James Dutton (Royal Marines officer)
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Lieutenant General Lieutenant general (Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star rank, three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages, where the title of lieutenant general was held by the second-in ...
Sir James Benjamin "Jim" Dutton, (born 21 February 1954) is a retired
Royal Marines The Corps of Royal Marines (RM) is an amphibious Amphibious means able to use either land or water. In particular it may refer to: * ''Amphibious'' (film), a 2010 film * Amphibious aircraft An amphibious aircraft or amphibian is an air ...
officer and former
Governor of Gibraltar The Governor of Gibraltar is the representative of the British monarch The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principle ...
. He held various staff positions in his early career, before commanding
40 Commando 40 Commando RM is a battalion A battalion is a military unit Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed force A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly ...
. As a brigadier, he held two high-level staff posts—the first at the
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in London, as Director of
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policy, and the second as a British liaison to
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shortly after the
September 11 attacks The September 11 attacks, also commonly referred to as 9/11, were a series of four coordinated by the militant terrorist group against the on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. On that morning, four commercial s traveling fro ...
, where he was involved in the planning for the subsequent invasion of Afghanistan. A newspaper later pinpointed this as the moment when Dutton's career "took off". After the planning for the invasion, Dutton took command of
3 Commando Brigade 3 Commando Brigade is a commando Royal Marines from 40 Commando on patrol in the Sangin">40_Commando.html" ;"title="Royal Marines from 40 Commando">Royal Marines from 40 Commando on patrol in the Sangin area of Afghanistan are pictured un ...
, which was already serving in Afghanistan. In 2003, he led the brigade into the start of
Iraq War The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the Second Gulf War or the Third Gulf War by those who consider the Iran–Iraq War the first Gulf War. The war was also called the Second Iraq War referring to the Gulf War as the first Iraq war. The p ...
, supported by units from the
British Army The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' us ...
as well as the
United States Marine Corps The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is the maritime land force service branch Military branch (also service branch or armed service) is according to common standard the subdivision of the na ...
, making Dutton the first British officer to command American troops since the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. He commanded his men through heavy resistance from Iraqi forces in the early days of the war. As a
general officer A general officer is an Officer (armed forces), officer of highest military ranks, high rank in the army, armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines. In some usages the term "general officer" refers to a rank above colo ...
, he served as
Commandant General Royal Marines The Commandant General Royal Marines is the professional head of the Royal Marines. The title has existed since 1943. The Commandant General Royal Marines is responsible for advising the First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff, with professio ...
, the professional head of the
Royal Marines The Corps of Royal Marines (RM) is an amphibious Amphibious means able to use either land or water. In particular it may refer to: * ''Amphibious'' (film), a 2010 film * Amphibious aircraft An amphibious aircraft or amphibian is an air ...
and a dual-hatted appointment with Commander UK Amphibious Forces, for two years. While in this post, Dutton returned to Iraq to command Multi-national Division (South-East) in 2005, where he attracted media attention through outspoken remarks alleging Iranian support for the insurgents in Iraq. His last field post, as a
lieutenant general Lieutenant general (Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star rank, three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages, where the title of lieutenant general was held by the second-in ...
, was as Deputy Commander of the
International Security Assistance Force The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a multinational military mission in Afghanistan from 2001 to 2014. It was established by United Nations Security Council United Nations Security Council Resolution 1386, Resolution 1386 pursua ...
in Afghanistan. He held the position from 2008 to 2009, during the peak of the Taliban insurgency, and assisted American General
Stanley A. McChrystal Stanley Allen McChrystal (born August 14, 1954) is a retired United States Army General (United States), general best known for his command of Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC) in the mid-2000s. His last assignment was as Commander, Internat ...
, then commander of
ISAF ' ps, کمک او همکاري ' , allies = Afghanistan Afghanistan (; /: , Pashto: , Dari: ), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a at the crossroads of and . Afghanistan is bordered by to the east and ...

