HOME
The Info List - Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte





Charles XIV and III John, also known as Carl John, (Swedish and Norwegian: Karl Johan; 26 January 1763 – 8 March 1844) was King of Sweden
Sweden
(as Charles XIV John) and King of Norway
Norway
(as Charles III John) from 1818 until his death, and served as de facto regent and head of state from 1810 to 1818. He was also the Sovereign Prince
Prince
of Pontecorvo, in south-central Italy, from 1806 until 1810. He was born Jean Bernadotte[1] in France
France
and served a long career in the French Army. He subsequently acquired the full name of Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte (French: [ʒɑ̃ bapˈtist ʒyl bɛʁˈnadɔt]). He was appointed as a Marshal of France
Marshal of France
by Napoleon, though the two had a turbulent relationship. Napoleon
Napoleon
made him Prince of Pontecorvo
Pontecorvo
on 5 June 1806, but he stopped using that title in 1810 when his service to France
France
ended and he was elected the heir-presumptive to the childless King Charles XIII of Sweden. His candidacy was advocated by Baron Carl Otto Mörner, a Swedish courtier and obscure member of the Riksdag of the Estates.[2] Upon his Swedish adoption, he assumed the name Carl. He did not use the name Bernadotte in Sweden, but founded the royal dynasty there of that name.

Contents

1 Early life and family 2 Early military career 3 Revolutionary Wars 4 Marshal of the French Empire 5 Offer of the Swedish throne 6 Crown Prince
Prince
and Regent 7 King of Sweden
Sweden
and Norway 8 Death 9 Titles, styles, honours, and arms

9.1 Titles and styles 9.2 Honours

9.2.1 National decorations 9.2.2 Foreign decorations

9.3 Arms and monogram

10 Fictional portrayals 11 Ancestry 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

Early life and family[edit]

Bernadotte's birth house in Pau, France

Bernadotte was born in Pau, France, as the son of Jean Henri Bernadotte (Pau, Béarn, 14 October 1711 – Pau, 31 March 1780), prosecutor at Pau, and his wife (married at Boeil, 20 February 1754) Jeanne de Saint-Jean (Pau, 1 April 1728 – Pau, 8 January 1809), niece of the Lay Abbot of Sireix. The family name was originally du Poey (or de Pouey), but was changed to Bernadotte – a surname of an ancestress at the beginning of the 17th century.[3] Soon after his birth, Baptiste was added to his name, to distinguish him from his elder brother Jean Évangeliste. Bernadotte himself added Jules to his first names as a tribute to the French Empire under Napoleon
Napoleon
I.[3] At the age of 14, he was apprenticed to a local attorney. The early death of his father, however, stopped him from following in his father's career.[4]

Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte

Marshal Bernadotte, Prince
Prince
de Ponte-Corvo. Painted by Joseph Nicolas Jouy, after François-Joseph Kinson

Allegiance  Kingdom of France Kingdom of France French Republic French Empire

Years of service 1780–1810

Rank Marshal of the Empire

Commands held Governor of Hanover

Battles/wars French Revolutionary Wars Napoleonic Wars

Awards Legion of Honour Names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe Titled Prince
Prince
of Ponte-Corvo

Other work Minister of War Councillor of State

Early military career[edit] Bernadotte joined the army as a private in the Régiment Royal–La Marine on 3 September 1780,[5] and first served in the newly conquered territory of Corsica.[3] Subsequently, the Régiment stationed in Besançon, Grenoble, Vienne, Marseille
Marseille
and Ile de Re.[6][7] He reached to the rank of Sergeant in August 1785 and was nicknamed Sergeant Belle-Jambe, for his smart appearance.[8] In early 1790 he was promoted to Adjutant-Major, the highest rank for noncommissioned officers in the Ancien Régime.[9] Revolutionary Wars[edit] Following the outbreak of the French Revolution, his eminent military qualities brought him speedy promotion.[3] By 1794 he was promoted to brigadier, attached to the Army of Sambre-et-Meuse.[3] After Jourdan's victory at Fleurus (26 June 1794) he then became a divisional general. At the Battle of Theiningen (1796), Bernadotte contributed, more than anyone else, to the successful retreat of the French army over the Rhine
Rhine
after its defeat by the Archduke Charles of Austria. At the beginning of 1797 he was ordered by the Directory to march with 20,000 men as reinforcements to Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte's army in Italy.[10] His successful crossing of the Alps through the storm in midwinter was highly praised but coldly received by the Italian Army.[11][12] Upon receiving insult from Dominique Martin Dupuy, the commander of Milan, Bernadotte was to arrest him for insubordination.[13] However, Dupuy was a close friend of Louis-Alexandre Berthier
Louis-Alexandre Berthier
and this started a long-lasting feud between Bernadotte and Napoleon's Chief of Staff.[14] He had his first interview with Napoleon
Napoleon
in Mantua and was appointed the commander of the 4th division.[15] During the invasion of Friuli and Istria, Bernadotte distinguished himself greatly at the passage of the Tagliamento
Tagliamento
where he led the vanguard, and at the capture of the fortress of Gradisca (19 March 1797).[10] After the 18th Fructidor, Napoleon
Napoleon
ordered his generals to collect from their respective divisions addresses in favor of the coup d'état of that day; but Bernadotte sent an address to the directory different from that which Napoleon
Napoleon
wished for and without conveying it through Napoleon's hands.[10] After the treaty of Campo Formio, Napoleon
Napoleon
gave Bernadotte a friendly visit at his headquarters at Udine, but immediately after deprived him of half his division of the army of the Rhine, and commanded him to march the other half back to France.[10] Paul Barras, one of five directors, was cautious that Napoleon
Napoleon
would overturn the Republic, so he appointed Bernadotte commander-in-chief of the Italian Army in order to offset Napoleon’s power.[16] Bernadotte was pleased with this appointment but Napoleon
Napoleon
lobbied Talleyrand-Périgord, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, to appoint him the embassy to Vienna instead.[17] Bernadotte was very dissatisfied; he finally accepted the embassy to Vienna, but had to quit his post owing to the disturbances caused by his hoisting the tricolour over the embassy.[3][10] After returning from Vienna, he resided in Paris. He married Désirée Clary in August 1798, the daughter of a Marseilles merchant and Joseph Bonaparte's sister-in-law.[10] In November of the same year he was made commander of the army of observation on the upper Rhine. Although solicited to do so by Barras and Joseph Bonaparte, he did not take part in the coup d'état of the 30th Prairial.[18] From 2 July to 14 September he was Minister of War, in which capacity he displayed great ability.[10] However, his popularity and contacts with radical Jacobins aroused antipathy towards him in the government.[19] On the morning of 13 September he found his resignation announced in the Moniteur before he was aware that he had tendered it. This was a trick; played upon him by Sieyès and Roger Ducos, the directors allied to Napoleon.[10] He declined to help Napoleon
Napoleon
Bonaparte stage his coup d'état of November 1799 but nevertheless accepted employment from the Consulate, and from April 1800 to 18 August 1801 commanded the army in the Vendée
Vendée
and successfully restored its tranquility.[3][10] Marshal of the French Empire[edit]

Bernadotte, as Marshal of the French Empire.

