The Info List - James Mark Baldwin

James Mark Baldwin
James Mark Baldwin
(/ˈbɔːldwɪn/; January 12, 1861, Columbia, South Carolina – November 8, 1934, Paris)[1][2] was an American philosopher and psychologist who was educated at Princeton under the supervision of Scottish philosopher James McCosh
James McCosh
and who was one of the founders of the Department of Psychology
at the university. He made important contributions to early psychology, psychiatry, and to the theory of evolution.


1 Biography

1.1 Early life 1.2 Mid-career 1.3 Later life

2 Ideas

2.1 Organic selection 2.2 Baldwin effect

3 Influence 4 Work 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

Biography[edit] Early life[edit] Baldwin was born and raised in Columbia, South Carolina. His father, who was from Connecticut, was an abolitionist and was known to purchase slaves in order to free them. During the Civil War his father moved north, but the family remained in their home until the time of Sherman's March. Upon their return after the war, Baldwin's father was part of the Reconstruction Era
Reconstruction Era
government. Baldwin was sent north to receive his secondary education in New Jersey. As a result, he chose to attend the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University). Baldwin started in theology under the tutelage of the college's president, James McCosh, but soon switched to philosophy. He was awarded the Green Fellowship in Mental Science (named after his future father-in-law, the head of the Princeton Theological Seminary) and used it to study in Germany with Wilhelm Wundt
Wilhelm Wundt
at Leipzig and with Friedrich Paulsen
Friedrich Paulsen
at Berlin (1884–1934). In 1885 he became Instructor in French and German at the Princeton Theological Seminary. He translated Théodule-Armand Ribot's German Psychology
of Today and wrote his first paper "The Postulates of a Physiological Psychology". Ribot's work traced the origins of psychology from Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
through Johann Friedrich Herbart, Gustav Theodor Fechner, Hermann Lotze
Hermann Lotze
to Wundt. In 1887, while working as a professor of philosophy at Lake Forest College he married Helen Hayes Green, the daughter of the President of the Seminary, William Henry Green. At Lake Forest he published the first part of his Handbook of Psychology
(Senses and Intellect) in which he directed the attention to the new experimental psychology of Ernst Heinrich Weber, Fechner and Wundt. In 1889 he went to the University of Toronto
University of Toronto
as the Chair of Logic and Metaphysics. His creation of a laboratory of experimental psychology at Toronto (which he claimed was the first in the British Empire) coincided with the birth of his daughters Helen (1889) and Elizabeth (1891) which inspired the quantitative and experimental research on infant development that was to make such a vivid impression on Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg through Baldwin's Mental Development in the Child and the Race. Methods and Processes (1894) dedicated to the subject. A second part of Handbook of Psychology
(Feeling and Will) appeared in 1891. During this creative phase Baldwin travelled to France (1892) to visit the important psychologists Charcot (at the Salpêtrière), Hippolyte Bernheim (at Nancy), and Pierre Janet. Mid-career[edit] In 1893 he was called back to his alma mater, Princeton University, where he was offered the Stuart Chair in Psychology
and the opportunity to establish a new psychology laboratory. He would stay at Princeton until 1903 working out the highlights of his career reflected in "Social and Ethical Interpretations in Mental Development. A Study in Social Psychology." (1897) where he took his previous "Mental Development" to the critical stage in which it survived in the work of Lev Vygotsky, through Vygotsky in the crucial work of Alexander Luria, and in the synthesis of both by Aleksey Leontyev. He also edited the English editions of Karl Groos's Play of Animals (1898) and Play of Men (1901). It was during this time that Baldwin wrote "A New Factor of Evolution" (June 1896/The American Naturalist) which later became known as the "Baldwin Effect". But other important contributors should not be overlooked. Conwy Lloyd Morgan
Conwy Lloyd Morgan
was perhaps closest to understanding the so-called "Baldwin Effect". In his "Habit and Instinct" (1896) he phrased a comparable version of the theory, as he did in an address to a session of the New York Academy of Sciences
New York Academy of Sciences
(February 1896) in the presence of Baldwin. (1896/Of modification and variation. Science 4(99) (November 20):733-739). As did Henry Fairfield Osborn
Henry Fairfield Osborn
