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Jeddah
Jeddah
(sometimes spelled Jiddah or Jedda; English: /ˈdʒɛdə/; Arabic: جدة‎ Ǧidda, Hejazi pronunciation: [ˈd͡ʒɪd.da]) is a city in the Hijaz Tihamah
Tihamah
region on the coast of the Red Sea
Red Sea
and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest sea port on the Red Sea, and with a population of about 4 million people (as of 2017[update]), the second-largest city in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
after the capital city, Riyadh. Jeddah
Jeddah
is Saudi Arabia's commercial capital.[3] Jeddah
Jeddah
is the principal gateway to Mecca
Mecca
and Medina, two of the holiest cities in Islam and popular tourist attractions. Economically, Jeddah
Jeddah
is focusing on further developing capital investment in scientific and engineering leadership within Saudi Arabia, and the Middle East.[4] Jeddah
Jeddah
was independently ranked fourth in the Africa – Mid-East region in terms of innovation in 2009 in the Innovation Cities Index.[5] Jeddah
Jeddah
is one of Saudi Arabia's primary resort cities and was named a Gamma world city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC). Given the city's close proximity to the Red Sea, fishing and seafood dominates the food culture unlike other parts of the country. In Arabic, the city's motto is " Jeddah
Jeddah
Ghair," which translates to " Jeddah
Jeddah
is different." The motto has been widely used among both locals as well as foreign visitors. The city had been previously perceived as the "most open" city in Saudi Arabia.

Contents

1 Etymology and spelling 2 History

2.1 Pre-Islam 2.2 Rashidun Caliphate 2.3 Umayyad Caliphate 2.4 Abbasid Caliphate 2.5 Tulunids
Tulunids
and Ikhshidid Emirates 2.6 Fatimid Caliphate 2.7 Ayyubid Empire 2.8 Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultanate 2.9 Ottoman Empire 2.10 First Saudi State
First Saudi State
and Ottoman–Saudi War 2.11 World War I
World War I
and the Hashemite
Hashemite
Kingdom 2.12 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Economy

4.1 King Abdullah Street 4.2 Tahliyah Street 4.3 Madina Road

5 Culture

5.1 Religious significance 5.2 Cultural projects and foundations with a branch in Jeddah 5.3 Cuisine 5.4 Open-air art 5.5 Museums and collections 5.6 Media 5.7 Accent

6 Cityscape

6.1 Old Jeddah 6.2 Resorts and hotels 6.3 Consulates

7 Historical Jeddah

7.1 Harrat Al-Mathloum (District of the Wronged) 7.2 Harrat Al-Sham (The Levantine District) 7.3 Harrat Al- Yemen
Yemen
(The Yemeni District) 7.4 Harrat Al-Bahar (The Seafront District)

8 Landmarks

8.1 Abdul Raouf Khalil Museum 8.2 King Fahd's Fountain 8.3 Al-Rahmah Mosque 8.4 Al-Jawhara Stadium 8.5 King Saud Mosque 8.6 NCB Tower 8.7 IDB Tower 8.8 Jeddah
Jeddah
Municipality Tower 8.9 Jeddah
Jeddah
Tower 8.10 King Road Tower 8.11 Al Jawharah Tower 8.12 Jeddah
Jeddah
Flagpole 8.13 Entrance of Mecca

9 Education

9.1 Schools, colleges and universities 9.2 Libraries

10 Sports 11 Transport

11.1 Airport 11.2 Seaport 11.3 Roads and rails

12 Issues and challenges

12.1 Pollution and environment 12.2 Terrorism 12.3 Traffic 12.4 Sewage 12.5 2009 Jeddah
Jeddah
floods 12.6 2011 Jeddah
Jeddah
floods 12.7 2015 Jeddah
Jeddah
floods 12.8 2017 Jeddah
Jeddah
floods

13 Districts 14 Twin towns – sister cities 15 See also 16 Notes 17 References 18 External links

Etymology and spelling[edit] There are at least two explanations for the etymology of the name Jeddah, according to Jeddah
Jeddah
Ibn Al-Qudaa'iy, the chief of the Quda'a clan. The more common account has it that the name is derived from جدة Jaddah , the Arabic
Arabic
word for "grandmother". According to eastern folk belief, the tomb of Eve, considered the grandmother of humanity, is located in Jeddah.[6] The tomb was sealed with concrete by religious authorities in 1975 due to some Muslims praying at the site. The Berber traveler Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
visited Jeddah
Jeddah
during his world trip in around 1330. He wrote the name of the city into his diary as "Jiddah".[7] The British Foreign and Commonwealth Office
Foreign and Commonwealth Office
and other branches of the British government formerly used the older spelling of "Jedda", contrary to other English-speaking usage, but in 2007, it changed to the spelling "Jeddah".[8] T. E. Lawrence
T. E. Lawrence
felt that any transcription of Arabic
Arabic
names into English was arbitrary. In his book, Revolt in the Desert, Jeddah
Jeddah
is spelled three different ways on the first page alone.[9] On official Saudi maps and documents, the city name is transcribed "Jeddah", which is now the prevailing usage. History[edit] See also: Timeline of Jeddah

