Jean Baudrillard (/ˌboʊdriːˈɑːr/; French: [ʒɑ̃
bodʁijaʁ]; 27 July 1929 – 6 March 2007) was a French sociologist,
philosopher, cultural theorist, political commentator, and
photographer. He is best known for his analyses of media, contemporary
culture, and technological communication, as well as his formulation
of concepts such as simulation and hyperreality. He wrote about
diverse subjects, including consumerism, gender relations, economics,
social history, art, Western foreign policy, and popular culture.
Among his best known works are
America (1986), and
The Gulf War Did Not Take Place
The Gulf War Did Not Take Place (1991). His work
is frequently associated with postmodernism and specifically
2 Core ideas
2.1 The object value system
Simulacra and Simulation
2.3 The end of history and meaning
3 Political commentary
3.1 On the Gulf War
3.2 On the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001
5 In popular culture
6.4 Audio CDs
7 See also
9 External links
Baudrillard was born in Reims, northeastern France, on 27 July 1929.
His grandparents were peasant farm workers and his father a policeman.
During high school (at the
Lycée at Reims), he became aware of
pataphysics (via philosophy professor Emmanuel Peillet), which is said
to be crucial for understanding Baudrillard's later thought. He
became the first of his family to attend university when he moved to
Paris to attend the Sorbonne. There he studied
German language and
literature, which led him to begin teaching the subject at several
different lycées, both Parisian and provincial, from 1960 until
1966. While teaching, Baudrillard began to publish reviews of
literature and translated the works of such authors as Peter Weiss,
Bertolt Brecht, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, and Wilhelm Emil
While teaching German, Baudrillard began to transfer to sociology,
eventually completing and publishing in 1968 his doctoral thesis Le
Système des Objets (The System of Objects) under the dissertation
committee of Henri Lefebvre, Roland Barthes, and Pierre Bourdieu.
Subsequently, he began teaching
Sociology at the Paris X Nanterre, a
university campus just outside Paris which would become heavily
involved in the events of May 1968. During this time, Baudrillard
worked closely with
Philosopher Humphrey De Battenburge, who described
Baudrillard as a "visionary". At Nanterre he took up a position as
Maître Assistant (Assistant Professor), then Maître de Conférences
(Associate Professor), eventually becoming a professor after
completing his accreditation, L'Autre par lui-même (The Other by
In 1970, Baudrillard made the first of his many trips to the United
States (Aspen, Colorado), and in 1973, the first of several trips to
Kyoto, Japan. He was given his first camera in 1981 in Japan, which
led to his becoming a photographer.
In 1986 he moved to IRIS (Institut de Recherche et d'Information
Socio-Économique) at the Université de Paris-IX Dauphine, where he
spent the latter part of his teaching career. During this time he had
begun to move away from sociology as a discipline (particularly in its
"classical" form), and, after ceasing to teach full-time, he rarely
identified himself with any particular discipline, although he
remained linked to academia. During the 1980s and 1990s his books had
gained a wide audience, and in his last years he became, to an extent,
an intellectual celebrity, being published often in the French- and
English-speaking popular press. He nonetheless continued supporting
the Institut de Recherche sur l'Innovation Sociale at the Centre
National de la Recherche Scientifique and was
Satrap at the Collège
de Pataphysique. Baudrillard taught at the
European Graduate School in
Saas-Fee, Switzerland, and collaborated at the Canadian theory,
culture, and technology review Ctheory, where he was abundantly cited.
He also participated in the International Journal of Baudrillard
Studies from its inception in 2004 until his death. In
1999–2000, his photographs were exhibited at the Maison européenne
de la photographie in Paris. In 2004, Baudrillard attended the
major conference on his work, "Baudrillard and the Arts", at the
Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe
Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe in Karlsruhe, Germany.
