The Info List - Jean Monnet

Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet (French: [ʒɑ̃ mɔnɛ]; 9 November 1888 – 16 March 1979) was a French political economist and diplomat. An influential supporter of European unity, he is considered as one of the founding fathers of the European Union. Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
has been called “The Father of Europe” by those who see his innovative and pioneering efforts in the 1950s as the key to establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, the predecessor of today’s European Union.[1] Never elected to public office, Monnet worked behind the scenes of American and European governments as a well-connected pragmatic internationalist.[2] He was named patron of the 1980–1981 academic year at the College of Europe, in honour of his accomplishments.


1 Early years 2 World War I 3 Inter-war years 4 World War II 5 The Monnet Plan 6 Common Market 7 Private life 8 Legacy 9 The Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
House 10 See also 11 Bibliography 12 References 13 External links

Early years[edit] Monnet was born in Cognac, a commune in the department of Charente
in France, into a family of cognac merchants. At the age of sixteen, he abandoned his university entrance examinations part way through and moved to the United Kingdom, where he spent several years in London with Mr. Chaplin, an agent of his father's company. Subsequently, he travelled widely – to Scandinavia, Russia, Egypt, Canada, and the United States – for the family business. World War I[edit] Monnet firmly believed that the only path to an Allied victory lay in combining the war efforts of Britain and France, and he reflected on a concept that would coordinate war resources. In 1914, young Monnet was allowed to meet French Premier René Viviani
René Viviani
on this issue and he managed to convince the French government to agree with him, in principle. However, during the first two years of the war, Monnet did not have much success pressing for a better organization of the allied economic cooperation. It was not until two years later that stronger combines like the Wheat Executive (end of 1916) and the Allied Maritime Transport Council (end of 1917) were set into motion, adding to the overall war effort. Inter-war years[edit] At the Paris Peace Conference, Monnet was an assistant to the French minister of commerce and industry, Étienne Clémentel, who proposed a "new economic order" based on European cooperation. The scheme was officially rejected by the Allies in April 1919.[3] Due to his contributions to the war effort, Monnet, at the age of thirty-one, was named Deputy Secretary General of the League of Nations by French premier Georges Clemenceau
Georges Clemenceau
and British statesman Arthur Balfour, upon the League's creation in 1919. Soon disillusioned with the League because of its laborious and unanimous decision-making processes, Monnet resigned in 1923 and devoted himself to managing the family business, which was experiencing difficulties. In 1925, Monnet moved to America to accept a partnership in Blair & Co., a New York bank which merged with Bank of America
Bank of America
in 1929, forming Bancamerica-Blair Corporation which was owned by Transamerica Corporation. He returned to international politics and, as an international financier, proved to be instrumental to the economic recovery of several Central and Eastern European nations. He helped stabilise the Polish złoty in 1927 and the Romanian leu
Romanian leu
in 1928. In November 1932, the Chinese Minister of Finance invited Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
to act as chairman of an East-West non-political committee in China
for the development of the Chinese economy where he lived until 1936.[citation needed] During his time in China, Monnet's task of partnering Chinese capital with foreign companies led to the formal inauguration of the Chinese Development Finance Corporation (CDFC) as well as the reorganization of the Chinese railroads.[4] In 1935, when Monnet was still in Shanghai, he became a business partner of George Murnane (a former colleague of Monnet at Transamerica) in Monnet, Murnane & Co. Murnane was connected to the Wallenberg family
Wallenberg family
in Sweden, the Bosch family in Germany, the Solvays and Boëls in Belgium, and John Foster Dulles, André Meyer, and the Rockefeller family
Rockefeller family
in the United States.[5] He was considered among the most connected persons of his time.[6] World War II[edit] In December 1939, Monnet was sent to London
to oversee the collectivization of the British and French war industries. His influence inspired Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
and Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
to agree on an Anglo-French union, in an attempt to rival the alliance between Germany and Italy.[7] De Gaulle dined with Monnet on his first evening in Britain after his flight with Winston Churchill's envoy Edward Spears
Edward Spears
(17 June).[8] Monnet broke with de Gaulle on 23 June, as he thought his appeal was “too personal” and had broken too far with the Pétain government, and that French opinion would not rally to a man who was seen to be operating from British soil. He claimed to have shared his concerns about de Gaulle with the Foreign Office mandarins Alexander Cadogan and Robert Vansittart, and Spears. Monnet soon resigned as head of the Inter-Allied Commission and departed for the USA.[9] In August 1940, he was sent to the United States by the British Government, as a member of the British Supply Council, to negotiate the purchase of war supplies. Soon after his arrival in Washington, D.C., he became an advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Convinced that America could serve as "the great arsenal of democracy", he persuaded the President to launch a massive arms production program, both as an economic stimulus and to supply the Allies with military resources. In 1941, Roosevelt, with Churchill's agreement, launched the Victory Program, which represented the involvement of the United States in the war effort. After the war, John Maynard Keynes, a British economist, claimed that through his coordinating, Monnet had probably shortened World War II by a year. In 1943, Monnet became a member of the National Liberation Committee, the French government of De Gaulle in exile in Algiers, designated Commissaire à l'Armement.[10] During a meeting on 5 August of that year, Monnet declared to the Committee:

