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James Monroe
James Monroe
(/mənˈroʊ/; April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fifth President of the United States
President of the United States
from 1817 to 1825. Monroe was the last president of the Virginia
Virginia
dynasty, and his presidency ushered in what is known as the Era of Good Feelings. Born in Westmoreland County, Virginia, Monroe was of the planter class and fought in the American Revolutionary War. He was wounded in the Battle of Trenton
Battle of Trenton
with a musket ball to his shoulder. After studying law under Thomas Jefferson from 1780 to 1783, he served as a delegate in the Continental Congress.[1] As an anti-federalist delegate to the Virginia
Virginia
convention that considered ratification of the United States
United States
Constitution, Monroe opposed ratification, claiming it gave too much power to the central government. He took an active part in the new government, and in 1790 he was elected to the Senate of the first United States
United States
Congress, where he joined the Democratic-Republicans. He gained experience as an executive as the Governor of Virginia
Virginia
and rose to national prominence as a diplomat in France, when he helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. During the War of 1812, Monroe served in critical roles as Secretary of State and the Secretary of War under President James Madison.[2] Facing little opposition from the fractured Federalist Party, Monroe was easily elected president in 1816, winning over 80 percent of the electoral vote and becoming the last president during the First Party System era of American politics. As president, he sought to ease partisan tensions, embarking on a tour of the country that was well received. With the ratification of the Treaty of 1818, under the successful diplomacy of his Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, the United States
United States
extended its reach from the Atlantic to the Pacific, by acquiring harbor and fishing rights in the Pacific Northwest; the United States
United States
and Britain jointly occupied the Oregon Country. In addition to the acquisition of Florida, the 1819 Adams–Onís Treaty secured the westernmost section of the southern border of the United States along the 42nd Parallel to the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and represented America's first determined attempt at creating an "American global empire".[3] As nationalism surged, partisan acrimony subsided. This swell of national purpose and political harmony subsided some when the Panic of 1819 struck and a dispute over the admission of Missouri embroiled the country in 1820. Nonetheless, Monroe won near-unanimous reelection. Monroe supported the founding of colonies in Africa for freed slaves that would eventually form the nation of Liberia, whose capital, Monrovia, is named in his honor. In 1823, he announced the United States' opposition to any European intervention in the recently independent countries of the Americas
Americas
with the Monroe Doctrine, which became a landmark in American foreign policy. His presidency concluded the first period of American presidential history before the beginning of Jacksonian democracy
Jacksonian democracy
and the Second Party System
Second Party System
era. Following his retirement in 1825, Monroe was plagued by financial difficulties. He died in New York City
New York City
on July 4, 1831. He has been generally ranked as an above-average president.

Contents

1 Early life

1.1 Revolutionary War service

2 Marriage and family 3 Plantations and slavery 4 Early political career

4.1 Virginia
Virginia
politics 4.2 Senator 4.3 Ambassador to France

5 Governor of Virginia
Virginia
and diplomat

5.1 Governor of Virginia 5.2 Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
and ambassador to Britain 5.3 1808 election and the Quids

6 Secretary of State and Secretary of War

6.1 Madison administration 6.2 Election of 1816

7 Presidency

7.1 Domestic affairs

7.1.1 Democratic-Republican Party
Democratic-Republican Party
dominance

7.2 Administration and cabinet

7.2.1 Missouri
Missouri
Compromise 7.2.2 Internal improvements 7.2.3 Panic of 1819

7.3 Foreign affairs

7.3.1 Treaties with Britain and Russia 7.3.2 Acquisition of Florida 7.3.3 Monroe Doctrine

7.4 Election of 1820 7.5 States admitted to the Union

8 Post-presidency 9 Religious beliefs 10 Slavery 11 Legacy and memory 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 Primary sources 16 Bibliography 17 External links

Early life[edit] James Monroe
James Monroe
was born on April 28, 1758, in his parents' house located in a wooded area of Westmoreland County, Virginia. The marked site is one mile from the unincorporated community known today as Monroe Hall, Virginia. The James Monroe Family Home Site
James Monroe Family Home Site
was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979. His father Spence Monroe (1727–1774) was a moderately prosperous planter who also practiced carpentry. His mother Elizabeth Jones (1730–1772) married Spence Monroe in 1752 and they had five children: Elizabeth, James, Spence, Andrew, and Joseph Jones.[4][5]

Marker designating the site of James Monroe's birthplace in Monroe Hall, Virginia

His paternal great-grandfather Patrick Andrew Monroe emigrated to America from Scotland
Scotland
in the mid-17th century. In 1650 he patented a large tract of land in Washington Parish, Westmoreland County, Virginia. Monroe's mother was the daughter of a wealthy Welsh immigrant who had settled in nearby King George County, Virginia.[4] Also among James Monroe's ancestors were French Huguenot
French Huguenot
immigrants, who came to Virginia
Virginia
in 1700.[5] At age eleven, Monroe was enrolled in the lone school in the county. Monroe attended this school for only eleven weeks a year, as his labor was needed on the farm. During this time, Monroe formed a lifelong friendship with an older classmate, John Marshall. Monroe's mother died in 1772, and his father died two years later. Though he inherited property from both of his parents, the sixteen-year-old Monroe was forced to withdraw from school to support his younger brothers. His childless maternal uncle, Joseph Jones, became a surrogate father to Monroe and his siblings. A member of the Virginia
Virginia
House of Burgesses, Jones took Monroe to the capital of Williamsburg, Virginia
Virginia
and enrolled him in the College of William and Mary. Jones also introduced Monroe to important Virginians such as Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, and George Washington. In 1774, opposition to the British government grew in the Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
in reaction to the "Intolerable Acts," and Virginia
Virginia
sent a delegation to the First Continental Congress. Monroe became involved in the opposition to Lord Dunmore, the colonial governor of Virginia, and he took part in the storming of the Governor's Palace.[6] Revolutionary War service[edit] In early 1776, about a year and a half after his enrollment, Monroe dropped out of college and joined the 3rd Virginia
Virginia
Regiment in the Continental Army.[7] As the fledgling army valued literacy in its officers, Monroe was commissioned with the rank of lieutenant, serving under Captain William Washington. After months of training, Monroe and seven hundred Virginia
Virginia
infantrymen were called north to serve in the New York and New Jersey campaign. Shortly after the Virginians arrived, Washington led the army in a retreat from New York City
New York City
into New Jersey and then across the Delaware River
Delaware River
into Pennsylvania. In December, Monroe took part in a surprise attack on a Hessian encampment. Though the attack was successful, Monroe suffered a severed artery in the battle and nearly died. In the aftermath of the battle, George Washington
George Washington
cited Monroe and William Washington
William Washington
for their bravery, and promoted Monroe to the rank of captain. After his wounds healed, Monroe returned to Virginia
Virginia
to recruit his own company of soldiers.[8] Monroe's participation in the battle was memorialized in John Trumbull's painting, The Capture of the Hessians at Trenton, December 26, 1776, as well as Emanuel Leutze's Washington Crossing the Delaware.[9]

The Capture of the Hessians at Trenton, December 26, 1776, by John Trumbull, showing Captain William Washington, with wounded hand, on the right and Lt. Monroe, severely wounded and helped by Dr. Riker, left of center

Lacking the wealth to induce soldiers to join his company, Monroe instead asked his uncle to return him to the front. Monroe was assigned to the staff of General William Alexander, Lord Stirling. During this time, Monroe formed a close friendship with the Marquis de Lafayette, a French volunteer who encouraged Monroe to view the war as part of a wider struggle against religious and political tyranny. Monroe served in the Philadelphia campaign
Philadelphia campaign
and spent the winter of 1777–1778 at the encampment of Valley Forge, sharing a log hut with Marshall. After serving in the Battle of Monmouth, the destitute Monroe resigned his commission in December 1778 and joined his uncle in Philadelphia. After the British captured Savannah, the Virginia legislature decided to raise four regiments, and Monroe returned to his native state, hoping to receive his own command. With letters of recommendation from Washington, Stirling, and Alexander Hamilton, Monroe received a commission as a lieutenant colonel and was expected to lead one of the regiments, but recruitment again proved to be an issue. On the advice of Jones, Monroe returned to Williamsburg to study law, becoming a protege of Virginia
Virginia
Governor Thomas Jefferson.[10] With the British increasingly focusing their operations in the Southern colonies, the Virginians moved the capital to the more defensible city of Richmond, and Monroe accompanied Jefferson to the new capital. As Governor of Virginia, Jefferson held command over the state's militia, and he appointed Monroe to the rank of colonel, and Monroe established a messenger network to coordinate with the Continental Army
Continental Army
and other state militias. Still unable to raise an army due to a lack of interested recruits, Monroe traveled to his home in King George County, and thus was not present for the British raid of Richmond. As both the Continental Army
Continental Army
and the Virginia
Virginia
militia had an abundance of officers, Monroe did not serve during the Yorktown campaign, and, much to his frustration, Monroe did not take part in the Siege of Yorktown.[11] Although Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
served as a courier in a militia unit at age thirteen, Monroe is regarded as the last U.S. President who was a Revolutionary War veteran, since he served as an officer of the Continental Army
Continental Army
and took part in combat.[12] Monroe resumed studying law under Jefferson and continued until 1783.[13][14] He was not particularly interested in legal theory or practice, but chose to take it up because he thought it offered "the most immediate rewards" and could ease his path to wealth, social standing, and political influence.[14] Monroe was admitted to the Virginia
Virginia
bar and practiced in Fredericksburg, Virginia. Marriage and family[edit] On February 16, 1786, Monroe married Elizabeth Kortright (1768–1830) in New York City.[15] She was the daughter of Hannah Aspinwall Kortright and Laurence Kortright, a wealthy trader and former British officer. He met her while serving in the Continental Congress.[16] After a brief honeymoon on Long Island, New York, the Monroes returned to New York City
New York City
to live with her father until Congress adjourned. They then moved to Virginia, settling in Charlottesville, Virginia
Virginia
in 1789. They bought an estate in Charlottesville known as Ash Lawn–Highland, settling on the property in 1799. The Monroes had the following children:[17]

