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Jean-Luc Antoine Pierre Mélenchon (French pronunciation: ​[ʒɑ̃.lyk me.lɑ̃.ʃɔ̃]; born 19 August 1951) is a French far-left politician serving as a member of the National Assembly of France since 2017.[2][3][4] After joining the Socialist Party
Socialist Party
in 1976, he was successively elected municipal councilor of Massy (1983), general councilor of the Essonne departement (1985), and Senator of the same department (1986, reelected in 1995 and 2004). He also served as Minister-Delegate of Vocational Education
Vocational Education
between 2000 and 2002, under the Minister of National Education, Jack Lang, in the cohabitation government of Lionel Jospin. He was part of the left-wing of the Socialist Party until the Reims Congress
Reims Congress
of 2008, at the outcome of which he left that party to found the Left Party with deputy Marc Dolez.[5][6] He was the president of the party, and then the co-president of it, along with Martine Billard, until August 2014.[7] As leader of the Left Party, he joined the electoral coalition of the Left Front before the 2009 European elections, and was elected member of the European Parliament
European Parliament
in the South-West constituency (re-elected in 2014). During the protest movement against the pension reform of 2010, his public stature grew, thanks to his many public and television appearances. He was also the candidate of that coalition in the 2012 presidential election, at the outcome of which he came in fourth, receiving 11.1% of the votes. He founded the movement La France Insoumise (FI) in February 2016. He was a candidate in the 2017 presidential election "outside the frame of political parties", at the outcome of which he again came in fourth, receiving 19.58% of the votes. He became in June 2017 a MP for La France Insoumise
La France Insoumise
by winning the following 2017 French legislative election
2017 French legislative election
(59.85% in the second round) in the 4th constituency of Bouches-du-Rhône
Bouches-du-Rhône
department (Marseille).[8]

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early life (1951–1976) 1.2 Socialist mitterrandist leader (1976–1986) 1.3 Socialist Party
Socialist Party
(1986–2008) 1.4 Departure from the Socialists and foundation of the Left Party (2008–2012) 1.5 First presidential candidacy (2012) 1.6 Presidency of François Hollande
François Hollande
(2012–2017) 1.7 Second presidential candidacy (2017) 1.8 Deputy of the National Assembly (since 2017)

2 Political positions

2.1 The Sixth Republic and the French Constitution 2.2 Agriculture and animal treatment 2.3 European Parliament 2.4 Foreign Policy