(1896/A mode of evolution requiring neither natural selection nor the inheritance of acquired characteristics. Transactions of the New York Academy of Science 15:141-148). The "Baldwin Effect", building in part on the principle of "organic selection" proposed by Baldwin in "Mental Development" did only receive its name from George Gaylord Simpson in 1953. (in: Evolution
7:110-117) (see: David J. Depew in " Evolution
and Learning" M.I.T.2003) Baldwin complemented his psychological work with philosophy, in particular epistemology his contribution to which he presented in the presidential address to the American Psychological Association
American Psychological Association
in 1897. By then the work on the "Dictionary of Philosophy
and Psychology" (1902) had been announced and a period of intense philosophical correspondence ensued with the contributors to the project: William James, John Dewey, Charles Sanders Peirce, Josiah Royce, George Edward Moore, Bernard Bosanquet, James McKeen Cattell, Edward B. Titchener, Hugo Münsterberg, Christine Ladd-Franklin, Adolf Meyer, George Stout, Franklin Henry Giddings, Edward Bagnall Poulton and others. In 1899 Baldwin went to Oxford to supervise the completion of the "Dictionary..." (1902). He was awarded an Honorary Doctorate in Science at Oxford University. (In the light of the foregoing, the deafening silence with which J. M. Baldwin was later treated in Oxford publications on the Mind may well come to be regarded as one of the significant omissions in the history of ideas for the 20th century. Compare for example Richard Gregory: "The Oxford Companion to the Mind", first edition, 1987) Later life[edit] In 1903, partly as a result of a dispute with Princeton president Woodrow Wilson, partly due to an offer involving more pay and less teaching, he moved to a professorship of philosophy and psychology at Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University
where he re-opened the experimental laboratory that had been founded by G. Stanley Hall
G. Stanley Hall
in 1884 (but had closed with Hall's departure to take over the presidency of Clark University in 1888). In Baltimore Baldwin started to work on "Thoughts and Things: A Study of the Development and Meaning of Thought. Or Genetic Logic" (1906) a densely integrative rendering of his ideas culminating in "Genetic Theory of Reality. Being the Outcome of Genetic Logic as Issuing in the Aesthetic Theory of Reality called Pancalism" (1915). This book introduced the concept that knowledge grows through childhood in a series of distinct stages that involve interaction between innate abilities and environmental feedback. He further stated that the initial physical development give way to language and cognitive abilities such that the child emerges as a result of social and physical growth. In Baltimore also Baldwin was arrested in a raid on a "colored" brothel (1908), a scandal that put an end to his American career. Forced to leave Johns Hopkins he looked for residence in Paris. He was to reside in France till his death in 1934.[3] His first years (1908–1912) in France were interrupted by long stays in Mexico
where he advised on university matters and lectured at the School of Higher Studies at the National University in Mexico
City. His " Darwin and the Humanities" (1909) and "Individual and Society" (1911) date from this period. In 1912 he took permanent residence in Paris. Baldwin's residence in France resulted in his pointing out the urgency of American non-neutral support for his new hosts on the French battlefields of World War I. He published "American Neutrality, Its Cause and Cure" (1916) for the purpose, and when in 1916 he survived a German torpedo attack on the Sussex in the English channel- on the return trip from a visit to William Osler
William Osler
at Oxford- his open telegram to the President of the United States
United States
on the affair became frontpage news (New York Times). With the entry of America in the war (1917) he helped to organize the Paris
branch of the American Navy League, acting as its Chairman till 1922. In 1926 his memoirs "Between Two Wars (1861-1921)" were published. He died in Paris
on November 8, 1934. Ideas[edit] James Mark Baldwin
James Mark Baldwin