Baudrillard's published work emerged as part of a generation of French
thinkers including: Gilles Deleuze, Jean-François Lyotard, Michel
Foucault, Jacques Derrida, and
Jacques Lacan who all shared an
interest in semiotics, and he is often seen as a part of the
post-structuralist philosophical school. In common with many
post-structuralists, his arguments consistently draw upon the notion
that signification and meaning are both only understandable in terms
of how particular words or "signs" interrelate. Baudrillard thought,
as do many post-structuralists, that meaning is brought about through
systems of signs working together. Following on from the structuralist
linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, Baudrillard argued that meaning
(value) is created through difference—through what something is not
(so "dog" means "dog" because it is not-"cat", not-"goat", not-"tree",
etc.). In fact, he viewed meaning as near enough self-referential:
objects, images of objects, words and signs are situated in a web of
meaning; one object's meaning is only understandable through its
relation to the meaning of other objects; for instance, one thing's
prestige relates to another's mundanity.
From this starting point Baudrillard theorized broadly about human
society based upon this kind of self-referentiality. His writing
portrays societies always searching for a sense of meaning—or a
"total" understanding of the world—that remains consistently
elusive. In contrast to
Post-structuralism (such as Michel Foucault),
for whom the formations of knowledge emerge only as the result of
relations of power, Baudrillard developed theories in which the
excessive, fruitless search for total knowledge leads almost
inevitably to a kind of delusion. In Baudrillard's view, the (human)
subject may try to understand the (non-human) object, but because the
object can only be understood according to what it signifies (and
because the process of signification immediately involves a web of
other signs from which it is distinguished) this never produces the
desired results. The subject is, rather, seduced (in the original
Latin sense, seducere, to lead away) by the object. He argued
therefore that, in final analysis, a complete understanding of the
minutiae of human life is impossible, and when people are seduced into
thinking otherwise they become drawn toward a "simulated" version of
reality, or, to use one of his neologisms, a state of "hyperreality".
This is not to say that the world becomes unreal, but rather that the
faster and more comprehensively societies begin to bring reality
together into one supposedly coherent picture, the more insecure and
unstable it looks and the more fearful societies become. Reality,
in this sense, "dies out".
Accordingly, Baudrillard argued that the excess of signs and of
meaning in late 20th century "global" society had caused (quite
paradoxically) an effacement of reality. In this world neither liberal
nor Marxist utopias are any longer believed in. We live, he argued,
not in a "global village", to use Marshall McLuhan's phrase, but
rather in a world that is ever more easily petrified by even the
smallest event. Because the "global" world operates at the level of
the exchange of signs and commodities, it becomes ever more blind to
symbolic acts such as, for example, terrorism. In Baudrillard's work
the symbolic realm (which he develops a perspective on through the
anthropological work of
Marcel Mauss and Georges Bataille) is seen as
quite distinct from that of signs and signification. Signs can be
exchanged like commodities; symbols, on the other hand, operate quite
differently: they are exchanged, like gifts, sometimes violently as a
form of potlatch. Baudrillard, particularly in his later work, saw the
"global" society as without this "symbolic" element, and therefore
symbolically (if not militarily) defenseless against acts such as the
Rushdie Fatwa or, indeed, the September 11 terrorist attacks
United States and its military and economic establishment.
The object value system
In his early books, such as The System of Objects, For a Critique of
the Political Economy of the Sign, and The Consumer Society,
Baudrillard's main focus is upon consumerism, and how different
objects are consumed in different ways. At this time Baudrillard's
political outlook was loosely associated with
Situationism), but in these books he differed from
Karl Marx in one
significant way. For Baudrillard, as for the situationists, it was
consumption rather than production that was the main driver of
Baudrillard came to this conclusion by criticising Marx's concept of
"use-value". Baudrillard thought that both Marx's and Adam Smith's
economic thought accepted the idea of genuine needs relating to
genuine uses too easily and too simply. Baudrillard argued, drawing
from Georges Bataille, that needs are constructed, rather than innate.
He stressed that all purchases, because they always signify something
socially, have their fetishistic side. Objects always, drawing from
Roland Barthes, "say something" about their users. And this was, for
him, why consumption was and remains more important than production:
because the "ideological genesis of needs" precedes the production of
goods to meet those needs.
He wrote that there are four ways of an object obtaining value. The
four value-making processes are:
The first is the functional value of an object; its instrumental
purpose (use value). A pen, for instance, writes; a refrigerator
The second is the exchange value of an object; its economic value. One
pen may be worth three pencils; and one refrigerator may be worth the
salary earned by three months of work.
The third is the symbolic value of an object; a value that a subject
assigns to an object in relation to another subject (i.e., between a
giver and receiver). A pen might symbolize a student's school
graduation gift or a commencement speaker's gift; or a diamond may be
a symbol of publicly declared marital love.