2.4.1 Russia 2.4.2 Syria

2.5 National Defense 2.6 Regionalism

3 Controversies

3.1 Anti-German sentiment 3.2 Interactions with the media

4 Political career 5 Publications 6 References 7 External links

Biography[edit] Early life (1951–1976)[edit] Jean-Luc Mélenchon
Jean-Luc Mélenchon
was born in Tangier
Tangier
( Tangier
Tangier
International Zone), Morocco.[9] His father, Georges, was a postmaster of Spanish descent, and his mother, Jeanine Bayona, was a primary school teacher of Spanish and Sicilian descent.[10] He grew up in Morocco, until his family moved to France in 1962.[9] Mélenchon was then educated at the public school Lycée Pierre-Corneille in the city of Rouen, Normandy.[11] With a degree in philosophy from the University of Franche-Comté
University of Franche-Comté
in Besançon, and having gained the CAPES (a professional teaching qualification), he became a teacher before entering politics.[9][11] Socialist mitterrandist leader (1976–1986)[edit] Jean-Luc Mélenchon
Jean-Luc Mélenchon
left Besançon
Besançon
to enter professional life in Lons-le-Saunier
Lons-le-Saunier
(Jura), and joined the Socialist Party
Socialist Party
(PS) in September 1976.[12] He soon assumed local and departmental responsibilities (deputy section secretary of Montaigu), and developed a federal newspaper that fought for a union between PS and the French Communist Party (PCF). It was at this time that the latter broke the agreements of the union of the left on a joint program of government. He then came to the attention of Claude Germon, mayor of Massy (Essone) and member of the executive office of the PS responsible for the business section. Without stable work after his application was rejected at the Croix du Jura newspaper,[13] he was hired by Claude Germon to become his private secretary.[14] He became one of the leading Mitterrandist leaders of the Essonne federation, which led him to the position of first secretary of this federation at the Valence Congress in 1981 - he remained in this position until 1986. He positioned himself both against the "Second left" of Michel Rocard
Michel Rocard
and the "Centre of socialist studies, research, and education"(CERES) of Jean-Pierre Chevènement. He was elected senator during the senatorials of 1986.[15] Socialist Party
Socialist Party
(1986–2008)[edit] Departure from the Socialists and foundation of the Left Party (2008–2012)[edit] At the Reims Congress, in September 2008, the political current "Trait d'union", created after the victory of the "No" in the French European Constitution referendum of 2005, Mélenchon made a new contribution. On the eve of the filing of the motions, an agreement was reached between the seven contributions of the left wing of the PS, and Jean-Luc Mélenchon
Jean-Luc Mélenchon
was one of the signatories of the motion C entitled "A world of advance", led by Benoît Hamon.[16] He described this gathering as a "historic event":[17] For the first time, this motion brought together all the sensibilities of the left wing of the PS, with emblematic personalities like Gérard Filoche, Marie-Noëlle Lienemann, and Paul Quilès. On 6 November 2008, the Socialist militants voted to decide between 6 motions. The motion supported by Ségolène Royal
Ségolène Royal
led with about 29% of the votes cast, while the one led by Benoît Hamon
Benoît Hamon
came in fourth with 18.5%. For Jean-Luc Mélenchon, it is a victory of the outgoing majority, which carries 80% of the votes (with the three firsts motions) and, among them, the motion advocating the alliance in the center.[18] Believing themselves too far from this trend to the point that it would not be useful to take part in the congress, Jean-Luc Mélenchon and Marc Dolez
Marc Dolez
announced on 7 November their decision, "by fidelity to their commitments", and for their independence of action, to leave the Socialist Party, and to create a new movement "without concession facing the right".[19] They announced "the construction of a new left-wing party", simply called the "Left Party" (on the German model of Die Linke), and called for "the constitution of a left-wing front for the European elections".[20] On 18 November, in a meeting with the French Communist Party, the two parties announced their alliance in the form of a "partnership", within the framework of a "left front for another democratic and social Europe, against the ratification of the Treaty of Lisbon and the current European Treaties". The launch meeting of the Left Party is held on 29 November in Saint-Ouen, in the presence of Die Linke's co-chairman, Oskar Lafontaine.[21] First presidential candidacy (2012)[edit] Main article: French presidential election, 2012 Mélenchon was the candidate representing the Left Front (Communist Party of France, Left Party, Unitarian Left) in the 2012 French presidential election.[22][23] He took fourth place and achieved 11.10% of the vote, trailing behind François Hollande, Nicolas Sarkozy, and Marine Le Pen
Marine Le Pen
(and their respective parties, the Socialist Party, Union for a Popular Movement, and National Front). In comparison, the winner, François Hollande, received 28.63% of the vote.[24][not in citation given]

Jean-Luc Mélenchon
Jean-Luc Mélenchon
in 2013 in Toulouse.

