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Jaime Lachica Sin DD, PLH, OS, OL (Chinese: 辛海梅; 辛海棉 POJ Sin Hái-mûi; Sin Hái-mî; Latin: Iacomus Sin; August 31, 1928 – June 21, 2005) was the 30th Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Archbishop
Archbishop
of Manila, and was also a Cardinal. Of Chinese Filipino
Chinese Filipino
descent, Sin was known for his instrumental role in the 1986 People Power Revolution, which toppled the regime of President Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
and installed Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
as his successor. He was again considered a charismatic leader of the Filipino people
Filipino people
in the 2001 EDSA Revolution
2001 EDSA Revolution
that replaced President Joseph Estrada
Joseph Estrada
with Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. Sin died at the age of 76, due to renal complications resulting from diabetes.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Archbishop
Archbishop
of Manila

2.1 Views on condom use

3 People Power movement 4 Retirement and death 5 Auxiliary Bishops of Manila 6 Vicars General of Manila 7 Honours and awards

7.1 National Honour 7.2 Foreign Honour

8 References 9 External links

Early life[edit] Sin was born into a wealthy family in New Washington, Aklan, Philippines
Philippines
to Juan Sin, a Chinese Filipino
Chinese Filipino
and his wife, Máxima Lachica, an ethnic Aklanon. "Jim" as he was known, was his mother's pet. The 14th of 16 children, he was a painfully thin, asthmatic child, who often used to cuddle up between his parents to sleep at night. When he asked his nurse why his mother lavished such attention on him, he was told it was because he was the weakest and ugliest of the brood.[1] He left his childhood home and his family to study in St. Vincent Ferrer Seminary,[2] and was ordained a priest of the Archdiocese of Jaro on April 3, 1954.[3] He was the first rector of St. Pius X Seminary
St. Pius X Seminary
in Lawaan Hills, Roxas City, Capiz, serving from 1957 to 1967. On February 29, 1960, he was named Domestic Prelate (present-day, honorary prelate with the title of Monsignor). He was appointed auxiliary bishop of Jaro on February 10, 1967,[3] and was consecrated bishop of the titular see of Obba on March 18 of that year. On March 15, 1972, Sin was appointed Coadjutor Archbishop
Archbishop
of Jaro, taking on administrative roles in the archdiocese, while holding the titular see of Massa Lubrense.[3] On October 8, 1972, Sin was appointed Archbishop
Archbishop
of Jaro. Archbishop
Archbishop
of Manila[edit] Sin's service as Archbishop of Jaro
Archbishop of Jaro
ended with his appointment on January 21, 1974, to the larger archdiocese seated in the national capital of Manila. Sin was initially reluctant to take on the role of leader of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in the Philippines.[4] He was officially installed as Archbishop
Archbishop
of Manila
Manila
at Manila Cathedral
Manila Cathedral
on March 19, 1974, making him only the third native Filipino in the office after centuries of Spanish, American, and Irish archbishops. On May 24, 1976, Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VI
made him a member of the College of Cardinals, creating him Cardinal Priest
Cardinal Priest
of the titular church of Santa Maria ai Monti. He participated as a cardinal-elector in both the August and October papal conclaves which elected Popes John Paul I and John Paul II respectively. In the August conclave, he reportedly told Albino Luciani, "You will be the new pope."[5] After Luciani was elected as John Paul I, Cardinal Sin paid him homage, and the new pope said: "You were a prophet, but my reign will be a short one."[5] He remained the youngest member of the College until 1983. His title and surname as Cardinal Sin (another term for a deadly sin) were a point of humour in the Philippines
Philippines
and for Filipino Catholics. Examples included "The greatest sin of all: Cardinal Sin," and even his own pun of "Welcome to the house of Sin" that he used to greet guests at Villa San Miguel, the Archbishop's palace in Mandaluyong.[2] Views on condom use[edit] As a predominantly Catholic country, issues in the Philippines
Philippines
have and are influenced by the Church in varying degrees. Condom
Condom
usage has historically been a controversial topic.[6] As the reigning Archbishop of Manila
Manila
in 1996, when the government distributed condoms to curb HIV infection rates, Sin called the programme "intrinsically evil",[7] in line with Church teaching on the matter. Sin also denounced then-Health Secretary, Juan Flavier, with some asserting that the latter's condom-promotion had made him an unwitting agent of Satan.[8] Prominent Catholics also protested against the government's condom-distribution programme by publicly burning boxes of condoms.[7] People Power movement[edit] Events in the Philippines
Philippines
under President Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