On the introduction of the First French Empire, Bernadotte became one of the eighteen Marshals of the Empire, and from June 1804 to September 1805 served as governor of the recently occupied Hanover. In this capacity, as well as during his later command of the army of northern Germany, he created for himself a reputation for independence, moderation, and administrative ability.[10] During the campaign of 1805, Bernadotte—with an army corps from Hanover—co-operated in the great movement which resulted in the shutting off of Mack in the Battle of Ulm. In the Battle of Austerlitz (2 December 1805) he was posted with his corps in the center between Soult and Lannes, and contributed to defeating the attempt of the right wing of the allies to outflank the French army.[10] As a reward for his services at Austerlitz, he became the 1st Sovereign Prince
Prince
of Ponte Corvo
Ponte Corvo
(5 June 1806), a district of Naples formerly subject to the Pope.[20][10] However, during the campaign against Prussia, in the same year, he was severely reproached by Napoleon
Napoleon
for not participating with his army corps in the battles of Jena and Auerstädt (14 October 1806), because they were close.[20] Napoleon, on the night of October 13, thinking he had faced the whole Prussian army at Jena, sent orders to Bernadotte and Davout to fall back from Naumburg
Naumburg
and get across the Prussian line of retreat. In pursuance of these orders, Bernadotte, separately from Davout, left Naumburg
Naumburg
at dawn on the morning of the 14th for Dornburg and marched towards Apolda, which he reached by 16:00. Hampered by the very poor state of the roads, he could not engage in the Battle of Jena, though he effectively compelled the Prussians to retreat from both battlefields by posting his troops on the heights of Apolda.[21][22][23] Afterwards, Bernadotte was accused of deliberately refusing to support Davout, who had unexpectedly encountered the Prussian main army at Auerstädt, out of jealousy, and Napoleon, if reminiscences from St. Helena may be believed, once intended to put Bernadotte before a court-martial.[24][25] In fact, he did what he had been ordered to do, and more fundamental responsibility for his absence rests upon the ambiguous and indirect orders issued by Berthier and Napoleon’s unawareness of the Prussian position.[26][27] After the Battle of Jena, Bernadotte defeated the Prussians at Halle (17 October 1806) but the headquarters did not much appreciate this victory.[28] When visiting Halle after the battle, Napoleon enigmatically commented “Bernadotte stops at nothing. Someday the Gascon will get caught.”[29] Subsequently, Bernadotte pursued, conjointly with Soult and Murat, the Prussian general Blücher to Lübeck, and aided in forcing his capitulation at Radkow (7 November 1806).[10] When the French forced their way to Lübeck, the city became the target of large-scale looting and rampage by the French soldiers. Bernadotte, struggling desperately to prevent his men from sacking, was given six horses from the Council of Lübeck as their appreciation.[30][31] He also treated captured Swedish soldiers with courtesy and allowed them to return to their home country. The impressed Swedes went home with a tale of Bernadotte’s fairness in maintaining order within the city.[32] Thereafter he marched to Poland and defeated the Russians at Mohrungen (25 January 1807).[10] Since the messenger had been captured by Russians, Bernadotte could not take part in the Battle of Eylau
Battle of Eylau
(7 to 8 February 1807). Napoleon
Napoleon
rebuked him for his absence but it became acknowledged that it was not due to Bernadotte, but Berthier’s carelessness in dispatching the orderly.[33] After the Peace of Tilsit, in 1808, as governor of the Hanseatic towns, he was to direct the expedition against Sweden, via the Danish islands, but the plan came to naught because of the want of transports and the defection of the Spanish contingent.[3] Being recalled to Germany to assist in the new war between France
France
and Austria, he received the command of the 9th Corps, which was mainly composed of Saxons.[10] Further difficulties with Berthier, and inclusion in his corps of the ill-prepared Saxons combined with his illness to make him beg for release from service.[27] Bernadotte wrote to Napoleon
Napoleon
that “I see my efforts perpetually paralyzed by a hidden force over which I can not prevail.”[34] Napoleon
Napoleon
disregarded these appeals and Bernadotte proceeded with the campaign, commanding mostly foreign troops with few French.[35] At the Battle of Wagram
Battle of Wagram
(6 July 1809), he commanded this corps, of which the division of Dupas formed part. Having resisted on the left wing for a long time an attack from a superior force, he ordered Dupas forward to his support; the latter replied that he had orders from the emperor to remain where he was. After the battle, Bernadotte complained to Napoleon
Napoleon
for having, in violation of all military rules, ordered Dupas to act independently of his command, and for having thereby caused great loss of life to the Saxons, and tendered his resignation. Napoleon
Napoleon
accepted after he had become aware of an order of the day issued by Bernadotte in which he gave the Saxons credit for their courage in terms inconsistent with the emperor's official bulletin.[10] With Bernadotte having returned to Paris, the Walcheren expedition (July 1809) caused the French ministry in the absence of the emperor to entrust him with the defense of Antwerp
Antwerp
with the National Guard.[36] In a proclamation issued to his troops at Antwerp
Antwerp
he made a charge against Napoleon
Napoleon
of having neglected to prepare the proper means of defense for the Belgian coast. He was deprived of his command of the National Guard, and ordered on his return to Paris to leave for Catalonia and take command of the Army there.[37][38] Refusing to comply with the order, he was summoned to Vienna, and after an interview with Napoleon
Napoleon
at Schönbrunn accepted the general government of the Roman states.[10] Offer of the Swedish throne[edit]

Statue in Norrköping
Norrköping
erected in 1846

In 1810 Bernadotte was about to enter his new post as governor of Rome when he was unexpectedly elected the heir-presumptive to King Charles XIII of Sweden.[20] The problem of Charles' successor had been acute almost from the time he had ascended the throne a year earlier, as it was apparent that the Swedish branch of the House of Holstein-Gottorp would die with him. He was 61 years old and in poor health. He was also childless; Queen Charlotte had given birth to two children who had died in infancy, and there was no prospect of her bearing another child. The king had adopted a Danish prince, Charles August, as his son soon after his coronation, but he had died just a few months after his arrival.[39] Bernadotte was elected partly because a large part of the Swedish Army, in view of future complications with Russia, were in favour of electing a soldier, and partly because he was also personally popular, owing to the kindness he had shown to the Swedish prisoners in Lübeck.[40] The matter was decided by one of the Swedish courtiers, Baron Karl Otto Mörner, who, entirely on his own initiative, offered the succession to the Swedish crown to Bernadotte. Bernadotte communicated Mörner's offer to Napoleon, who treated the whole affair as an absurdity. The Emperor did not support Bernadotte but did not oppose him either and so Bernadotte informed Mörner that he would not refuse the honour if he were elected. Although the Swedish government, amazed at Mörner's effrontery, at once placed him under arrest on his return to Sweden, the candidature of Bernadotte gradually gained favour and on 21 August 1810[20] he was elected by the Riksdag of the Estates to be the new Crown Prince,[20] and was subsequently made Generalissimus
Generalissimus
of the Swedish Armed Forces
Swedish Armed Forces
by the King.[41][page needed] Before freeing Bernadotte from his allegiance to France, Napoleon asked him to agree never to take up arms against France. Bernadotte refused to make any such agreement, upon the ground that his obligations to Sweden
Sweden
would not allow it; Napoleon
Napoleon
exclaimed “Go, and let our destinies be accomplished” and signed the act of emancipation unconditionally.[42] Crown Prince
Prince
and Regent[edit] Further information: Union between Sweden
Sweden
and Norway

Bernadotte as Crown Prince. Painting by Fredric Westin.

On 2 November Bernadotte made his solemn entry into Stockholm, and on 5 November he received the homage of the Riksdag of the Estates, and he was adopted by King Charles XIII under the name of "Charles John" (Karl Johan).[20] At the same time, he converted from Roman Catholicism to the Lutheranism
Lutheranism
of the Swedish court; Swedish law required the monarch to be Lutheran.[43]

“I have beheld war near at hand, and I know all its evils: for it is not conquest which can console a country for the blood of her children, spilt on a foreign land. I have seen the mighty Emperor of the French, so often crowned with the laurel of victory, surrounded by his invincible armies, sigh after the olive-branches of peace. Yes, Gentlemen, peace is the only glorious aim of a sage and enlightened government: it is not the extent of a state which constitutes its strength and independence; it is its laws, its commerce, its industry, and above all, its national spirit.”

Charles John, address to the State-General, 5 November 1810.[44]

The new Crown Prince
Prince
was very soon the most popular and most powerful man in Sweden
Sweden
and quickly impressed his adoptive father. Following his first meeting with his new heir Charles XIII, who had initially opposed Bernadotte's candidacy, remarked to his aide-de-camp count Charles de Suremain
Charles de Suremain
“My dear Suremain, I have gambled heavily, and I believe that after all I have won.”[45] The infirmity of the old King and the dissensions in the Privy Council of Sweden
Sweden
placed the government, and especially the control of foreign policy, entirely in his hands. The keynote of his whole policy was the acquisition of Norway
Norway
as a compensation for the loss of Finland and Bernadotte proved anything but a puppet of France.[20] Many Swedes expected him to reconquer Finland which had been ceded to Russia, however, the Crown Prince
Prince
was aware of its difficulty for reasons of the desperate situation of the state finance and the reluctance of the Finnish people to return to Sweden.[46] Even if Finland was regained, he thought, it would put Sweden
Sweden
into a new cycle of conflicts with a powerful neighbor because there was no guarantee Russia
Russia
would accept the loss as final.[47] Therefore, he made up his mind to make a united Scandinavian peninsula by taking Norway
Norway
from Denmark
Denmark
and uniting her to Sweden. He tried to divert public opinion from Finland to Norway, by arguing that to create a compact peninsula, with sea for its natural boundary, was to inaugurate an era of peace, and that waging war with Russia
Russia
would lead to ruinous consequences.[48] Soon after Charles John’s arrival in Sweden, Napoleon
Napoleon
compelled him to accede to the Continental System
Continental System
and declare war against Great Britain; otherwise, Sweden
Sweden
would have to face the determination of France, Denmark
Denmark
and Russia. This demand would mean a hard blow to the national economy and the Swedish population. Sweden
Sweden
reluctantly declared war against Great Britain but it was treated by both countries as being merely nominal, although Swedish imports of British goods decreased from £4,871 million in 1810 to £523 million in the following year.[49][50] In January 1812, French troops suddenly invaded Swedish Pomerania
Swedish Pomerania
and the island of Rügen.[51] The decisive reason was that Napoleon, before marching to Moscow, had to secure his rear and dared not trust a Swedish continental foothold behind him.[52] To render it the more insulting, Napoleon
Napoleon
scheduled it for the Crown Prince’s birthday.[53] The invasion was a clear violation of international law as well as an act of war so public opinion in Sweden
Sweden
was understandably outraged.[52][54] Moreover, it antagonized the pro-French faction at the Swedish court.[55] Thereafter, the Crown Prince
Prince
declared the neutrality of Sweden
Sweden
and opened negotiations with Great Britain and Russia.[56] In 1813, he allied Sweden
Sweden
with Napoleon's enemies, including Great Britain, Russia
Russia
and Prussia, in the Sixth Coalition, hoping to secure Norway. After the defeats at Lützen (2 May 1813) and Bautzen (21 May 1813), it was the Swedish Crown Prince
Prince
who put fresh fighting spirit into the Allies; and at the conference of Trachenberg he drew up the general plan for the campaign which began after the expiration of the Truce of Pläswitz.[20]

