The Info List - Jean Cocteau

Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (French: [ʒɑ̃ kɔkto]; 5 July 1889 – 11 October 1963) was a French writer, designer, playwright, artist and filmmaker. Cocteau is best known for his novel Les Enfants Terribles
Les Enfants Terribles
(1929), and the films The Blood of a Poet (1930), Les Parents Terribles (1948), Beauty and the Beast (1946) and Orpheus (1949). His circle of associates, friends included Kenneth Anger, Pablo Picasso, Joan Miró, Salvador Dalí, Gertrude Stein, Jean Hugo, Jean Marais, Henri Bernstein, Yul Brynner, Marlene Dietrich, Coco Chanel, Erik Satie, Albert Gleizes, Igor Stravinsky, Marie Laurencin, María Félix, Édith Piaf, Panama Al Brown, Colette, Jean Genet, and Raymond Radiguet.


1 Early life 2 Early career 3 Friendship with Raymond Radiguet 4 The Human Voice 5 Maturity 6 Death 7 Honours and awards 8 Filmography 9 Works

9.1 Literature 9.2 Film 9.3 Poetry illustrator 9.4 Recordings 9.5 Journals 9.6 Stamps

10 Bibliography 11 See also 12 Footnotes 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

Early life[edit] Cocteau was born in Maisons-Laffitte, Yvelines, a town near Paris, to Georges Cocteau and his wife, Eugénie Lecomte; a socially prominent Parisian family. His father was a lawyer and amateur painter who committed suicide when Cocteau was nine. From 1900–1904, Cocteau attended the Lycée Condorcet
Lycée Condorcet
where he met and began a physical relationship with schoolmate Pierre Dargelos who would later reappear throughout Cocteau's oeuvre.[1] He left home at fifteen. He published his first volume of poems, Aladdin's Lamp, at nineteen. Cocteau soon became known in Bohemian artistic circles as The Frivolous Prince, the title of a volume he published at twenty-two. Edith Wharton
Edith Wharton
described him as a man "to whom every great line of poetry was a sunrise, every sunset the foundation of the Heavenly City..."[2] Early career[edit]

Amedeo Modigliani, Jean Cocteau, 1916, Henry and Rose Pearlman Collection, on long-term loan to the Princeton University Art Museum

Portrait of Jean Cocteau
Jean Cocteau
by Federico de Madrazo y Ochoa, ca. 1910-1912

In his early twenties, Cocteau became associated with the writers Marcel Proust, André Gide, and Maurice Barrès. In 1912, he collaborated with Léon Bakst
Léon Bakst
on Le Dieu bleu
Le Dieu bleu
for the Ballets Russes; the principal dancers being Tamara Karsavina
Tamara Karsavina
and Vaslav Nijinsky. During World War I
World War I
Cocteau served in the Red Cross
Red Cross
as an ambulance driver. This was the period in which he met the poet Guillaume Apollinaire, artists Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso
and Amedeo Modigliani, and numerous other writers and artists with whom he later collaborated. Russian impresario Sergei Diaghilev
Sergei Diaghilev
persuaded Cocteau to write a scenario for a ballet, which resulted in Parade in 1917. It was produced by Diaghilev, with sets by Picasso, the libretto by Apollinaire and the music by Erik Satie. The piece was later expanded into a full opera, with music by Satie, Francis Poulenc
Francis Poulenc
and Maurice Ravel. "If it had not been for Apollinaire in uniform," wrote Cocteau, "with his skull shaved, the scar on his temple and the bandage around his head, women would have gouged our eyes out with hairpins."[citation needed] He denied being a Surrealist or being in any way attached to the movement.[citation needed] Cocteau wrote the libretto for Igor Stravinsky's opera-oratorio Oedipus rex, which had its original performance in the Théâtre Sarah Bernhardt
Théâtre Sarah Bernhardt
in Paris
on 30 May 1927. An important exponent of avant-garde art, Cocteau had great influence on the work of others, including a group of composers known as Les six. In the early twenties, he and other members of Les six
Les six
frequented a wildly popular bar named Le Boeuf sur le Toit, a name that Cocteau himself had a hand in picking. The popularity was due in no small measure to the presence of Cocteau and his friends.[3] Friendship with Raymond Radiguet[edit]

