Jeane Duane Kirkpatrick (née Jordan; November 19, 1926 – December
7, 2006) was an American diplomat and political scientist. An ardent
anticommunist, she was a longtime Democrat who became a Republican in
1985. After serving as Ronald Reagan's foreign policy adviser in his
1980 campaign, she became the first woman to serve as US Ambassador to
the United Nations.
She was known for the "Kirkpatrick Doctrine", which advocated
supporting authoritarian regimes around the world if they went along
with Washington's aims. She believed that they could be led into
democracy by example. She wrote, "traditional authoritarian
governments are less repressive than revolutionary autocracies."
Kirkpatrick served on Reagan's Cabinet on the National Security
Council, Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, Defense Policy Review
Board, and chaired the Secretary of Defense Commission on Fail Safe
and Risk reduction of the Nuclear Command and Control System. She
wrote a syndicated newspaper column after leaving government service
in 1985, specializing in analysis of the activities of the United
1 Early life
3 Ambassador to UN
3.1 Views on Israel
4 Political views
5 Later life
6 Personal life
8 Awards and honors
9 In popular culture
10 Books authored
11 See also
13 External links
She was born in Duncan, Oklahoma, the daughter of an oilfield
wildcatter, Welcher F. Jordan, and his wife, Leona (née Kile). She
attended Emerson Elementary School there and was known to her
classmates as "Duane Jordan." She had a younger sibling, Jerry. At 12,
her father moved the family to Mt. Vernon, Illinois, where she
graduated from Mt. Vernon Township High School. In 1948, she graduated
Barnard College of
Columbia University after she received her
associate degree from
Stephens College (then only a two-year
institution) in Columbia, Missouri. In 1968, Kirkpatrick earned a PhD
in political science from Columbia.
She spent a year of postgraduate study at
Sciences Po at the
University of Paris, which helped her learn French. She was fluent in
Though she ultimately became a conservative, as a college freshman in
1945 she joined the Young People's
Socialist League, the youth wing of
Socialist Party of America, influenced by her grandfather who was
a founder of the Populist and
Socialist parties in Oklahoma. As
Kirkpatrick recalled at a symposium in 2002:
It wasn't easy to find the YPSL in Columbia, Missouri. But I had read
about it and I wanted to be one. We had a very limited number of
activities in Columbia, Missouri. We had an anti-Franco rally, which
was a worthy cause. You could raise a question about how relevant it
was likely to be in Columbia, Missouri, but it was in any case a
worthy cause. We also planned a socialist picnic, which we spent quite
a lot of time organizing. Eventually, I regret to say, the YPSL
chapter, after much discussion, many debates and some downright
quarrels, broke up over the socialist picnic. I thought that was
At Columbia University, her principal adviser was Franz Leopold
Neumann, a revisionist Marxist. In 1967, she joined the faculty of
Georgetown University and became a full professor of government in
1973. She became active in politics as a Democrat in the 1970s and was
involved in the later campaigns of former Vice President and
Democratic presidential candidate Hubert Humphrey. Along with
Humphrey, she was close to Henry Jackson, who ran for the Democratic
nomination for President in 1972 and in 1976.
She was opposed to the candidacy of George McGovern. In 1976, she
Richard V. Allen
Richard V. Allen and others to found the Committee on the
Present Danger for the purpose of warning Americans against the Soviet
Union's growing military power and the dangers of the SALT II
treaty. She also served on the Platform Committee for the
Democratic Party in 1976.
Kirkpatrick published a number of articles in political science
journals reflecting her disillusionment with the Democratic Party with
specific criticism of the foreign policy of Democratic President Jimmy
Carter. Her most well known piece was "Dictatorships and Double
Standards", published in Commentary in November 1979.
In that piece, Kirkpatrick mentioned what she saw as a difference
between authoritarian regimes and the totalitarian regimes such as the
Soviet Union; sometimes, it was necessary to work with authoritarian
regimes if it suited American purposes: "No idea holds greater sway
in the mind of educated Americans than the belief that it is possible
to democratize governments, anytime and anywhere, under any
circumstances ... Decades, if not centuries, are normally
required for people to acquire the necessary disciplines and habits.
