Enlarged population (includes full or partial Jewish ancestry):
20.7 million (2018, est.)Regions with significant
populations Israel6,558,100–6,958,300 United
States5,700,000–10,000,000 France453,000–600,000 Canada390,500–550,000 United
Kingdom290,000–370,000 Argentina180,300–330,000 Russia172,000–440,000 Germany116,000–225,000 Australia113,400–140,000 Brazil93,200–150,000 South
Africa69,000–80,000 Ukraine50,000–140,000 Hungary47,400–100,000 Mexico40,000–50,000 Netherlands29,800–52,000 Belgium29,200–40,000 Italy27,500–41,000 Switzerland18,600–25,000 Chile18,300–26,000 Uruguay16,700–25,000 Turkey15,000–21,000 Sweden15,000–25,000Languages
Biblical HebrewBiblical Aramaic
ReligionJudaismRelated ethnic groups
Other Levantines and Semitic peoples such
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ISO 259-3 Yehudim, Israeli pronunciation
[jehuˈdim]) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group
and a nation, originating from the
Hebrews of historical
Israel and Judah. Jewish
ethnicity, nationhood, and religion are strongly
Judaism is the ethnic
religion of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict
observance to complete nonobservance.
Jews originated as an ethnic and religious group in the Middle East
during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant
known as the Land of Israel. The
Merneptah Stele appears
to confirm the existence of a people of
Israel somewhere in
far back as the 13th century BCE (Late Bronze
Age). The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the
Canaanite population, consolidated their hold with the
emergence of the kingdoms of
Israel and Judah. Some consider that
these Canaanite sedentary
Israelites melded with incoming nomadic
groups known as 'Hebrews'. Though few sources mention the
exilic periods in detail, the experience of diaspora life,
from the Ancient Egyptian rule over the Levant, to Assyrian captivity
and exile, to
Babylonian captivity and exile, to Seleucid Imperial
rule, to the Roman occupation and exile, and the historical relations
Jews and their homeland thereafter, became a major feature of
Jewish history, identity and memory. Prior to World War
II, the worldwide
Jewish population reached a peak of
16.7 million, representing around 0.7% of the world
population at that time. Approximately 6 million
systematically murdered during the Holocaust.
Since then the population has slowly risen again, and as of
2018[update] was estimated at 14.6–17.8 million by the
Berman Jewish DataBank, less than 0.2% of the total world
The modern State of
Israel is the only country where
Jews form a
majority of the population. It defines itself as a Jewish and
democratic state in the Basic Laws, Human Dignity and Liberty in
particular, which is based on the Declaration of Independence.
Law of Return
Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to
have expressed their desire to settle in Israel.
Despite their small percentage of the world's population,
significantly influenced and contributed to human progress in many
fields, both historically and in modern times, including
philosophy, ethics, literature,
politics, business, fine arts and
architecture, music, theatre and cinema,
medicine, and science and
technology, as well as religion;
Jews authored the
Bible, founded Early Christianity
and had a profound influence on Islam.
Jews have also
played a significant role in the development of Western
1 Name and etymology
2 Who is a Jew?
Babylon and Rome
5.1 Ethnic divisions
5.2 Genetic studies
5.3 Population centers
5.3.2 Diaspora (outside Israel)
5.4 Demographic changes
5.4.2 War and persecution
6 Notable individuals
7 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
Name and etymology
Main article: Jew (word)
For a more comprehensive list, see List of Jewish ethnonyms.
The English word "Jew" continues
Middle English Gyw, Iewe. These terms
Old French giu, earlier juieu, which through elision had
dropped the letter "d" from the
Medieval Latin Iudaeus, which, like
New Testament Greek term Ioudaios, meant both "Jew" and "Judean" /
"of Judea". The Greek term was a loan from Aramaic
Y'hūdāi, corresponding to Hebrew יְהוּדִי Yehudi, originally
the term for a member of the tribe of Judah or the people of the
kingdom of Judah. According to the Hebrew Bible, the name of both the
tribe and kingdom derive from Judah, the fourth son of
Jacob. Genesis 29:35 and 49:8 connect the name "Judah"
with the verb yada, meaning "praise", but scholars generally agree
that the name of both the patriarch and the kingdom instead have a
geographic origin—possibly referring to the gorges and ravines of
The Hebrew word for "Jew" is יְהוּדִי Yehudi, with the
plural יְהוּדִים Yehudim. Endonyms in
Jewish languages include the Ladino ג׳ודיו Djudio
(plural ג׳ודיוס, Djudios) and the Yiddish
ייִד Yid (plural ייִדן Yidn).
The etymological equivalent is in use in other languages, e.g.,
يَهُودِيّ yahūdī (sg.), al-yahūd (pl.), in Arabic, "Jude"
in German, "judeu" in Portuguese, "Juif" (m.)/"Juive" (f.) in French,
"jøde" in Danish and Norwegian, "judío/a" in Spanish, "jood" in
Dutch, "żyd" in Polish etc., but derivations of the word "Hebrew" are
also in use to describe a Jew, e.g., in Italian (Ebreo), in Persian
("Ebri/Ebrani" (Persian: عبری/عبرانی)) and Russian
(Еврей, Yevrey). The German word "Jude" is pronounced
[ˈjuːdə], the corresponding adjective "jüdisch" [ˈjyːdɪʃ]
(Jewish) is the origin of the word "Yiddish".
According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language,
fourth edition (2000),
It is widely recognized that the attributive use of the noun Jew, in
phrases such as Jew lawyer or Jew ethics, is both vulgar and highly
offensive. In such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility.
Some people, however, have become so wary of this construction that
they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a practice
that carries risks of its own. In a sentence such as There are now
Jews on the council, which is unobjectionable, the
substitution of a circumlocution like Jewish people or persons of
Jewish background may in itself cause offense for seeming to imply
that Jew has a negative connotation when used as a noun.
Who is a Jew?
Who is a Jew? and Jewish identity
Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a
an ethnicity, a religion, and a
culture, making the definition of
who is a Jew vary slightly depending on whether a religious or
national approach to identity is used.
Generally, in modern secular usage
Jews include three groups: people
who were born to a Jewish family regardless of whether or not they
follow the religion, those who have some Jewish ancestral background
or lineage (sometimes including those who do not have strictly
matrilineal descent), and people without any Jewish ancestral
background or lineage who have formally converted to
therefore are followers of the religion.
Historical definitions of
Jewish identity have traditionally been
based on halakhic definitions of matrilineal descent, and halakhic
conversions. These definitions of who is a Jew date back to the
codification of the Oral
Torah into the Babylonian Talmud, around 200
CE. Interpretations of sections of the Tanakh, such as Deuteronomy
7:1–5, by Jewish sages, are used as a warning against intermarriage
Canaanites because "[the non-Jewish husband] will
cause your child to turn away from Me and they will worship the gods
(i.e., idols) of others." Leviticus 24:10 says that the
son in a marriage between a Hebrew woman and an Egyptian man is "of
the community of Israel." This is complemented by Ezra 10:2–3, where
Israelites returning from
Babylon vow to put aside their gentile wives
and their children. A popular theory is that
the rape of Jewish women in captivity brought about the law of Jewish
identity being inherited through the maternal line, although scholars
challenge this theory citing the Talmudic establishment of the law
from the pre-exile period. Another argument is that the
rabbis changed the law of patrilineal descent to matrilineal descent
due to the widespread rape of Jewish women by Roman
soldiers. Since the anti-religious
Haskalah movement of
the late 18th and 19th centuries, halakhic interpretations of Jewish
identity have been challenged.
According to historian Shaye J. D. Cohen, the status of the offspring
of mixed marriages was determined patrilineally in the Bible. He
brings two likely explanations for the change in Mishnaic times:
Mishnah may have been applying the same logic to mixed
marriages as it had applied to other mixtures (Kil'ayim). Thus, a
mixed marriage is forbidden as is the union of a horse and a donkey,
and in both unions the offspring are judged matrilineally.
Tannaim may have been influenced by Roman law, which
dictated that when a parent could not contract a legal marriage,
offspring would follow the mother.
Rabbi Rivon Krygier
follows a similar reasoning, arguing that Jewish descent had formerly
passed through the patrineal descent and the law of matrilineal
descent had its roots in the Roman legal system.
Main article: Jewish history
Further information: Canaan, Israelites, Origins of Judaism, and
History of ancient
Israel and Judah
Map of Canaan
Tribes of Israel
Ten Lost Tribes
A factual reconstruction for the origin of the
Jews is a difficult and
complex endeavor. It requires examining at least 3,000 years of
ancient human history using documents in vast quantities and variety
written in at least ten near Eastern languages. As archaeological
discovery relies upon researchers and scholars from diverse
disciplines, the goal is to interpret all of the factual data,
focusing on the most consistent theory. The prehistory and
ethnogenesis of the
Jews are closely intertwined with archaeology,
biology, and historical textual records, as well as religious
literature and mythology. The ethnic stock to which
trace their ancestry was a confederation of Iron Age semitic-speaking
tribes known as the
Israelites that inhabited a part of
the tribal and monarchic periods. Modern
Jews are named
after and also descended from the southern
Israelite Kingdom of
According to the
Hebrew Bible narrative, Jewish ancestry is traced
back to the Biblical patriarchs such as Abraham, his son Isaac,
Isaac's son Jacob, and the Biblical matriarchs Sarah, Rebecca, Leah,
and Rachel, who lived in Canaan. The
Twelve Tribes are described as
descending from the twelve sons of Jacob.