Marie Laurencin, Portrait de Jean Cocteau, 1921

In 1918 he met the French poet Raymond Radiguet. They collaborated extensively, socialized, and undertook many journeys and vacations together. Cocteau also got Radiguet exempted from military service. Admiring of Radiguet's great literary talent, Cocteau promoted his friend's works in his artistic circle and arranged for the publication by Grasset of Le Diable au corps (a largely autobiographical story of an adulterous relationship between a married woman and a younger man), exerting his influence to have the novel awarded the "Nouveau Monde" literary prize. Some contemporaries and later commentators thought there might have been a romantic component to their friendship.[4] Cocteau himself was aware of this perception, and worked earnestly to dispel the notion that their relationship was sexual in nature.[5] There is disagreement over Cocteau's reaction to Radiguet's sudden death in 1923, with some claiming that it left him stunned, despondent and prey to opium addiction. Opponents of that interpretation point out that he did not attend the funeral (he generally did not attend funerals) and immediately left Paris
with Diaghilev
for a performance of Les noces (The Wedding) by the Ballets Russes
Ballets Russes
at Monte Carlo. Cocteau himself much later characterised his reaction as one of "stupor and disgust."[citation needed] His opium addiction at the time,[6] Cocteau said, was only coincidental, due to a chance meeting with Louis Laloy, the administrator of the Monte Carlo
Monte Carlo
Opera. Cocteau's opium use and his efforts to stop profoundly changed his literary style. His most notable book, Les Enfants Terribles, was written in a week during a strenuous opium weaning. In Opium: Journal of drug rehabilitation (fr), he recounts the experience of his recovery from opium addiction in 1929. His account, which includes vivid pen-and-ink illustrations, alternates between his moment-to-moment experiences of drug withdrawal and his current thoughts about people and events in his world. Cocteau was supported throughout his recovery by his friend and correspondent, Catholic philosopher Jacques Maritain. Under Maritain's influence Cocteau made a temporary return to the sacraments of the Catholic Church. He again returned to the Church later in life and undertook a number of religious art projects. The Human Voice[edit] Cocteau's experiments with the human voice peaked with his play La Voix humaine. The story involves one woman on stage speaking on the telephone with her (invisible and inaudible) departing lover, who is leaving her to marry another woman. The telephone proved to be the perfect prop for Cocteau to explore his ideas, feelings, and "algebra" concerning human needs and realities in communication. Cocteau acknowledged in the introduction to the script that the play was motivated, in part, by complaints from his actresses that his works were too writer/director-dominated and gave the players little opportunity to show off their full range of talents. La Voix humaine was written, in effect, as an extravagant aria for Madame Berthe Bovy. Before came Orphée, later turned into one of his more successful films; after came La Machine infernale, arguably his most fully realized work of art. La Voix humaine is deceptively simple — a woman alone on stage for almost one hour of non-stop theatre speaking on the telephone with her departing lover. It is full of theatrical codes harking back to the Dadaists' Vox Humana experiments after World War One, Alphonse de Lamartine's "La Voix humaine", part of his larger work Harmonies poétiques et religieuses and the effect of the creation of the Vox Humana ("voix humaine"), an organ stop of the Regal Class by Church organ masters (late 16th century) that attempted to imitate the human voice but never succeeded in doing better than the sound of a male chorus at a distance. Reviews varied at the time and since but whatever the critique, the play represents Cocteau's state of mind and feelings towards his actors at the time: on the one hand, he wanted to spoil and please them; on the other, he was fed up with their diva antics and was ready for revenge. It is also true that none of Cocteau's works has inspired as much imitation: Francis Poulenc's opera La voix humaine, Gian Carlo Menotti's "opera buffa" The Telephone
The Telephone
and Roberto Rossellini's film version in Italian with Anna Magnani
Anna Magnani
L'Amore (1948). There has also been a long line of interpreters including Simone Signoret, Ingrid Bergman and Liv Ullmann
Liv Ullmann
(in the play) and Julia Migenes, Denise Duval, Renata Scotto, Anja Silja
Anja Silja
and Felicity Lott (in the opera). According to one theory about how Cocteau was inspired to write La Voix humaine, he was experimenting with an idea by fellow French playwright Henri Bernstein.[7] Maturity[edit]

Tribute to René Clair: I Married a Witch, Jean Cocteau
Jean Cocteau
(1945), a set design for the Théâtre de la Mode.