There will be no peace in Europe, if the states are reconstituted on the basis of national sovereignty... The countries of Europe are too small to guarantee their peoples the necessary prosperity and social development. The European states must constitute themselves into a federation...

The Monnet Plan[edit] Main article: Monnet Plan

French conclude agreement on lend-lease and reverse lend-lease. Jean Monnet, representative of the French Provisional Government signs agreements. Left to right: Henri Bonnet, French Ambassador, Joseph C. Grew, Undersecretary of State and Jean Monnet.

Following World War II, France
was in severe need of reconstruction and completely dependent on coal from Germany's main remaining coal-mining areas, the Ruhr
and the Saar. (The German coal fields in Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
had been handed over to Polish administration by the Allies in 1945, see Oder-Neisse line.) In 1945, Monnet proposed the Monnet Plan, also known as the "Theory of l'Engrenage" (not to be confused with the Schuman plan). It included taking control of the remaining German coal-producing areas and redirecting the production away from the German industry and into the French, thus permanently weakening Germany and raising the French economy considerably above its pre-war levels. The plan was adopted by Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
in early 1946.[11] Later that year, Monnet successfully negotiated the Blum–Byrnes agreement with the United States, which cleared France
from a $2.8 billion debt (mostly World War I loans) and provided the country with an additional low-interest loan of $650 million. In return, France opened its cinemas to American movies.[12] In 1947 France
removed the Saar from Germany, with U.S. support, and turned it into the Saar Protectorate, which was politically independent and under complete French economic control. The area returned to German political administration in 1957 (economic reunification would take many years longer), but France
retained the right to mine from its coal mines until 1981. (See: The Europeanisation of the Saarland) The Ruhr
Agreement was imposed on the Germans as a condition for permitting them to establish the Federal Republic of Germany.[13] The IAR controlled production levels, pricing, and the sales markets, thus ensuring that France
received a considerable portion of the Ruhr
coal production at low prices. When tensions between France
and Germany rose over the control of the then vital coal and steel industries, Monnet and his associates conceived the idea of a European Community. On 9 May 1950, with the agreement of Chancellor Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
of West Germany, French Minister of Foreign Affairs Robert Schuman
Robert Schuman
made a declaration in the name of the French government. This declaration, prepared by Monnet for Schuman, proposed integration of the French and German coal and steel industries under joint control, a so-called High Authority, open to the other countries of Europe. Schuman declared:

Through the consolidation of basic production and the institution of a new High Authority, whose decisions will bind France, Germany and the other countries that join, this proposal represents the first concrete step towards a European federation, imperative for the preservation of peace.[14]