In Britain, the road [to democratic government] took seven centuries
to traverse ... The speed with which armies collapse,
bureaucracies abdicate, and social structures dissolve once the
autocrat is removed frequently surprises American policymakers."
Jeane Kirkpatrick (center) with the other members of the Reagan
Kirkpatrick (left, in red) among the Reagan Cabinet, 1984
The piece came to the attention of
Ronald Reagan through his National
Security Adviser Richard V. Allen. Kirkpatrick then became a
foreign policy adviser throughout Reagan's 1980 campaign and
presidency and, after his election to the presidency, Ambassador to
the United Nations, which she held for four years. The Economist
writes that until then, "she had never spent time with a Republican
On the way to her first meeting with him, she told Allen, "Listen,
Dick, I am an
AFL-CIO Democrat and I am quite concerned that my
Ronald Reagan on any basis will be misunderstood." She
asked Reagan if he minded having a lifelong Democrat on his team; he
replied that he himself had been a Democrat until he was 51, and in
any event, he liked her way of thinking about American foreign
She was one of the strongest supporters of Argentina's military
dictatorship following the March 1982 Argentine invasion of the United
Kingdom's Falkland Islands, which triggered the Falklands War.
Kirkpatrick had a "soft spot" for Argentina's General Leopoldo
Galtieri and favored neutrality rather than the pro-British policy
favored by Secretary of State Alexander Haig. Kirkpatrick, who,
according to British UN Ambassador Sir Anthony Parsons, was very mixed
up with Latin American policy, even went as far as supporting the
Argentinian dictatorship by urging the Reagan Administration to act as
outlined as in the
Rio Pact of 1947, which stated that an attack
against one state in the hemisphere should be considered an attack
against them all.
Sir Nicholas Henderson allegedly characterized her
in a diplomatic cable as "more fool than fascist ... she appears
to be one of America's own-goal scorers, tactless, wrong-headed,
ineffective, and a dubious tribute to the academic profession to which
she [expresses] her allegiance." The Reagan administration
ultimately decided to declare support for the British, making her vote
United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council Resolution 502.
At the 1984 Republican National Convention, she delivered the "Blame
America First" keynote speech, which renominated Reagan by praising
his administration's foreign policy while excoriating the
leadership of what she called the "
San Francisco Democrats" (the
Democrats had just held their convention in San Francisco) for the
party's shift away from the policies of
Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman and John F.
Kennedy to a more strident antiwar position for which the left-wing of
the Democratic Party had pushed since the Vietnam War. It was the
first time since the 1952 speech from
Douglas MacArthur that a
non-party member had delivered the Republican Convention's keynote
Kirkpatrick, a member of the National Security Council, did not get
along with either Secretary of State Haig or his successor, George
Shultz. She disagreed with Shultz, most notably on the Iran-Contra
affair in which she supported skimming money off arms sales to fund
the Nicaraguan Contras while Shultz told Kirkpatrick that it would
be an "impeachable offense" to do so because of the massacres
perpetrated by that group. Shultz threatened to resign if
Kirkpatrick was appointed National Security Adviser. Kirkpatrick
was more closely allied with Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger
and head of the
William J. Casey
William J. Casey on the issue.
Noam Chomsky, for example, referred to her as the "Chief
sadist-in-residence of the Reagan Administration" and went on to
criticize what he called the hypocrisy of supporting brutal military
regimes that showed no respect for human rights or democracy while
claiming to be protecting the region from communism. Author Lars
Schoultz has argued that her policy was based on her belief that
"Latin Americans are pathologically violent" and goes on to criticize
that as a prejudice with no factual basis.
Ambassador to UN
Kirkpatrick with President
Ronald Reagan in the Oval Office.