Jeddah, mid-1800s

Jeddah
Jeddah
in 1938

Some archaeologists' studies suggest the existence of inhabitants in the region now known as Jeddah
Jeddah
since the Stone Age
Stone Age
seeing as they found some artifacts and 'Thamoudian' writings in Wadi (valley) Breiman east of Jeddah
Jeddah
and Wadi Boib northeast of Jeddah. Some historians trace its founding to the tribe of Bani Quda'ah, who inhabited it after the collapse of Sad (dam) Ma'rib in 115 BC. Some believe that Jeddah
Jeddah
had been inhabited before the tribe of Bani Quda'ah by fishermen in the Red Sea, who considered it a center from which they sailed out into the sea as well as a place for relaxation and well-being. According to some accounts, the history of Jeddah dates back to early times before Alexander the Great, who visited the city between 323 and 356 BC.[10] Pre-Islam[edit] Excavations in the old city suggest that Jeddah
Jeddah
was founded as a fishing hamlet in 522 BC by the Yemeni Quda'a tribe (بني قضاعة), who left central Yemen
Yemen
to settle in Makkah[11] after the destruction of the Marib Dam
Marib Dam
in Yemen.[12] Other archaeological studies have shown that the area was settled earlier by people in the Stone Age, as some Thamudi scripts were excavated in Wadi Briman (وادي بريمان), east of the city, and Wadi Boweb (وادي بويب), northwest of the city. The city of Jeddah
Jeddah
was an important port during Nabataeans
Nabataeans
frankincense trade .The oldest Mashrabiya
Mashrabiya
was found in jeddah dates back to pre Islamic era . Rashidun Caliphate[edit] Jeddah
Jeddah
first achieved prominence around AD 647, when the third Muslim Caliph, Uthman Ibn Affan
Uthman Ibn Affan
(عثمان بن عفان), turned it into a port making it the port of Makkah instead of Al Shoaiba port south west of Mecca.[13] In AD 703 Jeddah
Jeddah
was briefly occupied by pirates from the Kingdom of Axum.[14] Jeddah
Jeddah
has been established as the main city of the historic Hijaz province and a historic port for pilgrims arriving by sea to perform their Hajj
Hajj
pilgrimage in Mecca. Umayyad Caliphate[edit] Umayyads have inherited the entire Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
including Hejaz and ruled from 661AD to 750AD. No historic records mentions important events have taken place in Jeddah
Jeddah
during this period of history. However, Jeddah
Jeddah
has remained as key civilian harbor, serving fishermen and sea travelling pilgrims to Hajj. it is also believed that Sharifdom of Mecca; an honorary Viceroy to the holyland. was first appointed in this period of the Islamic Caliphate. Abbasid Caliphate[edit] Abbassids, the new superpower, became the new successor to the Umayyad. in 750 the Abbasid Revolution
Abbasid Revolution
successfully took control of almost the whole Umayyad Empire, excluding Morocco
Morocco
(Maghrib) and Spain (Al-Andalus). The Caliphate of Baghdad
Baghdad
kept expanding and ruled until 1258, while Hejaz
Hejaz
only remained under the Abbasid throne until 876, when the Tulunids
Tulunids
of Egypt
Egypt
gained control of the Emirate of Egypt, Syria, Jordon and Hejaz. Tulunids
Tulunids
and Ikhshidid Emirates[edit] The power struggle between Tulunids
Tulunids
and Abbasid over Hejaz
Hejaz
lasted for 30 years when Tulunids
Tulunids
have finally withdrawn from Arabia
Arabia
in 900AD. In 930AD, main Hejazi cities Medina, Mecca
Mecca
and Taif
Taif
were heavily sacked by Qarmatians. However, it is not historically confirmed that Jeddah
Jeddah
itself was attacked by Qarmatians. However, Ikhshidids, the new power in Egypt
Egypt
took control of Hejaz
Hejaz
in early 935. No historic records details the even during Ikhshidids rule of Hejaz. Jeddah
Jeddah
was still unfortified and without walls at this point of time. Fatimid Caliphate[edit] In the 969 AD, the Fatimids
Fatimids
from Algeria
Algeria
took control in Egypt
Egypt
from the Ikhshidid dynasty
Ikhshidid dynasty
and expanded their empire to the surrounding regions, including The Hijaz and Jeddah. The Fatimids
Fatimids
developed an extensive trade network in both the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and the Indian Ocean through the Red Sea. Their trade and diplomatic ties extended all the way to China
China
and its Song Dynasty, which eventually determined the economic course of Tihamah
Tihamah
during the High Middle Ages. Ayyubid Empire[edit] After Saladin's conquest of Jerusalem, in 1171 he proclaimed himself sultan of Egypt, after dissolving the Fatimid Caliphate
Fatimid Caliphate
upon the death of al-Adid, thus establishing the Ayyubid dynasty. Ayyubid conquests in Hejaz
Hejaz
included Jeddah, which joined the Ayyubid Empire
Ayyubid Empire
in 1177 during the leadership of Sharif Ibn Abul-Hashim Al-Thalab (1094–1201). During their relatively short-lived tenure, the Ayyubids ushered in an era of economic prosperity in the lands they ruled and the facilities and patronage provided by the Ayyubids led to a resurgence in intellectual activity in the Islamic world. This period was also marked by an Ayyubid process of vigorously strengthening Sunni Muslim
Sunni Muslim
dominance in the region by constructing numerous madrasas (Islamic schools) in their major cities. Jeddah attracted Muslim sailors and merchants from Sindh, Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and East Africa, and other distant regions. Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultanate[edit] In 1254, following events in Cairo
Cairo
and the dissolution of the Ayyubid Empire, Hijaz became a part of the Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultanate. The Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama, having found his way around the Cape and obtained pilots from the coast of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
in AD 1497, pushed his way across the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
to the shores of Malabar and Calicut, attacked fleets that carried freight and Muslim pilgrims from India
India
to the Red Sea, and struck terror into the surrounding potentates. The Princes of Gujarat
Gujarat
and Yemen
Yemen
turned for help to Egypt. Sultan
Sultan
Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri accordingly fitted out a fleet of 50 vessels under his Admiral, Hussein the Kurd. Jeddah
Jeddah
was soon fortified with a stone wall, using forced labor, as a harbor of refuge from the Portuguese, allowing Arabia
Arabia
and the Red Sea
Red Sea
to be protected. Parts of the city wall still survive today in the old city. Even though the Portuguese were successfully repelled from the city, fleets in the Indian Ocean were at their mercy. This was evidenced by the Battle of Diu
Battle of Diu
between the Portuguese and the Arab
Arab
Mamluks. The Portuguese soldiers' cemetery can still be found within the old city today and is referred to as the site of the Christian Graves.[15] Ottoman Empire[edit] Main article: Hejaz
Hejaz
Vilayet

The Ottoman admiral Selman Reis
Selman Reis
defended Jeddah
Jeddah
against a Portuguese attack in 1517.

In 1517, the Ottoman Turks conquered the Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultanate in Egypt
Egypt
and Syria, during the reign of Selim I.[16] As territories of the Mamluk Sultanate, the Hijaz, including Jeddah
Jeddah
and the holy city of Mecca, passed into Ottoman possession. The Ottomans rebuilt the weak walls of Jeddah
Jeddah
in 1525 following their victory over the Lopo Soares de Albergaria's Armada in the Red Sea. The new Turkish wall included six watchtowers and six city gates. They were constructed to defend against the Portuguese attack. Of the six gates, the Gate of Mecca
Mecca
was the eastern gate and the Gate of Al-Magharibah, facing the port, was the western gate. The Gate of Sharif faced south. The other gates were the Gate of Al-Bunt, Gate of Al-Sham (also called Gate of Al-Sharaf) and Gate of Medina, facing north.[17] The Turks also built The Qishla of Jeddah, a small castle for the city soldiers. In the 19th century these seven gates were minimized into four giant gates with four towers. These giant gates were the Gate of Sham to the north, the Gate of Mecca
Mecca
to the east, the Gate of Sharif to the south, and the Gate of Al-Magharibah on the sea side. Ahmed Al-Jazzar, the Ottoman military man mainly known for his role in the Siege of Acre, spent the earlier part of his career at Jeddah. In Jeddah
Jeddah
in 1750, he killed some seventy rioting nomads in retaliation for the killing of his commander, Abdullah Beg, earning him the nickname "Jezzar" (butcher). On 15 June 1858, rioting in the city, believed to have been instigated by a former police chief in reaction to British policy in the Red Sea, led to the massacre of 25 Christians, including the British and French consuls, members of their families, and wealthy Greek merchants.[18] The British frigate HMS Cyclops, anchored at port, bombarded the city for two days and restored law and order.[19] First Saudi State
First Saudi State
and Ottoman–Saudi War[edit] Main article: Ottoman-Saudi War In 1802, Nejdi
Nejdi
forces conquered both Mecca
Mecca
and Jeddah
Jeddah
from the Ottomans. When Sharif Ghalib Efendi informed Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud II
Mahmud II
of this, the Sultan
Sultan
ordered his Egyptian viceroy Muhammad Ali
Muhammad Ali
Pasha to retake the city. Muhammad Ali
Muhammad Ali
successfully regained the city in the Battle of Jeddah
Jeddah
in 1813. World War I
World War I
and the Hashemite
Hashemite
Kingdom[edit]

Mohammed Abu Zenada, one of the Chiefs of Jeddah
Jeddah
and the advisor to the Sharif during the surrender to King Abdulaziz Ibn Saud
Ibn Saud
in 1925