Jacob and his family
Ancient Egypt after being invited to live with Jacob's son
Joseph by the Pharaoh himself. The patriarchs' descendants were later
enslaved until the Exodus led by Moses, after which the Israelites
Canaan under Moses' successor Joshua, went through the
period of the
Biblical judges after the death of Joshua, then through
the mediation of
Samuel became subject to a king, Saul, who was
David and then Solomon, after whom the United Monarchy
ended and was split into a separate Kingdom of
Israel and a Kingdom of
Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah is described as comprising the Tribe of
Judah, the Tribe of Benjamin, partially the Tribe of Levi, and later
adding remnants of other tribes who migrated there from the Kingdom of
Jews claim lineage from those
tribes since the ten northern tribes were lost following Assyrian
Modern archaeology has largely discarded the historicity of this
narrative, with it being reframed as constituting the
Israelites' inspiring national myth narrative. The
their culture, according to the modern archaeological account, did not
overtake the region by force, but instead branched out of the
Canaanite peoples and culture through the development of a distinct
monolatristic—and later monotheistic—religion centered on Yahweh.
The growth of Yahweh-centric belief, along with a number of cultic
practices, gradually gave rise to a distinct
Israelite ethnic group,
setting them apart from other
Israelites become visible in the historical record as a people
between 1200 and 1000 BCE. It is not certain if a period
like that of the Biblical judges
nor if there was ever a United
Monarchy. There is
well accepted archeological evidence referring to "Israel" in the
Merneptah Stele, which dates to about 1200
BCE, and the
Canaanites are archeologically
attested in the Middle Bronze Age. There is
debate about the earliest existence of the Kingdoms of
Judah and their extent and power, but historians agree that a Kingdom
Israel existed by ca. 900
BCE:169–195 and that a Kingdom
of Judah existed by ca. 700 BCE. It is widely accepted
that the Kingdom of
Israel was destroyed around 720 BCE, when it was
conquered by the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
The term Jew originated from the Roman "Judean" and denoted someone
from the southern kingdom of Judah. The shift of ethnonym
from "Israelites" to "Jews" (inhabitant of Judah), although not
contained in the Torah, is made explicit in the
Book of Esther
Book of Esther (4th
century BCE), a book in the Ketuvim, the third section of
the Jewish Tanakh. In 587 BCE Nebuchadnezzar II, King of the
Neo-Babylonian Empire, besieged Jerusalem, destroyed the First Temple,
and deported the most prominent citizens of Judah.
According to the
Book of Ezra, the Persian
Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great ended the
Babylonian exile in 538 BCE, the year after he captured
Babylon. The exile ended with the return under Zerubbabel
the Prince (so-called because he was a descendant of the royal line of
Joshua the Priest (a descendant of the line of the former
High Priests of the Temple) and their construction of the Second
Temple in the period 521–516 BCE. The Cyrus Cylinder, an
ancient tablet on which is written a declaration in the name of Cyrus
referring to restoration of temples and repatriation of exiled
peoples, has often been taken as corroboration of the authenticity of
the biblical decrees attributed to Cyrus, but other
scholars point out that the cylinder's text is specific to
Mesopotamia and makes no mention of Judah or Jerusalem.
Professor Lester L. Grabbe asserted that the "alleged decree of Cyrus"
regarding Judah, "cannot be considered authentic", but that there was
a "general policy of allowing deportees to return and to re-establish
cult sites". He also stated that archaeology suggests that the return
was a "trickle" taking place over decades, rather than a single
As part of the Persian Empire, the former
Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah became the
province of Judah (Yehud Medinata) with different
borders, covering a smaller territory. The population of
the province was greatly reduced from that of the kingdom,
archaeological surveys showing a population of around 30,000 people in
the 5th to 4th centuries BCE.:308 The region was under
control of the Achaemenids until the fall of their empire in c. 333
BCE to Alexander the Great.
Jews were also politically independent
Hasmonean dynasty spanning from 110 to 63 BCE and to some
degree under the
Herodian dynasty from 37 BCE to 6 CE.
Since the destruction of the
Second Temple in 70 CE, most
lived in diaspora.
Genetic studies on Jews show that most
Jews worldwide bear a common
genetic heritage which originates in the Middle East, and that they
share certain genetic traits with other
Gentile peoples of the Fertile
Crescent. The genetic
composition of different Jewish groups shows that
Jews share a common
gene pool dating back four millennia, as a marker of their common
ancestral origin. Despite their long-term separation,
Jewish communities maintained their unique commonalities,
propensities, and sensibilities in culture, tradition, and
Babylon and Rome
Further information: History of the
Jews in the Roman Empire
After the destruction of the Second Temple,
Judaism lost much of its
sectarian nature.:69 Nevertheless, a significant
Hellenized Diaspora remained, centered in Alexandria, at the time the
largest urban Jewish community in the world. Hellenism was a force not
just in the Diaspora but also in the Land of
Israel over a long period
of time. Generally, scholars view Rabbinic
Judaism as having been
meaningfully influenced by Hellenism.
Without a Temple, Greek-speaking
Jews no longer looked to
the way they had before.
Judaism separated into a linguistically Greek
and a Hebrew / Aramaic sphere.: 8–11 The theology and
religious texts of each community were distinctively
different.: 11–13 Hellenized
Judaism never developed
yeshivas to study the Oral Law. Rabbinic
Judaism (centered in the Land
Israel and Babylon) almost entirely ignores the Hellenized Diaspora
in its writings.: 13–14 Hellenized
disappeared as its practitioners assimilated into Greco-Roman culture,
leaving a strong Rabbinic eastern Diaspora with large centers of
learning in Babylon.: 14–16
By the first century, the Jewish community in Babylonia, to which Jews
were exiled after the Babylonian conquest as well as after the Bar
Kokhba revolt in 135 CE, already held a speedily growing
population of an estimated one million Jews, which increased to an
estimated two million between the years 200 CE and 500
CE, both by natural growth and by immigration of more
Jews from the
Land of Israel, making up about one-sixth of the world Jewish
population at that era. The 13th-century author Bar
Hebraeus gave a figure of 6,944,000
Jews in the Roman world; Salo
Wittmayer Baron considered the figure convincing. The
figure of seven million within and one million outside the Roman world
in the mid-first century became widely accepted, including by Louis
Feldman. However, contemporary scholars now accept that Bar Hebraeus
based his figure on a census of total Roman citizens, the figure of
6,944,000 being recorded in Eusebius'
Chronicon. Louis Feldman, previously an
active supporter of the figure, now states that he and Baron were
mistaken.: 185 Feldman's views on active Jewish
missionizing have also changed. While viewing classical
being receptive to converts, especially from the second century BCE
through the first century CE, he points to a lack of either
missionizing tracts or records of the names of rabbis who sought
converts as evidence for the lack of active Jewish
missionizing.: 205–06 Feldman maintains that conversion
Judaism was common and the
Jewish population was large both within
the Land of
Israel and in the Diaspora.: 183–203, 206
Other historians believe that conversion during the
Roman era was
limited in number and did not account for much of the Jewish
population growth, due to various factors such as the illegality of
male conversion to
Judaism in the Roman world from the mid-second
century. Another factor that made conversion difficult in the Roman
world was the halakhic requirement of circumcision, a requirement that
Christianity quickly dropped. The Fiscus Judaicus, a tax
Jews in 70 CE and relaxed to exclude
Christians in 96 CE,
also limited Judaism's appeal.
Main article: Jewish culture
Main article: Judaism
Part of a series on
Principles of faith
Holy cities / places
Culture and education
Bar and Bat Mitzvah
Judaism and Christianity
The Jewish people and the religion of
Judaism are strongly
interrelated. Converts to
Judaism typically have a status within the
Jewish ethnos equal to those born into it. However,
several converts to Judaism, as well as ex-Jews, have claimed that
converts are treated as second-class
Jews by many born
Conversion is not encouraged by mainstream Judaism, and it is
considered a difficult task. A significant portion of conversions are
undertaken by children of mixed marriages, or would-be or current
spouses of Jews.
The Hebrew Bible, a religious interpretation of the traditions and
early history of the Jews, established the first of the Abrahamic
religions, which are now practiced by 54% of the world.
its adherents in both practice and belief, and has been called not
only a religion, but also a "way of life," which has made
drawing a clear distinction between Judaism, Jewish culture, and
Jewish identity rather difficult. Throughout history, in eras and
places as diverse as the ancient Hellenic world, in
Europe before and after
The Age of Enlightenment
The Age of Enlightenment (see
Haskalah), in Islamic
Spain and Portugal, in
North Africa and the Middle East, India,
China, or the contemporary United States and
Israel, cultural phenomena have developed that are in
some sense characteristically Jewish without being at all specifically
religious. Some factors in this come from within Judaism, others from
the interaction of
Jews or specific communities of
Jews with their
surroundings, and still others from the inner social and cultural
dynamics of the community, as opposed to from the religion itself.
This phenomenon has led to considerably different Jewish cultures
unique to their own communities.
Main article: Jewish languages
A page from Elia Levita's (right to left)
Yiddish-Hebrew-Latin-German dictionary (1542) contains a list of
nations, including an entry for Jew: Hebrew: יְהוּדִי,
Yiddish: יוּד, German: Jud, Latin: Iudaeus
Hebrew is the liturgical language of
Judaism (termed lashon ha-kodesh,
"the holy tongue"), the language in which most of the Hebrew
scriptures (Tanakh) were composed, and the daily speech of the Jewish
people for centuries. By the 5th century BCE, Aramaic, a closely
related tongue, joined Hebrew as the spoken language in
Judea. By the 3rd century BCE, some
Jews of the diaspora
were speaking Greek. Others, such as in the Jewish
communities of Babylonia, were speaking Hebrew and Aramaic, the
languages of the Babylonian Talmud. These languages were also used by
Israel at that time.
Jews worldwide have spoken the local or dominant
languages of the regions they migrated to, often developing
distinctive dialectal forms or branches that became independent
Yiddish is the Judæo-
German language developed by
Ashkenazi Jews who migrated to Central Europe. Ladino is the
Spanish language developed by Sephardic
Jews who migrated to
the Iberian peninsula. Due to many factors, including the impact of
the Holocaust on European Jewry, the Jewish exodus from Arab and
Muslim countries, and widespread emigration from other Jewish
communities around the world, ancient and distinct
Jewish languages of
several communities, including Judæo-Georgian, Judæo-Arabic,
Judæo-Malayalam and many others, have
largely fallen out of use.
