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James IV (17 March 1473 – 9 September 1513) was the King of Scotland from 11 June 1488 to his death. He assumed the throne following the death of his father, King James III, (1451/52–1488, reigned 1460–1488) in the Battle of Sauchieburn, a rebellion in which the younger James played an indirect role. He is generally regarded as the most successful of the Stewart monarchs of Scotland, but his reign ended in a disastrous defeat at the Battle of Flodden, where he became the last monarch not only from Scotland, but from all of Great Britain, to be killed in battle.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Reign

2.1 Politics 2.2 Culture

3 Policy in the Highlands and Isles 4 War and death

4.1 Legends of the King's resting place

5 Marriage

5.1 Illegitimate children

6 Titles and styles 7 Fictional portrayals 8 Ancestors 9 Notes 10 References

Early life[edit] James was the son of King James III and Margaret of Denmark, probably born in Stirling
Stirling
Castle. As heir apparent to the Scottish crown, he became Duke of Rothesay. In 1474, his father arranged his betrothal to the English princess Cecily of York, daughter of Edward IV of England.[1] His father was not a popular king, facing two major rebellions during his reign, and alienating many members of his close family, especially his younger brother Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany. His pro-English policy was also unpopular, and rebounded badly upon him when the marriage negotiations with England broke down over lapsed dowry payments, leading to the invasion of Scotland
Scotland
and capture of Berwick in 1482 by Cecily's uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester, in the company of the Duke of Albany. When James III attempted to lead his army against the invasion, his army rebelled against him and he was briefly imprisoned by his own councillors in the first major crisis of his reign.[2] James IV's mother, Margaret of Denmark, was apparently more popular than his father, and though somewhat estranged with her husband she was given responsibility for raising their sons at Stirling
Stirling
Castle, but she died in 1486. Two years later, a second rebellion broke out, where the rebels set up the 15-year-old Prince James as their nominal leader. They fought James III at the Battle of Sauchieburn on 11 June 1488, where the king was killed, though several later sources claimed that Prince James had forbidden any man to harm his father.[3] The younger James took the throne and was crowned at Scone on 24 June. However he continued to bear intense guilt for the indirect role which he had played in the death of his father, he decided to do penance for his sin. For the rest of his life, he wore a heavy iron chain cilice around his waist, next to the skin, each Lent
Lent
as penance, adding extra ounces every year.[4] Reign[edit] Politics[edit]

James IV ordered the Kirk of Steill to be built in 1500, for the Christian Jubilee, and to commemorate his rescue from the nearby river Tweed

James IV quickly proved an effective ruler and a wise king. He defeated another rebellion in 1489, took a direct interest in the administration of justice and finally brought the Lord of the Isles under control in 1493. For a time, he supported Perkin Warbeck, pretender to the English throne, and carried out a brief invasion of England on his behalf in September 1496. Then in August 1497, James laid siege to Norham Castle, using his grandfather's bombard Mons Meg. James recognised nonetheless that peace between Scotland
Scotland
and England was in the interest of both countries, and established good diplomatic relations with England, which was emerging at the time from a period of civil war. First he ratified the Treaty of Ayton
Treaty of Ayton
in February 1498. Then, in 1502 James signed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace
Treaty of Perpetual Peace
with Henry VII. This treaty was sealed by his marriage to Henry's daughter Margaret Tudor
Margaret Tudor
the next year, in an event portrayed as the marriage of The Thrissil and the Rois
The Thrissil and the Rois
(the thistle and rose- the two flowers of Scotland
Scotland
and England) by the great poet William Dunbar, who was then resident at James' court. James also maintained Scotland's traditional good relations with France, however and this occasionally created diplomatic problems with England. For example, when rumours that James would renew the Auld alliance
Auld alliance
circulated in April 1508, Thomas Wolsey was sent to discuss Henry VII's concerns over this. Wolsey found "there was never a man worse welcome into Scotland
Scotland
than I,... they keep their matters so secret here that the wives in the market know every cause of my coming."[5] Nonetheless, Anglo-Scottish relations generally remained stable until the death of Henry VII in 1509. James saw the importance of building a fleet that could provide Scotland
Scotland
with a strong maritime presence. James founded two new dockyards for this purpose and acquired a total of 38 ships for the Royal Scots Navy, including the Margaret, and the carrack Great Michael. The latter, built at great expense at Newhaven, near Edinburgh
Edinburgh
and launched in 1511, was 240 feet (73 m) in length, weighed 1,000 tons and was, at that time, the largest ship in the world.[6] Culture[edit]