Main articles: Arab Revolt
Arab Revolt
and Kingdom of Hejaz During World War I, Sharif Hussein bin Ali declared a revolt against the Ottoman Empire, seeking independence from the Ottoman Turks and the creation of a single unified Arab
Arab
state spanning from Aleppo
Aleppo
in Syria
Syria
to Aden
Aden
in Yemen. King Hussein declared the Kingdom of Hejaz. Later, Hussein was involved in war with Ibn Saud, who was the Sultan
Sultan
of Nejd. Hussein abdicated following the fall of Mecca, in December 1924, and his son Ali bin Hussein became the new king. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia[edit]

King Abdulaziz sitting with Abdullah Ali Reda on the day he entered Jeddah
Jeddah
in 1925

A few months later, Ibn Saud, whose clan originated in the central Nejd
Nejd
province, conquered Medina
Medina
and Jeddah
Jeddah
via an agreement with Jeddans following the Second Battle of Jeddah. He deposed Ali bin Hussein, who fled to Baghdad, eventually settling in Amman, Jordan, where his descendants became part of its Hashemite
Hashemite
royalty. As a result, Jeddah
Jeddah
came under the sway of the Al-Saud dynasty in December 1925. In 1926, Ibn Saud
Ibn Saud
added the title King of Hejaz
Hejaz
to his position of Sultan
Sultan
of Nejd. Today, Jeddah
Jeddah
has lost its historical role in peninsular politics after Jeddah
Jeddah
fell within the new province of Makkah, whose provincial capital is the city of Mecca. From 1928 to 1932, the new Khuzam Palace was built as the new residence of King Abdul Aziz in Jeddah. The palace lies south of the old walled city and was constructed under the supervision of the engineer Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden. After 1963, the palace was used as a royal guest house; since 1995, it has housed the Regional Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography.[20] The remaining walls and gates of the old city were demolished in 1947. A fire in 1982 destroyed some ancient buildings in the old town center, called Al-Balad, but much is still preserved despite the commercial interest to tear down old houses (Naseef House, Gabil House) and build modern high-rise buildings. A house-by-house survey of the old districts was made in 1979, showing that some 1000 traditional buildings still existed, though the number of structures with great historic value was far less. In 1990, a Jeddah
Jeddah
Historical Area Preservation Department was founded.[21][22] The modern city has expanded wildly beyond its old boundaries. The built-up area expanded mainly to the north along the Red Sea coastline, reaching the new airport during the 1990s and since edging its way around it toward the Ob'hur Creek, some 27 km (17 mi) from the old city center. Geography[edit]

Map of Jeddah
Jeddah
from OpenStreetMap

Jeddah
Jeddah
is located in Saudi Arabia's Red Sea
Red Sea
coastal plain (called Tihamah). Jeddah
Jeddah
lies in the Hijazi Tihama (Arabic: تهامة الحجاز) region which is in the lower Hijaz mountains. Historically, politically and culturally, Jeddah
Jeddah
was a major city of Hejaz
Hejaz
Vilayet, the Kingdom of Hejaz
Hejaz
and other regional political entities according to Hijazi history books. It is the 100th largest city in the world by land area. Climate[edit] Jeddah
Jeddah
features a tropical arid climate (BWh) under Koppen's climate classification. Unlike other Saudi Arabian cities, Jeddah
Jeddah
retains its warm temperature in winter, which can range from 15 °C (59 °F) at dawn to 28 °C (82 °F) in the afternoon. Summer temperatures are extremely hot, often breaking the 43 °C (109 °F) mark in the afternoon and dropping to 30 °C (86 °F) in the evening. Summers are also quite steamy, with dew points often exceeding 27 °C (80 °F), particularly in September. Rainfall in Jeddah
Jeddah
is generally sparse, and usually occurs in small amounts in November and December. Heavy thunderstorms are common in winter. The thunderstorm of December 2008 was the largest in recent memory, with rain reaching around 80 mm (3 in). The lowest temperature ever recorded in Jeddah
Jeddah
was 9.8 °C (49.6 °F) on February 10, 1993.[23] The highest temperature ever recorded in Jeddah
Jeddah
was 52.0 °C (125.6 °F) on June 22, 2010.[23] Dust storms happen in summer and sometimes in winter, coming from the Arabian Peninsula's deserts or from North Africa.

Climate data for Jeddah
Jeddah
(1985-2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 35.0 (95) 36.0 (96.8) 40.2 (104.4) 44.5 (112.1) 48.2 (118.8) 52.0 (125.6) 47.0 (116.6) 46.0 (114.8) 48.0 (118.4) 46.4 (115.5) 40.0 (104) 37.0 (98.6) 52.0 (125.6)

Average high °C (°F) 29.0 (84.2) 29.5 (85.1) 31.8 (89.2) 34.9 (94.8) 37.2 (99) 38.3 (100.9) 39.4 (102.9) 38.8 (101.8) 37.6 (99.7) 36.7 (98.1) 33.5 (92.3) 30.7 (87.3) 34.8 (94.6)

Daily mean °C (°F) 24.5 (76.1) 24.8 (76.6) 26.1 (79) 28.5 (83.3) 30.2 (86.4) 31.2 (88.2) 32.7 (90.9) 32.7 (90.9) 31.5 (88.7) 29.8 (85.6) 27.4 (81.3) 25.9 (78.6) 28.8 (83.8)

Average low °C (°F) 20.3 (68.5) 20.1 (68.2) 21.4 (70.5) 22.1 (71.8) 24.0 (75.2) 24.8 (76.6) 26.6 (79.9) 27.6 (81.7) 26.4 (79.5) 24.1 (75.4) 22.3 (72.1) 21.0 (69.8) 23.4 (74.1)

Record low °C (°F) 11.0 (51.8) 9.8 (49.6) 10.0 (50) 12.0 (53.6) 16.4 (61.5) 20.0 (68) 20.5 (68.9) 22.0 (71.6) 17.0 (62.6) 15.6 (60.1) 15.0 (59) 11.4 (52.5) 9.8 (49.6)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 9.9 (0.39) 3.7 (0.146) 2.9 (0.114) 2.8 (0.11) 0.2 (0.008) 0.0 (0) 0.3 (0.012) 0.5 (0.02) 0.1 (0.004) 1.1 (0.043) 26.4 (1.039) 13.1 (0.516) 61.0 (2.402)

Average relative humidity (%) 60 60 60 57 56 58 53 59 67 66 65 63 60

Source: Jeddah
Jeddah
Regional Climate Center[24]

Jeddah
Jeddah
mean sea temperature[25]

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

26.3 °C (79.3 °F) 25.7 °C (78.3 °F) 25.8 °C (78.4 °F) 26.8 °C (80.2 °F) 28.1 °C (82.6 °F) 29.0 °C (84.2 °F) 30.6 °C (87.1 °F) 31.6 °C (88.9 °F) 31.1 °C (88.0 °F) 30.7 °C (87.3 °F) 29.1 °C (84.4 °F) 27.9 °C (82.2 °F)

Economy[edit]

Mall of Arabia
Arabia
is the largest shopping mall in Jeddah.