When Germany agreed to join the European Coal and Steel Community according to the Schuman Plan in 1951, the ongoing dismantling of German industry was halted and some of the restrictions on German industrial output were lifted.[15] West Germany
West Germany
joined the ECSC, alongside Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg
and the Netherlands, while Britain refused, on grounds of national sovereignty. In 1952, Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
became the first president of the High Authority and with the opening of the common market for coal under the ECSC in 1953, the last civilian production limitations placed on German industry were lifted, and the role of the IAR was taken over by the ECSC.[16]

German stamp (1977)

In 1953 Monnet was awarded the Karlspreis
by the city of Aachen
in recognition of his achievements. He was the first to be bestowed Honorary Citizen of Europe
Honorary Citizen of Europe
by the European Council
European Council
of the European Union, for extraordinary work to promote European cooperation on April 2, 1976. Following this he became the first person alive to be pictured on a German stamp who was not also a German head of state. Common Market[edit] Main article: European Economic Community In 1955, Monnet founded the Action Committee for the United States of Europe in order to revive European construction following the failure of the European Defence Community (EDC). It brought political parties and European trade unions together to become a driving force behind the initiatives which laid the foundation for the European Union
European Union
as it eventually emerged: first the European Economic Community
European Economic Community
(EEC) (1958) (known commonly as the "Common Market"), which was established by the Treaty of Rome
Treaty of Rome
of 1957; later the European Community (1967) with its corresponding bodies, the European Commission
European Commission
and the European Council of Ministers, British membership in the Community (1973), the European Council (1974), the European Monetary System (1979), and the European Parliament (1979). This process reflected Monnet's belief in a gradualist approach for constructing European unity. On 6 December 1963, Monnet was presented with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, with Special
Distinction, by United States President Lyndon Johnson. In 1972, Queen Elizabeth II made him an honorary Companion of Honour. Private life[edit]

Memory plaque set up by the Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
Council after his death

In August 1929, during a dinner party in Paris, the 41-year-old Monnet met 22-year-old Italian painter Silvia Giannini (17 August 1907[17] – 22 August 1982)[18][19][20] who had recently married Francisco Giannini, an employee of Monnet when he was a representative in Italy. In April 1931, Silvia gave birth to a daughter, Anna, whose legal father was Giannini. Since divorce wasn't allowed in most European countries, Silvia and Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
met in Moscow. In 1934, he returned from China
via the Trans-Siberian railway, she from Switzerland.[11] He arranged for Silvia to obtain Soviet citizenship; she immediately divorced her husband and married Jean Monnet. The idea for the Moscow marriage came from Dr. Ludwik Rajchman, whom Monnet had met during his time at the League of Nations
League of Nations
(Rajchman was connected to the Soviet Ambassador to China, Dmitrij Bogomołow). It seems that the American and French ambassadors in Moscow, William Bullitt and Charles Aiphand, also played a role. The custody of Anna was a problem; in 1935 Silvia took refuge with Anna in the Soviet consulate in Shanghai, where they were living at the time, because Francisco Giannini was trying to obtain custody of the child. The legal battle was decided in favour of Silvia in 1937 in New York, but the ruling wasn't recognized by some other countries. In 1941 Monnet and Silvia had another daughter, Marianne. The Monnet family returned to France
in 1945 and, after the death of Francisco Giannini in 1974, the couple married canonically in the cathedral of Lourdes. 5 years later, in 1979, Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
died at the age of 90 in his home in Houjarray, Bazoches-sur-Guyonne, where he was writing his memoirs. Legacy[edit]

Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
Building Luxembourg

The monument "Homage to the Founding Fathers of Europe" in front of Robert Schuman's house in Scy-Chazelles
by Russian artist Zurab Tsereteli, unveiled October 20, 2012. The statues represent the four founders of Europe - Alcide de Gasperi, Robert Schuman, Jean Monnet and Konrad Adenauer.