Arms of James IV displayed in the Great Hall he built at Stirling Castle

James IV was a true Renaissance
Renaissance
prince with an interest in practical and scientific matters. He granted the Incorporation of Surgeons and Barbers of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
(later the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh) a royal charter in 1506, turned Edinburgh Castle
Edinburgh Castle
into one of Scotland's foremost gun foundries, and welcomed the establishment of Scotland's first printing press in 1507. He built a part of Falkland Palace, and Great Halls at Stirling
Stirling
and Edinburgh
Edinburgh
castles, and furnished his palaces with tapestries.[7] James was a patron of the arts, including many literary figures, most notably the Scots makars whose diverse and socially observant works convey a vibrant and memorable picture of cultural life and intellectual concerns of the period. Figures associated with his court include William Dunbar, Walter Kennedy and Gavin Douglas, who made the first complete translation of Virgil's Aeneid
Aeneid
in northern Europe. His reign also saw the passing of the makar Robert Henryson. He patronised music at Restalrig
Restalrig
using rental money from the King's Wark.[8] He also gave his backing to the foundation of King's College, Aberdeen
King's College, Aberdeen
by his chancellor, William Elphinstone, and St Leonard's College, St Andrews by his illegitimate son Alexander Stewart, Archbishop of St Andrews, and John Hepburn, Prior of St Andrews. Partly at Elphinstone's instance, in 1496 he also passed what has been described as Scotland's first education act, which dictated that all barons and freeholders of substance had to send their eldest sons and heirs to school for a certain time. James was well educated and a fluent polyglot. In July 1498 the Spanish envoy Pedro de Ayala
Pedro de Ayala
reported to Ferdinand and Isabella that

The King is 25 years and some months old. He is of noble stature, neither tall nor short, and as handsome in complexion and shape as a man can be. His address is very agreeable. He speaks the following foreign languages: Latin, very well; French, German, Flemish, Italian, and Spanish; Spanish as well as the Marquis, but he pronounces it more distinctly. He likes, very much, to receive Spanish letters. His own Scots language
Scots language
is as different from English as Aragonese from Castilian. The King speaks, besides, the language of the savages who live in some parts of Scotland
Scotland
and on the islands. It is as different from Scots as Biscayan is from Castilian. His knowledge of languages is wonderful. He is well read in the Bible and in some other devout books. He is a good historian. He has read many Latin and French histories, and profited by them, as he has a very good memory. He never cuts his hair or his beard. It becomes him very well.[9]

James IV was the last King of Scots known to have spoken Scottish Gaelic. James is one of the rulers reported to have conducted a language deprivation experiment,[10] sending two children to be raised by a mute woman alone on the island of Inchkeith, to determine if language was learned or innate.[11] James was especially interested in surgery and medicine, and also other sciences which are now less creditable: in Stirling
Stirling
Castle, he established an alchemy workshop where alchemist John Damian looked for ways to turn base metals into gold.[12] The project consumed quantities of mercury, golden litharge, and tin.[13] Damian also researched aviation and undertook a failed experiment to fly from the battlements of Stirling
Stirling
Castle, an event which William Dunbar
William Dunbar
satirised in two separate poems.[14] Policy in the Highlands and Isles[edit]