United Kingdoms of Sweden
Sweden
and Norway

Charles John, as the Commander-in-Chief of the Northern Army, successfully defended the approaches to Berlin and was victorious in battle against Oudinot in August and against Ney in September at the Battles of Großbeeren and Dennewitz; but after the Battle of Leipzig he went his own way, determined at all hazards to cripple Denmark
Denmark
and to secure Norway,[20] defeating the Danes in a relatively quick campaign. His efforts culminated in the favourable Treaty of Kiel, which transferred Norway
Norway
to Swedish control.[43] However, the Norwegians were unwilling to accept Swedish control. They declared independence, adopted a liberal constitution and elected Danish crown prince Christian Frederick to the throne. The ensuing war was swiftly won by Sweden
Sweden
under Charles John's generalship.[43][57] The military operations in 1814 were to be Sweden’s last war to this day.[58] Charles John could have named his terms to Norway, but in a key concession accepted the Norwegian constitution and its own political autonomy.[43][57] This paved the way for Norway
Norway
to enter a personal union with Sweden
Sweden
later that year.[20] During the period of the Allied invasion of France
France
in the winter and spring of 1814, when it was unclear who would rule France
France
after the war, the Russian Tsar Alexander I flirted with the idea of installing Charles John on the French throne in place of Napoleon. Ultimately the British and Austrians vetoed the idea, and the Allies agreed that if Napoleon
Napoleon
were to be deposed, the only acceptable alternative was the restoration of the House of Bourbon. King of Sweden
Sweden
and Norway[edit]

Coronation of Karl III Johan as King of Norway
Norway
in Nidaros Cathedral, Trondheim

As the union King, Charles XIV John in Sweden
Sweden
and Charles III John in Norway, who succeeded to that title on 5 February 1818 following the death of Charles XIII & II, he was initially popular in both countries.[20] The democratic process and forces steadily matured under the King’s restrained executive power.[59]

"Separated as we are from the rest of Europe, our policy, as well as our interest, will make us carefully abstain from mixing in any discussion foreign to the two people of Scandinavia; but my duty and your dignity will always be the rule of our conduct, and both one and the other prescribe to us never to permit interference in our internal affairs."

Speech of the King on the day of taking the oaths of allegiance and homage, 19 May 1818.[60]

The foreign policy applied by Charles John in the post-Napoleonic era was characterized by the maintenance of balance between the Great Powers and non-involvement into conflicts that took place outside of the Scandinavian peninsula.[61] It made a sharp contrast with Sweden’s previous hegemonic expansionism resulted in uninterrupted wars with neighboring countries for centuries, and he successfully kept his kingdoms in a state of peace from 1814 until his death.[43][62] He was especially concerned about the conflict between Great Britain and Russia. In 1834, when the relationship between both countries strained regarding the Near East Crisis, he sent memorandum to British and Russian governments and proclaimed neutrality in advance. It is pointed out as the origin of Swedish neutrality.[63] His domestic policy particularly focused on promotion of economy and investment in social overhead capital, and the long peace since 1814 led to an increased prosperity for the country.[64] During his long reign of 26 years, the population of the Kingdom was so increased that the inhabitants of Sweden
Sweden
alone became equal in number to those of Sweden
Sweden
and Finland before the latter province was torn from the former, the national debt was paid off, a civil and a penal code were proposed for promulgation, education was promoted, agriculture, commerce, and manufactures prospered, and the means of internal communication were increased.[64][65] On the other hand, radical in his youth, his views had veered steadily rightward over the years, and by the time he ascended the throne he was an ultra-conservative. His autocratic methods, particularly his censorship of the press, were very unpopular, especially after 1823. However, his dynasty never faced serious danger, as the Swedes and the Norwegians alike were proud of a monarch with a good European reputation.[43][20]

Equestrian in Stockholm
Stockholm
depicting Charles XIV John.

He also faced challenges in Norway. The Norwegian constitution gave the Norwegian parliament, the Storting, more power than any legislature in Europe. While Charles John had the power of absolute veto in Sweden, he only had a suspensive veto in Norway. He demanded that the Storting
Storting
give him the power of absolute veto, but was forced to back down.[57] His popularity decreased for a time in the 1830s, culminating in the Rabulist riots
Rabulist riots
after the Lèse-majesté
Lèse-majesté
conviction of the journalist Magnus Jacob Crusenstolpe, and some calls for his abdication.[43] Charles John survived the abdication controversy and he went on to have his silver jubilee, which was celebrated with great enthusiasm on 18 February 1843. He reigned as King of Sweden
Sweden
and Norway
Norway
from 5 February 1818 until his death in 1844.[20] Death[edit]

The king deceased on his deathbed

Charles John's huge granite sarcophagus.

On 26 January 1844,[20] his 81st birthday, Charles John was found unconscious in his chambers having suffered a stroke. While he regained consciousness, he never fully recovered and died on the afternoon of 8 March.[66] On his deathbed, he was heard to say:

"Nobody has had a career in life like mine.[64] I could perhaps have been able to agree to become Napoleon’s ally: but when he attacked the country that had placed its fate in my hands, he could find in me no other than an opponent. The events that shook Europe and that gave her back her freedom are known. It is also known which part I played in that."[67]

His remains were interred after a state funeral in Stockholm's Riddarholm Church.[66] He was succeeded by his only son, Oscar I.[10] Titles, styles, honours, and arms[edit] Titles and styles[edit]

26 January 1763 — 18 May 1804: Monsieur Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte 18 May 1804 – 26 September 1810: Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte, Marshal of France 5 June 1806 – 26 September 1810: Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte, Sovereign Prince
Prince
of Pontecorvo 26 September 1810 – 5 November 1810: His Royal Highness Prince
Prince
Johan Baptist Julius av Pontecorvo, Prince
Prince
of Sweden[68] 5 November 1810[20] – 4 November 1814: His Royal Highness Charles John, Crown Prince
Prince
of Sweden 4 November 1814[20] – 5 February 1818: His Royal Highness The Crown Prince
Prince
of Sweden
Sweden
and Norway 5 February 1818 – 8 March 1844: His Majesty The King of Sweden
Sweden
and Norway

His full title upon his accession to the Swedish and Norwegian thrones was: His Majesty Charles John, by the grace of God, King of Sweden, Norway, the Goths and the Wends. Honours[edit]

The main street of Oslo, Karl Johans gate, was named after him in 1852. The main base for the Royal Norwegian Navy, Karljohansvern, was also named after him in 1854. The Karlsborg Fortress
Karlsborg Fortress
(Swedish: Karlsborgs fästning), located in present-day Karlsborg Municipality
Karlsborg Municipality
in Västra Götaland County, was also named in honour of him. The Caserne Bernadotte (fr), a French military building located in Pau, was also named after him in 1875.

National decorations[edit]

 France: Knight
Knight
Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Legion of Honour
Legion of Honour
- 2 February 1805 Kingdom of Italy: Order of the Iron Crown, 1st Class  Sweden:

Grand Master of the Order of Charles XIII Grand Master of the Order of the Polar Star Grand Master of the Order of the Seraphim Grand Master of the Order of the Sword Grand Master of the Order of Vasa

Foreign decorations[edit]

 Kingdom of Bavaria: Knight
Knight
of the Order of Saint Hubert
Order of Saint Hubert
- 1805  Denmark: Knight
Knight
of the Order of the Elephant
Order of the Elephant
- 1808  Kingdom of Portugal: 28th Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Order of the Tower and Sword  Kingdom of Prussia:

Knight
Knight
of the Order of the Black Eagle
Order of the Black Eagle
- 1805 Knight
Knight
Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Order of the Red Eagle
Order of the Red Eagle
- 1805 Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Iron Cross - 1813

 Russia:

Knight
Knight
of the Order of St. Andrew
Order of St. Andrew
- 30 August 1812 Order of St. George, First Class - 30 August 1813 Order of St. Alexander Nevsky
Order of St. Alexander Nevsky
- 30 August 1812

 Kingdom of Saxony: Knight
Knight
Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Military Order of St. Henry - 1809  Spain: 909th Knight
Knight
of the Order of the Golden Fleece
Order of the Golden Fleece
- 1822

Arms and monogram[edit]

Prince
Prince
of Pontecorvo

Coat of arms of Crown Prince
Prince
Charles John according to the armorial of Knights of the order of the Seraphim.