The last is the sign value of an object; its value within a system of
objects. A particular pen may, while having no added functional
benefit, signify prestige relative to another pen; a diamond ring may
have no function at all, but may suggest particular social values,
such as taste or class.
Baudrillard's earlier books were attempts to argue that the first two
of these values are not simply associated, but are disrupted by the
third and, particularly, the fourth. Later, Baudrillard rejected
Marxism totally (
The Mirror of Production
The Mirror of Production and Symbolic Exchange and
Death). But the focus on the difference between sign value (which
relates to commodity exchange) and symbolic value (which relates to
Maussian gift exchange) remained in his work up until his death.
Indeed, it came to play a more and more important role, particularly
in his writings on world events.
Simulacra and Simulation
Simulacra and Simulation
As he developed his work throughout the 1980s, he moved from economic
theory to mediation and mass communication. Although retaining his
interest in Saussurean semiotics and the logic of symbolic exchange
(as influenced by anthropologist Marcel Mauss), Baudrillard turned his
attention to the work of Marshall McLuhan, developing ideas about how
the nature of social relations is determined by the forms of
communication that a society employs. In so doing, Baudrillard
progressed beyond both Saussure's and Roland Barthes's formal
semiology to consider the implications of a historically understood
version of structural semiology.
Simulation, Baudrillard claims, is the current stage of the
simulacrum: all is composed of references with no referents, a
hyperreality. Progressing historically from the Renaissance, in
which the dominant simulacrum was in the form of the
counterfeit—mostly people or objects appearing to stand for a real
referent (for instance, royalty, nobility, holiness, etc.) that does
not exist, in other words, in the spirit of pretense, in dissimulating
others that a person or a thing does not really "have it"—to the
Industrial Revolution, in which the dominant simulacrum is the
product, the series, which can be propagated on an endless production
line; and finally to current times, in which the dominant simulacrum
is the model, which by its nature already stands for endless
reproducibility, and is itself already reproduced.
The end of history and meaning
Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, one of Baudrillard's most common
themes was historicity, or, more specifically, how present-day
societies utilise the notions of progress and modernity in their
political choices. He argued, much like the political theorist Francis
Fukuyama, that history had ended or "vanished" with the spread of
globalization; but, unlike Fukuyama, Baudrillard averred that this end
should not be understood as the culmination of history's progress, but
as the collapse of the very idea of historical progress. For
Baudrillard, the end of the
Cold War did not represent an ideological
victory; rather, it signaled the disappearance of utopian visions
shared between both the political Right and Left. Giving further
evidence of his opposition toward Marxist visions of global communism
and liberal visions of global civil society, Baudrillard contended
that the ends they hoped for had always been illusions; indeed, as The
Illusion of the End argues, he thought the idea of an end itself was
nothing more than a misguided dream:
The end of history is, alas, also the end of the dustbins of history.
There are no longer any dustbins for disposing of old ideologies, old
regimes, old values. Where are we going to throw Marxism, which
actually invented the dustbins of history? (Yet there is some justice
here since the very people who invented them have fallen in.)
Conclusion: if there are no more dustbins of history, this is because
History itself has become a dustbin. It has become its own dustbin,
just as the planet itself is becoming its own dustbin.
Within a society subject to and ruled by fast-paced electronic
communication and global information networks the collapse of this
façade was always going to be, he thought, inevitable. Employing a
quasi-scientific vocabulary that attracted the ire of the physicist
Alan Sokal, Baudrillard wrote that the speed society moved at had
destabilized the linearity of history: "we have the particle
accelerator that has smashed the referential orbit of things once and
In making this argument Baudrillard found some affinity with the
postmodern philosophy of Jean-François Lyotard, who famously argued
that in the late 20th century there was no longer any room for
"metanarratives". (The triumph of a coming communism being one such
metanarrative.) But, in addition to simply lamenting this collapse of
history, Baudrillard also went beyond Lyotard and attempted to analyse
how the idea of forward progress was being employed in spite of the
notion's declining validity. Baudrillard argued that although genuine
belief in a universal endpoint of history, wherein all conflicts would
find their resolution, had been deemed redundant, universality was
still a notion utilised in world politics as an excuse for actions.