In the 1930s, Cocteau had an affair with Princess Natalie Paley, the daughter of a Romanov
Grand Duke
Grand Duke
and herself a sometime actress, model, and former wife of couturier Lucien Lelong.[8] Cocteau's longest-lasting relationships were with the French actors Jean Marais and Édouard Dermit (fr), whom Cocteau formally adopted. Cocteau cast Marais in The Eternal Return (1943), Beauty and the Beast (1946), Ruy Blas
Ruy Blas
(1947), and Orpheus (1949). Biographer James S. Williams describes Cocteau's politics as "naturally Right-leaning."[9] During the Nazi
occupation of France, Cocteau's friend Arno Breker
Arno Breker
convinced him that Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
was a pacifist and patron of the arts with France's best interests in mind. In his diary, Cocteau accused France of disrespect towards Hitler and speculated on the Führer's sexuality. Cocteau effusively praised Breker's sculptures in an article entitled 'Salut à Breker' published in 1942. This piece caused him to be arraigned on charges of collaboration after the war, though he was cleared of any wrongdoing and had used his contacts to his failed attempt to save friends such as Max Jacob.[10]

Érik Satie
Érik Satie
Parade, théme de Jean Cocteau

In 1940, Le Bel Indifférent, Cocteau's play written for and starring Édith Piaf, was enormously successful. He also worked with Pablo Picasso on several projects and was a friend of most of the European art community. Cocteau's films, most of which he both wrote and directed, were particularly important in introducing the avant-garde into French cinema and influenced to a certain degree the upcoming French New Wave genre. Cocteau is best known for his novel Les Enfants Terribles
Les Enfants Terribles
(1929), and the films The Blood of a Poet
The Blood of a Poet
(1930), Beauty and the Beast (1946), Les Parents terribles (1948), and Orpheus (1949). His final film, Le Testament d' Orphée
(The Testament of Orpheus) (1960), featured appearances by Picasso and matador Luis Miguel Dominguín, along with Yul Brynner, who also helped finance the film. In 1945 Cocteau was one of several designers who created sets for the Théâtre de la Mode. He drew inspiration from filmmaker René Clair while making Tribute to René Clair: I Married a Witch. The maquette is described in his "Journal 1942–1945," in his entry for 12 February 1945:

I saw the model of my set. Fashion bores me, but I am amused by the set and fashion placed together. It is a smoldering maid's room. One discovers an aerial view of Paris
through the wall and ceiling holes. It creates vertigo. On the iron bed lies a fainted bride. Behind her stand several dismayed ladies. On the right, a very elegant lady washes her hands in a flophouse basin. Through the unhinged door on the left, a lady enters with raised arms. Others are pushed against the walls. The vision provoking this catastrophe is a bride-witch astride a broom, flying through the ceiling, her hair and train streaming.

Cocteau was openly bisexual. His muse and lover for over 25 years was actor Jean Marais. [11] Death[edit] Cocteau died of a heart attack at his chateau in Milly-la-Forêt, Essonne, France, on 11 October 1963 at the age of 74. His friend, French singer Édith Piaf, died the day before but that was announced on the morning of Cocteau's day of death; it has been said that his heart failed upon hearing of Piaf's death. According to his wishes Cocteau is buried beneath the floor of the Chapelle Saint-Blaise des Simples in Milly-la-Forêt.[12] The epitaph on his gravestone set in the floor of the chapel reads: "I stay with you" ("Je reste avec vous"). Honours and awards[edit] In 1955, Cocteau was made a member of the Académie française
Académie française
and The Royal Academy of Belgium. During his life, Cocteau was commander of the Legion of Honor, Member of the Mallarmé Academy, German Academy (Berlin), American Academy, Mark Twain
Mark Twain
(U.S.A) Academy, Honorary President of the Cannes Film Festival, Honorary President of the France-Hungary Association and President of the Jazz Academy and of the Academy of the Disc. Filmography[edit]