For over sixteen centuries Hebrew was used almost exclusively as a
liturgical language, and as the language in which most books had been
written on Judaism, with a few speaking only Hebrew on the
Sabbath. Hebrew was revived as a spoken language by
Eliezer ben Yehuda, who arrived in Palestine in 1881. It had not been
used as a mother tongue since Tannaic times. Modern
Hebrew is now one of the two official languages of the State of Israel
along with Modern Standard Arabic.
Despite efforts to revive Hebrew as the national language of the
Jewish people, knowledge of the language is not commonly possessed by
Jews worldwide and English has emerged as the lingua franca of the
Jews once had sufficient knowledge of Hebrew to study
the classic literature, and
Jewish languages like
Yiddish and Ladino
were commonly used as recently as the early 20th century, most Jews
lack such knowledge today and English has by and large superseded most
The three most commonly spoken languages among
Jews today are Hebrew,
English, and Russian. Some Romance languages, particularly French and
Spanish, are also widely used.
Yiddish has been spoken by
Jews in history than any other language, but it is
far less used today following the Holocaust and the adoption of Modern
Hebrew by the Zionist movement and the State of Israel.
In some places, the mother language of the Jewish community differs
from that of the general population or the dominant group. For
example, in Quebec, the Ashkenazic majority has adopted English, while
the Sephardic minority uses French as its primary
language. Similarly, South
Jews adopted English rather than Afrikaans. Due
to both Czarist and Soviet policies, Russian
Yiddish as the language of Russian Jews, but these
policies have also affected neighboring communities.
Today, Russian is the first language for many Jewish communities in a
number of Post-Soviet states, such as
Uzbekistan, as well as for Ashkenazic
Azerbaijan, Georgia, and
Tajikistan. Although communities in North
Africa today are small and dwindling,
Jews there had shifted from a
multilingual group to a monolingual one (or nearly so), speaking
French in Algeria, Morocco, and the city of
Tunis, while most North Africans continue to
Arabic or Berber as their mother tongue.
Main article: Jewish leadership
There is no single governing body for the Jewish community, nor a
single authority with responsibility for religious
doctrine. Instead, a variety of secular and religious
institutions at the local, national, and international levels lead
various parts of the Jewish community on a variety of
Jewish population by country
Main article: Jewish ethnic divisions
Ashkenazi Jews of late-19th-century
Eastern Europe portrayed in Jews
Praying in the
Yom Kippur (1878), by Maurycy Gottlieb
Sephardi Jewish couple from
Sarajevo in traditional clothing. Photo
taken in 1900.
Yemenite Jew blows shofar, 1947
Within the world's
Jewish population there are distinct ethnic
divisions, most of which are primarily the result of geographic
branching from an originating
Israelite population, and subsequent
independent evolutions. An array of Jewish communities was established
by Jewish settlers in various places around the Old World, often at
great distances from one another, resulting in effective and often
long-term isolation. During the millennia of the
Jewish diaspora the
communities would develop under the influence of their local
environments: political, cultural, natural, and populational. Today,
manifestations of these differences among the
Jews can be observed in
Jewish cultural expressions of each community, including Jewish
linguistic diversity, culinary preferences, liturgical practices,
religious interpretations, as well as degrees and sources of genetic
Jews are often identified as belonging to one of two major groups: the
Ashkenazim and the Sephardim. Ashkenazim, or "Germanics" (Ashkenaz
meaning "Germany" in Hebrew), are so named denoting their German
Jewish cultural and geographical origins, while Sephardim, or
Sefarad meaning "Spain/Hispania" or "Iberia" in Hebrew),
are so named denoting their Spanish/Portuguese Jewish cultural and
geographic origins. The more common term in
Israel for many of those
broadly called Sephardim, is Mizrahim (lit. "Easterners", Mizrach
being "East" in Hebrew), that is, in reference to the diverse
collection of Middle Eastern and North African
Jews who are often, as
a group, referred to collectively as Sephardim (together with
Sephardim proper) for liturgical reasons, although Mizrahi Jewish
Sephardi Jews proper are ethnically distinct.
Smaller groups include, but are not restricted to,
Indian Jews such as
the Bene Israel, Bnei Menashe, Cochin Jews, and Bene Ephraim; the
Romaniotes of Greece; the
Italian Jews ("Italkim" or "Bené Roma");
Teimanim from Yemen; various African Jews, including most
numerously the Beta
Israel of Ethiopia; and Chinese Jews, most notably
the Kaifeng Jews, as well as various other distinct but now almost
The divisions between all these groups are approximate and their
boundaries are not always clear. The Mizrahim for example, are a
heterogeneous collection of North African, Central Asian, Caucasian,
and Middle Eastern Jewish communities that are no closer related to
each other than they are to any of the earlier mentioned Jewish
groups. In modern usage, however, the Mizrahim are sometimes termed
Sephardi due to similar styles of liturgy, despite independent
development from Sephardim proper. Thus, among Mizrahim there are
Egyptian Jews, Iraqi Jews, Lebanese Jews, Kurdish Jews, Moroccan Jews,
Libyan Jews, Syrian Jews, Bukharian Jews, Mountain Jews, Georgian
Jews, Iranian Jews, Afghan Jews, and various others. The
Yemen are sometimes included, although their style of liturgy is
unique and they differ in respect to the admixture found among them to
that found in Mizrahim. In addition, there is a differentiation made
Sephardi migrants who established themselves in the Middle
North Africa after the expulsion of the
Portugal in the 1490s and the pre-existing Jewish communities in those
Ashkenazi Jews represent the bulk of modern Jewry, with at least 70%
Jews worldwide (and up to 90% prior to
World War II
World War II and the
Holocaust). As a result of their emigration from Europe, Ashkenazim
also represent the overwhelming majority of
Jews in the New World
continents, in countries such as the United States, Canada, Argentina,
Australia, and Brazil. In France, the immigration of
Jews from Algeria
(Sephardim) has led them to outnumber the Ashkenazim.
Israel is the
Jewish population representative of all groups,
a melting pot independent of each group's proportion within the
overall world Jewish population.
Main article: Genetic studies on Jews
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Y DNA studies tend to imply a small number of founders in an old
population whose members parted and followed different migration
paths. In most Jewish populations, these male line
ancestors appear to have been mainly Middle Eastern. For example,
Ashkenazi Jews share more common paternal lineages with other Jewish
and Middle Eastern groups than with non-Jewish populations in areas
Jews lived in Eastern Europe,
Germany and the French Rhine
Valley. This is consistent with Jewish traditions in placing most
Jewish paternal origins in the region of the Middle
Conversely, the maternal lineages of Jewish populations, studied by
looking at mitochondrial DNA, are generally more
heterogeneous. Scholars such as
Harry Ostrer and Raphael
Falk believe this indicates that many Jewish males found new mates
from European and other communities in the places where they migrated
in the diaspora after fleeing ancient Israel. In
contrast, Behar has found evidence that about 40% of
originate maternally from just four female founders, who were of
Middle Eastern origin. The populations of
Sephardi and Mizrahi Jewish
communities "showed no evidence for a narrow founder
effect." Subsequent studies carried out by Feder et al.
confirmed the large portion of non-local maternal origin among
Ashkenazi Jews. Reflecting on their findings related to the maternal
Ashkenazi Jews, the authors conclude "Clearly, the
Jews and non-
Jews are far larger than those
observed among the Jewish communities. Hence, differences between the
Jewish communities can be overlooked when non-
Jews are included in the
comparisons." A study showed
that 7% of
Ashkenazi Jews have the haplogroup G2c, which is mainly
Pashtuns and on lower scales all major Jewish groups,
Palestinians, Syrians, and Lebanese.
Studies of autosomal DNA, which look at the entire DNA mixture, have
become increasingly important as the technology develops. They show
that Jewish populations have tended to form relatively closely related
groups in independent communities, with most in a community sharing
significant ancestry in common. For Jewish populations of
the diaspora, the genetic composition of Ashkenazi, Sephardi, and
Mizrahi Jewish populations show a predominant amount of shared Middle
Eastern ancestry. According to Behar, the most parsimonious
explanation for this shared Middle Eastern ancestry is that it is
"consistent with the historical formulation of the Jewish people as
descending from ancient Hebrew and
Israelite residents of the Levant"
and "the dispersion of the people of ancient
Israel throughout the Old
World". North African, Italian and others of Iberian
origin show variable frequencies of admixture with non-Jewish
historical host populations among the maternal lines. In the case of
Sephardi Jews (in particular Moroccan Jews), who are
closely related, the source of non-Jewish admixture is mainly southern
Mizrahi Jews show evidence of admixture with other
Middle Eastern populations. Behar et al. have remarked on a close
Ashkenazi Jews and modern
Italians. A 2001 study found
Jews were found to be more closely related to groups of the
Fertile Crescent (Kurds, Turks, and Armenians) than to their Arab
neighbors, the geographic distribution of whose genetic signature was
found to correlate with the pattern of the Islamic
The studies also show that persons of
Sephardic Bnei Anusim origin
(those who are descendants of the "anusim" who were forced to convert
to Catholicism) throughout today's
Spain and Portugal) and
Hispanic America and Brazil), estimated at up to 19.8%
of the modern population of
Iberia and at least 10% of the modern
population of Ibero-America, have Sephardic Jewish ancestry within the
last few centuries. The Bene
Cochin Jews of India, Beta
Israel of Ethiopia, and a portion of the
Lemba people of Southern
Africa, meanwhile, despite more closely resembling the local
populations of their native countries, also have some more remote
For a more comprehensive list, see List of urban areas by Jewish
Jews have been found all over the world, in the
World War II
World War II and the establishment of Israel, they have
increasingly concentrated in a small number of
countries. In 2013, the
United States and
Israel were collectively home to more than 80% of the global Jewish
population, each country having approximately 41% of the world's
According to the
Israel Central Bureau of Statistics there were
Jews worldwide in 2009, roughly 0.19% of the world's
population at the time.