In 1988, by order of the president François Mitterrand, Jean Monnet's remains were transferred to the Panthéon
of Paris. Saint-Étienne
in eastern France
is the site of Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
University (Université Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
de Saint-Étienne), situated on two campuses. Several other European universities honour Monnet and his accomplishments: the University of Limerick, Ireland, has a lecture theatre named after him, and British educational institutions which honour Monnet include the Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
Centre of Excellence at King's College London, the East Midlands Euro-Centre at Loughborough University, the European Research Institute at the University of Bath,[21] the Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
Centre at the University of Birmingham,[22] the Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
European Centre of Excellence at Cambridge,[23] the Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
European Centre of Excellence at the University of Essex,[24] the Centre for European Union
European Union
Studies at the University of Hull,[25] the Kent Centre for Europe at the University of Kent,[26] the Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
Centre of Excellence,[27] a partnership between the University of Manchester, Manchester Metropolitan University
Manchester Metropolitan University
and the University of Salford, the Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
Centre at Newcastle University,[28] the Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
Centre for European Studies at the University of Wales[29] and the Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
High School in Bucharest, Romania.[30] The European Commission
European Commission
named the Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
Building in Luxembourg after him, which houses the Directorate-General for Translation.[31] In April 2011, to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Paris, a new documentary, "Jean Monnet: Father of Europe" was produced.[32] The documentary includes interviews with colleagues of Monnet such as Georges Berthoin (fr), Max Kohnstamm and Jacques-René Rabier, as well as former member of the European Court of Justice David A.O. Edward of the United Kingdom. The European Union
European Union
itself maintains his memory with the Jean Monnet Programme[33] of the Directorate-General for Education and Culture, which promotes knowledge on European integration
European integration
on a worldwide scale, especially at the university level. Marie- France
Garaud, a Gaullist
advisor to French President Georges Pompidou and later Prime Minister Jacques Chirac, accused him of the destruction of the nation's sovereignty and reproached him for his wish of a federal Europe. She considers he was part of an American expectancy to build Europe in order to weaken France's power, and claimed in the talkshow Ce soir (ou jamais!): "He was an American agent. We even know how much he was paid, as it's now declassified". The Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
House[edit] The Jean Monnet House
The Jean Monnet House
is located in Houjarray, Yvelines, 80 kilometres (50 miles) outside Paris. This old farm became Jean Monnet’s property in 1945, upon his return to France. It is here that Jean Monnet and his advisors, in the last days of April 1950, drew up the historic declaration that Robert Schuman
Robert Schuman
used to address Europe on 9 May 1950, proposing the creation of the CECA (European Coal and Steel Community) as well as creating the basis of the European Community. In his office, Robert Schuman, Walter Hallstein, Paul-Henri Spaak, Konrad Adenauer, René Pleven, Helmut Schmidt, and many others exchanged their views with Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
on our common future. On Sundays, he had friends passing by come to his house; among them were Dwight Eisenhower, George Ball, and Edward Heath. He liked fireside conversations with famous journalists such as Walter Lippman, Hubert Beuve-Méry, or his neighbour Pierre Viansson-Ponté. This house was also where Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
died on 16 March 1979. In 1982, even though the house had deteriorated because of a lack of upkeep, the European Parliament considered Monnet’s home to be a symbolic place loaded with memories, thus being common heritage for Europeans. The Parliament acquired it and entrusted its reconstitution, management, and organization to the Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
Association. Since 2000, a multimedia conference room has welcomed bigger groups of visitors. The Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
Association team organizes about 250 conferences on European history and current events each year.[34] See also[edit]

History of the European Union Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
Foundation for Europe