James IV, copy by Daniël Mijtens
Daniël Mijtens
of lost contemporary portrait

In May 1493 John MacDonald, Lord of the Isles, was forfeited[clarification needed] by the Parliament of Scotland. King James himself sailed to Dunstaffnage Castle, where the western chiefs made their submissions to him. John surrendered and was brought back as a pensioner to the royal court, then lived at Paisley Abbey. The Highlands and Islands
Highlands and Islands
now fell under direct royal control. John's grandson Domhnall Dubh (Donald Owre), one of the possible claimants to the Lordship, was peaceable, but the other, his nephew Alexander MacDonald of Lochalsh invaded Ross and was later killed on the island of Oronsay in 1497.[15] In October 1496 the Royal Council ordered that the clan chiefs in the region would be held responsible by the king for crimes of the islanders. This act for the governance of the region was unworkable, and after the Act of Revocation
Revocation
of 1498 undermined the chiefs' titles to their lands, resistance to Edinburgh
Edinburgh
rule was strengthened. James waited at Kilkerran Castle at Campbeltown Loch
Campbeltown Loch
to regrant the chiefs' charters in the summer of 1498. Few of the chiefs turned up.[16] At first, Archibald Campbell, 2nd Earl of Argyll
Archibald Campbell, 2nd Earl of Argyll
was set to fill the power vacuum and enforce royal authority, but he met with limited success in a struggle with his brother-in-law, Torquil MacLeod of Lewis. Torquil was ordered to hand over Donald Dubh, heir to the lordship of the Isles, to James IV at Inverness in 1501. James waited, but Torquil never came. After this defiance, Alexander Gordon, 3rd Earl of Huntly, was granted Torquil's lands. He raised an army in Lochaber
Lochaber
and also cleared the tenants of that area, replacing them with his supporters.[17] After the parliament of 1504, a royal fleet sailed north from Ayr to attack the Castle of Cairn-na-Burgh, west of Mull, where it is thought that Maclean of Duart
Maclean of Duart
had Donald Dubh in his keeping.[18] As progress at the siege was slow, James sent Hans the royal gunner in Robert Barton's ship and then the Earl of Arran with provisions and more artillery. Cairn-na-Burgh was captured by June 1504 but Donald Dubh remained at liberty.[19] In September 1507, Torquil MacLeod was besieged at Stornoway
Stornoway
Castle on Lewis. Donald Dubh was captured and imprisoned for the rest of his life, and Torquil MacLeod died in exile in 1511. The Earl of Huntly was richly rewarded for his troubles, a price that James was prepared to pay.[20] War and death[edit] When war broke out between England and France as a result of the Italian Wars, James found himself in a difficult position as an ally by treaty to both France and England.[21] Since the accession of Henry VIII in 1509, relations with England had worsened, and when Henry invaded France, James reacted by declaring war on England. James had already baulked at the interdict of his kingdom by Pope Julius II, and he opposed its confirmation by Pope Leo X, so that he was not in a good position with the pontiff.[22] Leo sent a letter to James, threatening him with ecclesiastical censure for breaking peace treaties, on 28 June 1513, and James was subsequently excommunicated by Cardinal Christopher Bainbridge. James summoned sailors and sent the Scottish navy, including the Great Michael, to join the ships of Louis XII of France, so joining in the War of the League of Cambrai.[23] Hoping to take advantage of Henry's absence at the siege of Thérouanne, he led an invading army southward into Northumberland, only to be killed, with many of his nobles and common soldiers, and also several churchmen, including his son the archbishop of St Andrews, at the disastrous Battle of Flodden
Battle of Flodden
on 9 September 1513. This was one of Scotland's worst military defeats in history and the loss of not only a popular and capable king, but also a large portion of the political community, was a major blow to the realm. James IV's son, James V, was crowned three weeks after the disaster at Flodden, but was not yet two years old, and his minority was to be fraught with political upheaval. Both English and Scottish accounts of Flodden emphasise the King's determination to fight. In his otherwise flattering portrayal of James, Pedro de Ayala
Pedro de Ayala
remarks on his ability as a military commander, portraying him as brusque and fearless on the battlefield:

He is courageous, even more so than a king should be. I am a good witness of it. I have seen him often undertake most dangerous things in the last wars. On such occasions he does not take the least care of himself. He is not a good captain, because he begins to fight before he has given his orders. He said to me that his subjects serve him with their persons and goods, in just and unjust quarrels, exactly as he likes, and that therefore he does not think it right to begin any warlike undertaking without being himself the first in danger. His deeds are as good as his words.[24]

