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Jain literature
Jain literature
comprises Jain Agamas
Jain Agamas
and subsequent commentaries on them by various Jain asectics. Jain literature
Jain literature
is primarily divided between Digambara
Digambara
literature and Svetambara
Svetambara
literature. Jains literature exists mainly in Magadhi Prakrit, Sanskrit, Marathi, Tamil, Rajasthani, Dhundari, Marwari, Hindi, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Tulu and more recently in English.

Contents

1 Canonical

1.1 Jain Agamas

2 Digambara
Digambara
literature

2.1 Shatkhandagama 2.2 Kashay‑pahud or Kashay-prabhrut 2.3 Acharya Kundakunda 2.4 Gommatsara

3 Non-Canonical

3.1 Theological 3.2 Narrative literature and poetry

4 Languages

4.1 Prakrit

5 See also 6 References

6.1 Citations 6.2 Sources

Canonical[edit] Jain Agamas[edit] Main article: Jain Agamas The canonical texts of Jainism
Jainism
are called Agamas. These are said to be based on the discourse of the tirthankara, delivered in a samavasarana (divine preaching hall). These discourses are termed as Śrutu Jnāna (Jinvani) and comprises eleven angas and fourteen purvas.[1] According to the Jains, the canonical literature originated from the first tirthankara Rishabhanatha. The Digambara
Digambara
sect believes that there were 26 Agam‑sutras (12 Ang‑agams + 14 Ang‑bahya‑agams). However, they were gradually lost starting from one hundred fifty years after Lord Mahavir's nirvana.[2] Hence, they do not recognize the existing Agam-sutras (which are recognized by the Svetambara
Svetambara
sects) as their authentic scriptures.[citation needed] Digambara
Digambara
literature[edit]

English translation of the Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra
Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra
(1917)

In Digambara
Digambara
tradition, two main texts, three commentaries on main texts, and four Anuyogas (exposition) consisting of more than 20 texts are followed.[3] These scriptures were written by great Acharyas (scholars) from 100 to 1000 AD using the original Agama Sutras as the basis for their work.[4] According to Vijay. K. Jain:

“ Āchārya Bhutabali
Bhutabali
was the last ascetic who had partial knowledge of the original canon. Later on, some learned Āchāryas started to restore, compile and put into written words the teachings of Lord Mahavira, that were the subject matter of Agamas. Āchārya Dharasen, in first century CE, guided two Āchāryas, Āchārya Pushpadant and Āchārya Bhutabali, to put these teachings in the written form. The two Āchāryas wrote, on palm leaves, Ṣaṭkhaṅḍāgama- among the oldest known Digambara
Digambara
Jaina texts. Around the same time, Āchārya Gunadhar wrote Kaşāyapāhuda.[5] ”

The prathmanuyoga (first exposition) contains the universal history, the karananuyoga (calculation exposition) contains works on cosmology and the charananuyoga (behaviour exposition) includes texts about proper behaviour for monks and Sravakas.[3] Shatkhandagama[edit] Main article: Shatkhandagama The Shatkhandagama
Shatkhandagama
is also known as Maha‑kammapayadi‑pahuda or Maha‑karma‑prabhrut. Two Acharyas; Pushpadanta and Bhutabali
Bhutabali
wrote it around 160 AD. The second Purva‑agama named Agraya‑niya was used as the basis for this text. The text contains six volumes. Acharya Virasena
Virasena
wrote two commentary texts, known as Dhaval‑tika on the first five volumes and Maha‑dhaval‑tika on the sixth volume of this scripture, around 780 AD.[citation needed] Kashay‑pahud or Kashay-prabhrut[edit] Main article: Kasayapahuda Acharya Gunadhara wrote the Kasay-pahud on the basis of the fifth Purva‑agama named Jnana‑pravad. Acharya Virasena
Virasena
and his disciple, Jinasena, wrote a commentary text known as Jaya‑dhaval‑tika around 780 AD.[6] Acharya Kundakunda[edit] Further information: Kundakunda Jain text composed by Acharya Kundakunda
Kundakunda
in the first century B.C. are:[7]

Samayasāra
Samayasāra
(The Nature of the Self) Niyamasara
Niyamasara
(The Perfect Law) Pancastikayasara

Gommatsara[edit] Main article: Gommatsāra Gommatsāra
Gommatsāra
is one of the most important Jain texts authored by Acharya Nemichandra
Nemichandra
Siddhanta Chakravarti.[8] It is based on the major Jain text, Dhavala written by the Acharya Bhutabali
Bhutabali
and Acharya Pushpadanta.[9] It is also called Pancha Sangraha, a collection of five topics:[10]

That which is bound, i.e., the Soul (Bandhaka); That which is bound to the soul; That which binds; The varieties of bondage; The cause of bondage.