Eliza Kortright Monroe Hay (1786–1840): Eliza was born in Fredericksburg, Virginia, in 1786, and was educated in Paris at the school of Madame Campan
Madame Campan
during the time her father was the United States Ambassador to France. In 1808 she married George Hay, a prominent Virginia
Virginia
attorney who had served as prosecutor in the trial of Aaron Burr
Aaron Burr
and later U.S. District Judge.[18] James Spence Monroe (1799–1800): a son who died 16 months after birth.[19] Maria Hester Monroe (1804–1850): married her cousin Samuel L. Gouverneur on March 8, 1820, in the first wedding of a president's child in the White House.[20][21]

Plantations and slavery[edit]

Oak Hill Mansion

Monroe sold his small inherited Virginia
Virginia
plantation in 1783 to enter law and politics. He later fulfilled his youthful dream of becoming the owner of a large plantation and wielding great political power, but his plantation was never profitable. Although he owned much more land and many more slaves, and speculated in property, he was rarely on-site to oversee the operations. Overseers treated the slaves harshly to force production, but the plantations barely broke even. Monroe incurred debts by his lavish and expensive lifestyle and often sold property (including slaves) to pay them off.[22] Overseers moved or separated slave families from different Monroe plantations in accordance with production and maintenance needs of each satellite plantation.[23] One of Monroe's slaves named Daniel often ran away from his plantation in Albermarle County, to visit other slaves or separated family members.[23] Monroe commonly referred to Daniel as a "scoundrel" and described the "worthlessness" of Daniel as a runaway slave.[23] The practice of moving and separating slave families was common treatment of slaves in the South.[23] Early political career[edit] Virginia
Virginia
politics[edit] Monroe was elected to the Virginia
Virginia
House of Delegates in 1782. After serving on Virginia's Executive Council,[24] he was elected to the Congress of the Confederation
Congress of the Confederation
in November 1783 and served in Annapolis until Congress convened in Trenton, New Jersey in June 1784. He had served a total of three years when he finally retired from that office by the rule of rotation.[25] By that time, the government was meeting in the temporary capital of New York City. While serving in Congress, Monroe became an advocate for western expansion, and played a key role in the writing and passage of the Northwest Ordinance. The ordinance created the Northwest Territory, providing for federal administration of the territories West of Pennsylvania and North of the Ohio River. During this period, Jefferson continued to serve as a mentor to Monroe, and, at Jefferson's prompting, he befriended another prominent Virginian, James Madison.[26] Monroe resigned from Congress in 1786 to focus on his legal career, and he became an attorney for the state. In 1787, Monroe won election to another term in the Virginia
Virginia
House of Delegates. Though he had become outspoken in his desire to reform the Articles, he was unable to attend the Philadelphia Convention due to his work obligations.[27] In 1788, Monroe became a delegate to the Virginia
Virginia
Ratifying Convention.[28] In Virginia, the struggle over the ratification of the proposed Constitution involved more than a simple clash between federalists and anti-federalists. Virginians held a full spectrum of opinions about the merits of the proposed change in national government. Washington and Madison were leading supporters; Patrick Henry and George Mason
George Mason
were leading opponents. Those who held the middle ground in the ideological struggle became the central figures. Led by Monroe and Edmund Pendleton, these "federalists who are for amendments," criticized the absence of a bill of rights and worried about surrendering taxation powers to the central government.[29] After Madison reversed himself and promised to pass a bill of rights, the Virginia
Virginia
convention ratified the constitution by a narrow vote, though Monroe himself voted against it. Virginia
Virginia
was tenth state to ratify the Constitution, and all thirteen states eventually ratified the document.[30] Senator[edit] Henry and other anti-federalists hoped to elect a Congress that would amend the Constitution to take away most of the powers it had been granted ("commit suicide on [its] own authority," as Madison put it). Henry recruited Monroe to run against Madison for a House seat in the First Congress, and he had the Virginia
Virginia
legislature draw a congressional district designed to elect Monroe. During the campaign, Madison and Monroe often traveled together, and the election did not destroy their friendship. Madison prevailed over Monroe, taking 1,308 votes compared to Monroe's 972 votes. Following his defeat, Monroe returned to his legal duties and developed his farm in Charlottesville. After the death of Senator William Grayson in 1790, Monroe was elected to serve the remainder of Grayson's term.[31] During the presidency of George Washington, U.S. politics became increasingly polarized between the supporters of Secretary of State Jefferson and the Federalists, led by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton. Monroe stood firmly with Jefferson in opposing Hamilton's strong central government and strong executive. The Democratic-Republican Party
Democratic-Republican Party
coalesced around Jefferson and Madison, and Monroe became one of the fledgling party's leaders in the Senate. He also helped organize opposition to John Adams
John Adams
in the 1792 election, though Adams defeated George Clinton to win re-election.[32] As the 1790s progressed, the French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars
came to dominate U.S. foreign policy, with British and French raids both threatening U.S. trade with Europe. Like most other Jeffersonians, Monroe supported the French Revolution, but Hamilton's followers tended to sympathize more with Britain. In 1794, hoping to find a way to avoid war with both countries, Washington appointed Monroe as his ambassador to France. At the same time, he appointed the anglophile Federalist John Jay
John Jay
as his Ambassador to the United Kingdom.[33] Ambassador to France[edit]

The earliest preserved portrait of James Monroe
James Monroe
as Minister Plenipotentiary to France in 1794