Poster for La Belle et la Bête (1946)

Le Sang d'un poète (The Blood of a Poet) (1930) L'Éternel retour (The Eternal Return) (1943) La Belle et la Bête (Beauty and the Beast) (1946) L'Aigle à deux têtes (The Eagle with Two Heads) (1948) Les Parents terribles (English title, The Storm Within) (1948) Coriolan (1950) never released Orphée
(Orpheus) (1950) La Villa Santo-Sospir (1952) 8 × 8: A Chess Sonata in 8 Movements (1957) co-director, experimental film Le Testament d' Orphée
(The Testament of Orpheus) (1960)

Works[edit] See also: Category:Ballets by Jean Cocteau. Literature[edit]


1909: La Lampe d'Aladin 1910: Le Prince frivole 1912: La Danse de Sophocle 1919: Ode à Picasso – Le Cap de Bonne-Espérance 1920: Escale. Poésies (1917–1920) 1922: Vocabulaire 1923: La Rose de François – Plain-Chant 1925: Cri écrit 1926: L'Ange Heurtebise 1927: Opéra 1934: Mythologie 1939: Énigmes 1941: Allégories 1945: Léone 1946: La Crucifixion 1948: Poèmes 1952: Le Chiffre sept – La Nappe du Catalan (in collaboration with Georges Hugnet) 1953: Dentelles d'éternité – Appoggiatures 1954: Clair-obscur 1958: Paraprosodies 1961: Cérémonial espagnol du Phénix – La Partie d'échecs 1962: Le Requiem 1968: Faire-Part (posthume)


1919: Le Potomak (definitive edition: 1924) 1923: Le Grand Écart – Thomas l'imposteur 1928: Le Livre blanc 1929: Les Enfants terribles 1940: La Fin du Potomak


1917: Parade, ballet (music by Erik Satie, choreography by Léonide Massine) 1921: Les mariés de la tour Eiffel (music by Georges Auric, Arthur Honegger, Darius Milhaud, Francis Poulenc
Francis Poulenc
and Germaine Tailleferre) 1922: Antigone 1924: Roméo et Juliette 1925: Orphée 1927: Oedipus Rex (music by Igor Stravinsky) 1930: La Voix humaine 1934: La Machine infernale 1936: L'École des veuves 1937: Œdipe-roi. Les Chevaliers de la Table ronde, premiere at the Théâtre Antoine 1938: Les Parents terribles, premiere at the Théâtre Antoine 1940: Les Monstres sacrés 1941: La Machine à écrire 1943: Renaud et Armide. L'Épouse injustement soupçonnée 1944: L'Aigle à deux têtes 1946: Le Jeune Homme et la Mort, ballet by Roland Petit 1948: Théâtre I and II 1951: Bacchus 1960: Nouveau théâtre de poche 1962: L'Impromptu du Palais-Royal 1971: Le Gendarme incompris (in collaboration with Raymond Radiguet and Francis Poulenc)

Poetry and criticism

1918: Le Coq et l'Arlequin 1920: Carte blanche 1922: Le Secret professionnel 1926: Le Rappel à l'ordre – Lettre à Jacques Maritain
Jacques Maritain
– Le Numéro Barbette 1930: Opium 1932: Essai de critique indirecte 1935: Portraits-Souvenir 1937: Mon premier voyage (Around the World in 80 Days) 1943: Le Greco 1947: Le Foyer des artistes – La Difficulté d'être 1949: Lettres aux Américains – Reines de la France 1951: Jean Marais
Jean Marais
– A Discussion about Cinematography (with André Fraigneau) 1952: Gide vivant 1953: Journal d'un inconnu. Démarche d'un poète 1955: Colette
(Discourse on the reception at the Royal Academy of Belgium) – Discourse on the reception at the Académie française 1956: Discours d'Oxford 1957: Entretiens sur le musée de Dresde (with Louis Aragon) – La Corrida du 1er mai 1950: Poésie critique I 1960: Poésie critique II 1962: Le Cordon ombilical 1963: La Comtesse de Noailles, oui et non 1964: Portraits-Souvenir (posthumous ; A discussion with Roger Stéphane) 1965: Entretiens avec André Fraigneau (posthumous) 1973: Jean Cocteau
Jean Cocteau
par Jean Cocteau
Jean Cocteau
(posthumous ; A discussion with William Fielfield) 1973: Du cinématographe (posthumous). Entretiens sur le cinématographe (posthumous)