ISAF
, in redesigning the military strategy to combat the insurgency. Dutton retired from the military in 2010. He was later appointed Governor of
Gibraltar ) , anthem = "God Save the Queen" , song = "Gibraltar Anthem" , image_map = Gibraltar location in Europe.svg , map_alt = Location of Gibraltar in Europe , map_caption = United Kingdom shown in pale green , mapsize = 290px , image_map2 = ...

Gibraltar
, taking up office on 6 December 2013; he retired early from the post, in September 2015.


Early and personal life

Dutton was born on 21 February 1954, to Edgar and Aileen Dutton. He was educated at
The King's School, Chester The King's School, Chester, is a United Kingdom, British co-educational Independent (UK), independent Day school, day school for children aged 4 to 18. It is one of the seven 'King's Schools' established (or re-endowed and renamed) by Henry ...
, then an all-boys
independent school An independent school is independent in its finances and governance. Also known as private schools, non-governmental, privately funded, or non-state schools, they are not administered by local, state or national governments. In British Engli ...
. He studied systems and management at
City University London City, University of London, is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the ...
, where he gained a
Bachelor of Science A Bachelor of Science (BS, BSc, SB, or ScB; from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare' ...
(BSc) degree. He is married to Elizabeth (née Waddell). The couple have one son, who is also an officer in the Royal Marines, and one daughter. Dutton lists his interests as sailing and running.


Early military career

Dutton originally applied to join the
British Army The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' us ...
but failed the selection process. He applied to join, and was commissioned into, the
Royal Marines The Corps of Royal Marines (RM) is an amphibious Amphibious means able to use either land or water. In particular it may refer to: * ''Amphibious'' (film), a 2010 film * Amphibious aircraft An amphibious aircraft or amphibian is an air ...
in 1972. He was promoted to acting
lieutenant A lieutenant ( or abbreviated Lt., Lt, LT, Lieut and similar) is a commissioned officer An officer is a person who holds a position of authority as a member of an armed force A military, also known collectively as armed forces, i ...
in 1975, before being granted the substantive rank in 1976, with seniority from October 1975. He served as a signals officer in the
Falklands War The Falklands War ( es , link=no, Guerra de las Malvinas) was a ten-week undeclared war An undeclared war is military conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or par ...
and, after holding a variety of staff positions in the junior ranks, was promoted to
major Major is a military rank Military ranks are a system of hierarchical A hierarchy (from the Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are repre ...
in 1990. In 1996 he assumed command of
40 Commando 40 Commando RM is a battalion A battalion is a military unit Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed force A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly ...
, in which position he served on manoeuvres in Asia and South Africa. As a
brigadier Brigadier is a military rank, the seniority of which depends on the country. In some countries, it is a senior rank above colonel, equivalent to a brigadier general or commodore (rank), commodore, typically commanding a brigade of several thous ...
, Dutton served at the
Ministry of Defence Ministry of Defence or Ministry of Defense may refer to: * Ministry of defenceMinistry of Defence or Ministry of Defense may refer to: * Ministry of defence, a type of government department responsible for matters of defence Current ministries ...
as Director, NATO policy, a senior staff post, prior to attending the