After arriving in France, Monroe addressed the National Convention, receiving a standing applause for his speech celebrating republicanism. He experienced several early diplomatic successes, including the protection of U.S. trade from French attacks. He also used his influence to win the release of Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
and Adrienne de La Fayette, the wife of the Marquis de Lafayette.[34] Months after Monroe arrived in France, the U.S. and Great Britain concluded the Jay Treaty, outraging both the French and Monroe—not fully informed about the treaty prior to its publication. Despite the undesirable effects of the Jay Treaty
Jay Treaty
on Franco-American relations, Monroe won French support for U.S. navigational rights on the Mississippi River—the mouth of which was controlled by Spain—and in 1795 the U.S. and Spain
Spain
signed Pinckney's Treaty. The treaty granted the U.S. limited rights to use the port of New Orleans.[35] Frustrated by Monroe's inability to convince the French of the benign nature of the Jay Treaty, Washington recalled Monroe in November 1796. He returned to the United States, where he wrote a 400-page defense of his tenure as ambassador, criticizing Washington's desire to pursue closer relations with Britain at the expense of relations with France.[36] Returning to his home in Charlottesville, he resumed his dual careers as a farmer and lawyer.[37] Jefferson and Madison urged Monroe to run for Congress, but Monroe chose to focus on state politics instead.[38] Governor of Virginia
Virginia
and diplomat[edit] Governor of Virginia[edit] On a party-line vote, the Virginia
Virginia
legislature elected Monroe as Governor of Virginia
Virginia
in 1799. He would serve as governor until 1802.[39] The constitution of Virginia
Virginia
endowed the governor with very few powers aside from commanding the militia when the Assembly called it into action. But Monroe used his stature to convince legislators to enhance state involvement in transportation and education and to increase training for the militia. Monroe also began to give State of the Commonwealth addresses to the legislature, in which he highlighted areas in which he believed the legislature should act. Monroe also led an effort to create the state's first penitentiary, and imprisonment replaced other, often harsher, punishments. In 1800, Monroe called out the state militia to suppress Gabriel's Rebellion, a slave rebellion originating on a plantation six miles from the capital of Richmond. Gabriel and 27 other enslaved people who participated were all hanged for treason.[40] Monroe thought that foreign and Federalist elements had created the Quasi War
Quasi War
of 1798–1800, and he strongly supported Thomas Jefferson's candidacy for president in 1800. Federalists were likewise suspicious of Monroe, some viewing him at best as a French dupe and at worst a traitor.[41] With the power to appoint election officials in Virginia, Monroe exercised his influence to help Jefferson win Virginia's presidential electors.[42] He also considered using the Virginia militia to force the outcome in favor of Jefferson.[43] Jefferson won the 1800 election, and he appointed Madison as his Secretary of State. As a member of Jefferson's party and the leader of the largest state in the country, Monroe emerged as one of Jefferson's two most likely successors, alongside Madison.[44] Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
and ambassador to Britain[edit] Shortly after the end of Monroe's gubernatorial tenure, President Jefferson sent Monroe back to France to assist Ambassador Robert R. Livingston in negotiating the Louisiana Purchase. In the 1800 Treaty of San Ildefonso, France had acquired the territory of Louisiana from Spain; at the time, many in the U.S. believed that France had also acquired West Florida
West Florida
in the same treaty. The American delegation originally sought to acquire West Florida
West Florida
and the city of New Orleans, which controlled the trade of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River. Determined to acquire New Orleans
New Orleans
even if it meant war with France, Jefferson also authorized Monroe to form an alliance with the British if the French refused to sell the city.[45] Meeting with François Barbé-Marbois, the French foreign minister, Monroe and Livingston agreed to purchase the entire territory of Louisiana for $15 million; the purchase became known as the Louisiana Purchase. In agreeing to the purchase, Monroe violated his instructions, which had only allowed $9 million for the purchase of New Orleans
New Orleans
and West Florida. The French did not acknowledge that West Florida remained in Spanish possession, and the United States
United States
would claim that France had sold West Florida
West Florida
to the United States
United States
for several years to come. Though he had not ordered the purchase of the entire territory, Jefferson strongly supported Monroe's actions, which ensured that the United States
United States
would continue to expand to the West. Overcoming doubts about whether the Constitution authorized the purchase of foreign territory, Jefferson won congressional approval for the Louisiana Purchase, and the acquisition doubled the size of the United States. Monroe would travel to Spain
Spain
in 1805 to try to win the cession of West Florida, but, with the support of France, Spain refused to consider relinquishing the territory.[46] After the resignation of Rufus King, Monroe was appointed as the ambassador to Great Britain in 1803. The greatest issue of contention between the United States
United States
and Britain was that of the impressment of U.S. sailors. Many U.S. merchant ships employed British seamen who had deserted or dodged conscription, and the British frequently impressed sailors on U.S. ships in hopes of quelling their manpower issues. However, many of the sailors they impressed had never been British subjects, and Monroe was tasked with persuading the British to stop their practice of impressment. Monroe found little success in this endeavor, partly due to Jefferson's alienation of the British minister to the United States, Anthony Merry. Rejecting Jefferson's offer to serve as the first governor of Louisiana Territory, Monroe continued to serve as ambassador to Britain until 1807.[47] In 1806 he negotiated the Monroe–Pinkney Treaty with Great Britain. It would have extended the Jay Treaty
Jay Treaty
of 1794 which had expired after ten years. Jefferson had fought the Jay Treaty
Jay Treaty
intensely in 1794–95 because he felt it would allow the British to subvert American republicanism. The treaty had produced ten years of peace and highly lucrative trade for American merchants, but Jefferson was still opposed. When Monroe and the British signed the new treaty in December 1806, Jefferson refused to submit it to the Senate for ratification. Although the treaty called for ten more years of trade between the United States
United States
and the British Empire and gave American merchants guarantees that would have been good for business, Jefferson was unhappy that it did not end the hated British practice of impressment, and refused to give up the potential weapon of commercial warfare against Britain. The president made no attempt to obtain another treaty, and as a result, the two nations drifted from peace toward the War of 1812.[48] Monroe was severely pained by the administration's repudiation of the treaty, and he fell out with Secretary of State James Madison.[49] 1808 election and the Quids[edit] On his return to Virginia
Virginia
in 1807, Monroe received a warm reception, and many urged him to run in the 1808 presidential election.[50] After Jefferson refused to submit the Monroe-Pinkney Treaty, Monroe had come to believe that Jefferson had snubbed the treaty out of the desire to avoid elevating Monroe above Madison in 1808.[51] Out of deference to Jefferson, Monroe agreed to avoid actively campaigning for the presidency, but he did not rule out accepting a draft effort.[52] The Democratic-Republican Party
Democratic-Republican Party
was increasingly factionalized, with "Old Republicans" or "Quids" denouncing the Jefferson administration for abandoning what they considered to be true republican principles. The Quids tried to enlist Monroe in their cause. The plan was to run Monroe for president in the 1808 election in cooperation with the Federalist Party, which had a strong base in New England. John Randolph of Roanoke led the Quid effort to stop Jefferson's choice of Madison. However, the regular Democratic-Republicans overcame the Quids in the nominating caucus, kept control of the party in Virginia, and protected Madison's base.[53] Monroe did not publicly criticize Jefferson or Madison during Madison's campaign against Federalist Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, but he also refused to support Madison.[54] Madison defeated Pinckney by a large margin, carrying all but one state outside of New England. Monroe won 3,400 votes in Virginia, but received little support elsewhere.[52] After the election Monroe quickly reconciled with Jefferson, but did not speak with Madison until 1810.[49] Returning to private life, he devoted his attentions to farming at his Charlottesville estate.[55] Secretary of State and Secretary of War[edit] Madison administration[edit] See also: Presidency of James Madison Monroe returned to the Virginia
Virginia
House of Burgesses and was elected to another term as governor in 1811, but served only four months. In April 1811, Madison appointed Monroe as Secretary of State in hopes of shoring up the support of the more radical factions of the Democratic-Republicans.[49] Madison also hoped that Monroe, an experienced diplomat with whom he had once been close friends, would improve upon the performance of the previous Secretary of State, Robert Smith. Madison assured Monroe that their differences regarding the Monroe-Pinkney Treaty had been a misunderstanding, and the two resumed their friendship.[56] On taking office, Monroe hoped to negotiate treaties with the British and French to end the attacks on American merchant ships. While the French agreed to reduce the attacks and release seized American ships, the British were less receptive to Monroe's demands.[57] Monroe had long worked for peace with the British, but he came to favor war with Britain, joining with "war hawks" such as Speaker of the House Henry Clay. With the support of Monroe and Clay, Madison asked Congress to declare war upon the British, and Congress complied on June 18, 1812, thus beginning the War of 1812.[58] The war went very badly, and the Madison administration quickly sought peace, but were rejected by the British.[59] The U.S. Navy did experience several successes after Monroe convinced Madison to allow the Navy's ships to set sail rather than remaining in port for the duration of the war.[60] After the resignation of Secretary of War William Eustis, Madison asked Monroe to serve in dual roles as Secretary of State and Secretary of War, but opposition from the Senate limited Monroe to serving as acting Secretary of War until Brigadier General John Armstrong won Senate confirmation.[61] Monroe and Armstrong clashed over war policy, and Armstrong blocked Monroe's hopes of being appointed to lead an invasion of Canada.[62] As the war dragged on, the British offered to begin negotiations in Ghent, and the United States
United States
sent a delegation led by John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
to conduct negotiations. Monroe allowed Adams leeway in setting terms, so long as he ended the hostilities and preserved American neutrality.[63] When the British burned the U.S. Capitol and the White House
White House
on August 24, 1814, Madison removed Armstrong as Secretary of War and turned to Monroe for help, appointing him Secretary of War on September 27.[64] Monroe resigned as Secretary of State on October 1, 1814, but no successor was ever appointed and thus from October 1814 to February 28, 1815, Monroe effectively held both Cabinet posts.[65] Now in command of the war effort, Monroe ordered General Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
to defend against a likely attack on New Orleans
New Orleans
by the British, and he asked the governors of nearby states to send their militias to reinforce Jackson. He also called on Congress to draft an army of 100,000 men, increase compensation to soldiers, and establish a new national bank to ensure adequate funding for the war effort.[66] Months Monroe took office as Secretary of War, the war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent. The treaty resulted in a return to the status quo ante bellum, and many outstanding issues between the United States and Britain remained. But Americans celebrated the end of the war as a great victory, partly due to the news of the treaty reaching the United States
United States
shortly after Jackson's victory in the Battle of New Orleans. With the end of the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
in 1815, the British also ended the practice of impressment. After the war, Congress authorized the creation a national bank in the form of the Second Bank of the United States.[67] Election of 1816[edit] Main article: United States
United States
presidential election, 1816 Monroe decided to seek the presidency in the 1816 election, and his war-time leadership had established him as Madison's heir apparent. Monroe had strong support from many in the party, but his candidacy was challenged at the 1816 Democratic-Republican congressional nominating caucus. Secretary of the Treasury William H. Crawford
William H. Crawford
had the support of numerous Southern and Western Congressmen, while Governor Daniel D. Tompkins
Daniel D. Tompkins
was backed by several Congressmen from New York. Crawford appealed especially to many Democratic-Republicans who were wary of Madison and Monroe's support for the establishment of the Second Bank of the United States.[68] Despite his substantial backing, Crawford decided to defer to Monroe on the belief that he could eventually run as Monroe's successor, and Monroe won his party's nomination. Tompkins won the party's vice presidential nomination. The moribund Federalists nominated Rufus King
Rufus King
as their presidential nominee, but the party offered little opposition following the conclusion of a popular war that they had opposed. Monroe received 183 of the 217 electoral votes, winning every state but Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Delaware.[69] Presidency[edit] Main article: Presidency of James Monroe Domestic affairs[edit] Democratic-Republican Party
Democratic-Republican Party
dominance[edit] Monroe largely ignored old party lines in making federal appointments, which reduced political tensions and augmented the sense of "oneness" that pervaded the United States. He made two long national tours to build national trust. At Boston, a newspaper hailed his 1817 visit as the beginning of an "Era of Good Feelings". Frequent stops on his tours included ceremonies of welcome and expressions of good-will. The Federalist Party
Federalist Party
continued to fade during his administration; it maintained its vitality and organizational integrity in Delaware and a few localities, but lacked influence in national politics. Lacking serious opposition, the Democratic-Republican Party's Congressional caucus stopped meeting, and for practical purposes the party stopped operating.[70] Administration and cabinet[edit]