Journalistic poetry

1935–1938 (posthumous)



1925: Jean Cocteau
Jean Cocteau
fait du cinéma 1930: Le Sang d'un poète 1946: La Belle et la Bête 1948: L'Aigle à deux têtes 1948: Les Parents terribles 1950: Orphée 1950: Coriolan 1952: La Villa Santo-Sospir 1955: L'Amour sous l'électrode 1957: 8 × 8: A Chess Sonata in 8 Movements 1960: Le Testament d'Orphée


1943: L'Éternel Retour directed by Jean Delannoy 1944: "Les Dames du Bois de Boulogne" directed by Robert Bresson 1948: Ruy Blas
Ruy Blas
directed by Pierre Billon 1950: Les Enfants terribles
Les Enfants terribles
directed by Jean-Pierre Melville, script by Jean Cocteau
Jean Cocteau
based on his novel 1951: La Couronne Noire directed by Luis Saslavsky 1961: La Princesse de Clèves directed by Jean Delannoy 1965: Thomas l'imposteur directed by Georges Franju, script by Jean Cocteau based on his novel

Dialogue writer

1943: Le Baron fantôme (+ actor) directed by Serge de Poligny 1961: La Princesse de Clèves directed by Jean Delannoy 1965: Thomas l'imposteur directed by Georges Franju

Director of Photography

1950: Un chant d'amour
Un chant d'amour
réalisé par Jean Genet

Poetry illustrator[edit]

1924 : Dessins 1925 : Le Mystère de Jean l'oiseleur 1926 : Maison de santé 1929 : 25 dessins d'un dormeur 1935 : 60 designs for Les Enfants Terribles 1941 : Drawings in the margins of Chevaliers de la Table ronde 1948 : Drôle de ménage 1957 : La Chapelle Saint-Pierre, Villefranche-sur-Mer 1958 : La Salle des mariages, City Hall of Menton
– La Chapelle Saint-Pierre (lithographies) 1959 : Gondol des morts 1960 : Chapelle Saint-Blaise-des-Simples, Milly-la-Forêt 1960 : Windows of the Église Saint-Maximin de Metz


par Jean Cocteau, discours de réception à l'Académie Royale de Belgique, Ducretet-Thomson 300 V 078 St. Les Mariés de la Tour Eiffel and Portraits-Souvenir, La Voix de l'Auteur LVA 13 Plain-chant by Jean Marais, extracts from the piece Orphée
by Jean-Pierre Aumont, Michel Bouquet, Monique Mélinand, Les Parents terribles by Yvonne de Bray and Jean Marais, L'Aigle à deux têtes par Edwige Feuillère
Edwige Feuillère
and Jean Marais, L'Encyclopédie Sonore 320 E 874, 1971 Collection of three vinyl recordings of Jean Cocteau
Jean Cocteau
including La Voix humaine by Simone Signoret, 18 songs composed by Louis Bessières, Bee Michelin and Renaud Marx, on double-piano Paul Castanier, Le Discours de réception à l'Académie française, Jacques Canetti JC1, 1984 Derniers propos à bâtons rompus avec Jean Cocteau, 16 September 1963 à Milly-la-Forêt, Bel Air 311035 Les Enfants terribles, radio version with Jean Marais, Josette Day, Silvia Monfort
Silvia Monfort
and Jean Cocteau, CD Phonurgia Nova ISBN 2-908325-07-1, 1992 Anthology, 4 CD containing numerous poems and texts read by the author, Anna la bonne, La Dame de Monte-Carlo and Mes sœurs, n'aimez pas les marins by Marianne Oswald, Le Bel Indifférent by Edith Piaf, La Voix humaine by Berthe Bovy, Les Mariés de la Tour Eiffel with Jean Le Poulain, Jacques Charon
Jacques Charon
and Jean Cocteau, discourse on the reception at the Académie française, with extracts from Les Parents terribles, La Machine infernale, pieces from Parade on piano with two hands by Georges Auric and Francis Poulenc, Frémeaux & Associés FA 064, 1997 Poems by Jean Cocteau
Jean Cocteau
read by the author, CD EMI 8551082, 1997 Hommage à Jean Cocteau, mélodies d'Henri Sauguet, Arthur Honegger, Louis Durey, Darius Milhaud, Erik Satie, Jean Wiener, Max Jacob, Francis Poulenc, Maurice Delage, Georges Auric, Guy Sacre, by Jean-François Gardeil
Jean-François Gardeil
(baritone) and Billy Eidi (piano), CD Adda 581177, 1989 Le Testament d'Orphée, journal sonore, by Roger Pillaudin, 2 CD INA / Radio France 211788, 1998