Jeddah
Jeddah
has long been a port city. Even before being designated the port city for Mecca, Jeddah
Jeddah
was a trading hub for the region. In the 19th century, goods such as mother-of-pearl, tortoise shells, frankincense, and spices were routinely exported from the city. Apart from this, many imports into the city were destined for further transit to the Suez, Africa, or Europe. Many goods passing through Jeddah
Jeddah
could not even be found in the city or even in Arabia.[26] All of the capitals of the Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa
North Africa
are within two hours flying distance of Jeddah, making it the second commercial center of the Middle East
Middle East
after Dubai.[27] Also, Jeddah's industrial district is the fourth largest industrial city in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
after Riyadh, Jubail
Jubail
and Yanbu. King Abdullah Street[edit] King Abdullah Street is one of the most important streets in Jeddah and runs from King Fahd Road by the waterfront in the west of Jeddah to the eastern end of the city. It is famous for hosting numerous corporate offices and commercial developments. It will be near to HSR Entrance in Jeddah
Jeddah
central train station which connects Jeddah
Jeddah
with Makkah, AL-Madinah, and King Adullah Economic City (KAEC). And it also has the tallest Flagpole in the world at a height of 170 m (558 ft). This road also faced a catastrophe in 2011 when it was sumerged with rainwater. Tahliyah Street[edit] Main article: Tahlia Street Tahaliyah Street is an important fashion and shopping street in central Jeddah. It contains many upscale department stores and boutiques. It has been renamed "Prince Mohammad bin Abdul Aziz Road" by the government, but this official name is not widely used. It is also the most luxurious street in Jeddah
Jeddah
as it has super cars such as lambos, ferrari, and mclarens. Madina Road[edit] Madina Road is one of the most important streets in Jeddah. It links the South districts with the North, and it contains most of the companies main offices and showrooms. And it is the road to King AbdulAziz Airport. Culture[edit] Religious significance[edit]

A woman from Jeddah
Jeddah
in traditional clothing, 1873.

Most citizens are Sunni Muslims. The government, courts and civil and criminal laws enforce a moral code established by Shari'ah. A very small minority of Saudi citizens are Shia Muslims, and there is also a large foreign workforce. The city has over 1,300 mosques.[28] The law does not allow other religions' buildings, books, icons and expressions of faith. However, private religious observance not involving Muslims nor offending public order and morality is sometimes tolerated. Since the 7th century, Jeddah
Jeddah
has hosted millions of Muslim pilgrims from all over the world on their way to Hajj. This merge with pilgrims has a major impact on the society, religion, and economy of Jeddah. It also brings an annual risk of illness, known by locals as the 'hajji disease', a general term for various viral maladies. Cultural projects and foundations with a branch in Jeddah[edit]

Encyclopaedia of Makkah and Madinah Saqifat al-Safa Trust

Cuisine[edit]

Hejazi Saleeg

Jeddah's multi-ethnic citizenry has influenced Jeddah's traditional cuisine. Saleeg
Saleeg
(Arabic: سليق Hejazi pronunciation: [saˈliːg]) is a white-rice dish, cooked in broth, that originates in Hejaz
Hejaz
region in the west of Saudi Arabia, where it is commonly regarded as a national dish of the region, often made with chicken instead of lamb meat. The Yemeni dish Mandi is also popular as a lunch meal. Jeddah
Jeddah
cuisine is popular as well and dishes like Mabshoor, Mitabbak, Foul, Areika, Hareisa, Kabab Meiroo, Shorabah Hareira (Hareira soup), Migalgal, Madhbi (chicken grilled on stone), Madfun (literally meaning "buried"), Magloobah, Kibdah, Manzalah (usually eaten at Eid ul-Fitr), Ma'asoob, Magliya (a local version of falafel), the Nejdi
Nejdi
dish Kabsa, hummus, Biryani, Ruz Kabli, Ruz Bukhari, and Saiyadyia can be acquired in many traditional restaurants around the city, such as Althamrat, Abo-Zaid, Al-Quarmooshi, Ayaz, and Hejaziyat. The famous Yemen
Yemen
food Ma'soub, fahsa and egg beans are also popular in Jeddah. Grilled meat dishes such as shawarma, kofta and kebab have a good market in Jeddah. During Ramadan, sambousak and ful are especially popular at the evening iftar meal. These dishes are found in Lebanese, Syrian, and Turkish restaurants. The most popular local fast food chain, begun in 1974, is Al Baik, with branches in Jeddah
Jeddah
and the neighbouring cities of Makkah, Madinah and Yanbu. Their main dish is broasted (broiled and roasted) chicken, commonly known by Jeddans as "Broast", and a variety of seafood.[29] Other local fast food restaurants have sprung up, like Al Tazaj, which serves seasoned grilled chicken (called Farooj) and a side of Tahina with onion and spices. Foultameez serves Foul and Tameez as fast food; Kudu and Herfy serve Western fast food; Halawani serves local variants of Shawerma; and Shawermatak has pioneered drive-through sales of Shawerma. Another popular fast-food chain is Hot and Crispy, an Arabic franchise popular for their spiced curly fries. Indian, Bangladeshi, Pakistani and other Asian foods are also popular. Italian, French and American restaurants are also to be found. Open-air art[edit] During the oil boom in the late 1970s and 1980s, there was a focused civic effort to bring art to Jeddah's public areas. As a result, Jeddah
Jeddah
contains a large number of modern open-air sculptures and works of art, typically situated in roundabouts, making the city one of the largest open-air art galleries in the world. Sculptures include works by Jean/Hans Arp, César Baldaccini, Alexander Calder, Henry Moore, Joan Miró
Joan Miró
and Victor Vasarely. They often depict traditional Saudi items such as coffee pots, incense burners, palm trees, etc. The fact that Islamic tradition prohibits the depiction of living creatures, notably the human form, has made for some very creative, as well as bizarre, modern art. These include a giant geometry set, a giant bicycle, and a huge block of concrete with several cars protruding from it at odd angles. A monumental sculpture by Aref Rayess is devoted to Allah (God). Museums and collections[edit] There are about a dozen museums or collections in Jeddah, with varied educational aims and professionalism.[30] These include the Jeddah Regional Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography run by the Deputy Ministry of Antiquities and Museums, the Jeddah
Jeddah
Municipal Museum, the Nasseef House, the Humane Heritage Museum, the private Abdul Rauf Hasan Khalil Museum and the private Arts Heritage Museum. Media[edit] Jeddah
Jeddah
is served by four major Arabic-language newspapers, Asharq Al-Awsat, Al Madina, Okaz, and Al Bilad, as well as two major English-language newspapers, the Saudi Gazette
Saudi Gazette
and Arab
Arab
News. Okaz and Al-Madina are the primary newspapers of Jeddah
Jeddah
and some other Saudi cities, with over a million readers; their focus is mainly local. Internet blogs specifically informative of locality are abundant in Jeddah, catering mostly to the widespread expatriate population. Of these are constituted websites that have garnered international acclaim for informativeness, such as Jeddah
Jeddah
Blog, the recipient of the Bronze Expat Blog Award in 2012 and the Gold Award in 2013 and is among Feedspot's Top 100 Middle East
Middle East
blogs.[31][32] Other amateur websites catering to specific topics in the region exist as well. Jeddah
Jeddah
represents the largest radio and television market in Saudi Arabia. Television stations serving the city area include Saudi TV1, Saudi TV2, Saudi TV Sports, Al Ekhbariya, the ART channels network and hundreds of cable, satellite and other specialty television providers. The Jeddah TV Tower is a 250 m (820 ft) high television tower with an observation deck. Accent[edit] Main article: Hejazi Arabic The Jeddah
Jeddah
region's distinctive speech pattern is called the Hejazi dialect; it is among the most recognizable accents within the Arabic language. Cityscape[edit]