Universal values which, according to him, no one any longer believed
universal were and are still rhetorically employed to justify
otherwise unjustifiable choices. The means, he wrote, are there even
though the ends are no longer believed in, and are employed in order
to hide the present's harsh realities (or, as he would have put it,
unrealities). "In the Enlightenment, universalization was viewed as
unlimited growth and forward progress. Today, by contrast,
universalization is expressed as a forward escape." This involves
the notion of "escape velocity" as outlined in The Vital Illusion
(2000), which in turn, results in the postmodern fallacy of escape
velocity on which the postmodern mind and critical view cannot, by
definition, ever truly break free from the all-encompassing
"self-referential" sphere of discourse.
On the Gulf War
Baudrillard's provocative 1991 book The
Gulf War Did Not Take Place
raised his public profile as an academic and political commentator. He
argued that the first
Gulf War was the inverse of the Clausewitzian
formula: not "the continuation of politics by other means", but "the
continuation of the absence of politics by other means". Accordingly,
Saddam Hussein was not fighting the Coalition, but using the lives of
his soldiers as a form of sacrifice to preserve his power (p. 72,
2004 edition). The Coalition fighting the
Iraqi military was merely
dropping 10,000 tonnes of bombs daily, as if proving to themselves
that there was an enemy to fight (p. 61). So, too, were the
Western media complicit, presenting the war in real time, by recycling
images of war to propagate the notion that the U.S.-led coalition and
the Iraqi government were actually fighting, but, such was not the
Saddam Hussein did not use his military capacity (the Iraqi Air
Force). His power was not weakened, evinced by his easy suppression of
the 1991 internal uprisings that followed afterwards. Overall, little
had changed. Saddam remained undefeated, the "victors" were not
victorious, and thus there was no war—i.e., the
Gulf War did not
The book was originally a series of articles in the British newspaper
The Guardian and the French newspaper Libération. These were
published in three parts: "The
Gulf War Will Not Take Place",
published during the American military and rhetorical buildup; "The
Gulf War Is Not Taking Place", published during military action; and
Gulf War Did Not Take Place", published afterwards.
Some critics accused Baudrillard of instant revisionism; a denial of
the physical action of the conflict (which was related to his denial
of reality in general). Consequently, Baudrillard was accused of lazy
amoralism, cynical scepticism, and Berkelian idealism. Sympathetic
commentators such as William Merrin (in his book Baudrillard and the
Media) have argued that Baudrillard was more concerned with the West's
technological and political dominance and the globalization of its
commercial interests, and what that means for the present possibility
of war. Merrin argued that Baudrillard was not denying that something
had happened, but merely questioning whether that something was in
fact war or a bilateral "atrocity masquerading as a war". Merrin
viewed the accusations of amorality as redundant and based on a
misreading. In Baudrillard's own words (pp. 71–72):
Saddam liquidates the communists, Moscow flirts even more with him; he
gases the Kurds, it is not held against him; he eliminates the
religious cadres, the whole of Islam makes peace with him ...
Even ... the 100,000 dead will only have been the final decoy
that Saddam will have sacrificed, the blood money paid in forfeit
according to a calculated equivalence, in order to preserve his power.
What is worse is that these dead still serve as an alibi for those who
do not want to have been excited for nothing: at least these dead will
prove this war was indeed a war and not a shameful and pointless
On the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001
In contrast to the "non-event" of the Gulf War, in the essay The
Spirit of Terrorism he characterised the terrorist attacks on the
World Trade Center in New York City as the "absolute event". Seeking
to understand them as a reaction to the technological and political
expansion of capitalist globalization, rather than as a war of
religiously based or civilization-based warfare, he described the
absolute event and its consequences as follows:
This is not a clash of civilisations or religions, and it reaches far
beyond Islam and America, on which efforts are being made to focus the
conflict in order to create the delusion of a visible confrontation
and a solution based upon force. There is indeed a fundamental
antagonism here, but one that points past the spectre of America
(which is perhaps the epicentre, but in no sense the sole embodiment,
of globalisation) and the spectre of Islam (which is not the
embodiment of terrorism either) to triumphant globalisation battling
In accordance with his theory of society, Baudrillard portrayed the
attacks as a symbolic reaction to the inexorable rise of a world based
on commodity exchange. This stance was criticised on two counts.