According to the 2007 estimates of The Jewish People Policy Planning
Institute, the world's
Jewish population is
Adherents.com cites figures ranging
from 12 to 18 million. These statistics incorporate
Jews affiliated with synagogues and the Jewish
community, and approximately 4.5 million unaffiliated and secular
According to Sergio Della Pergola, a demographer of the Jewish
population, in 2015 there were about 6.3 million
Jews in Israel, 5.7
million in the United States, and 2.3 million in the rest of the
Main article: Israeli Jews
Israel, the Jewish nation-state, is the only country in which Jews
make up a majority of the citizens.
established as an independent democratic and Jewish state on 14 May
1948. Of the 120 members in its parliament, the
Knesset, as of 2016[update], 14 members of the
Knesset are Arab citizens of
Israel (not including the Druze), most
representing Arab political parties. One of Israel's Supreme Court
judges is also an Arab citizen of Israel.
Between 1948 and 1958, the
Jewish population rose from 800,000 to two
Jews account for 75.4% of the Israeli
population, or 6 million people. The
early years of the State of
Israel were marked by the mass immigration
Holocaust survivors in the aftermath of the Holocaust and Jews
fleeing Arab lands.
Israel also has a large population of
Ethiopian Jews, many of whom were airlifted to
Israel in the late
1980s and early 1990s. Between 1974 and 1979 nearly
227,258 immigrants arrived in Israel, about half being from the Soviet
Union. This period also saw an increase in immigration to
Israel from Western Europe, Latin America, and North
A trickle of immigrants from other communities has also arrived,
Indian Jews and others, as well as some descendants of
Holocaust survivors who had settled in countries such as the
United States, Argentina, Australia, Chile, and South Africa. Some
Jews have emigrated from
Israel elsewhere, because of economic
problems or disillusionment with political conditions and the
continuing Arab–Israeli conflict. Jewish Israeli emigrants are known
Diaspora (outside Israel)
Main article: Jewish diaspora
Rosh Hashana greeting card from the early 1900s, Russian
Jews, packs in hand, gaze at the American relatives beckoning them to
the United States. Over two million
Jews fled the pogroms of the
Russian Empire to the safety of the U.S. between 1881 and
Public Hanukkah menorah in Nicosia, Cyprus
The waves of immigration to the
United States and elsewhere at the
turn of the 19th century, the founding of
Zionism and later events,
including pogroms in Russia, the massacre of European Jewry during the
Holocaust, and the founding of the state of Israel, with the
subsequent Jewish exodus from Arab lands, all resulted in substantial
shifts in the population centers of world Jewry by the end of the 20th
More than half of the
Jews live in the Diaspora (see Population
table). Currently, the largest Jewish community outside Israel, and
either the largest or second-largest Jewish community in the world, is
located in the United States, with 5.2 million to
Jews by various estimates. Elsewhere in the Americas,
there are also large Jewish populations in
Canada (315,000), Argentina
Brazil (196,000–600,000), and smaller
populations in Mexico, Uruguay, Venezuela, Chile,
Colombia and several
other countries (see History of the
Jews in Latin
America). According to a 2010
Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center study,
about 470,000 people of Jewish heritage live in Latin-America and the
Caribbean. Demographers disagree on whether the United
States has a larger
Jewish population than Israel, with many
Israel surpassed the
United States in Jewish
population during the 2000s, while others maintain that the United
States still has the largest
Jewish population in the world.
Currently, a major national
Jewish population survey is planned to
ascertain whether or not
Israel has overtaken the
United States in
Western Europe's largest Jewish community, and the third-largest
Jewish community in the world, can be found in France, home to between
483,000 and 500,000 Jews, the majority of whom are immigrants or
refugees from North African countries such as Algeria, Morocco, and
Tunisia (or their descendants). The
United Kingdom has a
Jewish community of 292,000. In Eastern Europe, the exact figures are
difficult to establish. The number of
Russia varies widely
according to whether a source uses census data (which requires a
person to choose a single nationality among choices that include
"Russian" and "Jewish") or eligibility for immigration to Israel
(which requires that a person have one or more Jewish grandparents).
According to the latter criteria, the heads of the Russian Jewish
community assert that up to 1.5 million Russians are eligible for
aliyah. In Germany, the 102,000 Jews
registered with the Jewish community are a slowly declining
population, despite the immigration of tens of thousands
Jews from the former
Soviet Union since the fall of the Berlin
Wall. Thousands of
Israelis also live in Germany, either
permanently or temporarily, for economic reasons.
Prior to 1948, approximately 800,000
Jews were living in lands which
now make up the
Arab world (excluding Israel). Of these, just under
two-thirds lived in the French-controlled
Maghreb region, 15–20% in
the Kingdom of Iraq, approximately 10% in the
Kingdom of Egypt
Kingdom of Egypt and
approximately 7% in the Kingdom of Yemen. A further 200,000 lived in
Pahlavi Iran and the Republic of Turkey. Today, around 26,000 Jews
live in Arab countries and around 30,000 in
Turkey. A small-scale exodus had begun in many countries in the early
decades of the 20th century, although the only substantial aliyah came
Yemen and Syria. The exodus from Arab and Muslim
countries took place primarily from 1948. The first large-scale
exoduses took place in the late 1940s and early 1950s, primarily in
Yemen and Libya, with up to 90% of these communities leaving
within a few years. The peak of the exodus from
Egypt occurred in
1956. The exodus in the
Maghreb countries peaked in the 1960s. Lebanon
was the only Arab country to see a temporary increase in its Jewish
population during this period, due to an influx of refugees from other
Arab countries, although by the mid-1970s the Jewish community of
Lebanon had also dwindled. In the aftermath of the exodus wave from
Arab states, an additional migration of
Iranian Jews peaked in the
1980s when around 80% of
Iranian Jews left the country.[citation
Outside Europe, the Americas, the Middle East, and the rest of Asia,
there are significant Jewish populations in
Australia (112,500) and
South Africa (70,000). There is also a 6,800-strong
community in New Zealand.
Main article: Historical
Jewish population comparisons
Jewish assimilation and
Interfaith marriage in Judaism
Since at least the time of the Ancient Greeks, a proportion of Jews
have assimilated into the wider non-Jewish society around them, by
either choice or force, ceasing to practice
Judaism and losing their
Jewish identity. Assimilation took place in all areas,
and during all time periods, with some Jewish
communities, for example the
Kaifeng Jews of China, disappearing
entirely. The advent of the Jewish Enlightenment of the
18th century (see Haskalah) and the subsequent emancipation of the
Jewish populations of
Europe and America in the 19th century,
accelerated the situation, encouraging
Jews to increasingly
participate in, and become part of, secular society. The result has
been a growing trend of assimilation, as
Jews marry non-Jewish spouses
and stop participating in the Jewish community.
Rates of interreligious marriage vary widely: In the United States, it
is just under 50%, in the United Kingdom, around 53%; in
France; around 30%, and in
Australia and Mexico, as low
as 10%. In the United States, only about a
third of children from intermarriages affiliate with Jewish religious
practice. The result is that most countries in the
Diaspora have steady or slightly declining religiously Jewish
Jews continue to assimilate into the countries in which
they live.
War and persecution
Persecution of Jews, Antisemitism, and Jewish
The Roman Emperor
Vespasian with an army to destroy the
Jews, 69 CE.
World War I
World War I poster showing a soldier cutting the bonds from a Jewish
man, who says, "You have cut my bonds and set me free – now let me
help you set others free!"
The Jewish people and
Judaism have experienced various persecutions
throughout Jewish history. During
Late Antiquity and the Early Middle
Roman Empire (in its later phases known as the Byzantine
Empire) repeatedly repressed the Jewish population, first by ejecting
them from their homelands during the pagan
Roman era and later by
officially establishing them as second-class citizens during the
Christian Roman era.
According to James Carroll, "
Jews accounted for 10% of the total
population of the Roman Empire. By that ratio, if other factors had
not intervened, there would be 200 million
Jews in the world
today, instead of something like 13 million."
Later in medieval Western Europe, further persecutions of
Christians occurred, notably during the Crusades—when
Jews all over
Germany were massacred—and a series of expulsions from the Kingdom
of England, Germany, France, and, in the largest expulsion of all,
Portugal after the
Reconquista (the Catholic Reconquest of
the Iberian Peninsula), where both unbaptized Sephardic
Jews and the
Moors were expelled.
In the Papal States, which existed until 1870,
Jews were required to
live only in specified neighborhoods called ghettos.
Judaism have a complex relationship. Traditionally
Christians living in
Muslim lands, known as dhimmis, were allowed to
practice their religions and administer their internal affairs, but
they were subject to certain conditions. They had to pay
the jizya (a per capita tax imposed on free adult non-
Muslim males) to
the Islamic state.
Dhimmis had an inferior status under
Islamic rule. They had several social and legal disabilities such as
prohibitions against bearing arms or giving testimony in courts in
cases involving Muslims. Many of the disabilities were
highly symbolic. The one described by
Bernard Lewis as "most
degrading" was the requirement of distinctive clothing,
not found in the
Quran or hadith but invented in early medieval
Baghdad; its enforcement was highly erratic. On the other
Jews rarely faced martyrdom or exile, or forced compulsion to
change their religion, and they were mostly free in their choice of
residence and profession.