The Monroe Cabinet

Office Name Term

President James Monroe 1817–1825

Vice President Daniel D. Tompkins 1817–1825

Secretary of State John Quincy Adams 1817–1825

Secretary of Treasury William H. Crawford 1817–1825

Secretary of War John C. Calhoun 1817–1825

Attorney General Richard Rush 1817

William Wirt 1817–1825

Secretary of the Navy Benjamin Crowninshield 1817–1818

Smith Thompson 1819–1823

Samuel L. Southard 1823–1825

Monroe appointed a geographically-balanced cabinet, through which he led the executive branch.[71] At Monroe's request, Crawford continued to serve as Treasury Secretary. Monroe also chose to retain Benjamin Crowninshield of Massachusetts as Secretary of the Navy and Richard Rush of Pennsylvania as Attorney General. Recognizing Northern discontent at the continuation of the Virginia
Virginia
dynasty, Monroe chose John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
of Massachusetts as Secretary of State, making Adams the early favorite to eventually succeed Monroe. An experienced diplomat, Adams had abandoned the Federalist Party
Federalist Party
in 1807 in support of Thomas Jefferson's foreign policy, and Monroe hoped that the appointment would encourage the defection of more Federalists. After General Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
declined appointment as Secretary of War, Monroe turned to South Carolina Congressman John C. Calhoun, leaving the Cabinet without a prominent Westerner. In late 1817, Rush was appointed as the ambassador to Britain, and William Wirt succeeded him as Attorney General.[72] With the exception of the Crowninshield, Monroe's cabinet appointees remained in place for the remainder of his presidency.[73] Missouri
Missouri
Compromise[edit] Main article: Missouri
Missouri
Compromise In February 1819, a bill to enable the people of the Missouri Territory to draft a constitution and form a government preliminary to admission into the Union came before the House of Representatives. During these proceedings, Congressman James Tallmadge, Jr.
James Tallmadge, Jr.
of New York "tossed a bombshell into the Era of Good Feelings"[74] by offering the Tallmadge Amendment, which prohibited the further introduction of slaves into Missouri
Missouri
and required that all future children of slave parents therein should be free at the age of twenty-five years. After three days of rancorous and sometimes bitter debate, the bill, with Tallmadge’s amendments, passed. The measure then went to the Senate, where both amendments were rejected.[75] A House–Senate conference committee was unable to resolve the disagreements on the bill, and so the entire measure failed.[76] The ensuing debates pitted the northern "restrictionists" (antislavery legislators who wished to bar slavery from the Louisiana territories) against southern "anti-restrictionists" (proslavery legislators who rejected any interference by Congress inhibiting slavery expansion).[77] During the following session, the House passed a similar bill with an amendment, introduced on January 26, 1820, by John W. Taylor of New York, allowing Missouri
Missouri
into the union as a slave state. The question had been complicated by the admission in December of Alabama, a slave state, making the number of slave and free states equal. In addition, there was a bill in passage through the House (January 3, 1820) to admit Maine
Maine
as a free state.[78] The Senate decided to connect the two measures. It passed a bill for the admission of Maine
Maine
with an amendment enabling the people of Missouri
Missouri
to form a state constitution. Before the bill was returned to the House, a second amendment was adopted on the motion of Jesse B. Thomas
Jesse B. Thomas
of Illinois, excluding slavery from the Louisiana Territory
Louisiana Territory
north of the parallel 36°30′ north (the southern boundary of Missouri), except within the limits of the proposed state of Missouri. The House then approved the bill as amended by the Senate.[79] The legislation passed, which became known as the Missouri
Missouri
Compromise, won the support of Monroe and both houses of Congress, and compromise temporarily settled the issue of slavery in the territories.[80] Internal improvements[edit]

BEP engraved portrait of Monroe as President

As the United States
United States
continued to grow, many Americans advocated a system of internal improvements to help the country develop. Federal assistance for such projects evolved slowly and haphazardly—the product of contentious congressional factions and an executive branch generally concerned with avoiding unconstitutional federal intrusions into state affairs.[81] Monroe believed that the young nation needed an improved infrastructure, including a transportation network to grow and thrive economically. However, he did not think that the Constitution authorized Congress to build, maintain, and operate a national transportation system.[82] Monroe repeatedly urged Congress to pass an amendment allowing Congress the power to finance internal improvements, but Congress never acted on his proposal, in part because many congressmen believed that the Constitution did in fact authorize the federal financing of internal improvements.[83] In 1822, Congress passed a bill authorizing the collection of tolls on the Cumberland Road, with the tolls being used to finance repairs on the road. Adhering to stated position regarding internal improvements, Monroe vetoed the bill.[83] In an elaborate essay, Monroe set forth his constitutional views on the subject. Congress might appropriate money, he admitted, but it might not undertake the actual construction of national works nor assume jurisdiction over them.[84] In 1824, the Supreme Court ruled in Gibbons v. Ogden
Gibbons v. Ogden
that the Constitution's Commerce Clause
Commerce Clause
gave the federal government the authority to . Shortly thereafter, Congress passed two important laws that, together, marked the beginning of the federal government's continuous involvement in civil works. The General Survey Act authorized the president to have surveys made of routes for roads and canals "of national importance, in a commercial or military point of view, or necessary for the transportation of public mail." The president assigned responsibility for the surveys to the Army Corps of Engineers. The second act, passed a month later, appropriated $75,000 to improve navigation on the Ohio and Mississippi
Mississippi
rivers by removing sandbars, snags, and other obstacles. Subsequently, the act was amended to include other rivers such as the Missouri. This work, too, was given to the Corps of Engineers—the only formally trained body of engineers in the new republic and, as part of the nation's small army, available to serve the wishes of Congress and the executive branch.[81] Panic of 1819[edit] Two years into his presidency, Monroe faced an economic crisis known as the Panic of 1819, the first major depression to hit the country since the ratification of the Constitution in 1788.[85] The panic stemmed from declining imports and exports, and sagging agricultural prices[82] as global markets readjusted to peacetime production and commerce in the aftermath of the War of 1812
War of 1812
and the Napoleonic Wars.[86][87] The severity of the economic downturn in the U.S. was compounded by excessive speculation in public lands,[88][89] fueled by the unrestrained issue of paper money from banks and business concerns.[90][91] Monroe lacked the power to intervene directly in the economy, as banks were largely regulated by the states, and he could do little to stem the economic crisis.[92] Before the onset of the Panic of 1819, some business leaders had called on Congress to increase tariff rates to address the negative balance of trade and help struggling industries.[93] As the panic spread, Monroe declined to call a special session of Congress to address the economy. When Congress finally reconvened in December 1819, Monroe requested an increase in the tariff but declined to recommend specific rates.[94] Congress would not raise tariff rates until the passage of the Tariff of 1824.[95] The panic resulted in high unemployment and an increase in bankruptcies and foreclosures,[82][96] and provoked popular resentment against banking and business enterprises.[97][98] Foreign affairs[edit] Treaties with Britain and Russia[edit] Monroe pursued warmer relations with Britain in the aftermath of the War of 1812.[99] In 1817 the United States
United States
and Britain signed the Rush–Bagot Treaty, which regulated naval armaments on the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain
Lake Champlain
and demilitarized the border between the U.S. and British North America.[100] The Treaty of 1818, also with Great Britain, was concluded October 20, 1818, and fixed the present Canada– United States
United States
border from Minnesota
Minnesota
to the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
at the 49th parallel. The accords also established a joint U.S.–British occupation of Oregon Country
Oregon Country
for the next ten years.[101] Though they did not solve every outstanding issue between the U.S. and Britain, the treaties allowed for greater trade between the United States
United States
and the British Empire and helped avoid an expensive naval arms race in the Great Lakes.[99] Late in Monroe's second term, the U.S. concluded the Russo-American Treaty of 1824
Russo-American Treaty of 1824
with the Russian Empire, setting the southern limit of Russian sovereignty on the Pacific coast of North America at the 54°40′ parallel (the present southern tip of the Alaska Panhandle).[102] Acquisition of Florida[edit] Main articles: Adams–Onís Treaty
Adams–Onís Treaty
and Seminole
Seminole
Wars Spain
Spain
had long rejected repeated American efforts to purchase Florida. But by 1818, Spain
Spain
was facing a troubling colonial situation in which the cession of Florida made sense. Spain
Spain
had been exhausted by the Peninsular War
Peninsular War
in Europe and needed to rebuild its credibility and presence in its colonies. Revolutionaries in Central America
Central America
and South America were beginning to demand independence. Spain
Spain
was unwilling to invest further in Florida, encroached on by American settlers, and it worried about the border between New Spain
Spain
and the United States. With only a minor military presence in Florida, Spain
Spain
was not able to restrain the Seminole
Seminole
warriors who routinely crossed the border and raided American villages and farms, as well as protected southern slave refugees from slave owners and traders of the southern United States.[103]