1946 La Belle et la Bête (film journal) 1949 Maalesh (journal of a stage production) 1983 Le Passé défini (posthumous) 1989 Journal, 1942–1945


Marianne de Cocteau, 1960


Cocteau, Jean, Le Coq et l'Arlequin: notes autour de la musique – avec un portrait de l'auteur et deux monogrammes par P. Picasso, Paris, Éditions de la Sirène, 1918 Cocteau, Jean, Le Grand Écart, 1923, his first novel Cocteau, Jean, Le Numéro Barbette, an influential essay on the nature of art inspired by the performer Barbette, 1926 Cocteau, Jean, The Human Voice, translated by Carl Wildman, Vision Press Ltd., Great Britain, 1947 Cocteau, Jean, The Eagle Has Two Heads, adapted by Ronald Duncan, Vision Press Ltd., Great Britain, 1947 Cocteau, Jean, "Bacchus". Paris: Gallimard, 1952. Cocteau, Jean, The Holy Terrors (Les Enfants Terribles), translated by Rosamond Lehmann, New Directions. New York, 1957 Cocteau, Jean, Opium: The Diary of a Cure, translated by Margaret Crosland and Sinclair Road, Grove Press Inc., New York, 1958 Cocteau, Jean, The Infernal Machine And Other Plays, translated by W.H. Auden, E.E. Cummings, Dudley Fitts, Albert Bermel, Mary C. Hoeck, and John K. Savacool, New Directions Books, New York, 1963 Cocteau, Jean, Toros Muertos, along with Lucien Clergue
Lucien Clergue
and Jean Petit, Brussel & Brussel,1966 Cocteau, Jean, The Art of Cinema, edited by André Bernard and Claude Gauteur, translated by Robin Buss, Marion Boyars, London, 1988 Cocteau, Jean, Diary of an Unknown, translated by Jesse Browner, Paragon House Publishers, New York, 1988 Cocteau, Jean, The White Book (Le Livre blanc), sometimes translated as The White Paper, translated by Margaret Crosland, City Lights Books, San Francisco, 1989 Cocteau, Jean, Les Parents terribles, new translation by Jeremy Sams, Nick Hern Books, London, 1994

See also[edit]

Literature portal Poetry portal Novels portal LGBT portal Film portal Biography portal

Jean Cocteau
Jean Cocteau
Repertory List of ambulance drivers during World War I List of people whose parent committed suicide