Notable exceptions include the massacre of
Jews and forcible
conversion of some
Jews by the rulers of the Almohad dynasty in
Al-Andalus in the 12th century, as well as in Islamic
Persia, and the forced confinement of
Moroccan Jews to
walled quarters known as mellahs beginning from the 15th century and
especially in the early 19th century. In modern times, it
has become commonplace for standard antisemitic themes to be conflated
with anti-Zionist publications and pronouncements of Islamic movements
Hezbollah and Hamas, in the pronouncements of various agencies
of the Islamic Republic of Iran, and even in the newspapers and other
publications of Turkish Refah Partisi."
Throughout history, many rulers, empires and nations have oppressed
their Jewish populations or sought to eliminate them entirely. Methods
employed ranged from expulsion to outright genocide; within nations,
often the threat of these extreme methods was sufficient to silence
dissent. The history of antisemitism includes the
First Crusade which
resulted in the massacre of Jews; the Spanish Inquisition
(led by Tomás de Torquemada) and the Portuguese Inquisition, with
their persecution and autos-da-fé against the New
Marrano Jews; the
Cossack massacres in
Pogroms backed by the Russian
Tsars; as well as expulsions from Spain, Portugal,
England, France, Germany, and other countries in which the
settled. According to a 2008 study published in the
American Journal of Human Genetics, 19.8% of the modern Iberian
population has Sephardic Jewish ancestry, indicating that
the number of conversos may have been much higher than originally
Jews in Minsk, 1941. Before
World War II
World War II some 40% of the population
was Jewish. By the time the Red Army retook the city on 3 July 1944,
there were only a few Jewish survivors.
The persecution reached a peak in Nazi Germany's Final Solution, which
led to the Holocaust and the slaughter of approximately 6 million
Jews. Of the world's 15 million
Jews in 1939, more
than a third were murdered in the Holocaust.
The Holocaust—the state-led systematic persecution and genocide of
Jews (and certain communities of North African
European controlled North Africa) and other minority groups of Europe
World War II
World War II by
Germany and its collaborators remains the most
notable modern-day persecution of Jews. The persecution
and genocide were accomplished in stages. Legislation to remove the
Jews from civil society was enacted years before the outbreak of World
War II. Concentration camps were established in which
inmates were used as slave labour until they died of exhaustion or
disease. Where the Third Reich conquered new territory in
Eastern Europe, specialized units called
Einsatzgruppen murdered Jews
and political opponents in mass shootings.
Jews and Roma
were crammed into ghettos before being transported hundreds of miles
by freight train to extermination camps where, if they survived the
journey, the majority of them were murdered in gas
chambers. Virtually every arm of Germany's bureaucracy
was involved in the logistics of the mass murder, turning the country
into what one Holocaust scholar has called "a genocidal
Expulsions of Jews
Expulsions of Jews Etching of the expulsion of
Jews from Frankfurt in 1614. The text says: "1380 persons old and
young were counted at the exit of the gate".
Jews fleeing pogroms, 1882
Throughout Jewish history,
Jews have repeatedly been directly or
indirectly expelled from both their original homeland, the Land of
Israel, and many of the areas in which they have settled. This
experience as refugees has shaped
Jewish identity and religious
practice in many ways, and is thus a major element of Jewish
history. The patriarch
Abraham is described as a migrant
to the land of
Canaan from Ur of the Chaldees after an
attempt on his life by King Nimrod. His descendants, the
Children of Israel, in the Biblical story (whose historicity is
uncertain) undertook the Exodus (meaning "departure" or "exit" in
Greek) from ancient Egypt, as recorded in the
Centuries later, Assyrian policy was to deport and displace conquered
peoples, and it is estimated some 4,500,000 among captive populations
suffered this dislocation over 3 centuries of Assyrian
rule. With regard to Israel,
Tiglath-Pileser III claims
he deported 80% of the population of Lower Galilee, some 13,520
people. Some 27,000 Israelites, 20–25% of the
population of the Kingdom of Israel, were described as being deported
by Sargon II, and were replaced by other deported populations and sent
into permanent exile by Assyria, initially to the Upper Mesopotamian
provinces of the Assyrian Empire, Between
10,000 and 80,000 people from the
Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah were similarly
exiled by Babylonia, but these people were then returned
Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great of the Persian Achaemenid
Jews were exiled again by the Roman Empire. The
2,000 year dispersion of the
Jewish diaspora beginning under the Roman
Empire, as
Jews were spread throughout the
Roman world and, driven from land to land,
settled wherever they could live freely enough to practice their
religion. Over the course of the diaspora the center of Jewish life
moved from Babylonia to the Iberian
Peninsula to Poland to the United
States and, as a result of Zionism, back to
There were also many expulsions of
Jews during the
Middle Ages and
Enlightenment in Europe, including: 1290, 16,000
Jews were expelled
from England, see the (Statute of Jewry); in 1396, 100,000 from
France; in 1421 thousands were expelled from Austria. Many of
Jews settled in Eastern Europe, especially Poland.
Spanish Inquisition in 1492, the Spanish population of
around 200,000 Sephardic
Jews were expelled by the Spanish crown and
Catholic church, followed by expulsions in 1493 in Sicily (37,000
Portugal in 1496. The expelled
Jews fled mainly to the
Ottoman Empire, the Netherlands, and North Africa, others migrating to
Europe and the Middle East.
During the 19th century, France's policies of equal citizenship
regardless of religion led to the immigration of
Jews (especially from
Eastern and Central Europe). This contributed to the
arrival of millions of
Jews in the New World. Over two million Eastern
Jews arrived in the
United States from 1880 to
In summary, the pogroms in Eastern Europe, the rise of
modern antisemitism, the Holocaust, and the
rise of Arab nationalism all served to fuel the movements
and migrations of huge segments of Jewry from land to land and
continent to continent, until they arrived back in large numbers at
their original historical homeland in Israel.
In the latest phase of migrations, the Islamic Revolution of Iran
Iranian Jews to flee Iran. Most found refuge in the US
Los Angeles, California
Los Angeles, California and Long Island, New York) and
Israel. Smaller communities of Persian
Jews exist in
Western Europe. Similarly, when the Soviet Union
collapsed, many of the
Jews in the affected territory (who had been
refuseniks) were suddenly allowed to leave. This produced a wave of
Israel in the early 1990s.
A man praying at the Western Wall
Israel is the only country with a
Jewish population that is
consistently growing through natural population growth, although the
Jewish populations of other countries, in
Europe and North America,
have recently increased through immigration. In the Diaspora, in
almost every country the
Jewish population in general is either
declining or steady, but Orthodox and
Haredi Jewish communities, whose
members often shun birth control for religious reasons, have
experienced rapid population growth.
Orthodox and Conservative
Judaism discourage proselytism to non-Jews,
but many Jewish groups have tried to reach out to the assimilated
Jewish communities of the Diaspora in order for them to reconnect to
their Jewish roots. Additionally, while in principle Reform Judaism
favors seeking new members for the faith, this position has not
translated into active proselytism, instead taking the form of an
effort to reach out to non-Jewish spouses of intermarried
There is also a trend of Orthodox movements reaching out to secular
Jews in order to give them a stronger
Jewish identity so there is less
chance of intermarriage. As a result of the efforts by these and other
Jewish groups over the past 25 years, there has been a trend (known as
the Baal teshuva movement) for secular
Jews to become more religiously
observant, though the demographic implications of the trend are
unknown. Additionally, there is also a growing rate of
Jews by Choice
Jews by Choice of gentiles who make the decision to head
in the direction of becoming Jews.
For a more comprehensive list, see Lists of Jews.
Jews have made a myriad of contributions to humanity in a broad and
diverse range of fields, including the sciences, arts, politics, and
Jews comprise only 0.2% of the world's
Nobel Prize laureates have been Jewish or of Jewish descent, with
multiple winners in each category.
^ The exact world Jewish population, however, is difficult to measure.
In addition to issues with census methodology, disputes among
proponents of halakhic, secular, political, and ancestral
identification factors regarding who is a Jew may affect the figure
considerably depending on the source.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Dashefsky, Arnold;
Della Pergola, Sergio; Sheskin, Ira, eds. (2018). World Jewish
Population, 2018 (PDF) (Report). Berman Jewish DataBank. Retrieved 22
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^ Wade, Nicholas (9 June 2010). "Studies Show Jews' Genetic
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^ a b "
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^ "In the broader sense of the term, a Jew is any person belonging to
the worldwide group that constitutes, through descent or conversion, a
continuation of the ancient Jewish people, who were themselves
descendants of the
Hebrews of the Old Testament." Jew at Encyclopædia
^ "Hebrew, any member of an ancient northern
Semitic people that were
the ancestors of the Jews." Hebrew (People) at Encyclopædia
^ Eli Lederhendler (20 December 2001). Studies in Contemporary Jewry:
Volume XVII: Who Owns Judaism? Public
Religion and Private Faith in
America and Israel. Oxford University Press. pp. 101–.
ISBN 978-0-19-534896-5. "Historically, the religious and ethnic
Jewish identity have been closely interwoven. In fact,
so closely bound are they, that the traditional Jewish lexicon hardly
distinguishes between the two concepts. Jewish religious practice, by
definition, was observed exclusively by the Jewish people, and notions
of Jewish peoplehood, nation, and community were suffused with faith
in the Jewish God, the practice of Jewish (religious) law and the
study of ancient religious texts"
^ Tet-Lim N. Yee (10 March 2005). Jews,
Gentiles and Ethnic
Jewish identity and Ephesians. Cambridge
University Press. pp. 102–. ISBN 978-1-139-44411-8. "This
identification in the Jewish attitude between the ethnic group and
religious identity is so close that the reception into this religion
of members not belonging to its ethnic group has become impossible."
^ Ernest Krausz; Gitta Tulea. Jewish Survival: The Identity Problem at
the Close of the Twentieth Century; [... International Workshop at
Bar-Ilan University on the 18th and 19th of March, 1997].