Non-Canonical[edit] Theological[edit] Bhadrabahu
Bhadrabahu
(c. 300 BCE) is considered by the jains as last sutra-kevali (one who has memorized all the scriptures). He wrote various books known as niyukti, which are commentaries on those scriptures.[11] He also wrote Samhita, a book dealing with legal cases. Umaswati
Umaswati
(c. 1st century CE) wrote Tattvarthadhigama-sutra which briefly describes all the basic tennets of Jainism. Haribhadra (c 8th century) wrote the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya, a key Jain text on Yoga which compares the Yoga systems of Buddhists, Hindus and Jains. Siddhasena
Siddhasena
Divakara (c. 650 CE), a contemporary of Vikramaditya, wrote Nyayavatra a work on pure logic. Hemachandra
Hemachandra
(c. 1088-1072 CE) wrote the Yogaśāstra, a textbook on yoga and Adhatma Upanishad. His minor work Vitragastuti gives outlines of the Jaina doctrine in form of hymns. This was later detailed by Mallisena (c. 1292 CE) in his work Syadavadamanjari. Devendrasuri wrote Karmagrantha which discuss the theory of Karma in Jainism. Gunaratna (c. 1400 CE) gave a commentary on Haribhadra's work. Dharmasagara (c. 1573) wrote kaupaksakausi-kasahasrakirana (Sun for the owls of the false doctrine). In this work he wrote against the Digambara
Digambara
sect of Jainism. Lokaprakasa of Vinayavijaya and pratimasataka of Yasovijaya
Yasovijaya
were written in c. 17th century CE. Lokaprakasa deals with all aspects of Jainism. Pratimasataka deals with metaphysics and logic. Yasovijaya
Yasovijaya
defends idol-worshiping in this work. Srivarddhaeva (aka Tumbuluracarya) wrote a Kannada
Kannada
commentary on Tattvarthadigama-sutra. This work has 96000 verses.[citation needed] Jainendra-vyakarana of Acharya Pujyapada
Pujyapada
and Sakatayana-vyakarana of Sakatayana
Sakatayana
are the works on grammar written in c. 9th century CE. Siddha-Hem-Shabdanushasana" by Acharya Hemachandra
Hemachandra
(c. 12th century CE) is considered by F. Kielhorn as the best grammar work of the Indian middle age. Hemacandra's book Kumarapalacaritra is also noteworthy.[citation needed] Narrative literature and poetry[edit] Jaina narrative literature mainly contains stories about sixty-three prominent figures known as Salakapurusa, and people who were related to them. Some of the important works are Harivamshapurana of Jinasena (c. 8th century CE), Vikramarjuna-Vijaya (also known as Pampa-Bharata) of Kannada
Kannada
poet named Adi Pampa (c. 10th century CE), Pandavapurana of Shubhachandra (c. 16th century CE). Languages[edit] Jains literature exists mainly in Jain Prakrit, Sanskrit, Marathi, Tamil, Rajasthani, Dhundari, Marwari, Hindi, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam,[12] Tulu and more recently in English.[citation needed] Jains have contributed to India's classical and popular literature. For example, almost all early Kannada
Kannada
literature and many Tamil works were written by Jains. Some of the oldest known books in Hindi and Gujarati were written by Jain scholars.[citation needed] The first autobiography in the ancestor of Hindi, Braj Bhasha, is called Ardhakathānaka and was written by a Jain, Banarasidasa, an ardent follower of Acarya Kundakunda
Kundakunda
who lived in Agra. Many Tamil classics are written by Jains or with Jain beliefs and values as the core subject. Practically all the known texts in the Apabhramsha language are Jain works.[citation needed] The oldest Jain literature
Jain literature
is in Shauraseni and the Jain Prakrit
Jain Prakrit
(the Jain Agamas, Agama-Tulya, the Siddhanta texts, etc.). Many classical texts are in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
(Tattvartha Sutra, Puranas, Kosh, Sravakacara, mathematics, Nighantus etc.). "Abhidhana Rajendra Kosha" written by Acharya Rajendrasuri, is only one available Jain encyclopedia or Jain dictionary to understand the Jain Prakrit, Ardha-Magadhi and other languages, words, their use and references within oldest Jain literature.[citation needed] Jain literature
Jain literature
was written in Apabhraṃśa (Kahas, rasas, and grammars), Standard Hindi
Standard Hindi
(Chhahadhala, Moksh Marg Prakashak, and others), Tamil (Nālaṭiyār, Civaka Cintamani, Valayapathi, and others), and Kannada
Kannada
( Vaddaradhane and various other texts). Jain versions of the Ramayana
Ramayana
and Mahabharata
Mahabharata
are found in Sanskrit, the Prakrits, Apabhraṃśa and Kannada.[citation needed] Prakrit[edit] Main article: Prakrit Jain Prakrit
Jain Prakrit
is a term loosely used for the language of the Jain Agamas (canonical texts). The books of Jainism
Jainism
were written in the popular vernacular dialects (as opposed to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
which was the classical standard of Brahmanism), and therefore encompass a number of related dialects. Chief among these is Ardha Magadhi, which due to its extensive use has also come to be identified as the definitive form of Prakrit. Other dialects include versions of Maharashtri and Sauraseni.[13] See also[edit]