Kirkpatrick said, "What takes place in the Security Council more
closely resembles a mugging than either a political debate or an
effort at problem-solving." Still, she finished her term with a
certain respect for the normative power of the
United Nations as the
"institution whose majorities claim the right to decide—for the
world—what is legitimate and what is illegitimate." She noted
that the United States had increasingly ignored that significance and
became increasingly isolated. That was problematic, because
"relative isolation in a body like the
United Nations is a sign of
impotence," especially given its ability to shape international
attitudes. She was ambassador to the UN during the September 1,
1983 Soviet shooting down of Korean Air Lines Flight 007, near Moneron
Island. It had carried 269 passengers and crew including a sitting
Larry McDonald (D-GA). She played before the Security
Council the audio of the electronic intercept of the interceptor pilot
during the attack, and the
Soviet Union could no longer deny its
responsibility for the shootdown.
Kirkpatrick was a Board Member of the American Foundation for
Resistance International and the National Council to Support the
Democracy Movements, intended to help bring down Soviet and East
European Communism. Along with Vladimir Bukovsky, Martin Colman and
Richard Perle, she worked to organize democratic revolutions against
According to Jay Nordlinger, on a visit with American dignitaries,
Soviet human rights activist
Andrei Sakharov said, "Kirkpatski,
Kirkpatski, which of you is Kirkpatski?" When others pointed to
Kirkpatrick, he said, "Your name is known in every cell in the Gulag"
because she had named Soviet political prisoners on the floor of the
UN. Kirkpatrick said she would serve only one term at the UN and
stepped down in April 1985.
Views on Israel
Kirkpatrick was a staunch supporter of Israel. During her
ambassadorship at the United Nations, she considered its frequent
criticism and condemnation of the Jewish state as holding
Israel to a
double standard, which she attributed to hostility and regarded as
politically motivated. In 1989, Mohammed Wahby, press director of
Egypt's Information Bureau, wrote to the Washington Post, "Jeane
Kirkpatrick has, somehow, consistently opposed any attempt to resolve
the Arab–Israeli conflict". However, in a 1989 op-ed, Kirkpatrick
warned Secretary of State
James Baker and Bush not to get involved in
the conflict because any intervention would fail.
Kirkpatrick frequently expressed disdain for what she perceived to be
disproportionate attention towards Israel's at the expense of others'
Anti-Defamation League President
Abraham Foxman issued a press release
upon her death: "She will be fondly remembered for her unwavering and
valiant support of the State of
Israel and her unequivocal opposition
to anti-Semitism, especially during her tenure at the United Nations.
She was always a true friend of the Jewish people."
Comparing authoritarian and totalitarian regimes, she said:
Authoritarian regimes really typically don't have complete command
Authoritarian regimes typically have some kind of
traditional economy with some private ownership. The Nazi regime left
ownership in private hands, but the state assumed control of the
economy. Control was separated from ownership but it was really a
command economy because it was controlled by the state. A command
economy is an attribute of a totalitarian state."
Explaining her disillusionment with international organizations,
especially the United Nations, she stated:
"As I watched the behavior of the nations of the U.N. (including our
own), I found no reasonable ground to expect any one of those
governments to transcend permanently their own national interests for
those of another country."
"I conclude that it is a fundamental mistake to think that salvation,
justice, or virtue come through merely human institutions."
Democracy not only requires equality but also an unshakable
conviction in the value of each person, who is then equal. Cross
cultural experience teaches us not simply that people have different
beliefs, but that people seek meaning and understand themselves in
some sense as members of a cosmos ruled by God."
Regarding socialism, she said:
"As I read the utopian socialists, the scientific socialists, the
German Social Democrats and revolutionary socialists—whatever I
could in either English or French—I came to the conclusion that
almost all of them, including my grandfather, were engaged in an
effort to change human nature. The more I thought about it, the more I
thought this was not likely to be a successful effort. So I turned my
attention more and more to political philosophy and less and less to
socialist activism of any kind."
In April 1985, Kirkpatrick became a Republican, a move which The
Economist called her "only recourse" after her speech at the 1984
Republican convention. She returned to teaching at Georgetown
University and became a fellow at the American Enterprise Institute, a
Washington D.C. think tank, and a contributor to the American Freedom
Journal. In 1993, she cofounded Empower America, a public-policy
organization. She was also on the advisory board of the National
Association of Scholars, a group that works against what it regards as
a liberal bias in universities in the United States, with its emphasis
on multicultural education, and affirmative action.