Transaction Publishers. pp. 90–. ISBN 978-1-4128-2689-1.
"A person born Jewish who refutes
Judaism may continue to assert a
Jewish identity, and if he or she does not convert to another
religion, even religious
Jews will recognize the person as a Jew"
^ "Facts About Israel: History". GxMSDev.
^ a b K. L. Noll,
Israel in Antiquity: A Textbook on
History and Religion, A&C Black, 2012, rev.ed. pp.137ff.
^ a b Thomas L. Thompson, Early History of the
Israelite People: From
the Written & Archaeological Sources, BRILL, 2000 pp. 275–76:
'They are rather a very specific group among the population of
Palestine which bears a name that occurs here for the first time that
at a much later stage in Palestine's history bears a substantially
^ a b John Day, [In Search of Pre-Exilic Israel,] Bloomsbury
Publishing, 2005 pp. 47.5 p.48:'In this sense, the emergence of
Israel is viewed not as the cause of the demise of Canaanite
culture but as its upshot'.
^ Day, pp. 31–33, p.57.n.33.
^ Rainer Albertz,
Israel in Exile: The History and Literature of the
Sixth Century B.C.E. Society of Biblical Lit, 2003 pp. 45ff: 'Since
the exilic era constitutes a gaping hole in the historical narrative
of the Bible, historical reconstruction of this era faces almost
insurmountable difficulties. Like the premonarchic period and the late
Persian period, the exilic period, though set in the bright light of
Ancient Near Eastern history, remains historically obscure. Since
there are very few
Israelite sources, the only recourse is to try to
cast some light on this darkness from the history of the surrounding
empires under whose dominion
Israel came in this period.'
Marvin Perry (1 January 2012). Western Civilization: A Brief History,
Volume I: To 1789. Cengage Learning. p. 87.
Botticini, Maristella and Zvi Eckstein. "From Farmers to Merchants,
Voluntary Conversions and Diaspora: A Human Capital Interpretation of
History." pp. 18–19. August 2006. Accessed 21 November 2015. "The
death toll of the Great Revolt against the Roman empire amounted to
about 600,000 Jews, whereas the
Bar Kokhba revolt
Bar Kokhba revolt in 135 caused the
death of about 500,000 Jews. Massacres account for roughly 40 percent
of the decrease of the
Jewish population in Palestine. Moreover, some
Jews migrated to
Babylon after these revolts because of the worse
economic conditions. After accounting for massacres and migrations,
there is an additional 30 to 40 percent of the decrease in the Jewish
population in Palestine (about 1–1.3 million Jews) to be explained"
Boyarin, Daniel, and Jonathan Boyarin. 2003. Diaspora: Generation and
the Ground of Jewish Diaspora. p. 714 "...it is crucial to recognize
that the Jewish conception of the Land of
Israel is similar to the
discourse of the Land of many (if not nearly all) "indigenous" peoples
of the world. Somehow the
Jews have managed to retain a sense of being
rooted somewhere in the world through twenty centuries of exile from
that someplace (organic metaphors are not out of place in this
discourse, for they are used within the tradition itself). It is
profoundly disturbing to hear Jewish attachment to the Land decried as
regressive in the same discursive situations in which the attachment
of native Americans or Australians to their particular rocks, trees,
and deserts is celebrated as an organic connection to the Earth that
"we" have lost" p. 714.
Cohen, Robin. 1997. Global Diasporas: An Introduction. p. 24 London:
UCL Press. "...although the word
Babylon often connotes captivity and
oppression, a rereading of the Babylonian period of exile can thus be
shown to demonstrate the development of a new creative energy in a
challenging, pluralistic context outside the natal homeland. When the
Romans destroyed the
Second Temple in AD 70, it was
remained as the nerve- and brain-centre for Jewish life and
thought...the crushing of the revolt of the Judaeans against the
Romans and the destruction of the
Second Temple by the Roman general
Titus in AD 70 precisely confirmed the catastrophic tradition. Once
Jews had been unable to sustain a national homeland and were
scattered to the far corners of the world" (p. 24).
Johnson, Paul A History of the
Jews "The Bar Kochba Revolt,"
(HarperPerennial, 1987) pp. 158–61.: Paul Johnson analyzes Cassius
Dio's Roman History: Epitome of
Book LXIX para. 13–14 (Dio's passage
cited separately) among other sources: "Even if Dio's figures are
somewhat exaggerated, the casualties amongst the population and the
destruction inflicted on the country would have been considerable.
According to Jerome, many
Jews were also sold into slavery, so many,
indeed, that the price of Jewish slaves at the slave market in Hebron
sank drastically to a level no greater than that for a horse. The
economic structure of the country was largely destroyed. The entire
spiritual and economic life of the Palestinian
Jews moved to Galilee.
Jerusalem was now turned into a Roman colony with the official name
Colonia Aelia Capitolina (Aelia after Hadrian's family name: P. Aelius
Hadrianus; Capitolina after Jupiter Capitolinus). The
forbidden on pain of death to set foot in the new Roman city. Aelia
thus became a completely pagan city, no doubt with the corresponding
public buildings and temples...We can...be certain that a statue of
Hadrian was erected in the centre of Aelia, and this was tantamount in
itself to a desecration of Jewish Jerusalem." p. 159.
Cassius Dio's Roman History: Epitome of
Book LXIX para. 13–14: "13
At first the Romans took no account of them. Soon, however, all Judaea
had been stirred up, and the
Jews everywhere were showing signs of
disturbance, were gathering together, and giving evidence of great
hostility to the Romans, partly by secret and partly by overt acts; 2
many outside nations, too, were joining them through eagerness for
gain, and the whole earth, one might almost say, was being stirred up
over the matter. Then, indeed, Hadrian sent against them his best
generals. First of these was Julius Severus, who was dispatched from
Britain, where he was governor, against the Jews. 3 Severus did not
venture to attack his opponents in the open at any one point, in view
of their numbers and their desperation, but by intercepting small
groups, thanks to the number of his soldiers and his under-officers,
and by depriving them of food and shutting them up, he was able,
rather slowly, to be sure, but with comparatively little danger, to
crush, exhaust and exterminate them. Very few of them in fact
survived. Fifty of their most important outposts and nine hundred and
eighty-five of their most famous villages were razed to the ground.
Five hundred and eighty thousand men were slain in the various raids
and battles, and the number of those that perished by famine, disease
and fire was past finding out. 2 Thus nearly the whole of Judaea was
made desolate, a result of which the people had had forewarning before
the war. For the tomb of Solomon, which the
Jews regard as an object
of veneration, fell to pieces of itself and collapsed, and many wolves
and hyenas rushed howling into their cities. 3 Many Romans, moreover,
perished in this war. Therefore Hadrian in writing to the senate did
not employ the opening phrase commonly affected by the emperors, 'If
you and our children are in health, it is well; I and the legions are
in health'" (para. 13–14).
Safran, William. 2005. The Jewish Diaspora in a Comparative and
Israel Studies 10 (1): 36.[dead link]
"...diaspora referred to a very specific case—that of the exile of
Jews from the Holy Land and their dispersal throughout several
parts of the globe. Diaspora [galut] connoted deracination, legal
disabilities, oppression, and an often painful adjustment to a
hostland whose hospitality was unreliable and ephemeral. It also
connoted the existence on foreign soil of an expatriate community that
considered its presence to be transitory. Meanwhile, it developed a
set of institutions, social patterns, and ethnonational and/or
religious symbols that held it together. These included the language,
religion, values, social norms, and narratives of the homeland.
Gradually, this community adjusted to the hostland environment and
became itself a center of cultural creation. All the while, however,
it continued to cultivate the idea of return to the homeland." (p.
Sheffer, Gabriel. 2005. Is the Jewish Diaspora Unique? Reflections on
the Diaspora's Current Situation.
Israel Studies 10 (1): pp. 3–4.
"...the Jewish nation, which from its very earliest days believed and
claimed that it was the "chosen people," and hence unique. This
attitude has further been buttressed by the equally traditional view,
which is held not only by the
Jews themselves, about the exceptional
historical age of this diaspora, its singular traumatic experiences
its singular ability to survive pogroms, exiles, and Holocaust, as
well as its "special relations" with its ancient homeland, culminating
in 1948 with the nation-state that the Jewish nation has established
there... First, like many other members of established diasporas, the
vast majority of
Jews no longer regard themselves as being in Galut
[exile] in their host countries.7 Perceptually, as well as actually,
Jews permanently reside in host countries of their own free will, as a
result of inertia, or as a result of problematic conditions prevailing
in other hostlands, or in Israel. It means that the basic perception
Jews about their existential situation in their hostlands has
changed. Consequently, there is both a much greater self- and
collective-legitimatization to refrain from making serious plans
concerning "return" or actually "making Aliyah" [to emigrate, or "go
up"] to Israel. This is one of the results of their wider, yet still
rather problematic and sometimes painful acceptance by the societies
and political systems in their host countries. It means that they, and
to an extent their hosts, do not regard Jewish life within the
framework of diasporic formations in these hostlands as something that
they should be ashamed of, hide from others, or alter by returning to
the old homeland" (p. 4).
Davies, William David; Finkelstein, Louis; Katz, Steven T. (1 January
1984). The Cambridge History of Judaism: Volume 4, The Late
Roman-Rabbinic Period. Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 9780521772488. Although Dio's figure of 985 as the number of
villages destroyed during the war seems hyperbolic, all Judaean
villages, without exception, excavated thus far were razed following
the Bar Kochba Revolt. This evidence supports the impression of total
regional destruction following the war. Historical sources note the
vast number of captives sold into slavery in Palestine and shipped
abroad. ... The Judaean Jewish community never recovered from the Bar
Kochba war. In its wake,
Jews no longer formed the majority in
Palestine, and the Jewish center moved to the Galilee.