Fransen, Frederic J. (2001). The Supranational Politics of Jean Monnet. Praeger. ISBN 978-0-313-31829-0.  Lacouture, Jean. De Gaulle: The Rebel 1890–1944 (1984; English ed. 1991), ISBN 978-0-841-90927-4* Jean Monnet: Memoirs, London
1978. Jean Monnet: The First Statesman of Interdependence by Francois Duchene (1994); ISBN 0-393-03497-6 Christophe Le Dréau, « Quelle Europe ? Les projets d’Union franco-britannique (1938–1940) », dans Actes du Colloque RICHIE de mars 2005, Quelle(s) Europe(s) ? Nouvelles approaches en histoire de l'intégration européenne, Bruxelles, Peter Lang, 2006. "Jean Monnet: Father of Europe" documentary by Don C. Smith, Denver, Colorado, 2011. Wells, Sherill Brown. Jean Monnet: Unconventional Statesman (Lynne Rienner Publishers; 2011) 279 pages; a political biography


^ Denver, Educational Technology, Sturm College of Law, University of. "Jean Monnet: Father of Europe - Sturm College of Law". www.law.du.edu. Retrieved 17 June 2017.  ^ Times obituary ^ MacMillan, Margaret. "Paris 1919". Random House, 2002, p. 183 ^ "Le Cercle member: Jean Monnet". Archived from the original on 16 November 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015.  ^ ""Europe's founder" Jean Monnet" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015.  ^ 2003, Charles D. Ellis, James R. Vertin, 'Wall Street People: True Stories of the Great Barons of Finance', Volume 2, p. 28-30 (biography of Andre Meyer) ^ Monnet, Jean (1 January 1976), Memoires, Paris: Arthème Fayard, pp. 20–21, ISBN 2-213-00402-1  ^ Lacouture 1991, pp219-23 ^ Lacouture 1991, pp236-7 ^ "Le Comité français de la libération nationale". Digithèque MJP. Retrieved 2015-06-09.  ^ a b "Mr Jean Monnet", The Times, 16 November 1979  ^ Irwin M. Wall (1991). The United States and the Making of Postwar France, 1945–1954. Cambridge U.P. p. 55.  ^ Amos Yoder, "The Ruhr
Authority and the German Problem", The Review of Politics, Vol. 17, No. 3 (July 1955), pp. 345–358 ^ Declaration of 9 May 1950 EUROPA – The official website of the European Union ^ "The British foreign ministers' 1949 letter to Schuman". Cvce.eu. Retrieved 7 October 2013.  ^ "Information bulletin Frankfurt, Germany: Office of the US High Commissioner for Germany Office of Public Affairs, Public Relations Division, APO 757, US Army, January 1952 ''"Plans for terminating international authority for the Ruhr"'' , pp. 61–62". Digicoll.library.wisc.edu. Retrieved 7 October 2013.  ^ [1] ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1982/08/28/obituaries/silvia-monnet.html ^ http://gw.geneanet.org/garric?lang=fr&p=silvia&n=de+bondini ^ http://www.uniset.ca/naty/maternity/monnet.htm ^ European Research Institute Archived 14 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
Centre". Jeanmonnet.bham.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 20 August 2009. Retrieved 7 October 2013.  ^ " Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
European Centre of Excellence". Archived from the original on 1 June 2007. Retrieved 17 June 2017.  ^ Ariadni. " Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
European Centre of Excellence". Essex.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013.  ^ "Centre for European Union
European Union
Studies". Hull.ac.uk. 30 July 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013.  ^ Kent Centre for Europe Archived 5 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Welcome Events Details of our events (2 October 2013). "Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence". Socialsciences.manchester.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 17 October 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2013.  ^ Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
Centre Archived 26 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
Centre for European Studies Archived 13 February 2005 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Liceul Teoretic "Jean Monnet" - Site-ul Liceului Teoretic "Jean Monnet" Bucure;ti". jmonnet.ro. Retrieved 17 June 2017.  ^ "EU – DG Translation – Get in touch with us". Ec.europa.eu. 15 February 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2013.  ^ "Jean Monnet: Father of Europe". Law.du.edu. Retrieved 7 October 2013.  ^ " Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
Programme". Archived from the original on 17 February 2008. Retrieved 17 June 2017.  ^ http://www.ajmonnet.eu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=75&Itemid=21&lang=en

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Jean Monnet

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jean Monnet.