Champat Rai Jain A.N. Upadhye Bal Patil

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Champat Rai Jain
Champat Rai Jain
1929, p. 135. ^ Melton & Baumann 2010, p. 1553. ^ a b Dundas 2002, p. 80. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. xi-xii. ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012, p. xii. ^ "Digambar Literature", jainworld.com  ^ Vijay K. Jain 2012. ^ Jaini 1927, p. 5. ^ Jaini 1927, p. 3. ^ Jaini 1927, p. 2. ^ von Glasenapp 1999, p. 175. ^ Banerjee, Satya Ranjan (2005). Prolegomena to Prakritica et Jainica. The Asiatic Society. p. 61.  ^ Upinder Singh
Upinder Singh
2016, p. 26.

Sources[edit]

Jain, Vijay K. (2012), Acharya Amritchandra's Purushartha Siddhyupaya: Realization of the Pure Self, With Hindi and English Translation, Vikalp Printers, ISBN 978-81-903639-4-5, This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.  Melton, J. Gordon; Baumann, Martin, eds. (2010), Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, One: A-B (Second ed.), ABC-CLIO, ISBN 978-1-59884-204-3  Dundas, Paul (2002) [1992], The Jains (Second ed.), London
London
and New York City: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-26605-X  Jain, Champat Rai (1929), Risabha Deva - The Founder of Jainism, Allahabad: The Indian Press Limited, This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.  Jaini, Jagmandar-lāl (1927), Gommatsara Jiva-kanda, archived from the original on 2006  Singh, Upinder (2016), A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century, Pearson Education, ISBN 978-93-325-6996-6  von Glasenapp, Helmuth (1999), Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation [Der Jainismus: Eine Indische Erlosungsreligion], Shridhar B. Shrotri (trans.), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1376-6 

v t e

Jain literature

Fourteen Purvas
Purvas
(The Prior Knowledge – considered totally lost)

Digambara
Digambara
Canonical Texts

Āagam

Shatkhandagama Kasayapahuda

Prathamānuyoga

Mahapurana

Ādi purāṇa Uttarapurāṇa

Harivamsa Purana

Carnānuyoga

Mulachara Trivarnācāra Tattvartha Sutra
Tattvartha Sutra
(Note1) Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra Puruşārthasiddhyupāya

Karnánuyoga

Gommatsāra Sūryaprajñapti Jayadhavalātikā Tiloya Panatti Lokavibhaga

Dravyānuyoga

Niyamasara Pancastikayasara Pravachanasara Samayasāra Aptamimamsa Dravyasamgraha Jnanarnava

Commentary

Sarvārthasiddhi
Sarvārthasiddhi
(commentary on Tattvārthasūtra)

Others

Siribhoovalaya Uvasagharam Stotra Bhaktamara Stotra

Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
Canonical Texts

Angāgama

Acharanga Sutra Sutrakritanga Sthananga Sutra Samavayanga Sutra Vyākhyāprajñapti Jnatrdharmakathah Upasakadasah Antakrddaasah Anuttaraupapātikadaśāh Prasnavyakaranani Vipakasruta Drstivada
Drstivada
(now extinct)

Upanga āgamas

Aupapatika Rājapraśnīya Jīvājīvābhigama Prajñāpana Sūryaprajñapti Jambūdvīpaprajñapti Candraprajñapti Nirayārvalī Kalpāvatamsikāh Puspikāh Puspacūlikāh Vrasnidaśāh

Chedasūtra

Ācāradaśāh Brhatkalpa Vyavahāra Nishitha Mahāniśītha Jītakalpa Kalpa Sūtra

Mūlasūtra

Daśavaikālika Uttaradhyayana Āvaśyaka Pindaniryukyti

Prakīrnaka sūtra

Catuhśarana Āturapratyākhyanā Bhaktaparijñā Samstāraka Tandulavaicarika Candravedhyāka Devendrastava Ganividyā Mahāpratyākhyanā Vīrastava

Cūlikasūtra

Nandī-sūtra Anuyogadvāra-sūtra

Tattvartha Sutra
Tattvartha Sutra
is accepted by both Digambara
Digambara
and Śvetāmbara as their texts although Śvetāmbaras do not include it under canonical texts.

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Ascetics

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monk Aryika Kshullak Pattavali Acharya

Scholars

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