A body, thought to be that of James, was recovered from the battlefield and taken to London for burial. James had been excommunicated, and although Henry VIII had obtained a breve from the Pope on 29 November 1513 to have the King buried in consecrated ground at St. Paul's, the embalmed body lay unburied for many years at Sheen Priory in Surrey.[25] The body was lost after the Reformation, which led to the demolition of the priory.[26] John Stow
John Stow
claimed to have seen it, and said the king's head (with red hair) was removed by a glazier and eventually buried at St Michael Wood Street. The church was later demolished and the site redeveloped many times; it is now occupied by a public house.[26][27] James's bloodstained coat was sent to Henry VIII (then on campaign in France) by his queen, Catherine of Aragon.[28] Erasmus
Erasmus
provided an epitaph for the King in his Adagia. Later, in 1533, he wrote to James V
James V
of Scotland
Scotland
pointing out this essay on duty under the adage Spartam nactus es, hanc exorna (You who were born to Sparta shall serve her) on the subject of the Flodden campaign and the death of James, and also that of his son Alexander, who had been Erasmus' pupil for a one time.[29] Legends of the King's resting place[edit] However rumours persisted for many years that James had survived and had gone into exile, or his body was buried in Scotland, with no evidence to support them. Two castles in the Scottish Borders are claimed to be his resting place. These stories follow the legend that, prior to the Scots charge at Flodden, James had ripped off his royal surcoat to show his nobles that he was prepared to fight as an ordinary man at arms. What was reputed to be James IV's body recovered by the English did not have the iron chain round its waist. (Some historians claimed he removed his chain while "dallying" in Lady Heron's bedroom.) However, Border legend claimed that during the Battle of Flodden
Battle of Flodden
four Home horsemen or supernatural riders swept across the field snatching up the King's body as such a prize could not be allowed to fall into English hands after such a humiliating defeat, or that the King left the field alive and was killed soon afterwards. In the 18th century when the medieval well of Hume Castle was being cleared, the skeleton of a man with a chain round his waist was discovered in a side cave; but this skeleton has since disappeared. Another version of this tale has the skeleton discovered at Hume a few years after the battle and re-interred at Holyrood Abbey. Exactly the same story was told for Roxburgh Castle, the skeleton there discovered in the 17th century. Yet another tradition is the discovery of the royal body at Berry Moss, near Kelso. Fuelling these legends, Robert Lindsay of Pitscottie, writing in the 1570s, claimed that a convicted criminal offered to show Regent Albany the King's grave ten years after the battle, but Albany refused.[30] Marriage[edit] His early betrothal to Cecily of York
Cecily of York
came to nothing, but interest in an English marriage remained. Also, a marriage alliance was contemplated with the daughter of the Catholic Monarchs
Catholic Monarchs
of Spain, Maria of Aragon, but the death of her sister Isabella, Queen of Portugal, killed the plans. Maria was later offered as wife of her sister’s widower, King Manuel I of Portugal. In a ceremony at the altar of Glasgow Cathedral
Glasgow Cathedral
on 10 December 1502, James confirmed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace
Treaty of Perpetual Peace
with Henry VII of England.[31] By this treaty James married Henry's daughter Margaret Tudor. After a wedding by proxy in London, the marriage was confirmed in person on 8 August 1503 at Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh. Their wedding was commemorated by the gift of a Book of Hours. The union produced four children plus two stillbirths:[32]

James, Duke of Rothesay
Duke of Rothesay
(21 February 1507, Holyrood Palace
Holyrood Palace
– 27 February 1508, Stirling
Stirling
Castle) A stillborn daughter at Holyrood Palace
Holyrood Palace
on 15 July 1508. Arthur, Duke of Rothesay
Duke of Rothesay
(20 October 1509, Holyrood Palace
Holyrood Palace
Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Castle, 14 July 1510). James V
James V
(Linlithgow Palace, 10 April 1512 – Falkland Palace, Fife, 14 December 1542), the only one to survive infancy, and the successor of his father. A second stillborn daughter at Holyrood Palace
Holyrood Palace
in November 1512. Alexander, Duke of Ross ( Stirling
Stirling
Castle, 30 April 1514 – Stirling Castle, 18 December 1515), born after James's death.

Illegitimate children[edit] James also had several illegitimate children with four different mistresses; five of the children are known to have reached adulthood:[32]

With Margaret Boyd:

Alexander (c. 1493 – Battle of Flodden, 9 September 1513), Archbishop of St Andrews. Catherine Stewart (c. 1495 – 1554), who married James Douglas, 3rd Earl of Morton.

With Lady Margaret Drummond:

Margaret Stewart (born c. 1497), married first John Gordon, Lord Gordon and second Sir John Drummond 2nd of Innerpeffray.

With Janet Kennedy:

James (before 1499–1544), created Earl of Moray.

With Isabel Stewart, daughter of James Stewart, 1st Earl of Buchan:

Lady Janet Stewart
Lady Janet Stewart
(17 July 1502 – 20 February 1562).