Richard Wolin (in The Seduction of Unreason) forcefully accused
Slavoj Žižek of all but celebrating the terrorist
attacks, essentially claiming that the
United States received what it
deserved. Žižek, however, countered that accusation to Wolin's
analysis as a form of intellectual barbarism in the journal Critical
Inquiry, saying that Wolin failed to see the difference between
fantasising about an event and stating that one is deserving of that
event. Merrin (in Baudrillard and the Media) argued that Baudrillard's
position affords the terrorists a type of moral superiority. In the
journal Economy and Society, Merrin further noted that Baudrillard
gives the symbolic facets of society unfair privilege above semiotic
concerns. Second, authors questioned whether the attacks were
unavoidable. Bruno Latour, in Critical Inquiry, argued that
Baudrillard believed that their destruction was forced by the society
that created them, alluding to the notion that the Towers were
"brought down by their own weight". In Latour's view, this was because
Baudrillard conceived only of society in terms of a symbolic and
semiotic dualism. 
Denis Dutton, founder of Philosophy & Literature's "Bad Writing
Contest"—which listed examples of the kind of willfully obscurantist
prose for which Baudrillard was frequently criticised—had the
following to say:
Some writers in their manner and stance intentionally provoke
challenge and criticism from their readers. Others just invite you to
think. Baudrillard's hyperprose demands only that you grunt wide-eyed
or bewildered assent. He yearns to have intellectual influence, but
must fend off any serious analysis of his own writing, remaining free
to leap from one bombastic assertion to the next, no matter how
brazen. Your place is simply to buy his books, adopt his jargon, and
drop his name wherever possible.
However, only one of the two major confrontational books on
Baudrillard's thought—Christopher Norris's Uncritical Theory:
Postmodernism, Intellectuals and the Gulf War
(ISBN 0-87023-817-5)—seeks to reject his media theory and
position on "the real" out of hand. The other—Douglas Kellner's Jean
Postmodernism and Beyond
(ISBN 0-8047-1757-5)—seeks rather to analyse Baudrillard's
relation to postmodernism (a concept with which Baudrillard has had a
continued, if uneasy and rarely explicit, relationship) and to present
a Marxist counter. Regarding the former, William Merrin (discussed
above) published more than one denunciation of Norris's position. The
latter Baudrillard himself characterised as reductive (in Nicholas
Zurbrugg's Jean Baudrillard: Art and Artefact).
Willam Merrin's work has presented a more sympathetic account, which
attempts to "place Baudrillard in opposition to himself". Thereby
Merrin has argued that Baudrillard's position on semiotic analysis of
meaning denies himself his own position on symbolic exchange. Merrin
thus alludes to the common criticism of structuralist and
post-structuralist work (a criticism not dissimilar in either
Baudrillard, Foucault, or Deleuze) that emphasising interrelation as
the basis for subjectivity denies the human agency from which social
structures necessarily arise. (
Alain Badiou and
Michel de Certeau have
made this point generally, and Barry Sandywell has argued as much in
Baudrillard's specific case.)
Finally, Mark Poster, until his death in 2012 was Baudrillard's editor
and one of a number of academics who argued for his contemporary
relevance; he remarked (p. 8 of Poster's 2nd ed. of Selected
Baudrillard's writing up to the mid-1980s is open to several
criticisms. He fails to define key terms, such as the code; his
writing style is hyperbolic and declarative, often lacking sustained,
systematic analysis when it is appropriate; he totalizes his insights,
refusing to qualify or delimit his claims. He writes about particular
experiences, television images, as if nothing else in society
mattered, extrapolating a bleak view of the world from that limited
base. He ignores contradictory evidence such as the many benefits
afforded by the new media
Nonetheless Poster is keen to refute the most extreme of Baudrillard's
critics, the likes of
Alan Sokal and Norris who see him as a purveyor
of a form of reality-denying irrationalism (ibid p. 7):
Baudrillard is not disputing the trivial issue that reason remains
operative in some actions, that if I want to arrive at the next block,
for example, I can assume a Newtonian universe (common sense), plan a
course of action (to walk straight for X meters), carry out the
action, and finally fulfill my goal by arriving at the point in
question. What is in doubt is that this sort of thinking enables a
historically informed grasp of the present in general. According to
Baudrillard, it does not. The concurrent spread of the hyperreal
through the media and the collapse of liberal and Marxist politics as
the master narratives, deprives the rational subject of its privileged
access to truth. In an important sense individuals are no longer
citizens, eager to maximise their civil rights, nor proletarians,
anticipating the onset of communism. They are rather consumers, and
hence the prey of objects as defined by the code.