Presidency of François Hollande
François Hollande
(2012–2017)[edit] Main article: French legislative election, 2012 Mélenchon represented the Left Front in the Pas-de-Calais' 11th constituency, to confront his rival Marine Le Pen, where she had over 31% in the presidential election.[25] He received third place with 21.46% of the vote, narrowly edged out for second by Socialist Party member Phillip Kemel. Mélenchon decided not to stand in the second round of the election after this result.[26] During the presidency of François Hollande, Mélenchon became one of the most critical voices in the left against his centrist free-market policy. He denounced a betrayal to the culture and ideas of the French Left. Second presidential candidacy (2017)[edit] Main article: French presidential election, 2017 On February 10, 2016, Melenchon launched the left-wing political platform La France Insoumise
La France Insoumise
("Unbowed France") during an interview on the french news station TF1.[27] La France Insoumise
La France Insoumise
was subsequently endorsed by several parties, such as the Left Party and French Communist Party, in addition to members of the Europe Écologie Les Verts such as Sergio Coronado, a gay assembly member for the 2nd Overseas Constituency,[28] and the mayor of Grenoble, Éric Piolle.[29] On 12 January 2017, Mélenchon secured the 500 elected sponsors required to be validated by the Constitutional Council. After Benoît Hamon won the nomination for the Parti Socialiste on a left-wing platform, beating former Prime Minister, Manuel Valls, 58-41,[30] Hamon announced on TF1
TF1
on 27 February that he and Melenchon had been in talks to form an alliance, but their stances on the European Union separated them, as Melenchon's platform was to renegotiate EU treaties or hold a referendum. France 24
France 24
reported following this that, "Adding their scores would place a candidate in first or second place"[31] Jean-Luc Mélenchon
Jean-Luc Mélenchon
held at a consistent 12% for most of the campaign, until a late upwards surge which put him just behind third place Francois Fillon at 18%. This late surge is mainly due to Mélenchon's performance within the second presidential debate hosted by BFM TV
BFM TV
and CNews, where, according to an Elabe poll, he was found the most convincing candidate by 25%[32] However, he did not qualify for the second round of voting, winning 19% of the vote in the first round, placing fourth. After the first round, Mélenchon refused to endorse Macron, and refused to tell his voters to vote against Le Pen, as he had done in 2002.[33][34] Following constant criticism for this choice, Mélenchon invited members of La France Insoumise
La France Insoumise
to vote on who he will endorse with the choices being "Vote for Emmanuel Macron", "Blank Vote", or "Abstain", with the result being announced on 2 May.[35] His campaign positions included the intent to establish a Sixth Republic and preserve the environment. According to the NGOs for the development aid Action Against Hunger, Action santé mondiale, CARE France, and ONE Campaign, Jean-Luc Mélenchon
Jean-Luc Mélenchon
is the candidate in the presidential election who is the most engaged regarding international solidarity. Together with other French intellectuals, he vigorously denounces free trade between France and the United States as an example of global exploitation.[36] Deputy of the National Assembly (since 2017)[edit]

Mélenchon with Éric Coquerel, 2017

Mélenchon became in June 2017 a member of the National Assembly for La France Insoumise
La France Insoumise
by winning the following 2017 French legislative election (59.85% in the second round) in the 4th constituency of Bouches-du-Rhône
Bouches-du-Rhône
department (Marseille), against En Marche!
En Marche!
candidate Corrine Versini in the second round. He notably also defeated Patrick Mennucci in the first round, a significant member of the Socialist Party in the city and former MP in the same constituency. His entrance to the Assembly draws the national media attention.[37] During the examination of the 2017 Labor Law bill, he was remarked in the Assembly for his multiple interventions, defending the statu quo of Labor Code along with La France Insoumise, arguing that flexibilization would be harmful to workers. [38] He had once more the media attention when he came in the Parliament with a five euros food shopping bag to denounce the cut of student grants planned by the government. [39] Political positions[edit] Jean-Luc Mélenchon
Jean-Luc Mélenchon
is a socialist republican and historical materialist, inspired primarily by Jean Jaurès
Jean Jaurès
(the founder of French republican socialism). He is a proponent of increased labour rights and the expansion of French welfare programmes.[40] Mélenchon has also called for the mass redistribution of wealth to rectify existing socioeconomic inequalities.[40] Domestic policies proposed by Mélenchon include a 100 per cent income tax on all French citizens earning more than 360,000 Euros a year, full state reimbursement for health care costs, a reduction in presidential powers in favour of the legislature, and the easing of immigration laws.[41] Mélenchon supports women's right to abortion and same-sex marriage. He also supports the legalisation of cannabis.[42]

Jean-Luc Mélenchon
Jean-Luc Mélenchon
(right) with Olivier Besancenot
Olivier Besancenot
(left) and José Bové (centre) at a meeting to rally support for the "No" vote in the European Constitution referendum of 2005.