Skyline of Al-Balad ( Jeddah
Jeddah
Downtown)

Buildings in Old Jeddah

Old Jeddah[edit] Main article: Al-Balad, Jeddah The Old City with its traditional multistory buildings and merchant houses has lost ground to more modern developments. Nonetheless, the Old City contributes to Saudi cultural identity, preserving traditional buildings Resorts and hotels[edit] The city has many popular resorts, including Durrat Al-Arus, Al-Nawras Mövenpick resort at the Red Sea
Red Sea
Corniche, Crystal Resort, Radisson Blu, The Signature Al Murjan Beach Resort, Al Nakheel Village, Sands, and Sheraton Abhur. Many are renowned for their preserved Red Sea marine life and offshore coral reefs. Consulates[edit] One of two consulates of the United States
United States
of America in Saudi Arabia is located in Jeddah, along with consulates for 67 other countries such as Afghanistan, the United Kingdom, Indonesia, France, Germany, Greece, Turkey, Philippines, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Italy, Russia
Russia
and People's Republic of China, as well as countries of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
and the Arab
Arab
League states. Historical Jeddah[edit] Historical Jeddah
Jeddah
is situated on the eastern shore of the Red Sea. From the 7th century AD it was established as a major port for Indian Ocean trade routes, channelling goods to Mecca. It was also the gateway for Muslim pilgrims to Mecca
Mecca
who arrived by sea. These twin roles saw the city develop into a thriving multicultural centre, characterized by a distinctive architectural tradition, including tower houses built in the late 19th century by the city’s mercantile elites, and combining Red Sea
Red Sea
coastal coral building traditions with influences and crafts from along the trade routes.[33] Within a defensive wall that was built during Ottoman rule, the old city of Jeddah, Al-Balad, was divided into districts, or Haras, where business and trade centred around traditional souks, or market places, and khans, covered markets that were generally connected to shops. There are also a number of Dyran (plural of Dar) or Beiut (plural of Beit) which are old houses belonging to old families that inhabited the city, and historic mosques dating as far back as the 7thcentury AD. Harrat Al-Mathloum (District of the Wronged)[edit] Located in the North East, this district was named after Abdulkarim Al-Barzangi, a Hijazi rebel who was crucified by the Ottomans, some of its landmarks are:

Dar Al-Qabil Dar Al-Ba'ashin Dar Al-Sheikh Al-Shafi'i Mosque

The oldest mosque in town, its minaret was built in the 13th century, and its pillars date back to Ottoman rule.

Mosque
Mosque
of Uthman bin Affan

Also called the Ebony Mosque
Mosque
because of its two ebony pillars, it was mentioned in the writings of Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
and Ibn Jubayr.

Al-Mia'mar Mosque

An old mosque built in the 17th century.

Beit Nasseef

Souq Al-Jama

One of the oldest markets in town. Harrat Al-Sham (The Levantine District)[edit] Located in the north and named after its orientation, some of its landmarks are:

Dar Al-Serti Dar Al-Zahid Dar Al-Banajah Al-Basha Mosque

Built by Bakr Basha, the governor of Jeddah
Jeddah
in 1735 AD. Harrat Al- Yemen
Yemen
(The Yemeni District)[edit] Located in the south and is also named after its orientation, its landmarks include:

Beit Nasseef

Beit Bajanaid

By far the most famous site in the old town, it was built in 1881 for Omar Nassif Efendi, governor of Jeddah
Jeddah
at the time, and served as the royal residence of King Abdulaziz after conquering the city.

Dar Al-Jamjom Dar Al-Sha'araoui Dar Al-Abdulsamad Dar Al-Kayal Beit Al-Matbouli Beit Al-Joghadar

Harrat Al-Bahar (The Seafront District)[edit] Located in the south west, some of its landmarks are:

Dar Al-Radwan Dar Al-Nimr

Landmarks[edit]

Bab Makkah

Abdul Raouf Khalil Museum[edit] Founded by Sheikh Abdul Raouf Khalil in 1996, this museum not only presents the rich Islamic cultural heritage of the city but also its preislamic history that goes back to 2500 years; it traces the various civilizations that inhabited the region. Located in the downtown district, it boasts of large collection of items and artifacts belonging to the Ottoman Turks and the fishermen tribes who were the first inhabitants of the region.[34] King Fahd's Fountain[edit] Main article: King Fahd's Fountain

King Fahd's Fountain
King Fahd's Fountain
in Jeddah.

King Fahd's Fountain
King Fahd's Fountain
was built in the 1980s, can be seen from a great distance and, at 312 metres (1,024 ft), is the highest water jet in the world according to the Guinness World Records.[35] The fountain was donated to the City of Jeddah
Jeddah
by the late King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz, after whom it was named. Al-Rahmah Mosque[edit] Sometimes referred to as the floating mosque because of it being built above water, this fascinating mix of the old architecture and the new was built in 1985. It is a popular spot among tourists and natives looking to lounge by the seaside. Al-Jawhara Stadium[edit] Main article: King Abdullah Sports City Is a new stadium launched in 2014, located north of Jeddah, is used mostly for football, reaching a full capacity of 62,241 spectators. It is the largest stadium in Jeddah, and the second largest in Saudi Arabia. King Saud Mosque[edit] Main article: King Saud Mosque The largest mosque in the city. Built in 1987, it displays beautiful Islamic architecture. NCB Tower[edit] Main article: National Commercial Bank Built in 1983 and believed to be the highest tower in Saudi Arabia during the 1980s, with a height of over 235 m (771 ft), the National Commercial Bank
National Commercial Bank
was Saudi Arabia's first bank. IDB Tower[edit] Main article: Islamic Development Bank The Islamic Development Bank
Islamic Development Bank
is a multilateral development financing institution. It was founded by the first conference of Finance Ministers of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC, now the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation), convened 18 December 1973. The bank officially began its activities on 20 October 1975. Jeddah
Jeddah
Municipality Tower[edit] Main article: Jeddah
Jeddah
Municipality This is the headquarters of the metropolitan area of Jeddah. The municipality's new building is one of Jeddah's tallest. Jeddah
Jeddah
Tower[edit] Main article: Jeddah
Jeddah
Tower This proposed tower, formerly known as the Kingdom Tower, is being built in Jeddah
Jeddah
by Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal and will stand 1-kilometre (0.62 mi) tall. Upon its completion, it will be the tallest skyscraper in the world. The building has been scaled down from its initial 1.6 km (1 mi) proposal, since the ground proved unsuitable for a building that tall, to a height of at least 1,000 metres (3,280.84 ft) (the exact height is being kept private while in development, similar to the Burj Khalifa),[36] which, at about one kilometre (0.62 miles), would still make it by far the tallest building or structure in the world to date,[37] standing at least 173 m (568 ft) taller than the Burj Khalifa
Burj Khalifa
in Dubai. Construction began in April 2013 and is scheduled for completion in 2019.[38] King Road Tower[edit] Main article: King Road Tower King Road Tower
King Road Tower
is a commercial and office building, the external walls of which are used to show commercials. The building also has a helipad on its roof. King Road Tower
King Road Tower
has the largest LED display in the world on its walls. Al Jawharah Tower[edit] Main article: Al Jawharah Tower Al Jawharah Tower
Al Jawharah Tower
is a residential high-rise under construction. It became the third-tallest structure in Jeddah
Jeddah
when completed in 2014.