Coat of arms of King Charles XIV John of Sweden
Sweden
and Norway

Fictional portrayals[edit] The love triangle between Napoleon, Bernadotte, and Desiree Clary was the subject of the novel Désirée by Annemarie Selinko. The novel was filmed as Désirée in 1954, with Marlon Brando
Marlon Brando
as Napoleon, Jean Simmons
Jean Simmons
as Désirée, and Michael Rennie
Michael Rennie
as Bernadotte. Bernadotte appears in a series of side missions in the video game Assassin's Creed Unity, again concerning the love triangle. The election of General Bernadotte to become King of Sweden
Sweden
is mentioned and briefly discussed in the science fiction novel Starship Troopers (1959) by Robert A. Heinlein. Ancestry[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Ancestors of Charles XIV John of Sweden

8. Jean Bernadotte

4. Jean Bernadotte

9. Marie de La Barrère dite Bertrandot

2. Jean Henri Bernadotte

10. Jacques du Pucheu dit de Laplace

5. Marie du Pucheu dite de La Place

11. Françoise de Labasseur

1. Charles XIV John of Sweden

6. Jean de Saint Vincent[citation needed]

3. Jeanne de Saint Vincent[citation needed]

14. Doumengé Habas d'Arrens

7. Marie d'Abbadie de Sireix

15. Marie d'Abbadie, Lay Abbess of Sireix

See also[edit]

Guadeloupe Fund

Notes[edit]

^ Ulf Ivar Nilsson in Allt vi trodde vi visste men som faktiskt är FEL FEL FEL!, Bokförlaget Semic 2007 ISBN 978-91-552-3572-7 p 40 ^ Cronholm 1902, pp. 249–71. ^ a b c d e f g h Bain 1911, p. 931. ^ Palmer, Alan (1990). p. 6 ^ Barton, Dunbar Plunket (1930). P.5 ^ Palmer, Alan(1990). P.8-13 ^ Barton, Dunbar Plunket (1930). P.14 ^ Barton, Dunbar Plunket (1930). P.11 ^ Palmer, Alan(1990). P.15 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r The American Cyclopædia
The American Cyclopædia
1879, p. 571. ^ Barton, Dunbar Plunket (1930). P.42 ^ Palmer, Alan(1990). P.42 ^ Palmer, Alan(1990). P.42-43 ^ Barton, Dunbar Plunket (1930). P.44 ^ Palmer, Alan(1990). P.43 ^ Palmer, Alan(1990). P.60−61 ^ Palmer, Alan(1990). P.61 ^ Palmer, Alan(1990). P.84 ^ Palmer, Alan(1990). P.88 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Bain 1911, p. 932. ^ Titeux, Eugene 1903, p. 86-104. ^ Foucart, Paul Jean 1887, p. 694-697. ^ Alison, Sir Archibald 1836, p. 758, 764–765. ^ Favier, Franck 2010, p. 137-139. ^ Palmer, Alan 1990, p. 135. ^ Alison, Sir Archibald 1836, p. 765. ^ a b Scott, Franklin D. 1962, p. 284. ^ Barton, Dunbar Plunket (1930). P.193 ^ Palmer, Alan(1990). P.135 ^ Barton, Dunbar Plunket (1930). P.198-199 ^ Palmer, Alan(1990). P.132-137 ^ Palmer, Alan(1990). P.136-137 ^ Palmer, Alan(1990). P.140-141 ^ Barton, Sir Dunbar Plunket 1930, p. 216-217. ^ Scott, Franklin D. 1962, p. 284-285. ^ Palmer, Alan(1990). P.153 ^ Palmer, Alan(1990). P.153-154 ^ Favier, Franck (2010). P.158 ^ Charles XIII at Encyclopædia Britannica ^ Favier, Franck (2010). P.12 ^ Ancienneté och Rang-Rulla öfver Krigsmagten år 1813 (in Swedish). 1813.  ^ Barton, Sir Dunbar Plunket (1930). P.245-246 ^ a b c d e f g Charles XIV John at Encyclopædia Britannica ^ Meredith, William George (1829). P.105-106 ^ Barton, Dunbar Plunket (1930). P. 251 ^ Berdah, Jean-Francois (2009).P.39 ^ Palmer, Alan(1990). P.181 ^ Barton, Sir Dunbar Plunket (1930). P.257-258 ^ Berdah, Jean-Francois (2009).P.40-41 ^ Barton, Sir Dunbar Plunket (1930). P.259 ^ Barton, Sir Dunbar Plunket (1930). P.265 ^ a b Scott, Franklin D.(1988). P.307 ^ Palmer, Alan(1990). P.185-186 ^ Favier, Franck (2010). P.206-207 ^ Griffiths, Tony (2004). P.19 ^ Berdah, Jean-Francois (2009). P.45 ^ a b c Norway
Norway
at Encyclopædia Britannica ^ Hårdstedt, Martin 2016, p. 222. ^ Scott, Franklin D. 1962, p. 286. ^ Meredith, William George (1829). P.311-312 ^ Killham, Edward L.(1993). P.17-19 ^ Agius, Christine (2006). P.61-62 ^ Wahlbäck, Krister(1986).P.7-12 ^ a b c Sjostrom, Olof[permanent dead link] ^ Barton, Sir Dunbar Plunket (1930). P.374 ^ a b Palmer 1990, p. 248. ^ Alm, Mikael;Johansson, Brittinger(Eds) (2008).p.12 ^ Succession au trône de Suède: Acte d'élection du 21 août 1810, Loi de succession au trône du 26 septembre 1810 (in French)

References[edit]

Agius, Christine (2006). The social construction of Swedish neutrality: Challenges to Swedish Identity and Sovereignty, Manchester University Press, Manchester. ISBN 0-7190-7152-6 Alison, Sir Archibald(1836). History of Europe from the Commencement of the French Revolution
French Revolution
Volume V, William Blakewood and Sons, Edinghburg; Thomas Cadell, London. Alm, Mikael;Johansson, Brittinger(Eds) (2008). Script of Kingship:Essays on Bernadotte and Dynastic Formation in an Age of Revolution, Reklam & katalogtryck AB, Uppsala. ISBN 978-91-977312-2-5 Barton, Sir Dunbar Plunket (1921). Bernadotte and Napoleon: 1763–1810. London: John Murray.  Barton, Sir Dunbar Plunket (1930). The Amazing Career of Bernadotte 1763–1844, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. Berdah, Jean-Francois (2009). “The Triumph of Neutrality : Bernadotte and European Geopolitics(1810–1844)”, Revue D’ Histoire Nordique, No.6-7. Cronholm, Neander N. (1902). "39". A History of Sweden
Sweden
from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. pp. 249–71.  Favier, Franck (2010). Bernadotte: Un marechal d’empire sur le trone de Suede, Ellipses Edition Marketing, Paris. ISBN 9782340-006058 Foucart, Paul Jean(1887).Campagne de Prusse(1806), Berger-Levraut, Paris. Griffiths, Tony (2004). Scandinavia, C. Hurst & Co., London. ISBN 1-85065-317-8 Hårdstedt, Martin(2016). "Decline and Consolidation: Sweden, the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
and Geopolitical Restructuring in Northern Europe”, Napoleon's Empire: European Politics in Global Perspective(2016), Palgrave Macmillan, London, UK. ISBN 978-1-137-45547-5 Killham, Edward L. (1993).The Nordic Way : A Path to Baltic Equilibrium, The Compass Press, Washington, DC. ISBN 0-929590-12-0 Meredith, William George (1829). Memorials of Charles John, King of Sweden
Sweden
and Norway, Henry Colburn, London. Palmer, Alan (1990). Bernadotte : Napoleon's Marshal, Sweden's King. London: John Murray. ISBN 0-7195-4703-2.  Scott, Franklin D.(1962).”Charles XIV John”, Encyclopædia Britannica: An New Survey of Universal Knowledge Volume 5(1962):P.283-286. Scott, Franklin D.(1988). Sweden, The Nation's History, Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale. ISBN 0-8093-1489-4 Six, Georges (2003). Dictionnaire Biographique des Generaux & Amiraux Francais de la Revolution et de l'Empire (1792–1814). Paris: Gaston Saffroy.  Sjostrom, Olof. "KARL XIV JOHAN" (PDF). Ambassade de France
France
en Suede. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2016.  Titeux, Eugene(1903)."Le Maréchal Bernadotte et la manoeuvre d'Jena (d'après les archives de la Guerre et les papiers du general Dupont)”, REVUE NAPOLEONIENNE 4 (1903): P.68-152 Wahlbäck, Krister(1986). The Roots of Swedish Neutrality, The Swedish Institute, Stockholm.