Titles and styles[edit]

17 March 1473 – 11 June 1488: The Duke of Rothesay 11 June 1488 – 9 September 1513: His Grace The King of Scots

Fictional portrayals[edit] James IV has been depicted in historical novels and short stories. They include:[33]

The Yellow Frigate (1855) by James Grant,[33] also known as The Three Sisters.[34] The main events of the novel take place in the year 1488, covering the Battle of Sauchieburn, the assassination of James III of Scotland, the rise to the throne of James IV, and the plots of the so-called English faction in Scotland. James IV, and Margaret Drummond are prominently depicted. Andrew Wood of Largo
Andrew Wood of Largo
and Henry VII of England are secondary characters.[33] In the King's Favour (1899) by J. E. Preston Muddock. Covers the last few months of James IV's reign and ends with the Battle of Flodden (1513).[35] The Arrow of the North (1906) by R. H. Forster. The novel mainly depicts Northumberland
Northumberland
in the reigns of Henry VII and Henry VIII of England. It covers the Flodden campaign of the Anglo-Scottish Wars
Anglo-Scottish Wars
and the finale depicts the battle which ended James IV's life.[35] The Crimson Field (1916) by Halliwell Sutcliffe. Also covers the Anglo-Scottish Wars. It features James IV and "ends with a full account of the Battle of Flodden" (1513).[35] King Heart (1926) by Carola Oman. The story depicts Scotland
Scotland
in the time of James IV. The king himself is depicted in an epilogue featuring the Battle of Flodden
Battle of Flodden
(1513).[33] Gentle Eagle (1937) by Christine Orr, fictional account of the king's life Chain of Destiny (1964) by Nigel Tranter, fictional account of the king's life, from Sauchieburn to Flodden Falcon (1972) by A J Stewart, an unusual work by an author claiming to be a reincarnation of the king Three Sisters, Three Queens (2016) by Philippa Gregory, a fictional work from the point of view of Margaret Tudor, extensively featuring James "The Tournament of the Black Lady", a short story which features the 1508 jousting tournament held by King James at Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Castle The Tournament of the African Lady, a short animation that recreates the jousting tournament held by King James IV of Scotland
Scotland
on the 31st May 1508 "Sunset at Noon" (1955) by Jane Oliver a fictionalised account of the king's life.

Ancestors[edit]

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Ancestors of James IV of Scotland

16. Robert III of Scotland

8. James I of Scotland

17. Anabella Drummond

4. James II of Scotland

18. John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset

9. Joan Beaufort

19. Margaret Holland

2. James III of Scotland

20. John II of Egmond

10. Arnold, Duke of Gelderland

21. Maria van Arkel

5. Mary of Guelders

22. Adolph I, Duke of Cleves

11. Catherine of Cleves (1417–1479)

23. Mary of Burgundy

1. James IV of Scotland

24. Christian V, Count of Oldenburg

12. Dietrich, Count of Oldenburg

25. Agnes of Hohnstein-Heringen

6. Christian I of Denmark

26. Gerhard VI, Count of Holstein-Rendsburg

13. Helvig of Schauenburg

27. Catherine Elisabeth of Brunswick-Lüneburg

3. Margaret of Denmark

28. Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg

14. John, Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach

29. Elisabeth of Bavaria

7. Dorothea of Brandenburg

30. Rudolf III, Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg

15. Barbara of Saxe-Wittenberg

31. Barbara of Legnica

Notes[edit]