Kirkpatrick briefly considered running for President in 1988 against
George H. W. Bush, because she believed he was not tough enough on
Communism. Kirkpatrick endorsed Senator Robert Dole of Kansas,
who was the runner up to Bush. Despite a strong showing in the Iowa
caucuses, Dole's campaign quickly faded after he lost the New
Hampshire primary in February 1988. Kirkpatrick was an active
surrogate campaigner for Dole even as he was losing, as was her old
foe, Alexander Haig, who endorsed Dole after ending his own 1988
campaign several days before the New Hampshire primary.[citation
Empower America co-directors
William Bennett and Jack Kemp,
she called on the Congress to issue a formal declaration of war
against the "entire fundamentalist
Islamist terrorist network" the day
after the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center. In 2003, she
headed the US delegation to the
United Nations Commission on Human
Rights. Kirkpatrick was appointed to the Board of Directors of IDT
Corp. in 2004. It was revealed after her death that in 2003, she
was sent as a US envoy, to meet an Arab delegation and attempt to
convince them to support the Iraq War; she was supposed to argue that
pre-emptive war was justifiable, but she knew that it would not work
and instead argued that
Saddam Hussein had consistently gone against
the UN. However she described
George W. Bush
George W. Bush as "a bit too
interventionist for my taste" and felt that what she described as
"moral imperialism" was not "taken seriously anywhere outside a few
places in Washington, DC."
On February 20, 1955, she married Evron Maurice Kirkpatrick, who was a
scholar and a former member of the O.S.S. (the World War II-era
predecessor of the CIA). Her husband died in 1995. They had three
sons: Douglas Jordan (1956–2006), John Evron, and Stuart Alan.
She had been diagnosed with heart disease and had been in failing
health for several years. Kirkpatrick died at her home in Bethesda,
Maryland, on December 7, 2006 from congestive heart failure. She
was interred at
Parklawn Memorial Park in Rockville, Maryland.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Jeane Kirkpatrick
"When Marxist dictators shoot their way into power in Central America,
San Francisco Democrats don't blame the guerrillas and their
Soviet allies. They blame United States policies of one hundred years
ago. But then they always blame America first."
"Russia is playing chess, while we are playing Monopoly. The only
question is whether they will checkmate us before we bankrupt
"Americans need to face the truth about themselves, no matter how
pleasant it is."
"I don't think the government (of El Salvador) was responsible. The
nuns were not just nuns; the nuns were political activists. We ought
to be a little more clear-cut about this than we usually are. They
were political activists on behalf of the Frente and somebody who is
using violence to oppose the Frente killed them."
Awards and honors
Kirkpatrick received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's
highest civilian honor. The
Kennedy School of Government
Kennedy School of Government at Harvard
created a Kirkpatrick Chair in International Affairs in her honor.
She received an honorary doctorate degree from Universidad Francisco
Marroquín in 1985, she also received an honorary doctorate at
Central Connecticut State University in 1991.
She was awarded an honorary degree by
Brandeis University in 1994, but
declined it when her honor was met with protests from some professors
and students, whom she described as "ideological zealots". 53
professors opposed the award, with one[who?] stating: "We oppose the
degree because she was the intellectual architect of Reagan
administration policies that supported some of the Latin-American
regimes with the most repressive records."
In 1995 she received the Walter Judd Freedom Award from The Fund for
American Studies. In 2007, the Conservative Political Action
Conference (CPAC) honored Kirkpatrick with the creation of the Jeane
Kirkpatrick Academic Freedom Award. The first recipient was Marine
Corps reservist and correspondent Matt Sanchez. Kirkpatrick was
inducted into the
Oklahoma Women's Hall of Fame in 1984.
In popular culture
Kirkpatrick was portrayed by
Lorelei King in the 2002
of Ian Curteis's The Falklands Play.
In Berkeley Breathed's daily comic strip Bloom County, Kirkpatrick
becomes former Meadow Party Presidential candidate Bill the Cat's love
interest before he is exposed as using that relationship to perform
espionage for the Soviet Union.