^ Guédras, Annie, ed. (1999). Jean Cocteau: Erotic Drawings. Köln: Evergreen. p. 11. ISBN 3-8228-6532-X.  ^ Wharton, Edith (17 December 2014) [1st pub. 1934]. "Chapter 11". A Backward Glance. eBooks@Adelaide. Retrieved 9 April 2016.  ^ Thompson, Daniella (6 May 2002). "How the Ox got its name, and other Parisian legends". The Boeuf Chronicles. Musica Brasiliensis. Retrieved 9 April 2016.  (Autoplaying music on site) ^ Williams 2008, p. 32. ^ Francis Steegmuller (1970). Cocteau, A Biography. Monsieur, I have just received your letter and must reply despite my regret at being unable to explain the inexplicable. It is possible that my friendship for your son and my deep admiration for his gifts (which are becoming increasingly apparent) are of an uncommon intensity, and that from the outside it is hard to make out how far my feelings go. His literary future is of primary consideration with me: he is a kind of prodigy. Scandal would spoil all this freshness. You cannot possibly believe for a second that I do not try to avoid that by all the means in my power  ^ " Jean Cocteau
Jean Cocteau
Biography – Jean Cocteau
Jean Cocteau
Website". Netcomuk.co.uk. 11 October 1963. Retrieved 14 March 2012.  ^ Brown, Frederick (1968). An Impersonation of Angels: A Biography of Jean Cocteau. New York City: The Viking Press. p. 170.  ^ Liaut, Jean-Noël (1996). Natalie Paley: Une princesse dechiree (in French). Paris: Filipacchi. ISBN 2-85018-295-8.  ^ Williams 2008, p. 123. ^ Williams 2008, pp. 182–185. ^ Légendes d'Écran Noir: Jean Marais ^ Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Location 8971). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition.


Breton, André (1953). La Clé des champs, p. 77. Paris: Éditions du Sagittaire. Crucifixion translated into Bengali by Malay Roy Choudhury Steegmuller, Francis (1970). Cocteau: A Biography. Boston: Atlantic-Little Brown & Company. ISBN 0-316-81219-6. Williams, James S. (2008). Jean Cocteau. London: Reaktion. ISBN 978-1861893543. 

Further reading[edit]

Evans, Arthur B. (1977). Jean Cocteau
Jean Cocteau
and his Films of Orphic Identity. Philadelphia: Art Alliance Press. ISBN 9780879820114. Tsakiridou, Cornelia A., ed. (1997). Reviewing Orpheus: Essays on the Cinema and Art of Jean Cocteau. Lewisburg, Pa.: Bucknell University Press. ISBN 0-8387-5379-5. Album Cocteau. Biographie et iconographie de Pierre Bergé. Bibliothèque de la Pléiade. Éditions Gallimard, 2006. ISBN 2070118088.

External links[edit]

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on IMDb Works by or about Jean Cocteau
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(public domain audiobooks) Cocteau/cinema Bibliography (via UC Berkeley) Jean Cocteau
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at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Cocteau CMEF Cap d'Ail Cocteau et La chapelle Saint-Blaise-des-Simples Raquel Bitton: The Sparrow and the Birdman, a drama focusing on the relationship of Cocteau to Edith Piaf William Fifield (Summer–Fall 1964). "Jean Cocteau, The Art of Fiction No. 34". Paris
Review.  Maison Jean Cocteau
Jean Cocteau
- Cocteau's former home

v t e

Jean Cocteau



Antigone Les Enfants Terribles The Human Voice Opium: Diary of a Cure The Infernal Machine Les Parents terribles L'Aigle à deux têtes

Films directed

The Blood of a Poet Beauty and the Beast L'Aigle à deux têtes Les Parents terribles Orpheus La Villa Santo-Sospir 8 × 8: A Chess Sonata in 8 Movements Testament of Orpheus

Films written

The Phantom Baron L'Éternel retour Les Dames du Bois de Boulogne Les Enfants Terribles Ruy Blas The Black Crown La Princesse de Clèves Thomas the Impostor


Parade Les mariés de la tour Eiffel Oedipus rex Le jeune homme et la mort


Le bœuf sur le toit


Bastion Museum Jean Cocteau
Jean Cocteau
House Jean Cocteau
Jean Cocteau
Museum Jean Marais The Orphic Trilogy

v t e

Académie française
Académie française
seat 31

Pierre de Boissat (1634) Antoine Furetière
Antoine Furetière
(1662) Jean de La Chapelle
Jean de La Chapelle
(1688) Pierre-Joseph Thoulier d'Olivet
Pierre-Joseph Thoulier d'Olivet
(1723) Étienne Bonnot de Condillac
Étienne Bonnot de Condillac
(1768) Louis-Élisabeth de La Vergne de Tressan
Louis-Élisabeth de La Vergne de Tressan
(1780) Jean Sylvain Bailly
Jean Sylvain Bailly
(1783) Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès
(1803) Gérard de Lally-Tollendal
Gérard de Lally-Tollendal
(1816) Jean-Baptiste Sanson de Pongerville
Jean-Baptiste Sanson de Pongerville
(1830) Xavier Marmier
Xavier Marmier
(1870) Henri de Bornier
Henri de Bornier
(1893) Edmond Rostand
Edmond Rostand
(1901) Joseph Bédier
Joseph Bédier
(1920) Jérôme Tharaud
Jérôme Tharaud
(1938) Jean Cocteau
Jean Cocteau
(1955) Jacques Rueff (1964) Jean Dutourd (1978) Michael Edwards (2013)