was prominent among early experimental psychologists (voted by his peers the fifth most important psychologist in America in a 1903 survey conducted by James McKeen Cattell[4]), but it was his contributions to developmental psychology that were the most important. His step-wise theory of cognitive development was a major influence on the later, and much more widely known, developmental theory of Jean Piaget. Equally important is his contribution to the development of what is currently known as Theory of Mind (ToM).[5] His ideas on the relationship of Ego and Alter were developed by Pierre Janet;[6] while his stress on how "My sense of self grows by imitation of you...an imitative creation"[7] contributed to the mirror stage of Jacques Lacan.[8] His contributions to the young discipline's early journals and institutions were highly significant as well. Baldwin was a co-founder (with James McKeen Cattell) of Psychological Review (which was founded explicitly to compete with G. Stanley Hall's American Journal of Psychology), Psychological Monographs and Psychological Index. He was also the founding editor of Psychological Bulletin. In 1892 he was vice-president of the International Congress of Psychology
held in London, and in 1897–1898 president of the American Psychological Association; he received a gold medal from the Royal Academy of Arts and Sciences of Denmark (1897), and was honorary president of the International Congress of Criminal Anthropology held in Geneva
in 1896. Organic selection[edit] The idea of organic selection came from the interpretation of the observable data in Baldwin's experimental study of infant reaching and its role in mental development. Every practice of the infant's movement intended to advance the integration of behavior favourable to development in the experimental framework appeared to be selected from an excess of movement in the trial of imitation. In further stages of development - the ones most critical to an understanding of the evolution of mind- this was graphically illustrated in the child's efforts to draw and learning to write. ("Mental Development in the Child and the Race"). In later editions of "Mental Development" Baldwin changed the term "organic selection" into "functional selection". So, from the outset the idea was well linked to the philosophy of mind Baldwin was emancipating from the models inspired by divine pre-establishment (Spinoza) (Wozniak, 2001) It is the communication of this insight into the practice related nature of dynamogenic development, above all its integration as a creative factor in the fabric of society, that helped the students of Baldwin to understand what was left of Lamarck's signature. Singularly illustrated by Gregory Bateson
Gregory Bateson
in Mind and Nature (1979) and reintegrated in contemporary studies by Terrence Deacon
Terrence Deacon
(The Symbolic Species: The co-evolution of language and the human brain, 1997) and other scholars of biosemiotics. In human species the faculty of niche building is favored by a practical intelligence able to design the circumstances that will put its vital acquirements out of harms way in terms of (lineary predicted) natural selection. It is precisely in the fields of study relating to massive selection pressures against which other species seem to be without defenses -biological development in the face of novel pandemics (AIDS, mad cow disease)- that the arguments relative to the natural heredity of intelligent acquirements have resurfaced in a way most challenging to science. Baldwin effect[edit] Main article: Baldwin effect Baldwin's most important theoretical legacy is the concept of the Baldwin effect
Baldwin effect
or "Baldwinian evolution". Baldwin proposed, against the neo-Lamarckians of his day (most notably Edward Drinker Cope), that there is a mechanism whereby epigenetic factors come to shape the congenital endowment as much as — or more than — natural selection pressures. In particular, human behavioural decisions made and sustained across generations as a set of cultural practices ought to be considered among the factors shaping the human genome. For example, the incest taboo, if powerfully enforced, removes the natural selection pressure against the possession of incest-favoring instincts. After a few generations without this natural selection pressure, unless such genetic material were profoundly fixed, it would tend to diversify and lose its function. Humans would no longer be innately averse to incest, but would rely on their capacity to internalize such rules from cultural practices. The opposite case can also be true: cultural practice might selectively breed humans to meet the fitness conditions of new environments, cultural and physical, which earlier hominids could not have survived. Baldwinian evolution might strengthen or weaken a genetic trait. Influence[edit] Baldwin's contribution to this field places him at the heart of contemporary controversies in the fields of evolutionary psychology and wider sociobiology. Few people did more than Robert Wozniak, Professor of Psychology
at Bryn Mawr College, for the rediscovery of the significance of James Mark Baldwin
James Mark Baldwin
in the History of ideas. Work[edit] Apart from articles in the Psychological Review, Baldwin wrote:

Handbook of Psychology
(1890), translation of Ribot’s, German Psychology
of To-day (1886); Elements of Psychology
(1893); Social and Ethical Interpretations in Mental Development (1898); Story of the Mind (1898); Mental Development in the Child and the Race (1896); Thought and Things ( London
and New York, 1906).

He also largely contributed to the Dictionary of Philosophy
and Psychology
(1901–1905), of which he was editor in-chief.

To view volumes of Baldwin's Dictionary of Philosophy
and Psychology at online archives:

  Online browse Link by Save Vol. I (A-Laws) Vol. II (Le-Z) Vol. III (bibliog.)  

part I part II

Internet Archive Flipbook, DjVu, DjVu's plaintext Book pdf, DjVu, & .txt file All 3 volumes (but some hard to read)

Google Book Search Beta (editions may not yet be fully accessible outside USA.[9]) Images & plaintext Page pdf & .txt file Vol. I Vol. II Vol. III, part I Vol. III, part II All results (not distinctly labeled)

The Virtual Laboratory Images Page, Entry pdf (desired pages)

All 3 volumes Browse A-Z by headwords in Vols. I & II

Classics in the History of Psychology html Letter/ Entry html

A-O from Vols. I & II, transcribing

See also[edit]

George Herbert Mead Life history theory Orthogenesis Epigenetics Pangenesis Weismann Barrier Evolutionary developmental biology


^ Archive of Genealogical Data ^ Princeton Cemetery Gravemarker ^ Hothersall, 2004 ^ Cattell, J. M. (1933). American Men of Science. New York: Science Press, pp.1277-1278. ^ Obiols JE and Berrios GE (2009): The historical roots of Theory of Mind: the work of James Mark Baldwin
James Mark Baldwin
History of Psychiatry, 20(3): 377-392 ^ Henri Ellenberger, The Discovery of the Unconscious (1970), p. 404 ^ Quoted in Ellenberger, p. 404 ^ Jacques Lacan, Écrits (1997), p. 1 ^ See official Google Inside Google Book Search blog post "From the mail bag: Public domain books and downloads", November 9, 2006, 11:19 AM, posted by Ryan Sands, Google Book Search Support Team, Eprint.


Robert H. Wozniak: "Development and Synthesis: An introduction to the Life and Work of James Mark Baldwin" Bryn Mawr College, 2001 in: History of American Thought-Thoemmes Continuum/The History of Ideas 14 September 2004 " Evolution
and Learning:The Baldwin Effect
Baldwin Effect
Reconsidered" edited by Bruce H. Weber and David J. Depew: Cambridge, Massachusetts 2003 -The MIT Press Gregory Bateson: "Mind and Nature: A Necessary Unity" New York, 1979 -E.P.Dutton Terrence Deacon: "The Symbolic Species: The co-evolution of language and the human brain" USA, 1997 -W.W.Norton / Great Britain, 1997 -Allan Lane The Penguin Press. Edward J. Steele, Robyn A. Lindley, Robert V. Blanden: "Lamarck's Signature: How Retrogenes Are Changing Darwin's Natural Selection Paradigm" Sydney, 1998 -Allan & Unwin Pty Ltd. In: Frontiers of Science -Series Editor Paul Davies.

Hothersall, David (2004). History of Psychology
(4th ed.). New York, NY; McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. External links[edit]

has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Baldwin, James Mark.

Autobiographical notes Mead Project:Basic Baldwin "Mental Development in the Child and the Race", J.M.Baldwin J.M.Baldwin in texts at Classics in the History of Psychology Edited program MP3 and Full Interview MP3 of Robert Wozniak in conversation with Christopher Green, as they discuss the life and work of Baldwin, from This Week in the History of Psychology Documentary film on YouTube
describing the public controversy that swirled around the hiring of a new professor of philosophy at the University of Toronto
University of Toronto
in 1889. The debate was focused on the prospect of an American, Baldwin, being hired over a Canadian competitor, James Gibson Hume, who later headed the Toronto philosophy department for 30 years. Works by James Mark Baldwin
James Mark Baldwin
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about James Mark Baldwin
James Mark Baldwin
at Internet Archive

v t e

Presidents of the American Psychological Association


G. Stanley Hall
G. Stanley Hall
(1892) George Trumbull Ladd
George Trumbull Ladd
(1893) William James
William James
(1894) James McKeen Cattell
James McKeen Cattell
(1895) George Stuart Fullerton (1896) James Mark Baldwin
James Mark Baldwin
(1897) Hugo Münsterberg
Hugo Münsterberg
(1898) John Dewey
John Dewey
(1899) Joseph Jastrow
Joseph Jastrow