Attribution

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Bain, Robert Nisbet (1911). "Charles XIV.". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 5 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 931–932.   This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Ripley, George; Dana, Charles A., eds. (1879). "Bernadotte, Jean Baptiste Jules". The American Cyclopædia. 

Further reading[edit]

Alm, Mikael and Britt-Inger Johansson, eds. Scripts of Kingship: Essays on Bernadotte and Dynastic Formation in an Age of Revolution (Uppsala: Swedish Science Press, 2008)

Review by Rasmus Glenthøj, English Historical Review (2010) 125#512 pp 205–208.

Barton, Dunbar B.: The amazing career of Bernadotte, 1930; condensed one volume biography based on Barton's detailed 3 vol biography 1914–1925, which contained many documents Koht, Halvdan. "Bernadotte and Swedish-American Relations, 1810–1814," Journal of Modern History (1944) 16#4 pp. 265–285 in JSTOR Lord Russell of Liverpool: Bernadotte: Marshal of France
Marshal of France
& King of Sweden, 1981 Jean-Marc Olivier. "Bernadotte Revisited, or the Complexity of a Long Reign (1810–1844)", in Nordic Historical Review, n°2, 2006. Scott, Franklin D. Bernadotte and the Fall of Napoleon
Napoleon
(1935); scholarly analysis Moncure, James A. ed. Research Guide to European Historical Biography: 1450–Present (4 vol 1992); vol 1 pp 126–34

External links[edit]

Media related to Charles XIV John of Sweden
Sweden
at Wikimedia Commons "Marshal Bernadotte". The Napoleon
Napoleon
Series.   "Charles XIV. John". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.   "Bernadotte, Jean Baptiste Jules". The American Cyclopædia. 1879. 

Charles XIV/III John House of Bernadotte Born: 26 January 1763 Died: 8 March 1844

Regnal titles

Preceded by Charles XIII/II King of Sweden
Sweden
and Norway 5 February 1818 – 8 March 1844 Succeeded by Oscar I

New title Prince
Prince
of Pontecorvo 5 June 1806 – 21 August 1810 Vacant Title next held by Lucien Murat

Political offices

Preceded by Louis de Mureau Minister of War of France 2 July 1799 – 14 September 1799 Succeeded by Edmond Dubois-Crancé

v t e

House of Bernadotte

Charles XIV John of Sweden
Sweden
/ Charles III John of Norway

Children

Oscar I of Sweden
Oscar I of Sweden
and Norway**

Children's spouses

Queen Josephine***

Oscar I of Sweden
Oscar I of Sweden
and Norway

Children

Charles XV of Sweden
Sweden
/ Charles IV of Norway** Prince
Prince
Gustaf** Oscar II of Sweden
Sweden
and Norway** Princess Eugenie** Prince
Prince
August**

Children's spouses

Queen Louise*** Queen Sophia*** Princess Therese***

Charles XV of Sweden
Sweden
/ Charles IV of Norway

Children

Princess Louise** Prince
Prince
Carl Oscar**

Oscar II of Sweden
Sweden
and Norway

Children

Gustaf V of Sweden** Prince
Prince
Oscar** ^ Prince
Prince
Carl** Prince
Prince
Eugen**

Children's spouses

Queen Victoria*** Princess Ingeborg***

Grandchildren

Princess Margaretha** Princess Märtha** Princess Astrid Prince
Prince
Carl^

Gustaf V of Sweden

Children

Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden** Prince
Prince
Wilhelm** Prince
Prince
Erik**

Children's spouses

Crown Princess Margaret*** Queen Louise*** Princess Maria Pavlovna***

Grandchildren

Prince
Prince
Lennart^

Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden

Children

Prince
Prince
Gustaf Adolf Prince
Prince
Sigvard^ Princess Ingrid Prince
Prince
Bertil Prince
Prince
Carl Johan^

Children's spouses

Princess Sibylla*** Princess Lilian***

Grandchildren

Princess Margaretha Princess Birgitta Princess Désirée Princess Christina Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden

Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden

Children

Crown Princess Victoria Prince
Prince
Carl Philip Princess Madeleine

Children's spouses

Prince
Prince
Daniel*** Princess Sofia***

Grandchildren

Princess Estelle**** Prince
Prince
Oscar**** Prince
Prince
Alexander Prince
Prince
Gabriel Princess Leonore**** Prince
Prince
Nicolas**** Princess Adrienne****

** also prince/princess of Norway ^ lost his title due to an unequal marriage *** Prince/Princess of Sweden
Sweden
by marriage only **** Maternally a member of the House of Bernadotte

v t e

Swedish princes

The generations indicate descent from Gustav I, of the House of Vasa, and continues through the Houses of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, Holstein-Gottorp; and the Bernadotte, the adoptive heirs of the House of Holstein-Gottorp, who were adoptive heirs of the Palatinate-Zweibrückens.

1st generation

King Eric XIV King John III Prince
Prince
Magnus, Duke of Östergötland Prince
Prince
Karl Prince
Prince
Sten King Charles IX

2nd generation

King Sigismund I Gustav, Prince
Prince
of Uglich Prince
Prince
Henrik Prince
Prince
Arnold Prince
Prince
Ludwig Prince
Prince
Gustav Prince
Prince
John, Duke of Östergötland King Gustav II Adolf Prince
Prince
Charles Philip, Duke of Södermanland

3rd generation

King Władysław IV of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania# Prince
Prince
Christopher# Prince
Prince
John Casimir# King John II Casimir of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania# Prince
Prince
Alexander Charles# John Albert, Prince-Bishop of Warmia and Kraków# Prince
Prince
Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Opole#

4th generation

Prince
Prince
Sigismund Casimir# Prince
Prince
John Sigismund# King Charles XI

5th generation

King Charles XII Prince
Prince
Gustav Prince
Prince
Ulrich Prince
Prince
Friedrich Prince
Prince
Charles Gustav King Frederick I~

6th generation

King Adolf Frederick*

7th generation

King Gustav III King Charles XIII Prince
Prince
Frederick Adolf, Duke of Östergötland

8th generation

King Gustav IV Adolf Prince
Prince
Carl Gustav, Duke of Småland Prince
Prince
Carl Adolf, Duke of Värmland Crown Prince
Prince
Charles August* King Charles XIV John*,**

9th generation

Crown Prince
Prince
Gustav, Prince
Prince
of Vasa Prince
Prince
Carl Gustaf, Grand Duke of Finland and Duke of Småland King Oscar I**

10th generation

Prince
Prince
Louis of Vasa King Charles XV** Prince
Prince
Gustaf, Duke of Uppland** King Oscar II** Prince
Prince
August, Duke of Dalarna**

11th generation

Prince
Prince
Carl Oscar, Duke of Södermanland** King Gustaf V** Prince
Prince
Oscar, Duke of Gotland**,^ Prince
Prince
Carl, Duke of Västergötland** Prince
Prince
Eugen, Duke of Närke**

12th generation

King Gustaf VI Adolf** Prince
Prince
Wilhelm, Duke of Södermanland** Prince
Prince
Erik, Duke of Västmanland** Prince
Prince
Carl, Duke of Östergötland^

13th generation

Prince
Prince
Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten Prince
Prince
Sigvard, Duke of Uppland^ Prince
Prince
Bertil, Duke of Halland Prince
Prince
Carl Johan, Duke of Dalarna^ Prince
Prince
Lennart, Duke of Småland^

14th generation

King Carl XVI Gustaf

15th generation

Prince
Prince
Carl Philip, Duke of Värmland Prince
Prince
Daniel, Duke of Västergötland***

16th generation

Prince
Prince
Oscar, Duke of Skåne Prince
Prince
Alexander, Duke of Södermanland Prince
Prince
Gabriel, Duke of Dalarna Prince
Prince
Nicolas, Duke of Ångermanland

* prince through adoption or election ** also prince of Norway ^lost his title due to an unequal marriage #also prince of Poland and Lithuania ~ Prince
Prince
of Sweden
Sweden
by birth and marriage *** Prince
Prince
of Sweden
Sweden
by marriage

v t e

Monarchs of Norway

I. Independent Norway

Foreign and non-royal rulers in italics, disputed monarchs in brackets

872–1387

Harald I Fairhair Eric I Bloodaxe Haakon I the Good Harald II Greycloak Harald Bluetooth
Harald Bluetooth
d & Haakon Sigurdsson
Haakon Sigurdsson
r Olaf I Tryggvason Sweyn Forkbeard
Sweyn Forkbeard
de & Eric Haakonsson
Eric Haakonsson
r & Sweyn Haakonsson
Sweyn Haakonsson
r Olaf II the Saint Cnut the Great
Cnut the Great
de & Haakon Ericsson
Haakon Ericsson
r & Sweyn Knutsson r (Ælfgifu r) Magnus I the Good d Harald III Hardrada Magnus II Haraldsson Olaf III Kyrre Haakon Magnusson Magnus III Barefoot Olav Magnusson Eystein I Magnusson Sigurd I the Crusader Harald IV Gille Magnus IV the Blind Sigurd II Munn Inge I Haraldsson Eystein II Haraldsson (Magnus Haraldsson) Haakon II Broadshoulder Magnus V Erlingsson Sverre Sigurdsson Haakon III Sverresson (Guttorm Sigurdsson) Inge II Bårdsson Haakon IV Haakonsson (Haakon the Young) Magnus VI the Law-mender Eric II Magnusson Haakon V Magnusson Magnus VII Ericsson s Haakon VI Magnusson s Olaf IV Haakonsson d