Multimedia biography The Monnet Plan
Monnet Plan
– CVCE (Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance sur l'Europe : European Integration Studies website) Photograph (1953-01-10): Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
and Walter Layton – CVCE (Centre Virtuel de la Connaissance sur l'Europe : European Integration Studies website) Documents relating to the company ‘Monnet, Murnane & Co. Shanghai’ (1935–1939) can be consulted at the Historical Archives of the European Union
European Union
in Florence Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
at Find a Grave

v t e

Presidents of the European Commission

High Authority of the Coal and Steel Community (1952–1967)

Jean Monnet (1952–55) René Mayer (1955–58) Paul Finet (1958–59) Piero Malvestiti (1959–63) Rinaldo Del Bo (1963–67) Acting: Albert Coppé (1967)

Commission of the Atomic Energy Community (1958–1967)

Louis Armand (1958–59) Étienne Hirsch (1959–62) Pierre Chatenet (1962–67)

Commission of the Economic Community (1958–1967)

Walter Hallstein (1958–67)

Commission of the Communities (1967–2009)

Jean Rey (1967–70) Franco Maria Malfatti (1970–72) Sicco Mansholt (1972–73) François-Xavier Ortoli (1973–77) Roy Jenkins (1977–81) Gaston Thorn (1981–85) Jacques Delors (1985–95) Jacques Santer (1995–99) Acting: Manuel Marín (1999) Romano Prodi (1999–2004) José Manuel Barroso (2004–9)

Commission (2009–present)

José Manuel Barroso (2009–14) Jean-Claude Juncker (2014–present)

Commission President President of the European Council Council Presidency President of the European Parliament

v t e

Recipients of the Charlemagne Prize


1950 Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi 1951 Hendrik Brugmans 1952 Alcide De Gasperi 1953 Jean Monnet 1954 Konrad Adenauer 1955 1956 Winston Churchill 1957 Paul-Henri Spaak 1958 Robert Schuman 1959 George Marshall 1960 Joseph Bech 1961 Walter Hallstein 1962 1963 Edward Heath 1964 Antonio Segni 1965 1966 Jens Otto Krag 1967 Joseph Luns 1968 1969 European Commission 1970 François Seydoux de Clausonne 1971 1972 Roy Jenkins 1973 Salvador de Madariaga 1974 1975


1976 Leo Tindemans 1977 Walter Scheel 1978 Konstantinos Karamanlis 1979 Emilio Colombo 1980 1981 Simone Veil 1982 King Juan Carlos I 1983 1984 1985 1986 People of Luxembourg 1987 Henry Kissinger 1988 François Mitterrand / Helmut Kohl 1989 Brother Roger 1990 Gyula Horn 1991 Václav Havel 1992 Jacques Delors 1993 Felipe González 1994 Gro Harlem Brundtland 1995 Franz Vranitzky 1996 Queen Beatrix 1997 Roman Herzog 1998 Bronisław Geremek 1999 Tony Blair 2000 Bill Clinton


2001 György Konrád 2002 Euro 2003 Valéry Giscard d'Estaing 2004 Pat Cox / Pope John Paul II1 2005 Carlo Azeglio Ciampi 2006 Jean-Claude Juncker 2007 Javier Solana 2008 Angela Merkel 2009 Andrea Riccardi 2010 Donald Tusk 2011 Jean-Claude Trichet 2012 Wolfgang Schäuble 2013 Dalia Grybauskaitė 2014 Herman Van Rompuy 2015 Martin Schulz 2016 Pope Francis 2017 Timothy Garton Ash

1 Received extraordinary prize.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 71414292 LCCN: n50003782 ISNI: 0000 0001 1447 562X GND: 118583506 SELIBR: 278382 SUDOC: 027522695 BNF: cb12074393h (data) BPN: 46253739 BIBSYS: 90109253 NDL: 00450335 NKC: jn20000701256 BNE: XX1036294 SNAC: w64f2t24

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