Josiah Royce
Josiah Royce
(1901) Edmund Sanford (1902) William Lowe Bryan
William Lowe Bryan
(1903) William James
William James
(1904) Mary Whiton Calkins
Mary Whiton Calkins
(1905) James Rowland Angell
James Rowland Angell
(1906) Henry Rutgers Marshall (1907) George M. Stratton
George M. Stratton
(1908) Charles Hubbard Judd
Charles Hubbard Judd
(1909) Walter Bowers Pillsbury
Walter Bowers Pillsbury
(1910) Carl Seashore
Carl Seashore
(1911) Edward Thorndike
Edward Thorndike
(1912) Howard C. Warren
Howard C. Warren
(1913) Robert S. Woodworth
Robert S. Woodworth
(1914) John B. Watson
John B. Watson
(1915) Raymond Dodge (1916) Robert Yerkes
Robert Yerkes
(1917) John Wallace Baird (1918) Walter Dill Scott (1919) Shepherd Ivory Franz
Shepherd Ivory Franz
(1920) Margaret Floy Washburn
Margaret Floy Washburn
(1921) Knight Dunlap (1922) Lewis Terman
Lewis Terman
(1923) G. Stanley Hall
G. Stanley Hall
(1924) I. Madison Bentley (1925)


Harvey A. Carr (1926) Harry Levi Hollingworth
Harry Levi Hollingworth
(1927) Edwin Boring
Edwin Boring
(1928) Karl Lashley (1929) Herbert Langfeld (1930) Walter Samuel Hunter (1931) Walter Richard Miles (1932) Louis Leon Thurstone (1933) Joseph Peterson (1934) Albert Poffenberger (1935) Clark L. Hull
Clark L. Hull
(1936) Edward C. Tolman
Edward C. Tolman
(1937) John Dashiell (1938) Gordon Allport (1939) Leonard Carmichael
Leonard Carmichael
(1940) Herbert Woodrow (1941) Calvin Perry Stone (1942) John Edward Anderson (1943) Gardner Murphy
Gardner Murphy
(1944) Edwin Ray Guthrie
Edwin Ray Guthrie
(1945) Henry Garrett (1946) Carl Rogers
Carl Rogers
(1947) Donald Marquis (1948) Ernest Hilgard (1949) J. P. Guilford (1950)


Robert Richardson Sears
Robert Richardson Sears
(1951) J. McVicker Hunt (1952) Laurance F. Shaffer (1953) Orval Hobart Mowrer (1954) E. Lowell Kelly (1955) Theodore Newcomb (1956) Lee Cronbach (1957) Harry Harlow
Harry Harlow
(1958) Wolfgang Köhler (1959) Donald O. Hebb (1960) Neal E. Miller
Neal E. Miller
(1961) Paul E. Meehl (1962) Charles E. Osgood (1963) Quinn McNemar (1964) Jerome Bruner
Jerome Bruner
(1965) Nicholas Hobbs (1966) Gardner Lindzey (1967) Abraham Maslow
Abraham Maslow
(1968) George Armitage Miller
George Armitage Miller
(1969) George Albee (1970) Kenneth B. Clark (1971) Anne Anastasi (1972) Leona E. Tyler (1973) Albert Bandura
Albert Bandura
(1974) Donald T. Campbell
Donald T. Campbell


Wilbert J. McKeachie (1976) Theodore H. Blau (1977) M. Brewster Smith (1978) Nicholas Cummings (1979) Florence Denmark
Florence Denmark
(1980) John J. Conger (1981) William Bevan (1982) Max Siegel (1983) Janet Taylor Spence (1984) Robert Perloff (1985) Logan Wright (1986) Bonnie Strickland (1987) Raymond D. Fowler (1988) Joseph Matarazzo (1989) Stanley Graham (1990) Charles Spielberger (1991) Jack Wiggins Jr. (1992) Frank Farley (1993) Ronald E. Fox (1994) Robert J. Resnick (1995) Dorothy Cantor (1996) Norman Abeles (1997) Martin Seligman
Martin Seligman
(1998) Richard Suinn (1999) Patrick H. DeLeon (2000)