v t e

Cannes Film Festival
Cannes Film Festival
jury presidents


Georges Huisman (1946) Georges Huisman (1947) Georges Huisman (1949) André Maurois
André Maurois
(1951) Maurice Genevoix
Maurice Genevoix
(1952) Jean Cocteau
Jean Cocteau
(1953) Jean Cocteau
Jean Cocteau
(1954) Marcel Pagnol
Marcel Pagnol
(1955) Maurice Lehmann
Maurice Lehmann
(1956) André Maurois
André Maurois
(1957) Marcel Achard (1958) Marcel Achard (1959) Georges Simenon
Georges Simenon
(1960) Jean Giono (1961) Tetsurō Furukaki (1962) Armand Salacrou (1963) Fritz Lang
Fritz Lang
(1964) Olivia de Havilland
Olivia de Havilland
(1965) Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
(1966) Alessandro Blasetti (1967) André Chamson
André Chamson
(1968) Luchino Visconti
Luchino Visconti
(1969) Miguel Ángel Asturias
Miguel Ángel Asturias
(1970) Michèle Morgan
Michèle Morgan
(1971) Joseph Losey
Joseph Losey
(1972) Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1973) René Clair
René Clair
(1974) Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau


Tennessee Williams
Tennessee Williams
(1976) Roberto Rossellini
Roberto Rossellini
(1977) Alan J. Pakula
Alan J. Pakula
(1978) Françoise Sagan
Françoise Sagan
(1979) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
(1980) Jacques Deray (1981) Giorgio Strehler (1982) William Styron
William Styron
(1983) Dirk Bogarde
Dirk Bogarde
(1984) Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(1985) Sydney Pollack
Sydney Pollack
(1986) Yves Montand
Yves Montand
(1987) Ettore Scola
Ettore Scola
(1988) Wim Wenders
Wim Wenders
(1989) Bernardo Bertolucci
Bernardo Bertolucci
(1990) Roman Polanski
Roman Polanski
(1991) Gérard Depardieu
Gérard Depardieu
(1992) Louis Malle
Louis Malle
(1993) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1994) Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
(1995) Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
(1996) Isabelle Adjani
Isabelle Adjani
(1997) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(1998) David Cronenberg
David Cronenberg
(1999) Luc Besson
Luc Besson


Liv Ullmann
Liv Ullmann
(2001) David Lynch
David Lynch
(2002) Patrice Chéreau
Patrice Chéreau
(2003) Quentin Tarantino
Quentin Tarantino
(2004) Emir Kusturica
Emir Kusturica
(2005) Wong Kar-wai
Wong Kar-wai
(2006) Stephen Frears
Stephen Frears
(2007) Sean Penn
Sean Penn
(2008) Isabelle Huppert
Isabelle Huppert
(2009) Tim Burton
Tim Burton
(2010) Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro
(2011) Nanni Moretti
Nanni Moretti
(2012) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(2013) Jane Campion
Jane Campion
(2014) Joel and Ethan Coen (2015) George Miller (2016) Pedro Almodóvar
Pedro Almodóvar
(2017) Cate Blanchett
Cate Blanchett

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 12306661 LCCN: n79007043 ISNI: 0000 0001 2120 8036 GND: 118521349 SELIBR: 181913 SUDOC: 026792680 BNF: cb11897143s (data) BIBSYS: 90054937 ULAN: 500003025 MusicBrainz: 2c5c8168-3b32-4d5f-af22-0a25f31777a8 NLA: 35029305 NDL: 00436236 NKC: jn19990001430 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV20964 BNE: XX1719542 RKD: 17443 SNAC: w6gf0t