Map showing the results of the Adams-Onís Treaty
Adams-Onís Treaty
of 1819

In response to these Seminole
Seminole
attacks, Monroe ordered a military expedition to cross into Spanish Florida
Spanish Florida
and attack the Seminoles. The expedition, led by Andrew Jackson, defeated numerous Seminoles but also seized the Spanish territorial capital of Pensacola. With the capture of Pensacola, Jackson established de facto American control of the entire territory. While Monroe supported Jackson's actions, many in Congress harshly criticized what they saw as an undeclared war. With the support of Secretary of State Adams, Monroe defended Jackson against domestic and international criticism, and the United States began negotiations with Spain.[104] Spain
Spain
faced revolt in all her American colonies and could neither govern nor defend Florida. On February 22, 1819, Spain
Spain
and the United States signed the Adams–Onís Treaty, which ceded the Floridas in return for the assumption by the United States
United States
of claims of American citizens against Spain
Spain
to an amount not exceeding $5,000,000. The treaty also contained a definition of the boundary between Spanish and American possessions on the North American continent. Beginning at the mouth of the Sabine River the line ran along that river to the 32nd parallel, then due north to the Red River, which it followed to the 100th meridian, due north to the Arkansas River, and along that river to its source, then north to the 42nd parallel, which it followed to the Pacific Ocean. As the United States
United States
renounced all claims to the west and south of this boundary (Texas), so Spain
Spain
surrendered any title she had to the Northwest (Oregon Country).[105] Monroe Doctrine[edit] Main article: Monroe Doctrine Monroe was deeply sympathetic to the Latin American revolutionary movements against Spain. He was determined that the United States should never repeat the policies of the Washington administration during the French Revolution, when the nation had failed to demonstrate its sympathy for the aspirations of peoples seeking to establish republican governments. He did not envisage military involvement but only the provision of moral support, as he believed that a direct American intervention would provoke other European powers into assisting Spain.[106] However, Monroe initially refused to recognize the Latin American governments due to ongoing negotiations with Spain
Spain
over Florida.[107] In March 1822, Monroe officially recognized the countries of Argentina, Peru, Colombia, Chile, and Mexico, all of which had won independence from Spain.[101] Secretary of State Adams, under Monroe's supervision, wrote the instructions for the ministers to these new countries. They declared that the policy of the United States
United States
was to uphold republican institutions and to seek treaties of commerce on a most-favored-nation basis. The United States
United States
would support inter-American congresses dedicated to the development of economic and political institutions fundamentally differing from those prevailing in Europe. Monroe took pride as the United States
United States
was the first nation to extend recognition and to set an example to the rest of the world for its support of the "cause of liberty and humanity".[108] For their part, the British also had a strong interest in ensuring the demise of Spanish colonialism, with all the trade restrictions mercantilism imposed. In October 1823, Richard Rush, the American minister in London, advised that Foreign Secretary George Canning
George Canning
was proposing that the U.S. and Britain issue a joint declaration to deter any other power from intervening in Central and South America. Adams, however, vigorously opposed cooperation with Great Britain, contending that a statement of bilateral nature could limit United States expansion in the future. He also argued that the British were not committed to recognizing the Latin American republics and must have had imperial motivations themselves.[109] Two months later, the bilateral statement proposed by the British became a unilateral declaration by the United States. While Monroe thought that Spain
Spain
was unlikely to re-establish its colonial empire on its own, he feared that France or the Holy Alliance
Holy Alliance
might seek to establish control over the former Spanish possessions.[110] On December 2, 1823, in his annual message to Congress, Monroe articulated what became known as the Monroe Doctrine. He first reiterated the traditional U.S. policy of neutrality with regard to European wars and conflicts. He then declared that the United States would not accept the recolonization of any country by its former European master, though he also avowed non-interference with existing European colonies in the Americas.[111] Finally, he stated that European countries should no longer consider the Western Hemisphere open to new colonization, a jab aimed primarily at Russia, which was attempting to expand its colony on the northern Pacific Coast.[101][108] Election of 1820[edit] Main article: United States
United States
presidential election, 1820 The collapse of the Federalists left Monroe with no organized opposition at the end of his first term, and he ran for reelection unopposed,[112] the only president other than Washington to do so. A single elector from New Hampshire, William Plumer, cast a vote for John Quincy Adams, preventing a unanimous vote in the Electoral College.[112] He did so because he thought Monroe was incompetent. Later in the century, the story arose that he had cast his dissenting vote so that only George Washington
George Washington
would have the honor of unanimous election. Plumer never mentioned Washington in his speech explaining his vote to the other New Hampshire electors.[113] States admitted to the Union[edit] Five new states were admitted to the Union while Monroe was in office:

Mississippi – December 10, 1817[114] Illinois – December 3, 1818[115] Alabama – December 14, 1819[116] Maine – March 15, 1820[117][a] Missouri – August 10, 1821[119]

Post-presidency[edit]

Monroe once owned a farm at the location of the University of Virginia in Charlottesville

When his presidency ended on March 4, 1825, James Monroe
James Monroe
resided at Monroe Hill, what is now included in the grounds of the University of Virginia. He served on the university's Board of Visitors under Jefferson and under the second rector James Madison, both former presidents, almost until his death. He and his wife lived in Oak Hill, Virginia, until Elizabeth's death on September 23, 1830. In August 1825, the Monroes had received the Marquis de Lafayette
Marquis de Lafayette
and President John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
as guests there.[120] Monroe incurred many unliquidated debts during his years of public life. He sold off his Highland Plantation (now called Ash Lawn-Highland). It is now owned by his alma mater, the College of William and Mary, which has opened it to the public as a historic site. Throughout his life, he was financially insolvent, and this was exacerbated by his wife's poor health.[121] Monroe was elected as a delegate to the Virginia
Virginia
Constitutional Convention of 1829-1830. He was one of four delegates elected from the senatorial district made up of his home district of Loudoun and Fairfax County.[122] In October 1829, he was elected by the Convention to serve as the presiding officer, until his failing health required him to withdraw on December 8, after which Philip Pendleton Barbour
Philip Pendleton Barbour
of Orange County was elected presiding officer.

Monroe's grave at Hollywood Cemetery. John Tyler's grave is visible in the background.

Upon Elizabeth's death in 1830, Monroe moved to New York City
New York City
to live with his daughter Maria Hester Monroe Gouverneur, who had married Samuel L. Gouverneur. Monroe's health began to slowly fail by the end of the 1820s.[123] On July 4, 1831, Monroe died from heart failure and tuberculosis, thus becoming the third president to have died on Independence Day. His death came 55 years after the United States Declaration of Independence was proclaimed and 5 years after the death of John Adams
John Adams
and Thomas Jefferson. Monroe was originally buried in New York at the Gouverneur family's vault in the New York City
New York City
Marble Cemetery. Twenty-seven years later, in 1858, his body was re-interred at the President's Circle in Hollywood Cemetery. The James Monroe
James Monroe
Tomb is a U.S. National Historic Landmark.[citation needed] Religious beliefs[edit] "When it comes to Monroe's thoughts on religion," historian Bliss Isely notes, "less is known than that of any other President." No letters survive in which he discussed his religious beliefs. Nor did his friends, family or associates comment on his beliefs. Letters that do survive, such as ones written after the death of his son, contain no discussion of religion.[124] Monroe was raised in a family that belonged to the Church of England when it was the state church in Virginia
Virginia
before the Revolution. As an adult, he attended Episcopal churches. Some historians see "deistic tendencies" in his few references to an impersonal God.[125] Unlike Jefferson, Monroe was rarely attacked as an atheist or infidel. In 1832 James Renwick Willson, a Reformed Presbyterian minister in Albany, New York, criticized Monroe for having "lived and died like a second-rate Athenian philosopher."[126] Slavery[edit] Monroe owned dozens of slaves. According to William Seale, he took several slaves with him to Washington to serve at the White House
White House
from 1817 to 1825. This was typical of other slaveholders, as Congress did not provide for domestic staff of the presidents at that time.[127] As president of Virginia's constitutional convention in the fall of 1829, Monroe reiterated his belief that slavery was a blight which, even as a British colony, Virginia
Virginia
had attempted to eradicate. "What was the origin of our slave population?" he rhetorically asked. "The evil commenced when we were in our Colonial state, but acts were passed by our Colonial Legislature, prohibiting the importation, of more slaves, into the Colony. These were rejected by the Crown." To the dismay of states' rights proponents, he was willing to accept the federal government's financial assistance to emancipate and transport freed slaves to other countries. At the convention, Monroe made his final public statement on slavery, proposing that Virginia
Virginia
emancipate and deport its bondsmen with "the aid of the Union."[128] Monroe was part of the American Colonization Society, which supported the establishment of colonies outside of the United States
United States
for free African-Americans. The society helped send several thousand freed slaves to the new colony of Liberia
Liberia
in Africa from 1820 to 1840. Slave owners like Monroe and Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
wanted to prevent free blacks from encouraging slaves in the South to rebel. With about $100,000 in federal grant money, the organization also bought land for the freedmen in what is today Liberia.[129] The capital of Liberia
Liberia
was named Monrovia
Monrovia
after President Monroe.[130] When Monroe was Governor of Virginia
Virginia
in 1800, hundreds of slaves from Virginia
Virginia
planned to kidnap him, take Richmond, and negotiate for their freedom. Due to a storm on August 30, they were unable to attack. What became known as Gabriel's slave conspiracy became public knowledge.[131] In response, Governor Monroe called out the militia; the slave patrols soon captured some slaves accused of involvement. Sidbury says some trials had a few measures to prevent abuses, such as an appointed attorney, but they were "hardly 'fair'". Slave codes prevented slaves from being treated like whites, and they were given quick trials without a jury.[132] Monroe influenced the Executive Council to pardon and sell some slaves instead of hanging them.[133] Historians say the Virginia
Virginia
courts executed between 26 and 35 slaves. None of the executed slaves had killed any whites because the uprising had been foiled before it began.[134] Legacy and memory[edit] See also: List of memorials to James Monroe