A play written by Louis Nevaer, Reagan's Athena, about her tenure as
ambassador to the U.N. premiered at the Fringe in New York in August
Making War to Keep Peace, 2007 (ISBN 0-06-119543-X)
The Withering Away of the Totalitarian State – And Other Surprises,
1992 (ISBN 0-8447-3728-3)
Legitimacy and Force: National and International Dimensions, 1988
International Regulation: New Rules in a Changing World Order, 1988
Legitimacy and Force: Political and Moral Dimensions, 1988
Legitimacy and Force: State Papers and Current Perspectives
1981–1985, 1987 (ISBN 0-88738-647-4)
The United States and the World: Setting Limits, 1986
The Reagan Doctrine and U.S. Foreign Policy, 1985
Reagan Phenomenon and Other Speeches on Foreign Policy, 1983
U.N. Under Scrutiny, 1982 (ISBN 99938-872-9-3)
Dictatorships and Double Standards: Rationalism and Reason in
Politics, 1982 (ISBN 0-671-43836-0)
Presidential Nominating Process: Can It Be Improved, 1980
Dismantling the Parties: Reflections on Party Reform and Party
Decomposition, 1978 (ISBN 0-8447-3293-1)
The New Presidential Elite: Men and Women in National Politics, 1976
Political Woman, 1974 (ISBN 0-465-05970-8), the first major study
of women in American political life. It includes interviews with 50
successful political women, representing 26 states.
List of U.S. political appointments that crossed party lines
Dictatorships and Double Standards
List of notable
Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients
New York City portal
District of Columbia portal
^ a b c d e f g h "Jeane Kirkpatrick". The Economist. 2006-12-19.
^ "Middle Israel: The new world order". The Jerusalem Post.
2006-12-14. Retrieved 2007-08-16. [permanent dead link]
^ a b c "Jeane Kirkpatrick, Former United States Ambassador to The
United Nations, Joins IDT Corporation Board of Directors". IDT Europe.
2004-09-27. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved
^ a b c d e "
Jeane Kirkpatrick and the Cold War (audio)". NPR.
2006-12-08. Retrieved 2007-08-16.
^ a b c d e f g h i Cornwell, Rupert (December 11, 2006). "Jeane
Kirkpatrick". London, UK: The Independent. Archived from the original
on October 1, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-16.
^ a b c "Socialism: What Happened? What Now?". symposium transcript.
Notesonline and the New Economy Information Service. June 27, 2002.
Archived from the original on December 6, 2006. Retrieved
^ a b Allen, Richard V. (2006-12-16). "
Jeane Kirkpatrick and the Great
Democratic Defection". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-08-16.
^ a b William, Buckley (August 10, 1984). "Prime time for Mrs.
Kirkpatrick?". National Review. Retrieved 2007-08-16.
^ Jeane Kirkpatrick, "Dictatorships and Double Standards" Archived
2011-02-04 at the Wayback Machine., Commentary Magazine, vol 68, No 5,
November 1979, pp. 34–45.
Amazon.com profile; accessed May 20, 2014.
^ Aldous, Richard (2012). Reagan and Thatcher: The Difficult
Relationship. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 80.
^ according to
John F. Burns (December 28, 2012). New York Times.
Missing or empty title= (help)
^ a b O'Sullivan, John (December 31, 2006). "She was right: Jeane
Kirkpatrick, statesman and intellectual". National Review. Retrieved
^ Chomsky, Noam (1985). Turning the Tide. Boston, Massachusetts: South
End Press. pp. 1–85. ISBN 0-89608-266-0.
^ Schoultz, Lars (1998). Beneath the United States. Boston,
Harvard University Press. pp. 374–80.
^ Bosco, David L., Five to Rule Them All: The UN Security Council and
the Making of the Modern World, Oxford University Press, 2009, p. 142.
^ Kirkpatrick, Jeane J., Legitimacy and Force Vol. 1 (Oxford:
Transaction Books, 1988), p. xvi.
^ Kirkpatrick, Jeane J., "Standing Alone" in Legitimacy and Force, vol
1 (Oxford: Transaction Books, 1988), pp. 193–94.