Royal College of Defence Studies Royal may refer to: People * Royal (name) Royal can be a surname or a given name. Bearers include: Surname * Billy Joe Royal (1942–2015), American country music and pop singer * Calvin Royal III, American ballet dancer * Darrell Royal (1924 ...
. He was pulled off the course before completion and seconded to
The Pentagon The Pentagon is the headquarters Headquarters (commonly referred to as HQ) denotes the location where most, if not all, of the important functions of an organization are coordinated. In the United States The United States of America ...
in Washington, DC to act as liaison between the British Chief of the Defence Staff and the American Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in the immediate aftermath of the September 11 attacks, terrorist attacks on the United States. While seconded to The Pentagon, Dutton was involved in the joint American and British planning for the subsequent "War on Terror". ''The Times'' called this assignment the moment Dutton's career "took off". "Keen" to command the Royal Marines in action in Afghanistan, Dutton took command of
3 Commando Brigade 3 Commando Brigade is a commando Royal Marines from 40 Commando on patrol in the Sangin">40_Commando.html" ;"title="Royal Marines from 40 Commando">Royal Marines from 40 Commando on patrol in the Sangin area of Afghanistan are pictured un ...
in 2002 and deployed to Afghanistan in command of 1700 personnel, succeeding Roger Lane (Royal Marines officer), Roger Lane. The replacement was controversial and led to speculation that it was politically motivated by Lane's criticism of the Ministry of Defence and public contradiction of Geoff Hoon, then Secretary of State for Defence, over the readiness of troops. The brigade had a tour of duty in Iraq in early 2003, at the very beginning of the
Iraq War The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the Second Gulf War or the Third Gulf War by those who consider the Iran–Iraq War the first Gulf War. The war was also called the Second Iraq War referring to the Gulf War as the first Iraq war. The p ...
. Dutton led 3 Commando, as well as supporting units from the Royal Engineers, 7th Armoured Division (United Kingdom), 7 Armoured Division, 16 Air Assault Brigade along with troops from multiple other nations, including United States Marine Corps, US Marines, the first time American troops had been under the operational command of a British officer since the Second World War. Royal Marines from 40 Commando under Dutton's overall command, along with United States Navy SEALs, secured oil fields on the Al-Faw Peninsula to prevent them from being burned in the first days of the ground operation, after which 40 Commando and others from 3 Commando Brigade moved up the peninsula and took the port city of Umm Qasr, where they encountered resistance into the fifth day of the ground campaign. Dutton also commanded the brigade through heavy fighting on the outskirts of Basra and commented that the fighting had been more intense there than predicted, saying "the planning assumption had always been that the advancing coalition forces would simply sweep past Basra and it would implode by itself". Dutton's calmness during the invasion prompted journalist Tim Butcher, who reported on the war while attached to 3 Commando Brigade, to describe him as "a lean, thinking man with none of the tub-thumping machismo of some officers" and "coldly professional in his job". While still under Dutton's command in late 2003, 3 Commando Brigade conducted the Royal Marines' first visit to Slovenia, prior to the country's ascension to the European Union and NATO, for alpine warfare training led by Slovenian troops and culminating in the five-day Exercise Royal Chamois. With the brigade, Dutton also undertook cold-weather training in Norway in 2004. He was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in October 2003. In 2002, Dutton was given the honorary appointment of Aide-de-camp to the Queen.