Since its 1824 renaming in his honor, the capital city of the West African country of Liberia
Liberia
has been named Monrovia. It is the only non-American capital city named after a U.S. President. On December 12, 1954, the United States
United States
Postal Service released a 5¢ Liberty Issue
Liberty Issue
postage stamp honoring Monroe. Monroe is the namesake of seventeen Monroe counties.[135] The cities of Monroe, Maine
Maine
incorporated in 1818, Monroe, Michigan
Monroe, Michigan
and Monroe, Georgia
Monroe, Georgia
incorporated in 1821, and Monroe, Connecticut incorporated in 1823, are named for him. The Township of Monroe, in central New Jersey, founded in 1838, bears his name as well. Fort Monroe
Fort Monroe
is named for him. Monroe was the last U.S. President to wear a powdered wig tied in a queue, a tricorne hat and knee-breeches according to the style of the late 18th century.[136][137] That earned him the nickname "The Last Cocked Hat".[138] Monroe is the last president not photographed.[139] Monroe received the honorary degree of LL.D. from Dartmouth College (1817), Harvard University
Harvard University
(1817), and Princeton University (1822).[140]

$100 silver certificate depicting Monroe 

Presidential Dollar of James Monroe 

First Monroe Postage stamp, Issue of 1904 

Statue of Monroe at Ash Lawn-Highland 

Monroe Hall at the University of Virginia; Monroe once owned the land on which the university sits. 

See also[edit]

Book: Presidents of the United States
United States
(1789–1860)

Biography portal United States
United States
portal

List of Presidents of the United States List of Presidents of the United States, sortable by previous experience List of United States
United States
political appointments that crossed party lines History of Virginia
Virginia
on stamps

Notes[edit]

^ Maine
Maine
is one of 3 states that were set off from already existing states (Kentucky and West Virginia
Virginia
are the others). The Massachusetts General Court passed enabling legislation on June 19, 1819, separating the "District of Maine" from the rest of the State (an action approved by the voters in Maine
Maine
on July 19, 1819, by 17,001 to 7,132); then, on February 25, 1820, passed a follow-up measure officially accepting the fact of Maine's imminent statehood.[118]

References[edit]

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of America". listoy.com. Archived from the original on 2013-10-17.  ^ "Presidents of the United States
United States
(POTUS)". Ipl.org. Archived from the original on December 6, 2011. Retrieved December 5, 2011.  ^ "President Leads Predecessors in Number of Degrees". Washington Post. Washington, DC. July 9, 1905. p. 2 – via Newspapers.com. (Subscription required (help)). 

Primary sources[edit]

Preston, Daniel, ed. The Papers of James Monroe: Selected Correspondence and Papers (6 vol, 2006 to 2017), the major scholarly edition; in progress, with coverage to 1814. Monroe, James. The Political Writings of James Monroe. ed. by James P. Lucier, (2002). 863 pp. Writings of James Monroe, edited by Stanislaus Murray Hamilton, ed., 7 vols. (1898–1903) online edition at Google Books Richardson, James D. ed. A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents (1897), reprints his major messages and reports.

Bibliography[edit]

Ammon, Harry (1971). James Monroe: The Quest for National Identity. McGraw-Hill.  706 pp. standard scholarly biography Ammon, Harry. "James Monroe" in Henry F. Graff ed., The Presidents: A Reference History (3rd ed. 2002) online Bemis, Samuel Flagg (1949). John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
and the Foundations of American Foreign Policy. A. A. Knopf.  Cresson, William P. James Monroe
James Monroe
(1946). 577 pp. good scholarly biography Cunningham, Noble E., Jr. The Presidency of James Monroe. 1996. 246 pp. standard scholarly survey Dangerfield, George. Era of Good Feelings
Era of Good Feelings
(1953) excerpt and text search Dangerfield, George (1965). The Awakening of American Nationalism: 1815–1828. Harper and Rowe. ISBN 0881338230.  Elkins, Stanley M. and Eric McKitrick. The Age of Federalism (1995). most advanced analysis of the politics of the 1790s. online edition Heidler, David S. "The Politics of National Aggression: Congress and the First Seminole
Seminole
War," Journal of the Early Republic 1993 13(4): 501–530. in JSTOR Finkelman, Paul, ed. Encyclopedia of the New American Nation, 1754–1829 (2005), 1600 pp. Hart, Gary (2005). James Monroe. Henry Holy and Co. ISBN 978-0805069600.  superficial, short, popular biography Haworth, Peter Daniel. " James Madison
James Madison
and James Monroe
James Monroe
Historiography: A Tale of Two Divergent Bodies of Scholarship." in A Companion to James Madison
James Madison
and James Monroe
James Monroe
(2013): 521-539. Howe, Daniel Walker (2007). What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815–1848. Oxford Univ. Press.  Pulitzer Prize; a sweeping interpretation of the era Holmes, David L. The Faiths of the Founding Fathers, May 2006, online version Johnson, Allen (1915). Union and Democracy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.  Kranish, Michael. "At Capitol, slavery's story turns full circle", The Boston Globe, Boston, December 28, 2008. Leibiger, Stuart, ed. A Companion to James Madison
James Madison
and James Monroe (2012) excerpt; emphasis on historiography May, Ernest R. The Making of the Monroe Doctrine
Monroe Doctrine
(1975), argues it was issued to influence the outcome of the presidential election of 1824. Perkins, Bradford. Castlereagh and Adams: England and the United States, 1812–1823 (1964) Perkins, Dexter. The Monroe Doctrine, 1823–1826 (1927), the standard monograph about the origins of the doctrine. (in Italian) Nico Perrone, Progetto di un impero. 1823. L'annuncio dell'egemonia americana infiamma la borsa (Project of an Empire. 1823. The Announcement of American Hegemony Inflames the Stock Exchange), Naples, La Città del Sole, 2013 ISBN 978-88-8292-310-5 Powell, Walter & Steinberg, Richard. The nonprofit sector: a research handbook, Yale, 2006, p. 40. Pulliam, David Loyd (1901). The Constitutional Conventions of Virginia from the foundation of the Commonwealth to the present time. John T. West, Richmond. ASIN 1287920594. ISBN 978-1-2879-2059-5. CS1 maint: ASIN uses ISBN (link) Renehan Edward J., Jr. The Monroe Doctrine: The Cornerstone of American Foreign Policy (2007) Scherr, Arthur. " James Monroe
James Monroe
and John Adams: An Unlikely 'Friendship'". The Historian 67#3 (2005) pp 405+. online edition Skeen, Carl Edward. 1816: America Rising (1993) popular history Scherr, Arthur. " James Monroe
James Monroe
on the Presidency and 'Foreign Influence;: from the Virginia
Virginia
Ratifying Convention (1788) to Jefferson's Election (1801)." Mid-America 2002 84(1–3): 145–206. ISSN 0026-2927. Scherr, Arthur. "Governor James Monroe
James Monroe
and the Southampton Slave Resistance of 1799." Historian 1999 61(3): 557–578. ISSN 0018-2370 Fulltext online in SwetsWise and Ebsco. Styron, Arthur. The Last of the Cocked Hats: James Monroe
James Monroe
and the Virginia
Virginia
Dynasty (1945). 480 pp. thorough, scholarly treatment of the man and his times. Unger, Harlow G. (2009). The Last Founding Father: James Monroe
James Monroe
and a Nation's Call to Greatness. Da Capo Press.  a new biography. Weeks, William Earl (1992). John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
and American Global Empire. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press.  White, Leonard D. The Jeffersonians: A Study in Administrative History, 1801–1829 (1951), explains the operation and organization of federal administration Whitaker, Arthur P. The United States
United States
and the Independence of Latin America (1941) White, Leonard D. The Jeffersonians: A Study in Administrative History, 1801–1829 (1951), explains the operation and organization of federal administration Wilmerding, Jr., Lucius, James Monroe: Public Claimant (1960) A study regarding Monroe's attempts to get reimbursement for personal expenses and losses from his years in public service after his presidency ended. Wilentz, Sean (Fall 2004). "Jeffersonian Democracy and the Origins of Political Antislavery in the United States: The Missouri
Missouri
Crisis Revisited". The Journal of the Historical Society. IV (3).  Wood, Gordon S. Empire of Liberty: A history of the Early Republic, 1789–1815 (2009)

External links[edit]

Find more aboutJames Monroeat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity Data from Wikidata

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White House
biography

United States
United States
Congress. " James Monroe
James Monroe
(id: m000858)". Biographical Directory of the United States
United States
Congress.  James Monroe: A Resource Guide at the Library of Congress American President: James Monroe
James Monroe
(1758–1831) at the Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia James Monroe
James Monroe
Papers at the University of Mary Washington A Guide to the Papers of James Monroe
James Monroe
1778–1831 at the University of Virginia
Virginia
Library Monroe Doctrine; December 2, 1823 at the Avalon Project Elections for candidate Monroe, James[permanent dead link] from "A New Nation Votes" at Tufts University Ash Lawn-Highland, home of President James Monroe The James Monroe
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Memorial Foundation

The James Monroe
James Monroe
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James Monroe
James Monroe
Museum and Memorial Library "Life Portrait of James Monroe", from C-SPAN's American Presidents: Life Portraits, April 12, 1999 Works by James Monroe
James Monroe
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about James Monroe
James Monroe
at Internet Archive Works by James Monroe
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LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) James Monroe
James Monroe
Personal Manuscripts