Mélenchon is an outspoken critic of the European Union
European Union
(EU), which he claims has been corrupted through neoliberalism.[43] During his 2012 campaign, Mélenchon positioned himself against the trend towards economic globalisation, which he denounced as disproportionately profiting the financial industry and "high income earners" at the expense of the poor.[43] He insisted international organisations such as the EU threatened to "strangle the voice of the people".[44] He supports a renegotiation of European treaties.[45] Mélenchon opposes the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
(NATO), which he perceives as an affront to France's national sovereignty.[44] He has repeatedly called for France to withdraw from NATO.[44] Mélenchon has been labelled a "populist" by numerous different people, with the PS senator Luc Carvounas
Luc Carvounas
saying he goes to "the summits of demagoguery and populism", and the magazine Slate, stating that Mélenchon's rhetoric is "shocking" and implying his entire political life is based around pleasing the people.[46] He has been compared to Marine Le Pen
Marine Le Pen
in terms of debating style;[47][48] Political scientist Dominique Reynié
Dominique Reynié
even went as far as to say he "flirts with xenophobia when it helps him".[49] Mélenchon has himself his vision of populism, which he sees as positive if it comes with a left ideology. He is inspired by the philosopher Chantal Mouffe, who sought to theorise and rehabilitate the term "left populism". This theory argues that neoliberalism and austerity only made the far-right stronger and that the word "people" has to be reintroduced into the political sphere in a civic sense rather than an ethnic way (creating a "right populism" to fight). [50] The Sixth Republic and the French Constitution[edit] Jean-Luc Mélenchon
Jean-Luc Mélenchon
advocates for the holding of a constitutional convention to create a Sixth Republic. In 2017, in La France Insoumise's manifesto titled L'Avenir En Commun, it states in the first chapter: "The new constitution that France needs must be radically different".[51] On 14 September 2014, Mélenchon wrote in Le Monde, "France must protect itself from the powers of finance. They devour the economy. For this, the definition of the constitutional rights of private ownership of capital should change", and furthermore writes on this topic by stating, "Again, it is inclusion in the Constitution that will fix this and make it a common rule."[52] Mélenchon is also endorsed by the "Movement for the 6th Republic", and has spoken positively of them before. A spokesman for La France Insoumise affirmed that Mélenchon was very welcoming of a Sixth Republic run by the people that welcomes democracy, ecology, and challenges social issues.[52] The new Sixth Republic must also not include no existing parliamentarians, and that they cannot be re-elected.[53] Agriculture and animal treatment[edit] Jean-Luc Mélenchon
Jean-Luc Mélenchon
is very much in favour of better treatment of animals. He stated during an interview with the magazine Gala that he changed his diet to "reduce consumption of meat and relieve animal suffering".[54] The association L214, which is a non-profit for animal protection, stated that he was the only candidate "for animals" during its evaluation of the candidates' programmes, giving him a score of 15.7/20, placing him at the head of 11 candidates.[55] European Parliament[edit] Jean-Luc Mélenchon
Jean-Luc Mélenchon
is constantly criticised[by whom?] for his absence in the European Parliament. His attendance before the 2012 presidential election was at 63%, [56] and after this, his average is often compiled with pre-2012, so it is compiled at 71.40%[57] Mélenchon justified his relatively low attendance with how active he is within France itself, and has posted a list of other reasons on his blog.[58][59] He has increased his attendance since then, with the website votewatch.eu reporting it at 85.1%[60] Foreign Policy[edit] Russia[edit] Mélenchon is considered to be very pro-Russia by some journalists.[61][62] The journalist Nicolas Hénin even went as far as to say that Mélenchon is "on the left of the political spectrum, but is the lawyer of the Kremlin leader", with Hénin quoting how Mélenchon is the "political victim number one" in the story about the murder of the Russian opposition leader Boris Nemtsov.[63] Cécile Vaissié, author of The Kremlin Networks, regards Jean-Luc Mélenchon as "one of those that approve of Putin", [64] and Yannick Jadot
Yannick Jadot
of EELV said that the pro-Russia stance is "contary to any environment thinking".[65] Mélenchon has denied any support for Vladimir Putin, saying that it is unlike an "eco-socialist" to support Vladimir Putin, [66] and has stressed that Putin had "imprisoned [his] friends in Russia", [67] and when attacked by Benoit Hamon on the topic of Putin, he stated: "I am not bound in any way to Mr. Putin. I am absolutely fighting his policy, and if I was Russian, I would not vote for his party, but for the Russian Left Front whose leader is in prison."[68] Syria[edit] Mélenchon is in favour of a United Nations-led intervention into Syria featuring all nations on the security council, including Russia. He opposes intervention without an international cooperation.[69] After the chemical attack in Ghouta, he has said that he feels like a strike on Syria "would be a mistake", and calls for a "political solution".[70] He has compared an intervention in Syria to Iraq,[71] and has approved of Russia's intervention in Syria, saying that he believes Vladimir Putin will "fix" Syria and "eliminate" ISIS,[61] though he has said numerous times that he believes that Putin can't be left to solve the problem in Syria, saying: "The UN will solve the problem [...] it's time for an international coalition".[72] National Defense[edit] Mélenchon wants France to withdraw from NATO
NATO
(North Atlantic Treaty Organization),[73][74] and advocates for what he calls a "separate France" which is pacifist.[51] He opposes the concept of a unified European army.[75] In the 2017 presidential election, he made his main foreign policy point to be the exit from NATO, stating that the organisation has led to "war" and French "submission to the United States". Mélenchon also says that Nuclear Deterrence is an "essential element of our protection", but it is "outdated". Regionalism[edit] Mélenchon has no real position on regionalism, but has stated that he supports the teaching of regional languages, especially Breton.[76] He supports state funding for the teaching of the Breton language.[77] He has gone against autonomy for Brittany, even blaming socialists from the region for promoting "autonomy".[78] Controversies[edit] Anti-German sentiment[edit] Main article: Anti-German sentiment After the German Chancellor Angela Merkel, in December 2014, described reform efforts so far in France and Italy as "insufficient", Mélenchon told Merkel through Twitter: "Shut your mouth, Mrs. Merkel! France is free."[79] Jean-Luc Mélenchon, however, denies being prejudiced against the Germans, and claims to have founded his party hand in hand with Oskar Lafontaine.[80] After the referendum on the Greek sovereign debt crisis in early July 2015, he said that the "right-wing German government" was primarily responsible for the aggravation of the crisis.[81] Commenting for The Guardian
The Guardian
in April 2017, Natalie Nougayrède, a former executive editor and managing editor of Le Monde,[82] noted:

"In his 2015 book Bismarck’s Herring (The German Poison), Mélenchon wrote that, 'Germany is again a danger', its 'imperialism' is 'returning', and the EU is its 'new empire'. He's described Germans as 'grumbling Teutons' who seek to 'deport' their old people to Eastern Europe or Thailand. And he's written that German 'expansionism' was at work in the country's 1990 reunification – an 'annexation' of East Germany, in his words. That, in itself, is no small rewriting of history, and no small denial of a people's freely expressed will after the fall of communism. His criticism of Angela Merkel's eurozone policies goes far beyond the economic. It peddles nationalistic, if not bigoted, hatreds. He may have tried to soften that impression by saying he wants 'the peoples of Europe' to revolt against their governments – and not start to fight among themselves. But he has hardly backtracked on any of his earlier statements. Much of this echoes and amplifies Le Pen's rhetoric, rather than helping to combat it."[83]

Interactions with the media[edit] Jean-Luc Mélenchon
Jean-Luc Mélenchon
is often very rough with the media, and has before asked his party members to monitor and film journalists, especially Le Monde and Libération[84] Lilian Alamgna of the Libération
Libération
writes, "If the media are the opponents, he can also use them to get his message across."[85] Jean-Luc Mélenchon
Jean-Luc Mélenchon
has also insulted numerous journalists: He has labelled Renaud Revel of L'Express
L'Express
a "dirty little spy", and labelled the newspaper "fascist".[86] He accused Le Monde
Le Monde
journalists of being CIA spies.[87] When questioned on if he could win "without Benoit Hamon" by a France 5 reporter, he told a member of his team to throw him out, and called him an "asshole".[88] Political career[edit] Governmental functions[9] Minister of Vocational Education, 2000–2002. Electoral mandates European Parliament Member of European Parliament
European Parliament
since 2009. Senate of France Senator of Essonne, 1986–2000 (became minister in 2000), 2004–2010 (resignation, elected in European Parliament
European Parliament
in 2009). Elected in 1986, re-elected in 1995, 2004. (At the age of 35, he was the youngest member of the Senate when he was elected to it in 1986.) General Council Vice-president of the General Council of Essonne, 1998–2001. General councillor of Essonne, 1985–1992, 1998–2004. Re-elected in 1998. Municipal Council Deputy-mayor of Massy, Essonne, 1983–1995. Municipal councillor of Massy, Essonne, 1983–2001. Re-elected in 1989, 1995. Political function Co-President of the Left Party, 2008–2014. Publications[edit] Mélenchon's published works include:

Mélenchon, Jean-Luc; Amar, Cécile (22 March 2017). De la vertu (in French). Editions de l'Observatoire. ISBN 979-1-03-290059-8.  Mélenchon, Jean-Luc (1 December 2016). L'avenir en commun : Le programme de la France insoumise et son candidat (in French). Seuil. ISBN 978-2021317510.  Mélenchon, Jean-Luc (16 November 2016). Le hareng de Bismarck: Le poison allemand (in French) (paperback ed.). J'ai lu. ISBN 978-2290127940.  Mélenchon, Jean-Luc (8 October 2014). L'ère du peuple (in French). Fayard. ISBN 978-2213685755. 