In popular culture
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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2017)
Native American (Anishinaabe) writer Gerald Vizenor, who has made
extensive use of Baudrillard's concepts of simulation in his critical
Wachowski siblings said that Baudrillard influenced The Matrix
(1999), and Neo hides money and disks containing information in
Simulacra and Simulation. One critic wondered whether Baudrillard, who
had not embraced the movie, was "thinking of suing for a screen
credit", but Baudrillard himself disclaimed any connection to The
Matrix, calling it at best a misreading of his ideas.
Some reviewers have noted that Charlie Kaufman's film Synecdoche, New
York seems inspired by Baudrillard's
The System of Objects (1968)
The Consumer Society: Myths and Structures (1970)
For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign (1972)
The Mirror of Production
The Mirror of Production (1973)
Symbolic Exchange and Death (1976)
Forget Foucault (1977)
In the Shadow of the Silent Majorities (1982)
Fatal Strategies (1983)
Cool Memories (1987)
The Ecstasy of Communication (1987)
The Transparency of Evil (1990)
The Gulf War Did Not Take Place
The Gulf War Did Not Take Place (1991)
The Illusion of the End (1992)
Baudrillard Live: Selected Interviews (Edited by Mike Gane) (1993)
The Perfect Crime (1995)
Paroxysm: Interviews with Philippe Petit (1998)
Impossible Exchange (1999)
The Singular Objects of Architecture (2000)
The Vital Illusion (2000)
Au royaume des aveugles (2002)
The Spirit of Terrorism: And Requiem for the Twin Towers (2002)
Fragments (interviews with François L'Yvonnet) (2003)
The Intelligence of Evil or the Lucidity Pact (2005)
The Conspiracy of Art (2005)
Les exilés du dialogue,
Jean Baudrillard and Enrique Valiente
Utopia Deferred: Writings for Utopie (1967–1978) (2006)
Radical Alterity (2008) [Figures de l'alterité, 1994]
Why Hasn't Everything Already Disappeared? (2009)
Carnival and Cannibal, or the Play of Global Antagonisms (2010)
The Agony of Power (2010)
Screened Out (2014)
The Divine Left: A Chronicle of the Years 1977–1984 (2014)
Baudrillard, Jean (Fall 2001). "The spirit of terrorism". Telos. Telos
Press. 121: 134–142.
Baudrillard, Jean (Summer 2005). "Divine Europe". Telos. Telos Press.
Baudrillard, Jean (January–February 2006). "The pyres of autumn".
New Left Review.
New Left Review. II (37).
Smith, Richard G.; Clarke, David B., eds. (2017). Jean Baudrillard:
The Disappearance of Culture: Uncollected Interviews. Edinburgh, UK:
Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-1-4744-1778-5.
Smith, Richard G.; Clarke, David B., eds. (2015). Jean Baudrillard:
Hyperreality to Disappearance: Uncollected Interviews. Edinburgh,
UK: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-9429-7.
Die Illusion des Endes – Das Ende der Illusion (Jean Baudrillard
& Boris Groys), 58 minutes + booklet. Cologne: supposé 1997.
Die Macht der Verführung, 55 minutes. Cologne: supposé 2006.
Mario Perniola, "Being-Towards-Death and the Simulacrum of Death:
Heidegger and Baudrillard" in Cultural Politics (2011) 7(3): 345-358.
International Journal of Baudrillard Studies
Smith, Richard G ed.(2010) The Baudrillard Dictionary Edinburgh, UK:
Edinburgh University Press.
Smith, Richard G ed. (2011) Baudrillard Redux
Special Issue of
Cultural Politics, Volume 7, Number 3, November.
Smith, Richard G ed. (2009) Jean Baudrillard: Fatal Theories London,
^ a b François L'Yvonnet, ed., Cahiers de l'Herne special volume on
Baudrillard, Editions de l'Herne, 2004, p. 317
^ Steven Poole. "Jean Baudrillard.