Kalmar Union

1387–1523

Margaret ds Eric III ds Christopher ds Charles I s Christian I ds John ds Christian II ds

Denmark–Norway

1524–1814

Frederick I d Christian III d Frederick II d Christian IV d Frederick III d Christian V d Frederick IV d Christian VI d Frederick V d Christian VII d Frederick VI d

II. Independent Norway

Only 1814

Christian Frederick

Union with Sweden

1814–1905

Charles II s Charles III John s Oscar I s Charles IV s Oscar II s

III. Independent Norway

Since 1905

Haakon VII Olav V Harald V

r Regent d Also Danish monarch e Also English monarch s Also Swedish monarch

v t e

Monarchs of Sweden

Munsö

c. 970–c. 1060

Eric the Victorious Olof Skötkonung Anund Jacob Emund the Old

Stenkil

c. 1060–c. 1130 1160–1161

Stenkil Eric and Eric Halsten Anund Gårdske Håkan the Red Halsten / Inge the Elder Blot-Sweyn Inge the Elder Philip Halstensson / Inge the Younger Ragnvald Knaphövde Magnus the Strong Houses of Sverker and Eric Magnus Henriksen

Sverker · Eric

c. 1130–1250

Sverker the Elder Eric the Saint Magnus Henriksen Charles Sverkersson Kol / Boleslaw Canute I Eriksson Sverker the Younger Eric Canutesson John Sverkersson Eric Ericsson Canute II the Tall 1 Eric Ericsson

Bjelbo

1250–1364

Valdemar Birgersson Magnus Ladulås Birger Magnusson Mats Kettilmundsson 2 Magnus Ericsson3 Eric Magnusson Magnus Ericsson / Haakon Magnusson3

Mecklenburg

1364–1389

Albert

Kalmar Union Italics indicate regents

1389–1523

Margaret4 / Eric of Pomerania4 Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson Eric of Pomerania4 Charles Canutesson Eric of Pomerania4 Charles Canutesson Christopher of Bavaria4 Bengt Jönsson (Oxenstierna)
Bengt Jönsson (Oxenstierna)
/ Nils Jönsson (Oxenstierna) Charles Canutesson3 Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna
Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna
/ Erik Axelsson Tott Christian I4 Kettil Karlsson (Vasa) Charles Canutesson Kettil Karlsson (Vasa) Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna Erik Axelsson Tott Charles Canutesson Sten Sture the Elder John II4 Sten Sture the Elder Svante Nilsson Eric Trolle Sten Sture the Younger Christian II4 Gustav Eriksson (Vasa)

Vasa

1523–1654

Gustav (Eriksson) Vasa Eric XIV John III Sigismund5 Charles IX Gustav II Adolf Christina

Palatinate- Zweibrücken Hesse-Kassel

1654–1751

Charles X Gustav Charles XI Charles XII Ulrika Eleonora Frederick I

Holstein-Gottorp

1751–1818

Adolf Frederick Gustav III Gustav IV Adolf Charles XIII3

Bernadotte

since 1818

Charles XIV John3 Oscar I3 Charles XV3 Oscar II3 Gustaf V Gustaf VI Adolf Carl XVI Gustaf

1 Lineage uncertain 2 Regent 3 Also Norwegian monarch 4 Also Norwegian and Danish monarch 5 Also king of Poland

v t e

Marshals of the First French Empire

Augereau Bernadotte Berthier Bessières Brune Davout Gouvion Saint-Cyr Grouchy Jourdan Kellermann Lannes Lefebvre MacDonald Marmont Masséna Moncey Mortier Murat Ney Oudinot Pérignon Poniatowski Sérurier Soult Suchet Victor

v t e

Napoleonic Wars

Third Coalition Fourth Coalition Peninsular War Fifth Coalition French Invasion of Russia Sixth Coalition Seventh Coalition

Belli- gerents

France, client states and allies

France Polish Legions Italy Holland Etruria Swiss Confederation Naples Confederation of the Rhine

Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg

Denmark–Norway Ottoman Empire Persia Spain

Coalition forces

United Kingdom Austria Russia Prussia Spain Portugal Sicily Papal States Ottoman Empire Persia Sardinia Sweden Netherlands Brunswick Hanover Nassau French Royalists

Major battles

Prelude

French Revolution First Coalition Second Coalition 18 Brumaire Planned invasion of the United Kingdom Duc d'Enghien Execution Coronation of Napoleon

1805

Diamond Rock Cape Finisterre Wertingen Günzburg Haslach-Jungingen Elchingen Ulm Verona Trafalgar Caldiero Cape Ortegal Amstetten Dürenstein Schöngrabern Austerlitz

1806

Gaeta Campo Tenese Maida Schleiz Saalfeld Jena–Auerstedt Erfurt Halle Magdeburg Prenzlau Pasewalk Stettin Waren-Nossentin Lübeck Greater Poland Uprising Hameln Czarnowo Golymin Pułtusk

1807

Mohrungen Stralsund Eylau Ostrołęka Kolberg Danzig Mileto Guttstadt-Deppen Heilsberg Friedland Copenhagen Invasion of Portugal

1808

Dos de Mayo Bruch Rosily Squadron Cabezón 1st Zaragoza Valencia Medina de Rioseco Bailén Roliça Vimeiro Pancorbo Valmaseda Burgos Espinosa Tudela Somosierra 2nd Zaragoza Sahagún Benavente

1809

Castellón Uclés Corunna Valls Tyrolean Rebellion Villafranca Yevenes/Yébenes Ciudad Real 1st Porto Medellín Bergisel Sacile Teugen-Hausen Raszyn Abensberg Landshut Eckmühl Ratisbon Neumarkt-Sankt Veit Dalmatian Campaign Ebelsberg Gerona Piave River Grijó 2nd Porto Wörgl Tarvis Aspern-Essling Alcañiz Sankt Michael Stralsund Raab María Graz Wagram Korneuburg Stockerau Gefrees Hollabrunn Schöngrabern Armistice of Znaim Talavera Walcheren Campaign Ölper Almonacid Tamames Ocaña Alba de Tormes

1810

Cádiz Astorga Ciudad Rodrigo Barquilla Côa Almeida Bussaco

1811

Gebora Barrosa Pombal Redinha Casal Novo Campo Maior Sabugal Almeida Fuentes de Oñoro Tarragona Albuera Usagre Saguntum Arroyo dos Molinos Valencia

1812

Ciudad Rodrigo Badajoz Villagarcia Almaraz Maguilla Mir Salamanca García Hernández Saltanovka Ostrovno Vitebsk Klyastitsy Majadahonda Smolensk 1st Polotsk Valutino Mesoten Borodino Burgos Tarutino 2nd Polotsk Venta del Pozo Maloyaroslavets Chashniki Vyazma Smoliani Krasnoi Berezina

1813

Castalla Lützen Bautzen Tarragona Luckau Vitoria San Sebastián Pyrenees Sorauren Großbeeren Katzbach Dresden 1st Kulm San Marcial Dennewitz 2nd Kulm Göhrde Bidassoa Leipzig Hanau Nivelle Bornhöved Sehested

1814

Brienne La Rothière Mincio River Champaubert Montmirail Château-Thierry Vauchamps Garris Mormant Montereau Orthez Bar-sur-Aube Laon Reims Craonne Arcis-sur-Aube Fère-Champenoise Saint-Dizier Montmartre Paris Toulouse Bayonne

1815

Panaro Occhiobello Carpi Casaglia Ronco Cesenatico Pesaro Scapezzano Tolentino Ancona Castel di Sangro San Germano Gaeta Quatre Bras Ligny Waterloo Wavre Rocheserviere La Suffel Rocquencourt Issy

Info

French and ally military and political leaders

Napoleon Louis-Alexandre Berthier Joachim Murat Louis-Nicolas Davout Jean Lannes Auguste de Marmont André Masséna Michel Ney Jean-de-Dieu Soult Marshal Victor Jean-Baptiste Bessières Pierre-Charles Villeneuve Joseph I Louis Bonaparte Jérôme Bonaparte Prince
Prince
Poniatowski Prince
Prince
Eugène Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria Frederick Augustus I of Saxony Frederick I of Württemberg Frederick VI of Denmark