References[edit]

^ " Jean-Luc Mélenchon
Jean-Luc Mélenchon
galvanises left in French election". BBC News. 18 April 2017. Mr Mélenchon wears a worker's jacket with a red triangle on the collar, a symbol worn by communists deported by the Nazis in World War Two  ^ "French election shaken by surge in support for far-left candidate", The Guardian. ^ "Profile: Jean-Luc Mélenchon, the far-left candidate shaking up the French election", The Conversation. ^ "In France's Election, a Far-Left Populist Finds an Eager Audience", Time magazine. ^ Statement by Jean‑Luc Mélenchon made after he left the Socialist Party
Socialist Party
(in French) ^ Speech by Jean-Luc Mélenchon
Jean-Luc Mélenchon
at the creation congress of the Left Party Archived 21 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. (in French) ^ Sulzer, Alexandre (24 August 2014). "Quelle mouche a piqué Jean‑Luc Mélenchon?". L’Express (in French). Paris. ISSN 0245-9949. Archived from the original on 29 October 2015. Décidément, Jean‑Luc Mélenchon aime les subtilités. Celui dont on connaissait le ‘vague à l’âme’ depuis une interview pour le site Hexagones.fr fin juillet a confirmé vendredi qu’il quittait la co‑présidence du Parti de Gauche (PG) avec Martine Billard.  ^ http://elections.interieur.gouv.fr/legislatives-2017/013/01304.html ^ a b c d "Le CV de Jean‑Luc Mélenchon", Europe 1, 5 March 2012 ^ "Qui connaît Jean-Luc Mélenchon ?".  ^ a b "Lycée Pierre Corneille de Rouen: History". lgcorneille-lyc.spip.ac-rouen.fr. 19 April 1944. Retrieved 14 April 2012.  ^ Lilian Alemagna and Stéphane Alliès, Mélenchon le plébéien, Paris, Robert Laffont, 2012 (ISBN 978-2-221-12646-2), p.55 ^ Lilian Alemagna and Stéphane Alliès, Mélenchon le plébéien, Paris, Robert Laffont, 2012 (ISBN 978-2-221-12646-2), p. 63 ^ Lilian Alemagna and Stéphane Alliès, Mélenchon le plébéien, Paris, Robert Laffont, 2012 (ISBN 978-2-221-12646-2), p.64 ^ Ravinel, Sophie de (12 August 2012). "Quand Mélenchon est devenu le benjamin du Sénat" – via Le Figaro.  ^ "Congrès PS: Hamon, Emmanuelli, Lienemann et Filoche présentent une motion". 23 April 2017.  ^ "Mélenchon qualifie "d'événement historique" l'unité de l'aile gauche du PS". 23 April 2017.  ^ HACQUART, Didier. " Jean-Luc Mélenchon
Jean-Luc Mélenchon
et Marc Dolez
Marc Dolez
quittent le PS – Le blog politique de Didier HACQUART, Adjoint PS de Vitrolles (13) entre 2002 et 2008".  ^ lefigaro.fr. " Jean-Luc Mélenchon
Jean-Luc Mélenchon
quitte le PS".  ^ " Jean-Luc Mélenchon
Jean-Luc Mélenchon
quitte le PS". 7 November 2008 – via Le Monde.  ^ " Jean-Luc Mélenchon
Jean-Luc Mélenchon
lance son Parti de gauche".  ^ Candidates officially endorsed by Conseil constitutionnel for the 2012 presidential elections, La Tribune. Retrieved 19 March 2012. ^ De la Baume, Maïa; Erlanger, Steven (10 April 2012). "In French Vote, Sound and Fury From the Left". New York Times (New York ed.). p. A6. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 29 September 2015.  ^ "Elections Législatives – Results". France 24. Archived from the original on 6 May 2012.  ^ "Election présidentielle 2012 – Résultats du 1er tour par circonscription" (in French). Politiquemania.  ^ "French far‑left leader Jean‑Luc Melenchon admits defeat by far‑right's Le Pen". The Daily Telegraph. Sydney. AFP. 11 June 2012. Archived from the original on 16 November 2015. Mr Melenchon said he would not stand in next Sunday's second round after coming third, instead leaving his Socialist rival to battle Ms Le Pen. . . . Mr Melenchon won 11 per cent of votes in the April‑May presidential vote that was won by Socialist Francois Hollande, while Ms Le Pen won almost 18 per cent of votes.  ^ " Jean-Luc Mélenchon
Jean-Luc Mélenchon
annonce sa candidature à l'élection présidentielle". Le Monde.fr (in French). 10 February 2016. ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 29 April 2017.  ^ "Le choix de l'insoumission". Club de Mediapart (in French). Retrieved 29 April 2017.  ^ Beuve-Méry, Alain (14 April 2017). "Eric Piolle : " Je voterai Mélenchon pour encourager le rassemblement de la gauche "". Le Monde.fr (in French). ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 29 April 2017.  ^ "Résultats du second tour - Les Primaires citoyennes de la Gauche - 22 et 29 janvier 2017". Les Primaires citoyennes de la Gauche - 22 et 29 janvier 2017 (in French). Retrieved 29 April 2017.  ^ "French left-wing candidates fail to forge alliance in presidential race - France 24". France 24. 27 February 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2017.  ^ "Qui a été le plus convaincant ?". ELABE (in French). 5 April 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2017.  ^ "VIDÉO - En 2002, Mélenchon n'avait pas hésité à appeler à voter pour Chirac contre Le Pen - Le Lab Europe 1" (in French). Retrieved 29 April 2017.  ^ "Présidentielle : Jean-Luc Mélenchon
Jean-Luc Mélenchon
ne fait pas de différence entre Emmanuel Macron
Emmanuel Macron
et Marine Le Pen