^ Marshall, Rosalind K. (2003). Scottish Queens, 1034–1714. Tuckwell Press. p. 85.  ^ Macdougall, Norman, James IV, pp. 5–7. ^ Goodwin, George. Fatal Rivalry: Flodden 1513. New York: WW Norton, 2013. pp. 9–10. ^ Lindsay of Pitscottie, Robert, The History of Scotland, Robert Freebairn, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
(1778), p. 149. ^ Macdougall, Norman, James IV, (1997), p. 254; Letters James IV, SHS (1953) p. xlii and 107–11; Pinkerton, John, History of Scotland
Scotland
from the Accession, vol. 2 (1797), p. 449, prints Wolsey's letter in full and attributes it to Nicolas West. ^ Macdougall, Norman, James IV, Tuckwell (1997); chapter 'Royal Obsession: The Navy', pp. 223–46. ^ Dunbar, John G., Scottish Royal Palaces, Tuckwell (1999). ^ W. Swan, South Leith Records Second Series (Leith, 1925), p. 191. ^ Calendar of State Papers, Spain (1485–1509), volume 1 (1862), No. 210, English translation from Spanish.: See original letter at Archivo General de Simancas, PTR, LEG,52, DOC.166 - 857V - Imagen Núm: 2 / 26 ^ "First Language Acquisition". Western Washington University. Retrieved 3 February 2007.  ^ Dalyell, John Graham, ed., The Chronicles of Scotland
Scotland
by Robert Lindsay of Pitscottie, vol. 1, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
(1814) pp. 249–250. ^ Read, John (8 May 1958). "An Alchemical Airman". New Scientist: 30. Retrieved 8 August 2016.  ^ Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland, vol. 3, HM General Register House (1901), 99, 202, 206, 209, 330, 340, 341, 353, 355, 365, 379, 382, 389, 409: vol. 2 (1900), 362. ^ Read 31. ^ Mackie, R.L., James IV, (1958), pp. 76 and 188–98. ^ MacDougall, Norman, James IV, (1997), 176–177. ^ MacDougall, Norman, (1997), 179–181. ^ MacDougall, Norman, James IV, (1997), 185. ^ MacDougall, Norman, (1997), 185-186. ^ MacDougall, Norman, James IV, (1997), p. 189. ^ MacDougall, Norman, James IV, Tuckwell (1998) p.207 ^ British History Online. Quote: "James had told the Dean of Windsor (West), the English ambassador, that he would appeal from the letters of execution [of the Scottish interdict]. The Dean said he could not appeal from any proceedings of the Pope, as he had no superior. Then, said the King, I will appeal to Prester John — a noted pirate and apostate who commands the French galleys. [Henry VIII thinks] such folly ought to be chastised. It is impious to abuse the Pope, the Head of Christendom." (12 April 1513 entry) ^ Hannay, Robert Kerr, ed., Letters of James IV, SHS (1953), pp. 307–8, 315–16 and 318–19. ^ Calendar of State Papers, Spain,(1485–1509), volume 1 (1862), no. 210, English translation from encrypted Spanish ^ Herbert, Edward, The Life and Reign of Henry VIII,(1672), 45: Letters & Papers Henry VIII, vol.1 (1920) no. 2469, Leo X to Henry. ^ a b Dr. Tony Pollard (8 September 2013). "The sad tale of James IV's body". BBC News Scotland. Retrieved 9 September 2013.  ^ Aikman, James, Buchanan's History of Scotland, vol. 2 (1827), 259 note, quoting Stow's Survey of London on St Michael, Cripplegate ward. ^ Find a Grave — James IV King of Scots ^ Hay, Denys, Letters of James IV, HMSO (1954), p. 252, 8 December 1533: Mynors, RAB., ed., Collected Works of Erasmus, Adages, vol. 3, Toronto, (1991), pp. 240–43, Adage 2.5.1 Spartam nactus es, trans. English ^ Adam de Cardonnel, The Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Magazine, vol. 4, August (1786), p. 112, and Numismata Scotiae, (1786), p. 83, note both legends: Pitscottie, History of Scotland, Glasgow, (1749), p. 214; Spencer, Nathaniel, The Complete English Traveller, (1772), p. 575; Archaeologia Aeliana, vol. 3, (1859), p. 228. ^ Bain, Joseph, ed., Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland, 1357–1509, vol. 4, HM Register House, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
(1888), nos. 1681, 1690–1697. ^ a b The Peerage — James IV ^ a b c d Nield (1968), p. 61. ^ Internet Archive, Open library online version of The Yellow Frigate, or The Three Sisters ^ a b c Nield (1968), p. 67.

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to James IV of Scotland.