High command

Dutton attained
general officer A general officer is an Officer (armed forces), officer of highest military ranks, high rank in the army, armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines. In some usages the term "general officer" refers to a rank above colo ...
status with promotion to Major-general (United Kingdom), major general on 4 May 2004, and was appointed to the double-hatted post of
Commandant General Royal Marines The Commandant General Royal Marines is the professional head of the Royal Marines. The title has existed since 1943. The Commandant General Royal Marines is responsible for advising the First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff, with professio ...
(CGRM) and Commander UK Amphibious Forces (COMUKAMPHIBFOR). He relinquished CGRM/COMUKAMPHIBFOR in June 2006, succeeded by Major General Garry Robison, taking a staff post as Chief of Staff (Capability), before appointment to Chief of Staff (Operations). He was appointed Honorary Colonel of 131 Independent Commando Squadron Royal Engineers in March 2006, succeeding Lieutenant General Sir Robert Fry. In 2005, he deployed to Basra, Iraq, taking command of Multi-national Division (South-East). While there, he was outspoken on the subject of improvised explosive devices, responsible for many coalition casualties, and accusing neighbouring Iran of aiding, or failing to prevent, the smuggling of munitions across the border into Iraq. Dutton added "I simply don't know whether this is Iranian government policy or whether this is simply groups who are using Iran for their own purposes and not being controlled". Having been promoted to
lieutenant general Lieutenant general (Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star rank, three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages, where the title of lieutenant general was held by the second-in ...
in November 2008, Dutton succeeded Army Lieutenant General Jonathon Riley (British Army officer), Jonathon Riley as Deputy Commander of the
International Security Assistance Force The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a multinational military mission in Afghanistan from 2001 to 2014. It was established by United Nations Security Council United Nations Security Council Resolution 1386, Resolution 1386 pursua ...
(ISAF) in Afghanistan, a position he occupied until November 2009. During his tenure, the insurgency in Afghanistan peaked. Dutton helped American General
Stanley A. McChrystal Stanley Allen McChrystal (born August 14, 1954) is a retired United States Army General (United States), general best known for his command of Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC) in the mid-2000s. His last assignment was as Commander, Internat ...
, then overall commander of troops in the country, formulate a new strategy to combat the insurgency, which included an increase in the number of troops. Dutton was succeeded in his post at ISAF by Lieutenant General (later General Sir) Nick Parker at the end of 2009. Upon his return from Afghanistan, Dutton wrote an article for ''The Guardian'' newspaper, in which he opined that the NATO-led forces in the country were making a difference and the situation was improving, but that the Afghan government still required assistance. He argued that more troops did not necessarily mean more violence, saying that "experience shows that after an initial spike as the insurgents are cleared out, violence reduces to much lower levels" and that "providing a sense of security depends on much more than physical troop presence, but it has to start with that. We need sufficient troops to protect the people and convince them that Afghan government control (supported by [ISAF] for the moment) is sufficient to prevent the return of the insurgents. He went on to say that "the backbone of the NATO alliance gives the coalition a steadfastness which "coalitions of the willing" cannot match. It also gives unparalleled authority and legitimacy based on the consensus of its members". Dutton concluded that "given the strength of this unparalleled military coalition, and the political and financial commitment to building the long-term stability of Afghanistan and the region, failure should not be contemplated". He was awarded the American Legion of Merit (Degree of Officer), and given permission to wear the decoration, "in recognition of meritorious, gallant and distinguished services during coalition operations in Afghanistan". Dutton retired from active service on 3 May 2010. He was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB) in the 2010 Queen's Birthday Honours.


Civilian career

After retiring from the Royal Marines in 2010, Dutton joined Bechtel Corporation as an operations manager, dealing with issues in the Middle East, and went on to become the company's programme director for Gabon in 2011. After three years with Bechtel, he was appointed Governor of Gibraltar, governor of the British Overseas Territory of
Gibraltar ) , anthem = "God Save the Queen" , song = "Gibraltar Anthem" , image_map = Gibraltar location in Europe.svg , map_alt = Location of Gibraltar in Europe , map_caption = United Kingdom shown in pale green , mapsize = 290px , image_map2 = ...

Gibraltar
, and took office on 6 December 2013. On 26 May 2015 it was announced that Dutton would relinquish the post early. Dutton resigned effectively on 28 September 2015, concluding his civilian career working with the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, British Foreign Office. Dutton cited that his resignation was due to his frustration over the British Government's lack of action towards the Spanish aggression in Gibraltar's sovereign waters, his disenchantment with the largely ceremonial office of Governor (later denied) and his personal inability to act on these events. With Dutton's leaving of office, his Deputy Governor, Alison MacMillan, was sworn in as interim Governor of Gibraltar on the same day as his official departure. Mrs MacMillan had already served as interim Governor, doing so when Adrian Johns, Sir Adrian Johns resigned in 2013. It was announced on 1 October 2015 by the Foreign Office that Lieutenant General Ed Davis (Royal Marines officer), Ed Davis will be succeeding Dutton as Governor of Gibraltar effective 2016. On 5 August 2016, Dutton was appointed a Venerable Order of Saint John, Knight of the Order of St John by Queen Elizabeth II.


References


External links

* , - , - , - {{DEFAULTSORT:Dutton, James 1954 births Royal Marines generals Knights Commander of the Order of the Bath Commanders of the Order of the British Empire Foreign recipients of the Legion of Merit Governors of Gibraltar Royal Navy personnel of the War in Afghanistan (2001–2021) Royal Navy personnel of the Iraq War Royal Navy personnel of the Falklands War Living people Alumni of City, University of London Officers of the Legion of Merit People educated at The King's School, Chester