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James Monroe

5th President of the United States
President of the United States
(1817–1825) 5th U.S. Secretary of State (1811–1817) United States Secretary of War
United States Secretary of War
(1814–1815) Governor of Virginia
Virginia
(1799–1802, 1811) United States
United States
Minister to the United Kingdom (1803–1808) United States
United States
Minister to France (1794–1796) United States
United States
Senator from Virginia
Virginia
(1790–1794) Delegate to the Congress of the Confederation
Congress of the Confederation
from Virginia (1783–1786)

Founding events

Virginia
Virginia
Ratifying Convention Founding Fathers

Presidency

First inauguration Second inauguration Florida Treaty Treaty of 1818 Panic of 1819 Era of Good Feelings Missouri
Missouri
Compromise Seminole
Seminole
Wars Monroe Doctrine Tariff of 1824 State of the Union Address, 1824 Cabinet Federal judiciary appointments

Other noted accomplisments

Negotiated the Louisiana Purchase Monroe–Pinkney Treaty War of 1812

Life

Early life and career Birthplace and boyhood home Revolutionary War service

Battle of Trenton

Monroe Hill
Monroe Hill
home and office James Monroe
James Monroe
Law Office, Museum, and Memorial Library Ash Lawn–Highland Oak Hill James Monroe
James Monroe
Tomb

Elections

U.S. Senate election, 1790 1792 Governor of Virginia
Virginia
election, 1799 U.S. presidential election, 1808 1816 1820

Legacy and popular culture

Monrovia, capital of Liberia List of places named for James Monroe Monroe, Michigan Monroe, Georgia Monroe County, Kentucky Monroe County, New York Monroe Township, New Jersey Monroe Hill
Monroe Hill
(2015 film) U.S. postage stamps Monroe Doctrine
Monroe Doctrine
Centennial half dollar

Related

Virginia
Virginia
dynasty Monroe on slavery

American Colonization Society

Family

Elizabeth Kortright (wife) George Hay (son-in-law) Samuel L. Gouverneur (son-in-law) Spence Monroe (father) Elizabeth Jones (mother)

← James Madison John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams

Commons Wikibooks Wikiquote Wikisource texts US Presidency Portal

Offices and distinctions

U.S. Senate

Preceded by John Walker United States
United States
Senator (Class 1) from Virginia 1790–1794 Served alongside: Richard Lee, John Taylor Succeeded by Stevens T. Mason

Honorary titles

Preceded by Rufus King Baby of the Senate 1790–1791 Succeeded by John Rutherfurd

Diplomatic posts

Preceded by Gouverneur Morris United States
United States
Minister to France 1794–1796 Succeeded by Charles Pinckney

Preceded by Rufus King United States
United States
Minister to the United Kingdom 1803–1807 Succeeded by William Pinkney

Party political offices

Preceded by James Wood Democratic-Republican nominee for Governor of Virginia 1799 Succeeded by William H. Cabell

Preceded by John Tyler Democratic-Republican nominee for Governor of Virginia 1811 Succeeded by James Barbour

Preceded by James Madison Democratic-Republican nominee for President of the United States 1816, 1820 Succeeded by John Quincy Adams Henry Clay William H. Crawford Andrew Jackson¹

Political offices

Preceded by James Wood Governor of Virginia 1799–1802 Succeeded by John Page

Preceded by George Smith Acting Governor of Virginia 1811 Succeeded by George Smith

Preceded by Robert Smith United States
United States
Secretary of State 1811–1817 Succeeded by John Quincy Adams

Preceded by John Armstrong Jr. United States
United States
Secretary of War 1814–1815 Succeeded by William H. Crawford

Preceded by James Madison 5th President of the United States 1817–1825 Succeeded by John Quincy Adams

Notes and references

1. The Democratic-Republican Party
Democratic-Republican Party
split in the 1824 election, fielding four separate candidates.

Articles related to James Monroe

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Presidents of the United States
United States
(list)

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George Washington
(1789–1797) John Adams
John Adams
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Thomas Jefferson
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John Quincy Adams
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Andrew Jackson
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Martin Van Buren
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Zachary Taylor
(1849–1850) Millard Fillmore
Millard Fillmore
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Abraham Lincoln
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Richard Nixon
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Gerald Ford
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Jimmy Carter
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Ronald Reagan
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United States
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Secretaries of War and the Army

Department of War (1789–1947)

Secretaries of War

B. Lincoln Knox Pickering McHenry Dexter Dearborn Eustis Armstrong Monroe W. Crawford Calhoun Barbour P. Porter Eaton Cass Poinsett Bell Spencer J. Porter Wilkins Marcy G. Crawford Conrad J. Davis Floyd Holt S. Cameron Stanton Schofield Rawlins Belknap A. Taft J. Cameron McCrary Ramsey R. Lincoln Endicott Proctor Elkins Lamont Alger Root W. Taft Wright Dickinson Stimson Garrison Baker Weeks D. Davis Good Hurley Dern Woodring Stimson Patterson Royall

Assistant Secretaries of War

Scott Watson Tucker Wolcott Dana Eckert Grant Doe Meiklejohn Sanger Oliver Breckinridge Ingraham Crowell Williams Wainwright D. Davis MacNider Robbins Hurley Payne Woodring L. Johnson Patterson McCloy Petersen

Under Secretaries of War

Patterson Royall Draper

Department of the Army (1947–present)

Secretaries of the Army

Royall Gray Pace Stevens Brucker Stahr Vance Ailes Resor Froehlke Callaway Hoffmann C. Alexander Marsh Stone West Caldera White Harvey Geren McHugh Fanning Esper

Under Secretaries of the Army

Draper Gray Voorhees A. Alexander Bendetsen E. Johnson Slezak Finucane Milton Ailes Ignatius Resor McGiffert Beal BeLieu Staudt Augustine LaBerge Ambrose Stone Shannon Reeder Walker Rostker Dahlberg Brownlee Geren Ford Westphal Carson Murphy McCarthy

v t e

United States
United States
Secretaries of State

Secretary of Foreign Affairs 1781–89

R. Livingston Jay

Secretary of State 1789–present

Jefferson Randolph Pickering J. Marshall Madison Smith Monroe Adams Clay Van Buren E. Livingston McLane Forsyth Webster Upshur Calhoun Buchanan Clayton Webster Everett Marcy Cass Black Seward Washburne Fish Evarts Blaine Frelinghuysen Bayard Blaine Foster Gresham Olney Sherman Day Hay Root Bacon Knox Bryan Lansing Colby Hughes Kellogg Stimson Hull Stettinius Byrnes G. Marshall Acheson Dulles Herter Rusk Rogers Kissinger Vance Muskie Haig Shultz Baker Eagleburger Christopher Albright Powell Rice (tenure) Clinton (tenure) Kerry (tenure) Tillerson

v t e

United States
United States
Senators from Virginia

Class 1

Grayson Walker Monroe S. Mason Taylor Venable Giles Moore Brent J. Barbour Randolph Tyler Rives Pennybacker J. Mason Willey Bowden Lewis Withers Mahone Daniel Swanson Byrd Sr. Byrd Jr. Trible Robb Allen Webb Kaine

Class 2

Lee Taylor H. Tazewell Nicholas Moore Giles A. Mason Eppes Pleasants Taylor L. Tazewell Rives Leigh Parker Roane Archer Hunter Carlile Johnston Riddleberger J. S. Barbour Hunton Martin Glass Burch Robertson Spong Scott J. Warner M. Warner

v t e

Governors of Virginia

Colony of Virginia

Wingfield Ratcliffe Scrivener Smith Percy Gates De La Warr Dale Yeardley Argall Wyatt West Pott Harvey West Berkeley Bennett Digges Mathews Colepeper Howard of Effingham Andros Nicholson Nott Jenings Hunter Orkney (absentee) Spotswood Drysdale "King" Carter Gooch Albemarle (absentee) Gooch Lee Burwell (acting) Dinwiddie Loudoun Fauquier Amherst (absentee) Fauquier Botetourt W. Nelson Dunmore

Commonwealth of Virginia

Henry Jefferson Fleming T. Nelson B. Harrison Henry E. Randolph B. Randolph H. Lee Brooke Wood Monroe Page Cabell Tyler Sr. G. Smith Monroe G. Smith P. Randolph Barbour Nicholas Preston T. Randolph Pleasants Tyler Jr. Giles J. Floyd Tazewell Robertson Campbell Gilmer Patton Rutherfoord Gregory McDowell W. "EB" Smith J. B. Floyd Johnson Wise Letcher W. "EB" Smith Pierpont Wells Walker Kemper Holliday Cameron F. Lee McKinney O'Ferrall J. H. Tyler Montague Swanson Mann Stuart Davis Trinkle Byrd Pollard Peery Price Darden Tuck Battle Stanley Almond A. Harrison Godwin Holton Godwin Dalton Robb Baliles Wilder Allen Gilmore Warner Kaine McDonnell McAuliffe Northam

v t e

Cabinet of President James Madison
James Madison
(1809–17)

Secretary of State

Robert Smith (1809–11) James Monroe
James Monroe
(1811–14, 1815–17)

Secretary of the Treasury

Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
(1809–14) George W. Campbell
George W. Campbell
(1814) Alexander J. Dallas (1814–16) William H. Crawford
William H. Crawford
(1816–17)