^ Kirkpatrick, Jeane J., "Standing Alone" in Legitimacy and Force, vol
1 (Oxford: Transaction Books, 1988), 195.
^ Kirkpatrick, Jeane J., "The UN as a Political System" in Legitimacy
and Force, vol 1 (Oxford: Transaction Books, 1988), p. 222.
^ "EMPOWER AMERICA: Twenty facts about
Israel and the Middle East".
2002-04-24. Archived from the original on 2002-06-01. Retrieved
^ "Jeane Kirkpatrick's Mideast Warning". Washington Post. 1989-12-27.
United Nations and
Israel by Mitchell Bard".
Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
^ "ADL Mourns the Passing of Ambassador Jeane Kirkpatrick". Archived
from the original on 2007-03-04. Retrieved 2006-12-08.
^ "Toward Humane Governance (Interview)". Religion & Liberty. 2
(2). March–April 1992. Retrieved 2006-12-09.
^ Hartson, Merrill (December 8, 2006). "Jean Kirkpatrick,
Ex-Ambassador, Dies". Forbes.com. Archived from the original on
2006-12-10. Retrieved 2006-12-09.
^ a b "Former U.N. envoy Kirkpatrick dies". Politics (section).
CNN.com. Associated Press. December 8, 2006. Archived from the
original on 2006-12-08. Retrieved 2006-12-09.
^ Speech at the 1984 Republican National Convention
^ Speech given during the 1988 Barrick Lecture Series at the
University of Nevada, Las Vegas
^ , Commission on the Truth for El Salvador, footnote 163, New
York, April 1, 1993, referencing Tampa Tribune, December 25, 1980;
retrieved June 8, 2012.
^ "EDITORIAL: Jeane Kirkpatrick". Pueblo Chieftain. December 14, 2006.
^ Honorary Doctoral Degrees at Universidad Francisco Marroquín
Archived 2011-05-01 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Staff (May 4, 1994). "
Jeane Kirkpatrick declines honorary degree
from Brandeis University". The Sunday Gazette. Retrieved
^ "Jeane Kirkpatrick: hated, but right. (Originated from Boston
Globe)". Knight-Ridder News Service. May 12, 1994. Retrieved
^ "CPAC 2007 Agenda". CPAC. March 7, 2007. Archived from the original
on 2007-10-29. Retrieved 2008-04-10.
^ Breathed, Berkeley. "Bloome County comic strip Feb 8, 1988". Bloome
County comic strip. GoComics. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
^ "HER EXCELLENCY ~~ formerly "Reagan's Athena"". Archived from the
original on 2016-07-24.
^ Review of Political Woman (1974) Archived 2013-08-13 at the Wayback
Machine., american.com; accessed June 24, 2014.
Honorary Doctoral Degrees, Universidad Francisco Marroquín
"Jeane Kirkpatrick, Reagan's Forceful Envoy, Dies", 'The New York
Times, December 9, 2006; accessed May 20, 2014.
Appearances on C-SPAN
"Kirkpatrick hit liberals for blaming America first", washtimes.com;
accessed May 20, 2014.
official website of Empower America
American Enterprise Institute
American Enterprise Institute website
Profile: Jeane J. Kirkpatrick
ADL Mourns the Passing of Ambassador Jeane Kirkpatrick,
Anti-Defamation League press release; accessed May 20, 2014.