Coalition military and political leaders

Duke of Wellington Rowland Hill John Moore Horatio Nelson Thomas Cochrane Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor Manuel Lapeña Archduke Charles Prince
Prince
von Schwarzenberg Archduke John of Austria Alexander I of Russia Mikhail Kutuzov Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly Count Bennigsen Pyotr Bagration Frederick William III of Prussia Gebhard von Blücher Duke of Brunswick Prince
Prince
of Hohenlohe Ferdinand VII of Spain Miguel de Álava Maria I of Portugal Prince
Prince
Regent John of Portugal Count of Feira William, Prince
Prince
of Orange Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden Prince
Prince
Charles John of Sweden Louis XVIII of France

Related conflicts

Anglo-Russian War Anglo-Spanish War Anglo-Swedish War Anglo-Turkish War English Wars

Gunboat War Dano-Swedish War

Finnish War Pomeranian War (Franco-Swedish War) Russo-Persian War Russo-Turkish War Spanish American Wars of Independence Swedish–Norwegian War War of 1812

Treaties

Campo Formio Lunéville Amiens Artlenburg Pressburg Finckenstein Tilsit Cintra Schönbrunn Paris (1810) Tauroggen Ried Chaumont Kiel Mantua Casalanza Paris (1815)

Miscellaneous

Bibliography Bourbon Restoration Casualties Congress of Erfurt Continental System England expects that every man will do his duty Grande Armée Longwood House

Portal Military History definition media quotes

v t e

French Revolution

Causes Timeline Ancien Régime Revolution Constitutional monarchy Republic Directory Consulate Glossary

Significant civil and political events by year

1788

Day of the Tiles
Day of the Tiles
(7 Jun 1788) Assembly of Vizille
Assembly of Vizille
(21 Jul 1788)

1789

What Is the Third Estate?
What Is the Third Estate?
(Jan 1789) Réveillon riots (28 Apr 1789) Convocation of the Estates-General (5 May 1789) National Assembly (17 Jun – 9 Jul 1790) Tennis Court Oath
Tennis Court Oath
(20 Jun 1789) National Constituent Assembly (9 Jul – 30 Sep 1791) Storming of the Bastille
Storming of the Bastille
(14 Jul 1789) Great Fear (20 Jul – 5 Aug 1789) Abolition of Feudalism (4-11 Aug 1789) Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
(27 Aug 1789) Women's March on Versailles
Women's March on Versailles
(5 Oct 1789)

1790

Abolition of the Parlements (Feb–Jul 1790) Abolition of the Nobility (19 Jun 1790) Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
(12 Jul 1790)

1791

Flight to Varennes
Flight to Varennes
(20–21 Jun 1791) Champ de Mars Massacre
Champ de Mars Massacre
(17 Jul 1791) Declaration of Pillnitz (27 Aug 1791) The Constitution of 1791 (3 Sep 1791) Legislative Assembly (1 Oct 1791 – Sep 1792)

1792

France
France
declares war (20 Apr 1792) Brunswick Manifesto
Brunswick Manifesto
(25 Jul 1792) Paris Commune becomes insurrectionary (Jun 1792) 10th of August (10 Aug 1792) September Massacres
September Massacres
(Sep 1792) National Convention
National Convention
(20 Sep 1792 – 26 Oct 1795) First republic declared (22 Sep 1792)

1793

Execution of Louis XVI
Execution of Louis XVI
(21 Jan 1793) Revolutionary Tribunal
Revolutionary Tribunal
(9 Mar 1793 – 31 May 1795) Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
(27 Jun 1793 – 27 Jul 1794)

Committee of Public Safety Committee of General Security

Fall of the Girondists (2 Jun 1793) Assassination of Marat (13 Jul 1793) Levée en masse
Levée en masse
(23 Aug 1793) The Death of Marat
The Death of Marat
(painting) Law of Suspects
Law of Suspects
(17 Sep 1793) Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
is guillotined (16 Oct 1793) Anti-clerical laws (throughout the year)

1794

Danton and Desmoulins guillotined (5 Apr 1794) Law of 22 Prairial
Law of 22 Prairial
(10 Jun 1794) Thermidorian Reaction
Thermidorian Reaction
(27 Jul 1794) Robespierre guillotined (28 Jul 1794) White Terror (Fall 1794) Closing of the Jacobin Club (11 Nov 1794)

1795

Constitution of the Year III
Constitution of the Year III
(22 Aug 1795) Conspiracy of the Equals
Conspiracy of the Equals
(Nov 1795) Directoire (1795–99)

Council of Five Hundred Council of Ancients

13 Vendémiaire
13 Vendémiaire
5 Oct 1795

1797

Coup of 18 Fructidor
Coup of 18 Fructidor
(4 Sep 1797) Second Congress of Rastatt
Second Congress of Rastatt
(Dec 1797)

1799

Coup of 30 Prairial VII (18 Jun 1799) Coup of 18 Brumaire
Coup of 18 Brumaire
(9 Nov 1799) Constitution of the Year VIII
Constitution of the Year VIII
(24 Dec 1799) Consulate

Revolutionary campaigns

1792

Verdun Thionville Valmy Royalist Revolts

Chouannerie Vendée Dauphiné

Lille Siege of Mainz Jemappes Namur (fr)

1793

First Coalition Siege of Toulon
Siege of Toulon
(18 Sep – 18 Dec 1793) War in the Vendée Battle of Neerwinden) Battle of Famars
Battle of Famars
(23 May 1793) Expédition de Sardaigne
Expédition de Sardaigne
(21 Dec 1792 - 25 May 1793) Battle of Kaiserslautern Siege of Mainz Battle of Wattignies Battle of Hondschoote Siege of Bellegarde Battle of Peyrestortes
Battle of Peyrestortes
(Pyrenees) First Battle of Wissembourg (13 Oct 1793) Battle of Truillas
Battle of Truillas
(Pyrenees) Second Battle of Wissembourg (26–27 Dec 1793)

1794

Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
(24 Apr 1794) Battle of Boulou
Battle of Boulou
(Pyrenees) (30 Apr – 1 May 1794) Battle of Tournay
Battle of Tournay
(22 May 1794) Battle of Fleurus (26 Jun 1794) Chouannerie Battle of Tourcoing
Battle of Tourcoing
(18 May 1794) Battle of Aldenhoven (2 Oct 1794)

1795

Peace of Basel

1796

Battle of Lonato
Battle of Lonato
(3–4 Aug 1796) Battle of Castiglione
Battle of Castiglione
(5 Aug 1796) Battle of Theiningen Battle of Neresheim
Battle of Neresheim
(11 Aug 1796) Battle of Amberg
Battle of Amberg
(24 Aug 1796) Battle of Würzburg
Battle of Würzburg
(3 Sep 1796) Battle of Rovereto
Battle of Rovereto
(4 Sep 1796) First Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(8 Sep 1796) Battle of Emmendingen
Battle of Emmendingen
(19 Oct 1796) Battle of Schliengen
Battle of Schliengen
(26 Oct 1796) Second Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(6 Nov 1796) Battle of Calliano (6–7 Nov 1796) Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
(15–17 Nov 1796) The Ireland Expedition (Dec 1796)

1797

Naval Engagement off Brittany (13 Jan 1797) Battle of Rivoli
Battle of Rivoli
(14–15 Jan 1797) Battle of the Bay of Cádiz (25 Jan 1797) Treaty of Leoben
Treaty of Leoben
(17 Apr 1797) Battle of Neuwied (18 Apr 1797) Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
(17 Oct 1797)

1798

French invasion of Switzerland
French invasion of Switzerland
(28 January – 17 May 1798) French Invasion of Egypt (1798–1801) Irish Rebellion of 1798 (23 May – 23 Sep 1798) Quasi-War
Quasi-War
(1798–1800) Peasants' War (12 Oct – 5 Dec 1798)

1799

Second Coalition (1798–1802) Siege of Acre (20 Mar – 21 May 1799) Battle of Ostrach
Battle of Ostrach
(20–21 Mar 1799) Battle of Stockach (25 Mar 1799) Battle of Magnano
Battle of Magnano
(5 Apr 1799) Battle of Cassano (27 Apr 1799) First Battle of Zurich
First Battle of Zurich
(4–7 Jun 1799) Battle of Trebbia (19 Jun 1799) Battle of Novi (15 Aug 1799) Second Battle of Zurich
Second Battle of Zurich
(25–26 Sep 1799)

1800

Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo
(14 Jun 1800) Battle of Hohenlinden
Battle of Hohenlinden
(3 Dec 1800) League of Armed Neutrality (1800–02)

1801

Treaty of Lunéville
Treaty of Lunéville
(9 Feb 1801) Treaty of Florence
Treaty of Florence
(18 Mar 1801) Algeciras Campaign
Algeciras Campaign
(8 Jul 1801)

1802

Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
(25 Mar 1802)