Norine G. Johnson (2001) Philip Zimbardo
Philip Zimbardo
(2002) Robert Sternberg (2003) Diane F. Halpern (2004) Ronald F. Levant (2005) Gerald Koocher (2006) Sharon Brehm (2007) Alan E. Kazdin (2008) James H. Bray (2009) Carol D. Goodheart (2010) Melba J. T. Vasquez (2011) Suzanne Bennett Johnson (2012) Donald N. Bersoff (2013) Nadine Kaslow
Nadine Kaslow
(2014) Barry S. Anton (2015) Susan H. McDaniel (2016) Antonio Puente (2017) Jessica Henderson Daniel (2018)

v t e


History Philosophy Portal Psychologist

Basic psychology

Abnormal Affective science Affective neuroscience Behavioral genetics Behavioral neuroscience Behaviorism Cognitive/Cognitivism Cognitive neuroscience Comparative Cross-cultural Cultural Developmental Differential Ecological Evolutionary Experimental Gestalt Intelligence Mathematical Neuropsychology Personality Positive Psycholinguistics Psychophysics Psychophysiology Quantitative Social Theoretical

Applied psychology

Anomalistic Applied behavior analysis Assessment Clinical Community Consumer Counseling Critical Educational Ergonomics Feminist Forensic Health Industrial and organizational Legal Media Military Music Occupational health Pastoral Political Psychometrics Psychotherapy Religion School Sport and exercise Suicidology Systems Traffic


Animal testing Archival research Behavior
epigenetics Case study Content analysis Experiments Human subject research Interviews Neuroimaging Observation Qualitative research Quantitative research Self-report inventory Statistical surveys


William James (1842–1910) Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936) Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) Edward Thorndike (1874–1949) Carl Jung (1875–1961) John B. Watson (1878–1958) Clark L. Hull (1884–1952) Kurt Lewin (1890–1947) Jean Piaget (1896–1980) Gordon Allport (1897–1967) J. P. Guilford (1897–1987) Carl Rogers (1902–1987) Erik Erikson (1902–1994) B. F. Skinner (1904–1990) Donald O. Hebb (1904–1985) Ernest Hilgard (1904–2001) Harry Harlow (1905–1981) Raymond Cattell (1905–1998) Abraham Maslow (1908–1970) Neal E. Miller (1909–2002) Jerome Bruner (1915–2016) Donald T. Campbell (1916–1996) Hans Eysenck (1916–1997) Herbert A. Simon (1916–2001) David McClelland (1917–1998) Leon Festinger (1919–1989) George Armitage Miller (1920–2012) Richard Lazarus (1922–2002) Stanley Schachter (1922–1997) Robert Zajonc (1923–2008) Albert Bandura (b. 1925) Roger Brown (1925–1997) Endel Tulving (b. 1927) Lawrence Kohlberg (1927–1987) Noam Chomsky (b. 1928) Ulric Neisser (1928–2012) Jerome Kagan (b. 1929) Walter Mischel (b. 1930) Elliot Aronson (b. 1932) Daniel Kahneman (b. 1934) Paul Ekman (b. 1934) Michael Posner (b. 1936) Amos Tversky (1937–1996) Bruce McEwen (b. 1938) Larry Squire (b. 1941) Richard E. Nisbett (b. 1941) Martin Seligman (b. 1942) Ed Diener (b. 1946) Shelley E. Taylor (b. 1946) John Anderson (b. 1947) Ronald C. Kessler (b. 1947) Joseph E. LeDoux (b. 1949) Richard Davidson (b. 1951) Susan Fiske (b. 1952) Roy Baumeister (b. 1953)


Counseling topics Disciplines Important publications Organizations Outline Psychologists Psychotherapies Research methods Schools of thought Timeline Topics

Wiktionary definition Wiktionary category Wikisource Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote Wikinews Wikibooks

v t e

Integral theory/Integral thought

Integral theorists

Aurobindo Ghose Jean Gebser Haridas Chaudhuri Clare Graves Ervin László Michael Murphy Don Beck Chris Cowan Ken Wilber

Integral books

The Life Divine The Synthesis of Yoga Full Circle Spiral Dynamics Sex, Ecology, Spirituality

Integral themes

Evolution involution Integral ecology Integral politics Integral psychology Integral yoga

Influences on integral theory

James Mark Baldwin Pierre Teilhard de Chardin Arthur M. Young Edward Haskell Erich Jantsch Stanislav Grof Rupert Sheldrake Francisco Varela

Integral artists

Alex Grey Stuart Davis Saul Williams

Integral organizations

California Institute of Integral Studies Integral Institute

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 32058149 LCCN: n79110535 ISNI: 0000 0001 1051 402X GND: 117561436 SELIBR: 290826 SUDOC: 031610072 BNF: cb12279185w (data) NLA: 35012680 NKC: jo2002101204 SN