James the Fourth, Norman Macdougall (2006 with two earlier editions, regarded as definitive). King James IV of Scotland, R.L. Mackie (1958, the most important previous biography). Ashley, Mike (2002). British Kings & Queens. Carroll & Graf. pp. 280–286. ISBN 0-7867-1104-3.  James IV in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, New York, 2004, Vol. 29, pp. 609–619

Primary Sources

Accounts of the Comptroller, Sir Duncan Forestar, 1495–1499, Miscellany of the Scottish History Society, vol. 9 (1958), 57–81. In Latin. Bain, Joseph, ed., Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland, 1357–1509, vol. 4, HM Register House, Edinburgh
Edinburgh
(1888) Flodden Papers, 1505–1517, ed. Marguerite Wood, Scottish History Society, (1933), French diplomatic correspondence (does not refer to the battle). Letters of James IV, 1505–1513, ed. Mackie & Spilman, Scottish History Society (1953), English summaries of international letters. Nield, Jonathan (1968), A Guide to the Best Historical Novels and Tales, Ayer Publishing, ISBN 978-0-8337-2509-7 

James IV of Scotland House of Stewart Born: 17 March 1473 Died: 9 September 1513

Regnal titles

Preceded by James III King of Scotland 11 June 1488 – 9 September 1513 Succeeded by James V

v t e

Pictish and Scottish monarchs

Monarchs of the Picts (traditional)

Drest I Talorc I Nechtan I Drest II Galan Erilich Drest III Drest IV Gartnait I Cailtram Talorc II Drest V Galam Cennalath Bridei I Gartnait II Nechtan II Cinioch Gartnait III Bridei II Talorc III Talorgan I Gartnait IV Drest VI Bridei III Taran Bridei IV Nechtan III Drest VII Alpín I Óengus I Bridei V Ciniod I Alpín II Talorgan II Drest VIII Conall Constantine (I) Óengus II Drest IX Uuen Uurad Bridei VI Ciniod II Bridei VII Drest X

Monarchs of the Scots (traditional)

Kenneth I MacAlpin Donald I Constantine I (II) Áed Giric Eochaid (uncertain) Donald II Constantine II (III) Malcolm I Indulf Dub Cuilén Amlaíb Kenneth II Constantine III (IV) Kenneth III Malcolm II Duncan I Macbeth Lulach Malcolm III Canmore Donald III Duncan II Donald III Edgar Alexander I David I Malcolm IV William I the Lion Alexander II Alexander III Margaret First Interregnum John Second Interregnum Robert the Bruce
Robert the Bruce
(I) David II Robert II Robert III James I James II James III James IV James V Mary I James VI1 Charles I1 Charles II1 James VII1 Mary II1 William II1 Anne1

1 also monarch of England and Ireland.

v t e

English, Scottish and British monarchs

Monarchs of England before 1603 Monarchs of Scotland
Scotland
before 1603

Alfred the Great Edward the Elder Ælfweard Æthelstan Edmund I Eadred Eadwig Edgar the Peaceful Edward the Martyr Æthelred the Unready Sweyn Edmund II Cnut Harold I Harthacnut Edward the Confessor Harold II Edgar Ætheling William I William II Henry I Stephen Matilda Henry II Henry the Young King Richard I John Henry III Edward I Edward II Edward III Richard II Henry IV Henry V Henry VI Edward IV Edward V Richard III Henry VII Henry VIII Edward VI Jane Mary I and Philip Elizabeth I

Kenneth I MacAlpin Donald I Constantine I Áed Giric Eochaid Donald II Constantine II Malcolm I Indulf Dub Cuilén Amlaíb Kenneth II Constantine III Kenneth III Malcolm II Duncan I Macbeth Lulach Malcolm III Donald III Duncan II Donald III Edgar Alexander I David I Malcolm IV William I Alexander II Alexander III Margaret of Norway First Interregnum John Balliol Second Interregnum Robert I David II Edward Balliol Robert II Robert III James I James II James III James IV James V Mary I James VI

Monarchs of England and Scotland
Scotland
after the Union of the Crowns
Union of the Crowns
in 1603

James I & VI Charles I Commonwealth Charles II James II & VII William III & II and Mary II Anne

British monarchs after the Acts of Union 1707

Anne George I George II George III George IV William IV Victoria Edward VII George V Edward VIII George VI Elizabeth II

Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics.

v t e

Dukes of Rothesay

David (1398–1402) James (1402–1406) Alexander (1430) James (1430–1437) James (1452–1460) James (1473–1488) James (1507–1508) Arthur (1509–1510) James (1512–1513) James (1540–1541) James (1566–1567) Henry Frederick (1603–1612) Charles (1612–1625) Charles James (1629) Charles (1630–1649) James (1688–1689) George (1714–1727) Frederick (1727–1751) George (1762–1820) Albert Edward (1841–1901) George (1901–1910) Edward (1910–1936) Charles (1952–present)

v t e

House of Stewart

Titles

High Steward of Scotland Earl of Lennox Duke of Lennox Duke of Richmond Duke of Albany King of England King of Ireland Lord of Sticks Earl of Moray Duke of Aubigny Earl of Moray Marquess of Bute Earl of March Earl of Galloway