Marine Le Pen
- Le Lab Europe 1" (in French). Retrieved 29 April 2017.  ^ Présidentielle 2017 : Jean-Luc Mélenchon
Jean-Luc Mélenchon
ne donne pas de consigne de vote pour le second tour (in French), Le Monde, retrieved 29 April 2017  ^ Vergès, Marie de (1 February 2017). "Les candidats à la présidentielle évalués par les ONG d'aide au développement" – via Le Monde.  ^ http://www.lemonde.fr/elections-legislatives-2017/article/2017/06/20/l-insoumis-melenchon-fait-une-rentree-remarquee-a-l-assemblee-nationale_5148226_5076653.html ^ http://www.leparisien.fr/politique/ordonnances-insoumis-et-socialistes-vont-ils-saisir-le-conseil-constitutionnel-ensemble-18-07-2017-7142187.php ^ http://www.parismatch.com/Actu/Politique/APL-Melenchon-vide-son-sac-de-courses-a-5-euros-a-l-Assemblee-1317983 ^ a b Pr’ncipe, Catarina; Sunkara, Bhaskar (July 2016). Europe in Revolt: Mapping the New European Left. Chicago: Haymarket Books. pp. 91–92. ISBN 978-1-60846-593-4.  ^ Fenby, Jonathan (November 2016). France: A Modern History from the Revolution to the War with Terror. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 448–449. ISBN 978-1-250-09683-8.  ^ French presidential election: how the candidates compare The Guardian. Author – Angelique Chrisafis. Published 4 April 2017. Retrieved 17 April 2017. ^ a b Heinen, Nicolaus; Hartleb, Florian (2014). "Euroscepticism gaining currency? Implications of the EU elections for economic policy" (PDF). Frankfurt, Germany: Deutsche Bank AG. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 July 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2015.  ^ a b c "French left rally behind anti- NATO
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(in French). Retrieved 30 June 2016.  ^ "Le populisme "vintage" de Jean-Luc Mélenchon, trop élaboré pour être efficace". Slate.fr (in French). Retrieved 29 April 2017.  ^ "Le Pen-Mélenchon: la mode est au langage populiste". LExpress.fr (in French). 5 April 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2017.  ^ Mourgue, Marion (24 June 2011). "Les Inrocks - Entre le FN et le Front de gauche, la frontière est-elle poreuse?". Les Inrocks. Retrieved 29 April 2017.  ^ " Jean-Luc Mélenchon
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Jean-Luc Mélenchon
en ligne – L'Avenir En Commun". LAEC.fr (in French). Retrieved 2 May 2017.  ^ a b "La 6ème république selon Mélenchon". Club de Mediapart (in French). Retrieved 2 May 2017.  ^ "Les candidats à la présidentielle répondent au Mouvement 6e République ! - Mouvement pour la 6e République". Mouvement pour la 6e République (in French). 16 April 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2017.  ^ "Wikiwix's cache". archive.wikiwix.com. Archived from the original on 2 March 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2017.  ^ "Présidentielle 2017 : que feront-ils pour les animaux ?". www.politique-animaux.fr (in French). Retrieved 2 May 2017.  ^ Léchenet, Samuel Laurent et Alexandre (16 April 2014). "Les astuces de Mélenchon pour paraître assidu au Parlement européen". Le Monde.fr (in French). ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 2 May 2017.  ^ "Wikiwix's cache". archive.wikiwix.com. Retrieved 2 May 2017.  ^ "Jean-Luc Mélenchon, pour refonder l'Europe". europe.jean-luc-melenchon.fr (in French). Retrieved 2 May 2017.  ^ "Un seul être vous manque et tout est dépeuplé". europe.jean-luc-melenchon.fr (in French). Retrieved 2 May 2017.  ^ "Jean-Luc MÉLENCHON - VoteWatch Europe". www.votewatch.eu. Retrieved 2 May 2017.  ^ a b Sénécat, Adrien (16 December 2016). "Les ambiguïtés de Jean-Luc Mélenchon
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sur la Russie et la guerre en Syrie". Le Monde.fr (in French). ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 2 May 2017.  ^ "Mélenchon prouve son amour pour Vladimir Poutine". Libération.fr (in French). Retrieved 2 May 2017.  ^ Hénin, Nicolas (2016). La France russe : enquête sur les réseaux de Poutine. France: Fayard. p. 324.  ^ "Comment le Kremlin tisse sa toile en France". RFI (in French). 22 April 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2017.  ^ "Débat primaire EELV : Yannick Jadot
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Comment is Free blog. London. Retrieved 18 April 2017.  ^ "Mélenchon appelle ses militants à "surveiller" les journalistes du Monde et de Libé". LExpress.fr (in French). 5 May 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2017.  ^ "Jean-Luc Mélenchon : L'homme qui n'aimait pas les médias". Teleobs (in French). Retrieved 2 May 2017.  ^ "Mélenchon à un journaliste : "petit espion" travaillant pour un "journal fasciste"". SudOuest.fr. Retrieved 2 May 2017.  ^ " Jean-Luc Mélenchon
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insulte un journaliste de "C à vous"". LExpress.fr (in French). 21 March 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2017. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jean-Luc Mélenchon.