Philosopher and sociologist who
blurred the boundaries between reality and simulation", The Guardian.
7 March 2007.
^ In 1948, he completed his diplôme d'études supérieures (fr)
(roughly equivalent to an MA thesis) on Nietzsche and Luther (see
Jean Baudrillard Musée du quai Branly Paris 17-18/09/2010).
^ François L'Yvonnet, ed., Cahiers de l'Herne special volume on
Baudrillard, Editions de l'Herne, 2004, p. 322.
^ Chris Turner's introduction to The Intelligence of Evil, Berg
(2005), p. 2.
^ Simmons, Arthur (1982). French Philosophers in the 20th Century, p.
9. MacMillan, London.
^ François L'Yvonnet, ed., Cahiers de l'Herne special volume on
Baudrillard, Editions de l'Herne, 2004, pp. 317–318.
^ cf. Barry Sandywell's article "Forget Baudrillard", in Theory,
Society (1995, issue 12)
Jean Baudrillard Faculty page at European Graduate School
^ "Baudrillard Studies". Ubishops.ca. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
^ François L'Yvonnet, ed., Cahiers de l'Herne special volume on
Baudrillard, Editions de l'Herne, 2004, p. 319
^ François L'Yvonnet, ed., Cahiers de l'Herne special volume on
Baudrillard, Editions de l'Herne, 2004, p. 320
^ Peter Pericles Trifonas, Barthes and the Empire of Signs, Icon
^ see here Baudrillard's final major publication in English, The
Intelligence of Evil, where he discussed the political fallout of what
he calls "Integral Reality"
^ as he argued in the book The Perfect Crime, Verso (1995) for
^ see here The Transparency of Evil, Verso (1993)
^ p. 63 in For a Critique ... (1983)
^ as set out in For a Critique ... (1983)
^ Jean Baudrillard.
Simulacra and Simulations. The Precession of
Simulacra. Archived 29 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine. European
^ The Illusion of the End, or Selected Writings, p. 263.
^ The Illusion of the End, p. 2.
^ Jean Baudrillard, "The Violence of the Global" Archived 27 May 2010
at the Wayback Machine., European Graduate School. Translated by
^ a b Jean Baudrillard. "The Spirit of Terrorism" Archived 25 August
2010 at the Wayback Machine., European Graduate School. 2 November
2001, Translated by Rachel Bloul
^ Latour, Bruno. "Why Has Critique Run out of Steam? From Matters of
Fact to Matters of Concern" (PDF). Critical Inquiry. 30 (2): 228.
doi:10.1086/421123. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
^ "Dutton, Denis, "Jean Baudrillard", Philosophy and Literature 14
(1990) 234-38". Denisdutton.com. Retrieved 22 November 2013.
^ Raheja, Michelle (Spring 2001). "Postindian Conversations (review)".
The American Indian Quarterly. 25 (2): 324–325.
^ Adam Gopnik, "The Unreal Thing",
The New Yorker
The New Yorker 19 May 2003
^ Genosko, Gary; Bryx, Adam, eds. (July 2004). "
The Matrix Decoded: Le
Nouvel Observateur Interview With Jean Baudrillard". International
Journal of Baudrillard Studies. Quebec, Canada: Bishop's University,
Sociology and Anthropology. 1 (2). ISSN 1705-6411.
Archived from the original on 25 March 2012. Retrieved 10 January
Le Nouvel Observateur
Le Nouvel Observateur with Baudrillard". Le Nouvel Observateur.
Archived from the original on 13 January 2008. Retrieved 23 August
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Wikiquote has quotations related to: Jean Baudrillard
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jean Baudrillard.
Jean Baudrillard. Faculty page at
European Graduate School (biography,
bibliography, photos and videos).
Kellner, Douglas. "Jean Baudrillard". In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford
Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Jean Baudrillard, Fatal Strategies (with an introduction by Dominic
Baudrillard; Cultura, Simulacro y régimen de mortandad en el Sistema
de los Objetos EIKASIA PDF (in Spanish) Adolfo Vásquez Rocca
"The world of Jean Baudrillard". Robertexto.com. Retrieved 17 August
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