Secretary of War

William Eustis
William Eustis
(1809–13) John Armstrong Jr.
John Armstrong Jr.
(1813–14) James Monroe
James Monroe
(1814–15) William H. Crawford
William H. Crawford
(1815–16) George Graham (1816–1817)

Attorney General

Caesar A. Rodney (1809–11) William Pinkney
William Pinkney
(1811–14) Richard Rush
Richard Rush
(1814–17)

Postmaster General

Gideon Granger (1809–14) Return J. Meigs Jr.
Return J. Meigs Jr.
(1814–17)

Secretary of the Navy

Paul Hamilton (1809–13) William Jones (1813–14) Benjamin W. Crowninshield (1814–17)

v t e

Cabinet of President James Monroe
James Monroe
(1817–25)

Secretary of State

John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
(1817–25)

Secretary of the Treasury

William H. Crawford
William H. Crawford
(1817–25)

Secretary of War

George Graham (1817) John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun
(1817–25)

Attorney General

Richard Rush
Richard Rush
(1817) William Wirt (1817–25)

Postmaster General

Return J. Meigs Jr.
Return J. Meigs Jr.
(1817–23) John McLean
John McLean
(1823–25)

Secretary of the Navy

Benjamin W. Crowninshield (1817–18) Smith Thompson
Smith Thompson
(1819–23) Samuel L. Southard
Samuel L. Southard
(1823–25)

v t e

Ambassadors of the United States
United States
of America to the Court of St. James's

Ministers Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's 1785–1811

John Adams
John Adams
(1785–1788) Thomas Pinckney
Thomas Pinckney
(1792–1796) Rufus King
Rufus King
(1796–1803) James Monroe
James Monroe
(1803–1807) William Pinkney
William Pinkney
(1808–1811) Jonathan Russell
Jonathan Russell
(chargé d'affaires) (1811–1812)

Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's 1815–1893

John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
(1815–1817) Richard Rush
Richard Rush
(1818–1825) Rufus King
Rufus King
(1825–1826) Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
(1826–1827) James Barbour
James Barbour
(1828–1829) Louis McLane
Louis McLane
(1829–1831) Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren
(1831–1832) Aaron Vail (chargé d'affaires) (1832–1836) Andrew Stevenson
Andrew Stevenson
(1836–1841) Edward Everett
Edward Everett
(1841–1845) Louis McLane
Louis McLane
(1845–1846) George Bancroft
George Bancroft
(1846–1849) Abbott Lawrence
Abbott Lawrence
(1849–1852) Joseph R. Ingersoll (1852–1853) James Buchanan
James Buchanan
(1853–1856) George M. Dallas
George M. Dallas
(1856–1861) Charles Adams Sr. (1861–1868) Reverdy Johnson
Reverdy Johnson
(1868–1869) John Lothrop Motley
John Lothrop Motley
(1869–1870) Robert C. Schenck
Robert C. Schenck
(1871–1876) Edwards Pierrepont
Edwards Pierrepont
(1876–1877) John Welsh (1877–1879) James Russell Lowell
James Russell Lowell
(1880–1885) Edward J. Phelps (1885–1889) Robert Todd Lincoln
Robert Todd Lincoln
(1889–1893)

Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's 1893–present

Thomas F. Bayard
Thomas F. Bayard
Sr. (1893–1897) John Hay
John Hay
(1897–1898) Joseph Choate (1899–1905) Whitelaw Reid
Whitelaw Reid
(1905–1912) Walter Page (1913-1918) John W. Davis
John W. Davis
(1918–1921) George Harvey (1921–1923) Frank B. Kellogg
Frank B. Kellogg
(1924–1925) Alanson B. Houghton
Alanson B. Houghton
(1925–1929) Charles G. Dawes
Charles G. Dawes
(1929–1931) Andrew W. Mellon
Andrew W. Mellon
(1932–1933) Robert Bingham (1933–1937) Joseph P. Kennedy (1938–1940) John G. Winant (1941–1946) W. Averell Harriman
W. Averell Harriman
(1946) Lewis W. Douglas (1947–1950) Walter S. Gifford (1950–1953) Winthrop W. Aldrich
Winthrop W. Aldrich
(1953–1957) John Hay
John Hay
Whitney (1957–1961) David K. E. Bruce (1961–1969) Walter H. Annenberg (1969–1974) Elliot L. Richardson (1975–1976) Anne Armstrong (1976–1977) Kingman Brewster Jr. (1977–1981) John J. Louis Jr. (1981–1983) Charles H. Price II
Charles H. Price II
(1983–1989) Henry E. Catto Jr. (1989–1991) Raymond G. H. Seitz (1991–1994) William J. Crowe
William J. Crowe
(1994–1997) Philip Lader
Philip Lader
(1997–2001) William Stamps Farish III
William Stamps Farish III
(2001–2004) Robert H. Tuttle
Robert H. Tuttle
(2005–2009) Louis Susman
Louis Susman
(2009–2013) Matthew Barzun
Matthew Barzun
(2013–2017) Woody Johnson
Woody Johnson
(2017– )

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Ambassadors of the United States
United States
of America to France

Envoys to France 1776–1779

Benjamin Franklin, Arthur Lee, Silas Deane
Silas Deane
(substituted by John Adams in 1778) (1776–1779)

Ministers Plenipotentiary to France 1778–1815

Franklin (1778–85) Jefferson (1785–89) Short (1790–92) Morris (1792–94) Monroe (1794–96) Pinckney (1796–97) Livingston (1801–04) Armstrong (1804–10) Russell (chargé d'affaires) (1811) Barlow (1811–12) Crawford (1813–15)

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to France 1816–1893

Gallatin (1816–23) Brown (1824–29) Rives (1829–32) Harris (chargé d'affaires) (1833) Livingston (1833–35) Barton (chargé d'affaires) (1835) Cass (1836–42) King (1844–46) Rush (1847–49) Rives (1849–53) Mason (1853–59) Faulkner (1860–61) Dayton (1861–64) Bigelow (1865–66) Dix (1866–69) Washburne (1869–77) Noyes (1877–81) Morton (1881–85) McLane (1885–89) Reid (1889–92) Coolidge (1892–93)

Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to France 1893–present

Eustis (1893–97) Porter (1897–05) McCormick (1905–07) White (1907–09) Bacon (1909–12) Herrick (1912–14) Sharp (1914–1919) Wallace (1919–21) Herrick (1921–29) Edge (1929–33) Straus (1933–36) Bullitt (1936–40) Leahy (1941–42) Tuck (chargé d'affaires) (1942) Caffery (1944–49) Bruce (1949–52) Dunn (1952–53) Dillon (1953–57) Houghton (1957–61) Gavin (1961–62) Bohlen (1962–68) Shriver (1968–70) Watson (1970–72) Irwin (1973–74) Rush (1974–77) Hartman (1977–81) Galbraith (1981–85) Rodgers (1985–89) Curley (1989–93) Harriman (1993–97) Rohatyn (1997–2000) Leach (2001–05) Stapleton (2005–09) Rivkin (2009–2013) Hartley (2014–2017) McCourt (2017–present)

v t e

Hall of Fame for Great Americans

John Adams John Quincy Adams Jane Addams Louis Agassiz Susan B. Anthony John James Audubon George Bancroft Clara Barton Henry Ward Beecher Alexander Graham Bell Daniel Boone Edwin Booth Louis Brandeis Phillips Brooks William Cullen Bryant Luther Burbank Andrew Carnegie George Washington
George Washington
Carver William Ellery Channing Rufus Choate Henry Clay Grover Cleveland James Fenimore Cooper Peter Cooper Charlotte Cushman James Buchanan
James Buchanan
Eads Thomas Alva Edison Jonathan Edwards Ralph Waldo Emerson David Farragut Stephen Foster Benjamin Franklin Robert Fulton Josiah W. Gibbs William C. Gorgas Ulysses S. Grant Asa Gray Alexander Hamilton Nathaniel Hawthorne Joseph Henry Patrick Henry Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. Mark Hopkins Elias Howe Washington Irving Andrew Jackson Thomas J. Jackson Thomas Jefferson John Paul Jones James Kent Sidney Lanier Robert E. Lee Abraham Lincoln Henry Wadsworth Longfellow James Russell Lowell Mary Lyon Edward MacDowell James Madison Horace Mann John Marshall Matthew Fontaine Maury Albert A. Michelson Maria Mitchell James Monroe Samuel F. B. Morse William T. G. Morton John Lothrop Motley Simon Newcomb Barack Obama Thomas Paine Alice Freeman Palmer Francis Parkman George Peabody William Penn Edgar Allan Poe Walter Reed Franklin D. Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt Augustus Saint-Gaudens William Tecumseh Sherman John Philip Sousa Joseph Story Harriet Beecher Stowe Gilbert Stuart Sylvanus Thayer Henry David Thoreau Mark Twain Lillian Wald Booker T. Washington George Washington Daniel Webster George Westinghouse James McNeill Whistler Walt Whitman Eli Whitney John Greenleaf Whittier Emma Willard Frances E. Willard Roger Williams Woodrow Wilson Orville Wright Wilbur Wright

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 20476583 LCCN: n50078822 ISNI: 0000 0001 0653 3105 GND: 118784595 SUDOC: 028374991 BNF: cb12022301h (data) NLA: 49788845 US Congress: M000858 BNE: XX5562697 SN

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