The world's tallest flagpole

Jeddah
Jeddah
Flagpole[edit] See also: Jeddah
Jeddah
Flagpole The King Abdullah Square on the intersection of Andalus Road with King Abdullah Road has the world's tallest flagpole. It is 171 metres (561 feet) high and the Saudi flag atop it weighs 570 kilograms (1,260 pounds). On the 84th Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
National Day, September 23, 2014, the flagpole hoisted a huge Saudi flag before a crowd of thousands. The flagpole succeeded Dushanbe Flagpole
Dushanbe Flagpole
as the tallest flagpole in the world.[39] Entrance of Mecca[edit]

Quran
Quran
Gate, Entrance to Makkah, Makkah Gate

The Mecca
Mecca
Gate, named the " Quran
Quran
Gate", is located on the Makkah Mukkarram road of the Jeddah
Jeddah
- Mecca
Mecca
Highway. It is the entrance to Mecca
Mecca
and the birthplace of Muhammad. The gate signifies the boundary of the haram area of the city of Mecca, where non-Muslims are prohibited to enter. The gate was designed in 1979 by an Egyptian architect, Samir Elabd, for the architectural firm IDEA Center. The structure is that of a book, representing the Quran, sitting on a rehal, or book stand.[40] Education[edit] Schools, colleges and universities[edit] See also: List of universities and colleges in Saudi Arabia As of 2005[update], Jeddah
Jeddah
had 849 public and private schools for male students and another 1,179 public and private schools for female students.[41] The medium of instruction in both public and private schools is typically Arabic, with emphasis on English as a second language. However, some private schools administered by foreign entities conduct classes in English. As of 2005[update], Jeddah
Jeddah
also had four Philippine international schools, with two more scheduled to open shortly afterward.[42] Jeddah's universities and colleges include the following:

Laboratories at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)

King Abdulaziz University King Abdullah University of Science and Technology Arab
Arab
Open University Dar Al-Hekma College Effat University University of Business and Technology (UBT) Teacher's College Jeddah
Jeddah
College of Technology Jeddah
Jeddah
Private College College of Health Care College of Telecom & Electronics College of Community Private College of Business Ibn Sina National College for Medical Studies Batterjee Medical College Prince Sultan
Sultan
College of Tourism Prince Sultan
Sultan
Aviation Academy Islamic Fiqh Academy Jeddah
Jeddah
Institute for Speech and Hearing Saudi German Institute for Nursing

Jeddah
Jeddah
is also home to several primary, intermediate and secondary schools such as:

Pakistan
Pakistan
International School Jeddah
Jeddah
(PISJ)

Jeddah
Jeddah
Knowledge International School American International School of Jeddah Jeddah
Jeddah
International School Zahrat Al-Sahraa International school (ZSIS) Cedar International School British International School of Jeddah (Continental, BISJ) École Française Internationale de Djeddah German International School Jeddah Al-Thager Model School International Indian School Jeddah
International Indian School Jeddah
(IISJ) Pakistan
Pakistan
International School Jeddah
Jeddah
(PISJ) DPS Jeddah
Jeddah
Al-Falah International School International Philippine School in Jeddah Jeddah
Jeddah
Japanese School Korean International School of Jeddah
Jeddah
(KISJ; 젯다한국국제학교)[43] Al-Waha International School Beladi International School Jeddah Yusr International School Al-Afaq International School Manarat Jeddah
Jeddah
Schools Gharnatah International School Al Wurood International School Jeddah
Jeddah
[AWIS] Bangladesh
Bangladesh
International School Jeddah
Jeddah
(BISESJ) Bader International School Nobles International School Dauha Al Uloom International School (DAUISJ) Al-Fath Schools al-aqsa private schools Dar Al-Fikr Schools (DAF) Al-Fanar School Jeddah Dar Al-Thikr Schools Hala International School (HIS) Jeddah
Jeddah
International Turkish School (JITS) Jeddah
Jeddah
Prep and Grammar School (JPGS) Al Hamraa Girls' School Building Blocks (private school) Dar Jana International School (DJIS) Al Mawarid International School Jeddah
Jeddah
[AMIS] Pioneer International School Duaa International School Jeddah
Jeddah
(DISJ) Nhaond School Number 18 High School Number 25 Secondary School Tuletelah High school Bangladesh
Bangladesh
International School And College(Bangla Section) Jeddah (BISCJ) Al-Afkar International School Waad Academy School

Libraries[edit] The central library at King Abdulaziz University(main branch) is a five story building that has a large collection of Arabic
Arabic
and English language books, rare books and documents as well as access to several online databases. It is open for public access and allows borrowing of books after requesting a library card. Saturdays are dedicated for female visitors.[44] King Abdul Aziz Public Library is a philanthropic institution which was founded and supported by the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz, Chairman of its Board of Directors. Established in 1985, the library was officially opened by the King on 27 February 1987. It emphasises Islamic and Arabic
Arabic
heritage and history of the Kingdom. The library is divided into three branches (men's, women's, and children's).[45] The limited number of libraries is criticized by the public. As a result, King Abdullah, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, has approved the King Abdullah Project for the Development of Public Libraries, and approximately SAR150 million is budgeted to be spent.[46] Sports[edit] Jeddah
Jeddah
is the home of 2 biggest well-known football clubs teams Al-Ittihad and Alahli.Both teams play their league matches at King Abdullah Stadium which is located northern part of Jeddah
Jeddah
nearby King Abdelaziz Airport The city is home to the 2015 Saudi Arabian basketball Champion Al-Ittihad Jeddah, which plays its home games in the Prince Abdullah Al-Faisal Basketball Arena.[47] Transport[edit]

