine transcendence
Divine transcendence
is pluralistic (man relates to God through pluralistic Jewish law), leading to Mitnagdic transcendent Theism
Theism
and popular ideological Talmudic
Talmudic
study focus. For Shneur Zalman, Immanence is pluralistic (man relates to mystical Divine immanence
Divine immanence
in pluralist Nature) and Transcendence is monistic (Habad Hasidic meditation on acosmic nullification of world from God's perspective), leading to Hasidic Panentheism and popular mysticism Deveikut
Deveikut
fervour amidst materiality ^ Reasoning After Revelation: Dialogues in Postmodern Jewish Philosophy, Steven Kepnes – Peter Ochs – Robert Gibbs, Westview Press 2000. "Postmodern Jewish thinkers understand their Jewishness differently, but they all share a fidelity to what they call the Torah
Torah
and to communal practices of reading and social action that have their bases in rabbinic interpretations of biblical narrative, law, and belief. Thus, postmodern Jewish thinking is thinking about God, Jews, and the world—with the texts of the Torah—in the company of fellow seekers and believers. It utilizes the tools of philosophy, but without their modern premises." Commentaries in later chapters describe the contribution of Kabbalistic mythological thinking to this project. ^ newkabbalah.com

References[edit]

Heschel, Abraham Joshua Heavenly Torah: As Refracted through the Generations, edited and translated by Gordon Tucker, Bloomsbury Academic 2006 Jacobs, Louis Jewish Mystical Testimonies, Schocken Kaplan, Aryeh Meditation and the Bible, Red Wheel/Weiser 1978 Scholem, Gershom Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism, Schocken, first pub.1941

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jewish mysticism.

Don Karr's Bibliographic Surveys of contemporary academic scholarship on all periods of Jewish mysticism Abraham Joshua Heschel's view of Rabbinic Judaism as aggadah and m

.