The Cold War series: interview with Jeane Kirkpatrick, National
Security Archive (February 28, 1999)
Jeane Kirkpatrick advocates war", The Oprah Winfrey Show, October 1,
The National Association of Scholar's Board of Advisors
Jeane Kirkpatrick interviewed by Peter Krogh, American Interests
United States Ambassadors to the United Nations
Cabinet of President
Ronald Reagan (1981–89)
Secretary of State
Alexander M. Haig Jr. (1981–82)
George P. Shultz
George P. Shultz (1982–89)
Secretary of the Treasury
Donald T. Regan (1981–85)
James A. Baker (1985–88)
Nicholas F. Brady
Nicholas F. Brady (1988–89)
Secretary of Defense
Caspar W. Weinberger (1981–87)
Frank C. Carlucci (1987–89)
William French Smith
William French Smith (1981–85)
Edwin Meese (1985–88)
Richard L. Thornburgh (1988–89)
Secretary of the Interior
James G. Watt
James G. Watt (1981–83)
William P. Clark (1983–85)
Donald P. Hodel
Donald P. Hodel (1985–89)
Secretary of Agriculture
John R. Block (1981–86)
Richard E. Lyng (1986–89)
Secretary of Commerce
Malcolm Baldrige (1981–87)
C. William Verity (1987–89)
Secretary of Labor
Raymond J. Donovan
Raymond J. Donovan (1981–85)
William E. Brock III (1985–87)
Ann Dore McLaughlin (1987–89)
Secretary of Health and Human Services
Richard S. Schweiker (1981–83)
Margaret M. Heckler (1983–85)
Otis Bowen (1985–89)
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
Samuel R. Pierce (1981–89)
Secretary of Transportation
Drew Lewis (1981–83)
Elizabeth H. Dole (1983–87)
James H. Burnley IV
James H. Burnley IV (1987–89)
Secretary of Energy
James B. Edwards
James B. Edwards (1981–83)
Donald P. Hodel
Donald P. Hodel (1983–85)
John S. Herrington
John S. Herrington (1985–89)
Secretary of Education
Terrel H. Bell (1981–85)
William J. Bennett (1985–88)
Lauro F. Cavazos (1988–89)
George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush (1981–89)
White House Chief of Staff
James A. Baker (1981–85)
Donald T. Regan (1985–87)
Howard H. Baker Jr. (1987–88)
Kenneth M. Duberstein (1988–89)
Director of the Office of
Management and Budget
David Stockman (1981–85)
James C. Miller III
James C. Miller III (1985–88)
Joseph R. Wright Jr. (1988–89)
Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency
Anne M. Gorsuch (1981–83)
William D. Ruckelshaus (1983–85)
Lee M. Thomas
Lee M. Thomas (1985–89)
Director of Central Intelligence
William J. Casey
William J. Casey (1981–87)
William H. Webster
William H. Webster (1987–89)
Ambassador to the United Nations
Jeane Kirkpatrick (1981–85)
Vernon A. Walters
Vernon A. Walters (1985–89)
William E. Brock III (1981–85)
Clayton K. Yeutter (1985–89)
Chairperson of the Council of Economic Advisers
Murray L. Weidenbaum (1981–82)
Martin S. Feldstein (1982–84)
Beryl W. Sprinkel (1985–89)
United States Ambassadors to the United Nations
Oklahoma Women's Hall of Fame
Hannah Diggs Atkins
Gloria Stewart Farley
Susan Ryan Peters
Edyth Thomas Wallace
Zelia N. Breaux
Jeane Duane Kirkpatrick
Jewell Russell Mann
Zella J. Patterson
Mae Boren Axton
June Tompkins Benson
Betty Durham Price
Bertha Frank Teague
Sara Ruth Cohen
Rubye Hibler Hall
Elizabeth Ann McCurdy Holmes
Grace Elizabeth Hudlin
Wilma P. Mankiller
Edna Mae Phelps
Evelyn La Rue Pittman
Anita Faye Hill
Moscelyne Larkin Jasinski
Jacqulyn C. Longacre
Opaline Deveraux Wadkins
Nancy Goodman Feldman
Barbara J. Gardner
Ruthe Blalock Jones
Mona Salyer Lambird
Gloria Grace Langdon
Bernice Compton Mitchell
Ada Lois Sipuel Fisher
Valree Fletcher Wynn
Isabel Keith Baker
Jessie Thatcher Bost
Ruth Gilliland Kistler Hardaman
Penny Baldwin Williams
Dorothy Moses DeWitty
Jill Zink Tarbel
Wanda L. Bass
Nancy L. Coats
Amelia Elizabeth "Bessie" Simison McColgin
Stephanie Kulp Seymour
Joe Anna Hibler
Carolyn Thompson Taylor
M. Susan Savage
Helen Harrod Thompson
ISNI: 0000 0001 1769 4852
BNF: cb12388752q (data)