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Official blog Page on the French Senate website MEP webpage Appearances on C-SPAN

v t e

Candidates in the French presidential election, 2017

Winner

Emmanuel Macron
Emmanuel Macron
(EM)

Lost in runoff

Marine Le Pen
Marine Le Pen
(FN)

Other candidates

François Fillon
François Fillon
(LR) Jean-Luc Mélenchon
Jean-Luc Mélenchon
(FI) Benoît Hamon
Benoît Hamon
(PS) Nicolas Dupont-Aignan
Nicolas Dupont-Aignan
(DLF) Jean Lassalle
Jean Lassalle
(R) Philippe Poutou
Philippe Poutou
(NPA) François Asselineau
François Asselineau
(UPR) Nathalie Arthaud
Nathalie Arthaud
(LO) Jacques Cheminade
Jacques Cheminade
(S&P)

v t e

Candidates in the French presidential election, 2012

Winner

François Hollande
François Hollande
(PS; campaign)

Lost in runoff

Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy
(UMP; incumbent)

Other candidates

Marine Le Pen
Marine Le Pen
(FN; campaign) Jean-Luc Mélenchon
Jean-Luc Mélenchon
(FG) François Bayrou
François Bayrou
(MoDem) Eva Joly
Eva Joly
(EELV; campaign) Nicolas Dupont-Aignan
Nicolas Dupont-Aignan
(DLR) Philippe Poutou
Philippe Poutou
(NPA) Nathalie Arthaud
Nathalie Arthaud
(LO) Jacques Cheminade
Jacques Cheminade
(SP)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 228226857 LCCN: n91116354 ISNI: 0000 0003 6386 6605 GND: 132223880 SUDOC: 030831822 BNF: cb122168626 (da

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