King Abdulaziz International Airport

Jeddah
Jeddah
Seaport

King Abdullah Street

Airport[edit] Main article: King Abdulaziz International Airport Jeddah
Jeddah
is served by King Abdulaziz International Airport. The airport has four passenger terminals. One is the Hajj
Hajj
Terminal, a special outdoor terminal covered by large white tents, which was constructed to handle the more than two million pilgrims who pass through the airport during the Hajj
Hajj
season. The Southern Terminal is used for Saudia
Saudia
and Flynas
Flynas
(As of 15 April 2015, these are the only airlines based in Saudi Arabia) flights, while the Northern Terminal serves foreign airlines. A plan for the extension of the airport is being developed. The Royal Terminal is a special terminal reserved for VIPs, foreign kings and presidents, and the Saudi Royal Family. A portion of the airport, King Abdullah Air Base, was used by Coalition B-52 heavy bombers during Operation Desert Storm
Operation Desert Storm
in 1991. Seaport[edit] Main article: Jeddah
Jeddah
Seaport The Jeddah Seaport
Jeddah Seaport
is the 32nd busiest seaport in the world as of 2008[update]. It handles the majority of Saudi Arabia's commercial movement. Roads and rails[edit] Highway 40, which begins in Jeddah, connects the city to Mecca, Riyadh and Dammam
Dammam
on the east coast. Jeddah
Jeddah
does not have any rapid transit system, but a rail system connecting the city to Riyadh
Riyadh
is now under construction. The Haramain High Speed Rail Project
Haramain High Speed Rail Project
will provide a connection to Mecca
Mecca
and Medina.[48] There is a contracted plan to build an extensive light metro system known as the Jeddah
Jeddah
Metro, throughout the city by 2020.[49] Jeddah's main highways run parallel to each other. Issues and challenges[edit] The city is challenged by pollution, weak sewage systems, a weak storm drain system that led to massive floodings, heavy traffic, epidemics, and water shortages. Pollution and environment[edit] Air pollution is a problem for Jeddah, particularly on hot summer days. The city has experienced bush fires, landfill fires, and pollution from the two industrial zones in the north and the south of the metropolitan area. A water treatment factory and the seaport also contribute to water pollution. Much of the seafront, however, is considered to be safe and clean. Ramboll
Ramboll
has acted as Environmental Consultant on the Jeddah
Jeddah
Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact Assessment
as well as the Jeddah
Jeddah
Environmental Social Masterplan.[50] Terrorism[edit] On 6 December 2004, a group of five men associated with the terrorist group Al-Qaeda (Al-Qaeda Organization in the Arabian Peninsula) conducted a mid-day attack on the U.S. Consulate, which killed five Consulate workers. The group was led by Fayez ibn Awwad Al-Jeheni, a former member of Saudi religious police. Two other assailants were subsequently identified by the Saudi authorities as residents of Jeddah's Al-Jamia suburb and other slums on Saudi Arabia's increasingly urbanised west coast. Buildings were attacked, hostages taken and used as human shields, and the U.S. and non-U.S. staff were under siege, although the chancery/consular section building itself was never penetrated.[51] Closed circuit video feeds documented that the Saudi security personnel assigned to protect the facility fled when the vehicle holding the terrorists pulled up to the front gate and ran past the Delta barrier.[52] Inside the compound, however, an armed Saudi security guard employed by the embassy shot and killed one terrorist before being fatally shot himself. The attackers spread and ignited a flammable liquid on the front of the chancery building, and opened fire on the front doors, both of which actions did not have any penetrating effect. The Consulate's U.S. Marines released tear gas in front of the chancery building, but the terrorists had already left that location. More than an hour later, Saudi special forces made it through traffic and, along with others from their unit who arrived in a helicopter, fought to retake the compound. Two of the terrorists were killed in the final fight, with another dying later in hospital and the final militant being captured alive. Four Saudi special forces and a further 10 hostages were wounded in the crossfire.[51][53][54] The five Foreign Service National employees who died during the terrorist attack were Ali Yaslem Bin Talib, Imad e-Deen Musa Ali, Romeo de la Rosa, Mohammed Baheer Uddin and Jaufar Sadik. The casualties came from Yemen, Sudan, Philippines, India
India
and Sri Lanka.[55] The attack underscores the ongoing vulnerabilities of Westerners to threats and terrorist actions in Jeddah
Jeddah
and environs. In a communiqué posted in online publications such as Sawt al-Jihad (Voice of Jihad) and Mu'askar al-Battar (Al-Battar Training Camp), Al-Qaeda hinted at the symbolic nature of the U.S. Consulate attack, stating: "Know that the Mujahideen are determined to continue on their path, and they will not be weakened by what has happened to them."[51] Terrorist activities have persisted from 2004 to the present day. In 2004 there was an unsuccessful shooting attack on a U.S. Marine visiting the Saudi American Bank and an attempt to simultaneously explode car bombs at Saudi American Bank and Saudi British Bank branches in Jeddah
Jeddah
on the anniversary of the 2001 "9-11" terrorist attacks on the U.S.[56] On 26 August 2012, a spokesman for the Interior Ministry announced that terrorists were arrested in Jeddah who had been preparing explosives for attacks within the kingdom.[57] Traffic[edit] Roads and highways within and exiting the city are frequently clogged with traffic. Mass transit is rare and planning is nascent; most Jeddawi adults have at least one car. Motorcycles are rare on the roads, further impacting the traffic patterns. Days immediately preceding and following the holy days are particularly noisome and cost hundreds of thousands many hours because of traffic jams. The Saudi Gazette
Saudi Gazette
reports that there is a plan in the works to tackle the traffic issue. A reported 3 billion Saudi Riyals will be put into constructing flyovers and underpasses in an effort to expedite traffic. The plan is scheduled to take about five years from its start to finish.[58] Sewage[edit] Prior to the construction of a waste treatment plant, Jeddah's waste water was disposed of by either discharge into the sea or via absorption into deep underground pits. As the city grew, a proper waste management plant was created and the built up part of the city was connected with a sewer system by the 1970s.[citation needed] However, even with the ever-increasing population, the original sewer system has hardly been expanded. The original plant cannot cope with the amount of waste inundating it daily. As a result, some untreated sewage is discharged directly into the sea and the entire northern part of the city remains completely unconnected to the sewage system, instead relying on septic tanks. This has been responsible for the large number of sewage tankers. In late 2011, a storm drainage system was built in the south Jeddah area (similar to that of the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
storm drain) to reduce the risk of floods.[59] 2009 Jeddah
Jeddah
floods[edit]

A tunnel in King Abdullah St. was filled with water during the 2009 floods.

Main article: 2009 Jeddah
Jeddah
floods On 25 November 2009, heavy floods affected the city and other areas of Makkah Province.[60][61] The floods were described by civil defence officials as the worst in 27 years.[62] As of 26 November 2009[update], 77 people were reported to have been killed,[63] and more than 350 were missing.[60] Some roads were under a metre (three feet) of water on 26 November, and many of the victims were believed to have drowned in their cars. At least 3,000 vehicles were swept away or damaged.[60][63][64] The death toll was expected to rise as flood waters receded, allowing rescuers to reach stranded vehicles.[65]

A tunnel in King Abdullah St. was filled with water during the 2011 floods.

2011 Jeddah
Jeddah
floods[edit] On 26 January 2011, again, heavy floods affected the city and other areas of Makkah Province. The cumulative rainfall exceeded the 90 mm (3.5 in) recorded in four hours during the 25 November 2009 flash floods. Streets including Palestine Street, Madinah Road and Wali Al-Ahad Street were either flooded or jammed with traffic. Cars were seen floating in some places. Meanwhile, eyewitnesses told local newspaper Arab
Arab
News that East Jeddah
Jeddah
was swamped and floodwater was rushing west towards the Red Sea, turning streets into rivers once again. 2015 Jeddah
Jeddah
floods[edit] On 17 November 2015, heavy floods affected the city. Streets affected by the flood include Palestine Street, Madinah Road and many others. Cars were seen burning, and many trees fell as a result of the violent flood.[66] 3 deaths were also reported. 2 of the fatalities (including a child) were hit by lightning while crossing a street. 2017 Jeddah
Jeddah
floods[edit] On 21 November 2017, heavy floods affected the city and Jeddah
Jeddah
Islamic Port stopped operations for about 3 hours. Jeddah
Jeddah
police received 11,000 phone calls on 911 from people enquiring about alternative roads and weather conditions.[67] There were 250 reports of electrocution. Five people were electrocuted, two died. Districts[edit] Metropolitan Jeddah
Jeddah
comprises 137 districts: (transliterated from Arabic)