Military leaders

French Army

Eustache Charles d'Aoust Pierre Augereau Alexandre de Beauharnais Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte Louis-Alexandre Berthier Jean-Baptiste Bessières Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune Jean François Carteaux Jean Étienne Championnet Chapuis de Tourville Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine Louis-Nicolas Davout Louis Desaix Jacques François Dugommier Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Charles François Dumouriez Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino Louis-Charles de Flers Paul Grenier Emmanuel de Grouchy Jacques Maurice Hatry Lazare Hoche Jean-Baptiste Jourdan François Christophe de Kellermann Jean-Baptiste Kléber Pierre Choderlos de Laclos Jean Lannes Charles Leclerc Claude Lecourbe François Joseph Lefebvre Jacques MacDonald Jean-Antoine Marbot Jean Baptiste de Marbot François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers Auguste de Marmont André Masséna Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey Jean Victor Marie Moreau Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise Joachim Murat Michel Ney Pierre-Jacques Osten (fr) Nicolas Oudinot Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon Jean-Charles Pichegru Józef Poniatowski Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier Joseph Souham Jean-de-Dieu Soult Louis-Gabriel Suchet Belgrand de Vaubois Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno

French Navy

Charles-Alexandre Linois

Opposition

Austria

József Alvinczi Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen Count of Clerfayt (Walloon) Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
(Swiss) Friedrich Adolf, Count von Kalckreuth Pál Kray (Hungarian) Charles Eugene, Prince
Prince
of Lambesc (French) Maximilian Baillet de Latour (Walloon) Karl Mack von Leiberich Rudolf Ritter von Otto (Saxon) Prince
Prince
Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich Prince
Prince
Heinrich XV of Reuss-Plauen Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
(Hungarian) Karl Philipp Sebottendorf Dagobert von Wurmser

Britain

Sir Ralph Abercromby Admiral Sir James Saumarez Admiral Sir Edward Pellew Prince
Prince
Frederick, Duke of York and Albany

Dutch Republic

William V, Prince
Prince
of Orange

 Prussia

Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Frederick Louis, Prince
Prince
of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen

Russia

Alexander Korsakov Alexander Suvorov

Spain

Luis Firmin de Carvajal Antonio Ricardos

Other significant figures and factions

Society of 1789

Jean Sylvain Bailly Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt Isaac René Guy le Chapelier Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord Nicolas de Condorcet

Feuillants and monarchiens

Madame de Lamballe Madame du Barry Louis de Breteuil Loménie de Brienne Charles Alexandre de Calonne de Chateaubriand Jean Chouan Grace Elliott Arnaud de La Porte Jean-Sifrein Maury Jacques Necker François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas Antoine Barnave Lafayette Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth Charles Malo François Lameth André Chénier Jean-François Rewbell Camille Jordan Madame de Staël Boissy d'Anglas Jean-Charles Pichegru Pierre Paul Royer-Collard

Girondists

Jacques Pierre Brissot Roland de La Platière Madame Roland Father Henri Grégoire Étienne Clavière Marquis de Condorcet Charlotte Corday Marie Jean Hérault Jean Baptiste Treilhard Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve Jean Debry Jean-Jacques Duval d'Eprémesnil Olympe de Gouges Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux

The Plain

Abbé Sieyès de Cambacérès Charles François Lebrun Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot Philippe Égalité Louis Philippe I Mirabeau Antoine Christophe Merlin
Antoine Christophe Merlin
de Thionville Jean Joseph Mounier Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours François de Neufchâteau

Montagnards

Maximilien Robespierre Georges Danton Jean-Paul Marat Camille Desmoulins Louis Antoine de Saint-Just Paul Nicolas, vicomte de Barras Louis Philippe I Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau Jacques-Louis David Marquis de Sade Jacques-Louis David Georges Couthon Roger Ducos Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois Jean-Henri Voulland Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier Jean-Pierre-André Amar Prieur de la Côte-d'Or Prieur de la Marne Gilbert Romme Jean Bon Saint-André Jean-Lambert Tallien Pierre Louis Prieur Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Antoine Christophe Saliceti

Hébertists and Enragés

Jacques Hébert Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne Pierre Gaspard Chaumette Charles-Philippe Ronsin Antoine-François Momoro François-Nicolas Vincent François Chabot Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel François Hanriot Jacques Roux Stanislas-Marie Maillard Charles-Philippe Ronsin Jean-François Varlet Theophile Leclerc Claire Lacombe Pauline Léon Gracchus Babeuf Sylvain Maréchal

Others

Charles X Louis XVI Louis XVII Louis XVIII Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien Louis Henri, Prince
Prince
of Condé Louis Joseph, Prince
Prince
of Condé Marie Antoinette Napoléon Bonaparte Lucien Bonaparte Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Fesch Joséphine de Beauharnais Joachim Murat Jean Sylvain Bailly Jacques-Donatien Le Ray Guillaume-Chrétien de Malesherbes Talleyrand Thérésa Tallien Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target Catherine Théot List of people associated with the French Revolution

Influential thinkers

Les Lumières Beaumarchais Edmund Burke Anacharsis Cloots Charles-Augustin de Coulomb Pierre Claude François Daunou Diderot Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson Antoine Lavoisier Montesquieu Thomas Paine Jean-Jacques Rousseau Abbé Sieyès Voltaire Mary Wollstonecraft

Cultural impact

La Marseillaise French Tricolour Liberté, égalité, fraternité Marianne Bastille Day Panthéon French Republican Calendar Cult of the Supreme Being Cult of Reason

Temple of Reason

Sans-culottes Metric system Phrygian cap Women in the French Revolution Symbolism in the French Revolution Historiography of the French Revolution Influence of the French Revolution

v t e

French Directory
French Directory
(2 November 1795 to 10 November 1799)

Directors

Lazare Carnot Étienne-François Letourneur Jean-François Rewbell Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux Paul François Jean Nicolas, vicomte de Barras François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai François de Neufchâteau Jean Baptiste Treilhard Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès Jean-François-Auguste Moulin Louis-Jérôme Gohier Roger Ducos

Ministers

Foreign Affairs

Charles-François Delacroix Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord Charles-Frédéric Reinhard

Justice

Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai Jean Joseph Victor Génissieu Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai Charles Joseph Mathieu Lambrechts Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès

War

Jean-Baptiste Annibal Aubert du Bayet Claude Louis Petiet Lazare Hoche Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer Louis Marie de Milet de Mureau Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte Edmond Louis Alexis Dubois-Crancé

Finance

Martin-Michel-Charles Gaudin Guillaume-Charles Faipoult Dominique-Vincent Ramel-Nogaret Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai

Police

Charles Cochon de Lapparent Jean-Jacques Lenoir-Laroche Jean-Marie Sotin de La Coindière Nicolas Dondeau Marie Jean François Philibert Lecarlier d'Ardon Jean-Pierre Duval Claude Sébastien Bourguignon Joseph Fouché

Interior

Pierre Bénézech François de Neufchâteau François Sébastien Letourneux François de Neufchâteau Nicolas Marie Quinette

Navy and Colonies

Laurent Jean François Truguet Georges René Le Peley de Pléville Étienne Eustache Bruix Marc Antoine Bourdon de Vatry

Preceded by National Convention Followed by French Consulate

v t e

Recipients of the Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Iron Cross

1813 Grand Cross

Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher
Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher
(Star of the Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Iron Cross) Friedrich Wilhelm Freiherr von Bülow Crown Prince
Prince
Charles John of Sweden Bogislav Friedrich Emanuel von Tauentzien Ludwig Yorck von Wartenburg

1870 Grand Cross

Albert of Saxony August Karl von Goeben Edwin Freiherr von Manteuffel Helmuth Graf von Moltke the Elder Prince
Prince
Friedrich Karl of Prussia Crown Prince
Prince
Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia August Graf von Werder Kaiser Wilhelm I Frederick Francis II

1914 Grand Cross

Kaiser Wilhelm II Paul von Hindenburg
Paul von Hindenburg
(Star of the Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Iron Cross) Erich Ludendorff Prince
Prince
Leopold of Bavaria August von Mackensen

1939 Grand Cross

Hermann Göring

v t e

Grand Masters of the Norwegian Order of Freemasons

King Charles III John King Oscar I King Carl IV King Oscar II Johan Gottfried Conradi August Christian Mohr Wilhelm Hansen Færden Carl Fredrik Johannes Bødtker Hans Johndal Rønneberg Jacob Hvinden Haug Carl Kaas Anton Cathinco Stub Holmboe Bernhard Paus Ola Knutrud Syver Hagen Magne Frode Nygaard Ivar A. Skar Tore Evensen

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 73959251 LCCN: n79065096 ISNI: 0000 0001 2139 5548 GND: 118560174 SELIBR: 193755 SUDOC: 02763289X BNF: cb125108868 (data) BIBSYS: 90398853 ULAN: 500320384 NKC: mzk2015884345 BN

.