Branches

Stewart of Appin Stewart of Ballechin Stewart of Castle Stewart Stewart of Balquhidder Stewart of Darnley

Royal Stewarts

The generations indicate descent from Robert II of Scotland, first monarch of the House of Stewart

1st generation

Robert III of Scotland Walter, Earl of Fife Robert, Duke of Albany Alexander, Earl of Buchan Elizabeth, Lady Erroll Isabella, Countess of Douglas Jean, Lady Keith Katherine Logan Margaret, Lady of the Isles Marjorie, Countess of Moray David, Earl of Strathearn Walter, Earl of Atholl Elizabeth, Countess of Crawford Egidia, Lady Douglas

Illegitimate John Stewart of Dundonald John Stewart, Lord of Burley John Stewart of Cardney Alexander Stewart, Canon of Glasgow Alexander Stewart of Innerlunan Thomas Stewart James Stewart of Kinfauns Walter Stewart

2nd generation

David, Duke of Rothesay James I of Scotland Robert Margaret, Countess of Douglas Mary, Countess of Angus Elizabeth, Lady Dalkeith Egidia

Illegitimate James Stewart of Killbride

3rd generation

Margaret, Dauphine of France Isabella, Duchess of Brittany Eleanor, Archduchess of Austria Joan, Countess of Morton Alexander, Duke of Rothesay James II of Scotland Mary, Countess of Buchan Annabella, Countess of Geneva and Huntly

4th generation

Mary, Countess of Arran James III of Scotland Alexander, Duke of Albany David, Earl of Moray John, Earl of Mar Margaret

Illegitimate John Stewart of Sticks and Ballechin

5th generation

James IV of Scotland James, Duke of Ross John, Earl of Mar

6th generation

James, Duke of Rothesay Arthur, Duke of Rothesay James V
James V
of Scotland Alexander, Duke of Ross

Illegitimate Alexander, Archbishop of St Andrews Katherine, Countess of Morton James, Earl of Moray Margaret, Lady Gordon Janet, Lady Fleming

7th generation

James, Duke of Rothesay Robert, Duke of Albany Mary, Queen of Scots

Illegitimate John, Prior of Coldingham James, Earl of Moray Robert, Earl of Orkney James Stewart, Abbot of Kelso and Melrose James Stewart Adam Stewart, Prior of Charterhouse Jean, Countess of Argyll Robert Stewart, Prior of Whithorn Margaret Stewart

8th generation

James VI of Scotland
Scotland
and I of England

9th generation

Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia Margaret Charles I of England Robert, Duke of Kintyre and Lorne Mary Sophia

10th generation

Charles James, Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay Charles II Mary, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange James II Elizabeth Anne Katherine Henry, Duke of Gloucester Henrietta, Duchess of Orléans

11th generation

Charles, Duke of Cambridge Mary II James, Duke of Cambridge Anne, Queen of Great Britain Charles, Duke of Kendal Edgar, Duke of Cambridge James Francis Edward, Prince of Wales Louisa Maria Theresa

Illegitimate James, Duke of Monmouth Charlotte, Countess of Suffolk and Yarmouth Charles, Earl of Plymouth Anne, Countess of Sussex Charles, Duke of Cleveland Henry, Duke of Grafton Charlotte, Countess of Lichfield George, Duke of Northumberland Charles, Duke of St Albans James, Lord Beauclerk Charles, Duke of Richmond Mary, Countess of Derwentwater Henrietta, Baroness Waldegrave of Chewton James, Duke of Berwick Henry, Duke of Albemarle

12th generation

Charles Edward "Bonnie Prince Charlie" Henry, Cardinal York

13th generation

Illegitimate Charlotte, Duchess of Albany

Category

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 42633867 LCCN: n50028951 ISNI: 0000 0000 6299 2755 GND: 118775839 SELIBR: 354413 SUDOC: 030279887 BNF: cb12172972w (data) BIBSYS: 970052

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