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JEWISH GHETTO POLICE or JEWISH POLICE SERVICE (German : _Jüdische Ghetto-Polizei_ or _Jüdischer Ordnungsdienst_), also called the JEWISH POLICE by Jews
Jews
, were auxiliary police units organized within the Jewish ghettos of German-occupied Eastern Europe by local _ Judenrat _ councils under the ultimate authority of the Nazi occupiers .

CONTENTS

* 1 Overview * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links

OVERVIEW

Jewish policemen in the Łódź Ghetto in Poland, 1940

Members of the _Jüdischer Ordnungsdienst_ at first did not have official uniforms , often wearing just an identifying armband a hat, and a badge, and were not allowed to carry firearms , although they did carry batons. They were used by the Germans
Germans
primarily for securing the deportation of other Jews
Jews
to the concentration camps, but their work encompassed all forms of public order in the ghetto .

The _Jüdischer Ordnungsdienst_ were recruited from two separate groups, who could be relied upon to follow German orders. The first were Jewish lawyers, disbarred by the Nazi occupiers, largely recruited by deputy commander Jakub Lejkin, himself later killed by the Jewish Resistance . The second, larger and more criminally active group, were recruited from among pre-War Jewish organised crime groups. The first commander of the Warsaw ghetto was Józef Szeryński , a Jewish lieutenant-colonel in the pre-War Polish Police . He changed his name from Szenkman and developed an anti-Semitic attitude. Szerynski survived an assassination attempt carried out by a member of the Jewish police, Yisrael Kanal , who was working on behalf of the underground Jewish Combat Organization . In ghettos where the Judenrat was resistant to German orders, the Jewish police were often used (as reportedly in Lutsk) to control or replace the council. Armband worn by the Jewish Ghetto
Ghetto
Police in the Warsaw Ghetto.

The criminal elements in the Ordnungsdienst soon came to dominate several areas of life in the ghetto, notably the transportation of people and goods. Additionally, there was a secret department, Section 13, known as the "Jewish Gestapo ". It specialised in tracking down Jewish people outside the Ghetto
Ghetto
walls, as well as their Polish helpers, and often profited by extorting them.

One of the largest police units was to be found in the Warsaw Ghetto , where the Jüdischer Ordnungsdienst numbered about 2,500. The Łódź Ghetto had about 1,200, and the Lviv Ghetto
Ghetto
500.

The Polish-Jewish historian and the Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
archivist Emanuel Ringelblum has described the cruelty of the ghetto police as "at times greater than that of the Germans
Germans
, the Ukrainians and the Latvians ." The fate of many of the Jewish Policemen was eventually the same as all other ghetto Jews. Upon the liquidation of the ghettos (1942-1943) they were either murdered on site or sent to the extermination camps. However, some of the more active criminals, especially those associated with the Zagiew network, are known to have survived the War.

SEE ALSO

* Judenrat * Kapo * Adam Czerniaków * Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Judischer Ordnungsdienst". _ Museum of Tolerance _. Simon Wiesenthal Center . Retrieved 2008-01-14. * ^ http://www.deathcamps.org/occupation/warsaw%20ghetto.html * ^ Raul Hilberg: _The Destruction of the European Jews_, Quadrangle Books, Chicago 1961, p. 310. * ^ Collins, Jeanna R. "Am I a Murderer?: Testament of a Jewish Ghetto
Ghetto
Policeman (review)". _Mandel Fellowship Book Reviews_. Kellogg Community College . Retrieved 2008-01-13.

FURTHER READING

* Anonymous (2014). _The Clandestine History of the Kovno Jewish Ghetto
Ghetto
Police_. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-01283-8 . * _A Jewish Policeman in Lwow An Early Account, 1941-1943_ Ben Z. Redner Translator: Jerzy Michalowicz (2015) ISBN 978-965-308-504-6

EXTERNAL

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