Jews were also
subjected to a series of religious edicts promulgated by Hadrian that
were designed to uproot the nationalistic elements with the Judaean
Jewish community, these proclamations remained in effect until
Hadrian's death in 138. An additional, more lasting punitive measure
taken by the Romans involved expunging Judaea from the provincial
name, changing it from Provincia Judaea to Provincia
Although such name changes occurred elsewhere, never before or after
was a nation's name expunged as the result of rebellion.
Dalit Rom-Shiloni, Exclusive Inclusivity: Identity Conflicts Between
the Exiles and the People who Remained (6th–5th Centuries BCE),
A&C Black, 2013 p. xv n.3: 'it is argued that biblical texts of
the Neo-Babylonian and the early Persian periods show a fierce
adversarial relationship(s) between the
Judean groups. We find no
expressions of sympathy to the deported community for its dislocation,
no empathic expressions towards the People Who Remained under
Babylonian subjugation in Judah. The opposite is apparent: hostile,
denigrating, and denunciating language characterizes the relationships
between resident and exiled Judeans throughout the sixth and fifth
centuries.' (p. xvii)
^ a b "The Jewish Population of the World (2014)". Jewish Virtual
Library. Retrieved 30 June 2015., based on American Jewish Year Book.
American Jewish Committee.
^ "Holocaust Basic questions about the Holocaust".
www.projetaladin.org. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
^ "The Holocaust". HISTORY.com. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
Jews make up only 0.2% of mankind". ynetnews. October 2012.
^ Pfeffer, Anshel (12 September 2007). "Jewish Agency: 13.2 million
Jews worldwide on eve of Rosh Hashanah, 5768". Haaretz. Archived from
the original on 19 March 2009. Retrieved 24 January 2009.
^ A 1970 amendment to Israel's
Law of Return
Law of Return defines "Jew" as "a
person who was born of a Jewish mother or has become converted to
Judaism and who is not a member of another religion." "Law of Return".
^ "Maimonides – Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy". utm.edu.
Retrieved 26 August 2015.
^ Sekine, Seizō. A Comparative Study of the Origins of Ethical
Thought: Hellenism and Hebraism. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield,
^ a b c d e Jonathan Daly (19 December 2013). The Rise of Western
Power: A Comparative History of Western Civilization. A&C Black.
pp. 21–. ISBN 978-1-4411-1851-6."Upon the foundation of
Judaism, two civilizations centered on monotheistic religion emerged,
Christianity and Islam. To these civilizations, the
Jews added a
leaven of astonishing creativity in business, medicine, letters,
science, the arts, and a variety of other leadership roles."
^ "Broadway Musicals: A Jewish Legacy". DC Theatre Scene.
^ Roni Caryn Rabin Exhibition Traces the emergence of
Jews as medical
The New York Times
The New York Times (14 May 2012). Accessed 16 August 2015.
^ Shatzmiller, Joseph. Doctors to Princes and Paupers: Jews, Medicine,
and Medieval Society. Berkeley: U of California, 1995. Print.
Max I. Dimont
Max I. Dimont (1 June 2004). Jews, God, and History. Penguin
Publishing Group. pp. 102–. ISBN 978-1-101-14225-7."During
the subsequent five hundred years, under Persian, Greek and Roman
Jews wrote, revised, admitted and canonized all the
books now comprising the Jewish Old Testament"
^ Julie Galambush (14 June 2011). The Reluctant Parting: How the New
Testament's Jewish Writers Created a Christian Book. HarperCollins.
pp. 3–. ISBN 978-0-06-210475-5."The fact that Jesus and
his followers who wrote the
New Testament were first-century Jews,
then, produces as many questions as it does answers concerning their
experiences, beliefs, and practices"
^ John M. G. Barclay; John Philip McMurdo Sweet (28 June 1996). Early
Christian Thought in Its Jewish Context. Cambridge University Press.
pp. 20–. ISBN 978-0-521-46285-3."
Early Christianity began
as a Jewish movement in first-century Palestine"
^ Dr. Andrea C. Paterson (21 May 2009). Three Monotheistic Faiths –
Judaism, Christianity, Islam: An Analysis and Brief History.
AuthorHouse. pp. 41–. ISBN 978-1-4520-3049-4."
contributed to the religion of
Islam derives its ideas of
holy text, the Qur'an, ultimately from Judaism. The dietary and legal
Islam are based on those of Judaism. The basic design of the
mosque, the Islamic house of worship, comes from that of the early
synagogues. The communal prayer services of
Islam and their devotional
routines resembles those of Judaism."
^ Cambridge University Historical Series, An Essay on Western
Civilization in Its Economic Aspects, p.40: Hebraism, like Hellenism,
has been an all-important factor in the development of Western
Civilization; Judaism, as the precursor of Christianity, has
indirectly had had much to do with shaping the ideals and morality of
western nations since the christian era.
^ Role of
Judaism in Western culture and civilization, "
played a significant role in the development of Western culture
because of its unique relationship with Christianity, the dominant
religious force in the West".
Judaism at Encyclopædia Britannica
^ Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East, Facts On
File Inc., Infobase Publishing, 2009, p.336
^ "Jew", Oxford English Dictionary.
^ Botterweck, G. Johannes; Ringgren, Helmer, eds. (1986). Theological
Dictionary of the Old Testament. V. Translated by Green,
Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans. pp. 483–484.
^ Grintz, Yehoshua M. (2007). "Jew". In Fred Skolnik (ed.).
Encyclopaedia Judaica. 11 (2d ed.). Farmington Hills, Mich.: Thomson
Gale. p. 253. ISBN 0-02-865928-7.
^ Falk, Avner (1996). A Psychoanalytic History of the Jews. Madison,
N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 131.
^ "Yiddish". Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (11th ed.).
Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster. 2004. p. 1453.
^ "Jew". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.
Archived from the original on 5 August 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2012.
^ Brandeis, Louis (25 April 1915). "The Jewish Problem: How To Solve
It". University of Louisville School of Law. Retrieved 2 April 2012.
Jews are a distinctive nationality of which every Jew, whatever his
country, his station or shade of belief, is necessarily a member
^ Palmer, Edward Henry (14 October 2002) [First published 1874]. A
History of the Jewish Nation: From the Earliest Times to the Present
Day. Gorgias Press. ISBN 978-1-931956-69-7. OCLC 51578088.
Retrieved 2 April 2012. Lay summary.
^ Einstein, Albert (21 June 1921). "How I Became a Zionist" (PDF).
Einstein Papers Project. Princeton University Press. Retrieved 5 April
2012. The Jewish nation is a living fact
David M. Gordis; Zachary I. Heller (2012). Jewish Secularity: The
Search for Roots and the Challenges of Relevant Meaning. University
Press of America. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-0-7618-5793-8.:
Judaism is a culture and a civilization which embraces the secular as
^ Seth Daniel Kunin (8 February 2000). Themes and Issues in Judaism.
A&C Black. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-0-304-33758-3.: Although
culture - and
Judaism is a culture (or cultures) as well as religion -
can be subdivided into different analytical categories..."
^ Paul R. Mendes-Flohr (1991). Divided Passions: Jewish Intellectuals
and the Experience of Modernity. Wayne State University Press.
pp. 421–. ISBN 0-8143-2030-9.: "Although
Judaism is a
culture - or rather has a culture - it is eminently more than a
^ "What Makes a Jew Jewish?". Chabad.org. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
Rebecca (2007). "Who is a Jew?". Jewish Virtual Library.
Retrieved 6 October 2007.
^ Fowler, Jeaneane D. (1997). World Religions: An Introduction for
Students. Sussex Academic Press. p. 7. ISBN 1-898723-48-6.
^ "What is the origin of Matrilineal Descent?". Shamash.org. 4
September 2003. Archived from the original on 18 October 1996.
Retrieved 9 January 2009.
^ "What is the source of the law that a child is Jewish only if its
mother is Jewish?". Torah.org. Archived from the original on 24
December 2008. Retrieved 9 January 2009.
^ a b Emma Klein (27 July 2016). Lost Jews: The Struggle for Identity
Today. Springer. pp. 6–. ISBN 978-1-349-24319-8.
^ Robin May Schott (25 October 2010). Birth, Death, and Femininity:
Philosophies of Embodiment. Indiana University Press. pp. 67–.
^ Dosick (2007), pp. 56–57.
^ a b Shaye J.D. Cohen (1999). The Beginnings of Jewishness. U.
California Press. pp. 305–06. ISBN 0-585-24643-2.
^ Ostrer, Harry (2012). Legacy: A Genetic History of the Jewish
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press (published 8 May 2012).
^ Ann E. Killebrew, Biblical Peoples and Ethnicity. An Archaeological
Study of Egyptians, Canaanites, Philistines and Early Israel
1300–1100 B.C.E. (
Archaeology and Biblical Studies), Society of
Biblical Literature, 2005
^ Schama, Simon (18 March 2014). The Story of the Jews: Finding the
Words 1000 BC–1492 AD. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-233944-7.
^ * "In the broader sense of the term, a Jew is any person belonging
to the worldwide group that constitutes, through descent or
conversion, a continuation of the ancient Jewish people, who were
themselves the descendants of the
Hebrews of the Old Testament."
"The Jewish people as a whole, initially called
were known as
Israelites (Yisreʾelim) from the time of their entrance
into the Holy Land to the end of the Babylonian Exile (538 BC)."
Jew at Encyclopædia Britannica
^ Ostrer, Harry (19 April 2012). Legacy: A Genetic History of the
Jewish People. Oxford University Press, USA.
^ Brenner, Michael (13 June 2010). A Short History of the Jews.
Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-14351-X.
^ Adams, Hannah (1840). The History of the Jews: From the Destruction
Jerusalem to the Present Time. London Society House.
^ a b Broshi, Maguen (2001). Bread, Wine, Walls and Scrolls.
Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 174. ISBN 1-84127-201-9.
Israelite Refugees Found High Office in Kingdom of Judah, Seals
^ "Judah". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
^ Dever, William (2001). What Did the Biblical Writers Know, and When
Did They Know It?. Eerdmans. pp. 98–99.
ISBN 3-927120-37-5. After a century of exhaustive investigation,
all respectable archaeologists have given up hope of recovering any
context that would make Abraham, Isaac, or
Jacob credible "historical
figures" [...] archaeological investigation of
Moses and the Exodus
has similarly been discarded as a fruitless pursuit.
^ Tubb, 1998. pp. 13–14
^ Mark Smith in "The Early History of God:
Yahweh and Other Deities of
Ancient Israel" states "Despite the long regnant model that the
Israelites were people of fundamentally different
culture, archaeological data now casts doubt on this view. The
material culture of the region exhibits numerous common points between
Canaanites in the Iron I period (c.
1200–1000 BCE). The record would suggest that the Israelite
culture largely overlapped with and derived from Canaanite culture...
Israelite culture was largely Canaanite in nature. Given the
information available, one cannot maintain a radical cultural
Israelites for the Iron I period."
(pp. 6–7). Smith, Mark (2002) "The Early History of God:
Other Deities of Ancient Israel" (Eerdman's)
^ Rendsberg, Gary (2008). "
Israel without the Bible". In Frederick E.
Greenspahn. The Hebrew Bible: New Insights and Scholarship. NYU Press,
^ Spielvogel, Jackson J. (2012). Western civilization (8th ed.).
Australia: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning. p. 33.
ISBN 9780495913245. What is generally agreed, however, is that
between 1200 and 1000 B.C.E., the
Israelites emerged as a distinct
group of people, possibly united into tribes or a league of tribes
^ For a bibliography of scholars who doubt anything like the period of
the Judges ever occurred, see John C. Yoder (1 May 2015). Power and
Politics in the
Book of Judges: Men and Women of Valor. FORTRESS
Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-4514-9642-0.
^ Marc Zvi Brettler (2002). The
Book of Judges. Psychology Press.
p. 107. ISBN 978-0-415-16216-6.
Thomas L. Thompson (1 January 2000). Early History of the Israelite
People: From the Written & Archaeological Sources. BRILL.
p. 96. ISBN 90-04-11943-4.
^ Hjelm, Ingrid; Thompson, Thomas L, eds. (2016). History, Archaeology
and The Bible Forty Years After "Historicity": Changing Perspectives.
Routledge. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-317-42815-2.
^ Philip R. Davies (1995). In Search of "Ancient Israel": A Study in
Biblical Origins. A&C Black. p. 26.
^ Lipschits, Oded (2014). "The History of
Israel in the Biblical
Period". In Berlin, Adele; Brettler, Marc Zvi (eds.). The Jewish
Study Bible (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press.
^ a b c Finkelstein, Israel; Silberman, Neil Asher (2001). The Bible
unearthed : archaeology's new vision of ancient
Israel and the
origin of its stories (1st Touchstone ed.). New York: Simon &
Schuster. ISBN 0-684-86912-8.
^ a b Kuhrt, Amiele (1995). The Ancient Near East. Routledge.
p. 438. ISBN 978-0415167628.
^ a b Wright,
Jacob L. (July 2014). "David, King of Judah (Not
Israel)". The Bible and Interpretation.
^ Jonathan M Golden,Ancient
Canaan and Israel: An Introduction, OUP
USA, 2009 pp. 3–4.
^ Lemche, Niels Peter (1998). The
Israelites in History and Tradition.
Westminster John Knox Press. p. 35. ISBN 9780664227272.
^ The Pitcher Is Broken: Memorial Essays for Gosta W. Ahlstrom, Steven
W. Holloway, Lowell K. Handy, Continuum, 1 May 1995 Quote: "For
Israel, the description of the battle of Qarqar in the Kurkh Monolith
of Shalmaneser III (mid-ninth century) and for Judah, a
Tiglath-pileser III text mentioning (Jeho-) Ahaz of Judah (IIR67 = K.
3751), dated 734-733, are the earliest published to date."
^ Julia Phillips Berger; Sue Parker Gerson (2006). Teaching Jewish
History. Behrman House, Inc. p. 41. ISBN 9780867051834.
^ The people and the faith of the Bible by André Chouraqui, Univ of
Massachusetts Press, 1975, p. 43 
^ The Hebrews: A Learning Module from Washington State University, ©
Richard Hooker, reprinted by permission by the Jewish Virtual Library
under The Babylonian Exile
^ a b "
Second Temple Period (538 BCE. to 70 CE) Persian Rule".
Biu.ac.il. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
^ Harper's Bible Dictionary, ed. by Achtemeier, etc., Harper &
Row, San Francisco, 1985, p.103
^ a b Becking, Bob (2006). ""We All Returned as One!": Critical Notes
on the Myth of the Mass Return". In Lipschitz, Oded; Oeming, Manfred
(eds.). Judah and the Judeans in the Persian Period. Winona Lake, IN:
Eisenbrauns. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-57506-104-7.
^ a b Grabbe, Lester L. (2004). A History of the
Second Temple Period: Yehud - A History of the Persian Province of
Judah v. 1. T & T Clark. p. 355. ISBN 978-0567089984.
^ Yehud being the Aramaic equivalent of the Hebrew Yehuda, or "Judah",
and "medinata" the word for province
^ Peter Fibiger Bang; Walter Scheidel (31 January 2013). The Oxford
Handbook of the State in the Ancient Near East and Mediterranean. OUP
USA. pp. 184–187. ISBN 978-0-19-518831-8.
^ Johnson (1987), p. 82.
^ Jared Diamond (1993). "Who are the Jews?" (PDF). Archived from the
original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2010. Natural
History 102:11 (November 1993): 12–19.
^ Hammer, MF; Redd, AJ; Wood, ET; et al. (June 2000). "Jewish and
Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of
Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97
(12): 6769–74. Bibcode:2000PNAS...97.6769H.
doi:10.1073/pnas.100115997. PMC 18733. PMID 10801975.
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^ Wade, Nicholas (9 May 2000). "Y Chromosome Bears Witness to Story of
the Jewish Diaspora". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
^ Balter, Michael (3 June 2010). "Tracing the Roots of Jewishness".
Science. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
^ Genes, Behavior, and the Social Environment:: Moving Beyond the
Nature ...By Committee on Assessing Interactions Among Social,
Behavioral, and Genetic Factors in Health, Board on Health Sciences
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people's language of communication. Even Hebrew-speaking Israeli
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^ Chaya Herman (2006). Prophets and Profits: Managerialism and the
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century.... This phenomenon occurred despite efforts to make Hebrew a
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the 'nerve center' of Jewish learning.
^ Elana Shohamy (2010). Negotiating Language Policy in Schools:
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the special relationship between
Israel and the United States, and the
current status of English as a lingua franca for
^ Elan Ezrachi (2012). Dynamic Belonging: Contemporary Jewish
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^ "Jewish Languages – How Do We
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Agency. Archived from the original on 7 March 2014. Retrieved 5 April
2014. Only a minority of the Jewish people today can actually speak
Hebrew. In order for a Jew from one country to talk to another who
speaks a different language, it is more common to use English than
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assimilated to Russian, the number of
Jews speaking Russian as their
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assume that the percentage of assimilated Ashkenazim is much higher
than the portion of Oriental Jews.
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^ "В России проживает около миллиона
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^ Jewish community in Germany: Mitgliederstatistik der jüdischen
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^ The Rebirth of the Middle East, Jerry M. Rosenberg, Hamilton Books,
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^ Reeva S. Simon, Michael M. Laskier, Sara Reguer, The
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^ a b Johnson (1987), p. 171.
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Jews by the Germans in World War
II." However, the Holocaust usually includes all of the different
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^ Johnson (1987), pp. 484–88.
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^ Baruch Halpern, in Jerrold S. Cooper, Glenn M. Schwartz (eds.), The
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William Foxwell Albright Centennial Conference, Eisenbrauns, 1996 p.
^ Megan Bishop Moore, Brad E. Kelle, Biblical History and
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Sarah J. Dille, Mixing Metaphors: God as Mother and Father in
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^ Shalev, Baruch (2005). 100 Years of Nobel Prizes. p. 57. A
striking fact... is the high number of Laureates of the Jewish
faith—over 20% of the total Nobel Prizes (138); including: 17% in
Chemistry, 26% in Medicine and Physics, 40% in Economics and 11% in
Peace and Literature each. These numbers are especially startling in
light of the fact that only some 14 million people (0.2% of the
world's population) are Jewish.
^ Dobbs, Stephen Mark (12 October 2001). "As the
Nobel Prize marks
Jews constitute 1/5 of laureates". j. Retrieved 3 April
2012. Throughout the 20th century, Jews, more so than any other
minority, ethnic or cultural group, have been recipients of the Nobel
Prize – perhaps the most distinguished award for human endeavor in
the six fields for which it is given. Remarkably,
almost one-fifth of all Nobel laureates. This, in a world in which
Jews number just a fraction of 1 percent of the population.
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^ Ted Falcon;
David Blatner (2001). "28".
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percent of Nobel prizes have been awarded to
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^ Lawrence E. Harrison (2008). The Central Liberal Truth: How Politics
Can Change a
Culture and Save It. Oxford University Press.
p. 102. That achievement is symbolized by the fact that 15 to 20
percent of Nobel Prizes have been won by Jews, who represent two
tenths of one percent of the world's population.
^ Jonathan B. Krasner; Jonathan D. Sarna (2006). The History of the
Jewish People: Ancient
Israel to 1880's America. Behrman House, Inc.
p. 1. These accomplishments account for 20 percent of the Nobel
Prizes awarded since 1901. What a feat for a people who make up only
.2 percent of the world's population!
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