Al-Murjan Al-Basateen Al-Mohamadiya Ash-Shati An-Nahda An-Naeem An-Nozha Az-Zahraa As-Salamah Al-Bawadi Ar-Rabwa As-Safa Al-Khalidiya Ar-Rawdha Al-Faysaliya Al-Andalus Al-Aziziya Ar-Rihab Al-Hamraa Al-Mosharafa Ar-Roweis Ash-Sharafiya Bani Malik Al-Woroud An-Naseem Al-Baghdadiya Ash-Sharqiya Al-Amariya Al-Hindawiya As-Saheifa Al-Kandra As-Sulaimaniya Al-Thaalba As-Sabeel Al-Qurayat Gholail An-Nozla Al-Yamaniya Al-Nozla Ash-Sharqiya Al-Taghr Al-Jamaa Madayin Al-Fahad Ar-Rawabi Al-Wazeeriya Petromin Al-Mahjar Prince Abdel Majeed Obhour Al-Janobiya Al-Marwa AL-Fayhaa King Abdul Al-Aziz University Al-Baghdadiya Al-Gharbiya Al-Balad Al-Ajwad Al-Manar As-Samer Abruq Ar-Roghama Madinat As-Sultan Um Hablain Al-Hamdaniya Al-Salhiya Mokhatat Al-Aziziya Mokhatat Shamal Al-Matar Mokhatat Ar-Riyadh Mokhatat Al-Huda Braiman Al-Salam Al-Mostawdaat Al-Montazahat Kilo 14 Al-Harazat Um As-Salam Mokhtat Zahrat Ash-Shamal Al-Majid Gowieza Al-Gozain Al-Kuwait Al-Mahrogat Al-Masfa Al-Matar Al-Gadeem (old airport) Al-Bokhariya An-Nour Bab Shareif Bab Makkah Bahra Al-Amir Fawaz Wadi Fatma Obhour Shamaliya At-Tarhil (deportation) Al-Iskan Al-janoubi At-Tawfeeq Al-Goaid Al-Jawhara Al-Jamoum Al-Khumra Ad-Difaa Al-Jawi (Air Defense) Ad-Dageeg Ar-Robou Ar-Rabie Ar-Rehaily As-Salmiya As-Sanabil As-Sinaiya (Bawadi) Industrial City (Mahjar) Al-Adl Al-Olayia Al-Faihaa Al-Karanteena Al-Ajaweed Al-Ahmadiya Al-Mosadiya East Al-Khat As-Sarei Kilo 10 King Faisal Navy Base Kilo 7 Kilo 45 King Faisal Guard City Kilo 11 Thowal Kilo 13 Al-Makarona Al-Layth Al-Gonfoda Rabegh Kilo 8 Kilo 5 Kilo 2 Al-Mokhwa National Guard Residence As-Showag Air Defense Residence Al-Morsalat Ash-Shoola Al-Corniche Al-Waha Mokhatat Al-Haramain Kholais Al-Rhmanya

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

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Jeddah
Jeddah
has 35 sister cities (or "twin towns") which are selected based on economic, cultural and political criteria.

Gorzów Wielkopolski, Poland Los Angeles, United States Adana, Turkey Tunis, Tunisia Alexandria, Egypt Almaty, Kazakhstan Amman, Jordan Tabriz, Iran Chittagong, Bangladesh Baku, Azerbaijan Cairo, Egypt Casablanca, Morocco Istanbul, Turkey[68] Jakarta, Indonesia Surabaya, Indonesia Pekanbaru, Indonesia Medan, Indonesia Johor Bahru, Malaysia Kuching, Malaysia Karachi, Pakistan Kazan, Russia Marbella, Spain Mary, Turkmenistan Dubai, United Arab
Arab
Emirates Odessa, Ukraine Oran, Algeria Osh, Kyrgyzstan Plovdiv, Bulgaria Shimonoseki, Japan Saint Petersburg, Russia Taipei, Taiwan[69] Xi'an, China

See also[edit]

Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
portal

Bibliography of the history of Jeddah List of cities and towns in Saudi Arabia

Notes[edit]

^ "Abu Ras promises new Jeddah". Saudigazette.com.sa. 2010-08-19. Archived from the original on 2012-03-02. Retrieved 2011-04-17.  ^ "Population". Statistical Yearbook 50 (2014). Central Department Of Statistics & Information. Archived from the original on 21 February 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2016.  ^ "The Saudis may be stretching out the hand of peace to their old foes". The Economist. 7 September 2017. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ http://ae.zawya.com/story.cfm/sidZAWYA20100727050049/comment ^ "2thinknow Innovation Cities™ Emerging 11 Index 2009 - Middle East, Africa and Former USSR States 2009". Innovation-cities.com. 2009-11-12. Retrieved 2011-04-17.  ^ Jayussi, Salma; Manṣūr Ibrāhīm Ḥāzimī; ʻIzzat ibn ʻAbd al-Majīd Khaṭṭāb Beyond the Dunes I B Tauris & Co Ltd (28 April 2006), p. 295. ISBN 978-1-85043-972-1 [1] ^ Ibn Battota's Safari. Tuhfat Al-Nothaar Fe Gharaa'ib Al-Amsaar. Chapter: "From Cairo
Cairo
to Hejaz
Hejaz
to Tunisia
Tunisia
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References[edit]

Farsi, Hani M.S. (Mohamed Said). Jeddah: city of art: the sculptures and monuments. London: Stacey International, 1991. ISBN 0-905743-66-0 Facey, William & Grant, Gillian. Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
by the First Photographers. ISBN 0-905743-74-1 Tarabulsi, Mohammed Yosuf. Jeddah: A Story of a City. Riyadh: King Fahd National Library, 2006. ISBN 9960-52-413-2 John F. Keane. Six months in the Hejaz : journeys to Makkah and Madinah 1877-1989. Manchester: Barzan Publishing, 2006. ISBN 0-9549701-1-X Al-Khaldi, Ibrahim. The Bedouin Photographer - Al-Mosawwir Al-Badawi. Kuwait, 2004. Badr El-Hage. Saudi Arabia : caught in time 1861-1939. Published by Garnet, Reading, 1997. ISBN 1-85964-090-7 Captain G. S. Froster. A trip Across the Peninsula - Rehla Abr Al-Jazeera. Mombai, India, 1866. From Bullard to Mr Chamberlain. Jeddah, 1925 Feb. (No.# secrets) - Archived Post. Al-Rehani. Nejd
Nejd
and Its Followers. Al-Turki, Thuraya. Jeddah: Um Al-Rakha wal Sheddah. Published by Dar Al-Shrooq. Al-Harbi, Dalal. King Abdulaziz and his Strategies to deal with events : Events of Jeddah. King Abdulaziz National Library, 2003. ISBN 9960-624-88-9 Didier, Charles. Séjour Chez Le Grand-Cherif De La Mekke. Librairie De L. Hachette et, Rue Pierre. Didier, Charles. Rehla Ela Al-Hejaz: A trip to Hejaz. Translated from "Séjour Chez Le Grand-Cherif De La Mekke" into Arabic. Paris, 1854. ISBN 9960-677-14-1

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