forced Sin, the spiritual leader of Filipino Catholics, to become involved in politics. He became witness to corruption, fraud, and even murder by the regime and rising popular discontent with the dictatorial rule of Marcos and his wife, Imelda.[4] Within six months of his appointment as Archbishop, Sin was criticising the authorities after the military raided a Manila
Manila
seminary on the grounds that it was harbouring insurgents.[2] Sin appealed to Filipinos of all religions to follow the teachings of Jesus in the Gospels and use peaceful means to change the political situation in the Philippines. Beginning in the 1970s, Cardinal Sin, a moderate, was among the leaders who publicly pressured President Marcos to end martial law, out of concern that leftist radicals would overthrow the government.[9] Sin eventually decided to speak out in support of Corazon Aquino, the widow of the assassinated opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr., in calling for an end to martial law. This led to massive popular demonstrations, often led by nuns whom riot police dared not attack.[4] In February 1986, Sin called on Filipinos to surround the police and military headquarters in Manila
Manila
to protect then-military Vice Chief of Staff Fidel Ramos, who had broken with Mr. Marcos.[9] More than 1 million people took to the streets praying the rosary and singing hymns in an outpouring that shielded anti-government rebels from attack. Some soldiers decided to join the marchers. In what later became known as the People Power Revolution, Marcos, his family, and close advisors were forced to flee the Philippines[4] and took up residence in Honolulu, Hawaii, upon the invitation of U.S. President Ronald Reagan. Cardinal Sin, along with presidents Corazon Aquino and Fidel Ramos, became known to Filipinos as the architects of the People Power Movement. Sin decided to intervene again, in 2001, to become spiritual leader of another People Power Movement. Some Filipinos alleged that president Joseph Estrada
Joseph Estrada
was guilty of widespread corruption and graft because of the controversial "second envelope". Poor people marching in the streets, with the support of Sin, the elite, and military generals, succeeded in toppling Estrada from power and elevating Gloria Macapagal Arroyo as acting president in what was perceived by the international community as a triumphant democracy. The "second envelope" was opened after the coup and turned out to be Estrada's bank account. Commenting on the endemic corruption that persisted after Marcos, Sin said, "We got rid of Ali Baba, but the 40 thieves remained."[10] It was reported that the cardinal's actions caused uneasiness at the Vatican and that he was summoned to Rome to explain himself.[11] Hours before hundreds of soldiers and officers staged a failed revolt against President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
in July 2003, he urged Filipinos to be vigilant against groups plotting to violently overturn the country's democratic institutions.[10] Two and a half years after Sin's death, it was reported that at the height of EDSA II, Sin received a directive from the Vatican ordering him and the Philippine clergy to adopt a non-partisan stance towards the political crisis.[12] Sin, who by then had committed support for the EDSA II
EDSA II
revolt, was said to have threatened to resign as archbishop if compelled to withdraw his support.[12] The standoff was reportedly resolved with the mediation of the then Supreme Court Associate Justice Artemio Panganiban
Artemio Panganiban
(later, Chief Justice of the Philippines), a member of the Pontifical Council for the Laity, a department of the Roman Curia.[12] As a result, the Vatican did not insist upon its earlier demand. The reports were attributed to persons reputed to have first-hand knowledge of the events,[12] but there has been no official confirmation of them from the Vatican or from the Archdiocese of Manila. Retirement and death[edit] Sin retired as the Archbishop
Archbishop
of Manila
Manila
on September 15, 2003, and was succeeded by Gaudencio Borbon Rosales. He was too ill to travel to the 2005 conclave that elected Pope Benedict XVI. Afflicted for years with a kidney ailment brought on by diabetes, he was taken on June 19, 2005, to the Cardinal Rufino Santos
Rufino Santos
Medical Center in San Juan, Metro Manila, because of a slight but lingering fever. He died of renal failure on June 21, 2005, at the age of 76, two months before his 77th birthday.[9] The government accorded him the honour of a state funeral and a period of national mourning through Presidential Proclamation № 863, s. 2005 signed by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. He was buried beside his three immediate predecessors in the crypt of Manila Cathedral, after a funeral there attended by thousands of Filipinos.[13] Auxiliary Bishops of Manila[edit] Below are the names of bishops who assisted Sin during his tenure as Archbishop
Archbishop
of Manila:

Most Rev. Hernando Antiporda, D.D. (1974–1975) (murdered in Quiapo Church) Most Rev. Teodoro Bacani, D.D. (1984–2002) (Bishop Emeritus of Novaliches) Most Rev. Teodoro Buhain, D.D. (1983–2003) Most Rev. Nestor Cariño, D.D. (2001–2003) Most Rev. Artemio Casas, D.D. (1974–1975) Most Rev. Oscar V. Cruz, D.D. (1976–1978) ( Archbishop
Archbishop
Emeritus of Lingayen-Dagupan) Most Rev. Protacio Gungon, D.D. (1977–1983) (Bishop Emeritus of Antipolo. Died in 2014) Most Rev. Leoncio Lat, D.D. (1986–2002) Most Rev. Leonardo Legaspi, O.P., D.D. (1977–1983) (Archbishop Emeritus of Nueva Caceres. Died in 2014) Most Rev. Bienvenido López, D.D. (1974–1995) Most Rev. Ramón C. Arguelles, D.D. (1993–1995) ( Archbishop
Archbishop
Emeritus of Lipa) Most Rev. Jesse E. Mercado, D.D. (1997–2002) (current Bishop of Parañaque) Most Rev. Amado Paulino, D.D. (1974–1985) Most Rev. Gabriel V. Reyes, D.D. (1981–1992) (Bishop-emeritus of Antipolo) Gaudencio B. Cardinal Rosales (1974–1982) (Cardinal-Archbishop Emeritus of Manila, 2003 - 2011) Most Rev. Rolando Tría-Tirona, O.C.D., D.D. (1994–1996) (current Archbishop
Archbishop
of Caceres) Most Rev. Juan Velasco, O.P., D.D. Most Rev. Socrates B. Villegas, D.D. (2001–2003; named Vicar General in 1993; current Archbishop
Archbishop
of Lingayen-Dagupan) Most Rev. Crisostomo A. Yalung, D.D. (1994–2001); (2001-2002 as Bishop of Antipolo)

Vicars General of Manila[edit] Aside from auxiliary bishops, the following are priests who served as Vicar-General during Sin's term:

Rev. Msgr. Jose Abriol, PA (1974–2003) Rev. Msgr. Benjamin Mariño, PA Rev. Msgr. Benedicto Aquino, PC Rev. Msgr. Josefino Ramirez, HP (1985–2003)

Honours and awards[edit] National Honour[edit]

: Chief Commander of the Philippine Legion of Honor : Grand Collar of the Order of Sikatuna, Rank of Raja : Grand Cross of the Order of Lakandula, Rank of Bayani

Sin was decorated three times by the Philippine government. The first time was by president Corazon C. Aquino, who conferred him with the Philippine Legion of Honor, rank of Chief Commander; the second, by president Joseph Estrada, who conferred on him the Order of Sikatuna, rank of Rajah; the final time was shortly after his retirement, when President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
conferred on him the Order of Lakandula, rank of Bayani (Grand Cross). Foreign Honour[edit]

: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Isabella the Catholic
Order of Isabella the Catholic
(June 24, 1977)[14]

Sin also received 26 honorary doctorates in various fields from higher education institutions in the Philippines
Philippines
and abroad (mostly from notable universities in the United States of America), among which are the Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas
in Manila, Yale University, Georgetown University, Brandeis University
Brandeis University
and Boston College.[15] References[edit]

^ Adam Easton. "Obituary: Cardinal Jaime Sin
Jaime Sin
World news". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-09-24.  ^ a b c Easton, Adam. "Cardinal Jaime Sin: Outspoken prelate with a key role in the fall of President Marcos", The Guardian
The Guardian
(obit), 21 June 2005 ^ a b c David M. Cheney. "Jaime Lachica Cardinal Sin [Catholic-Hierarchy]". Catholic-hierarchy.org. Retrieved 2016-09-24.  ^ a b c d Stowe, Judy. "Cardinal Jaime Sin: Archbishop
Archbishop
of Manila
Manila
who saw his duty as being 'to put Christ in politics'", (obit), The Independent, 22 June 2005 ^ a b "Modern Heroes of the Church - Leo Knowles". Google Books. Retrieved February 15, 2014.  ^ Engel, Jonathan (2006). The epidemic : a global history of AIDS. New York: Smithsonian Books/Collins. p. 262. ISBN 978-0-06-114488-2.  ^ a b Shenon, Philip (January 21, 1996). "DEADLY TURNING POINT: A special report.;AIDS Epidemic, Late to Arrive, Now Explodes in Populous Asia – Page 7 – New York Times". The New York Times. New York City: NYTC. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 2, 2011.  ^ McIntosh, Alistair (January 4, 1995). "Philippines: Manila
Manila
Health Minister an Unlikely Agent of Satan". Reuters NewMedia. Archived from the original on June 30, 2007. Retrieved November 2, 2011.  ^ a b c O'Donnell, Michelle. "Cardinal Jaime Sin, a Champion of the Poor in the Philippines, Is Dead at 76" (obit), The New York Times, 21 June 2005 ^ a b "Philippines' Cardinal Sin dies at 76 - World news - Asia-Pacific". NBC News. 2005-06-20. Retrieved 2016-09-24.  ^ Weil, Martin. "Philippine Cardinal Jaime L. Sin Dies at 76", Washington Post, 21 June 2005 ^ a b c d Labog-Javellana, Juliet (January 21, 2008). "Sin opposed Vatican order, pushed Edsa II". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2008-01-21.  ^ "Thousands gather for Cardinal Sin's funeral, Philippine's 'champion of the poor' :: Catholic News Agency (CNA)". Catholic News Agency. 2005-06-28. Retrieved 2016-09-24.  ^ GOVPH. "Filipino recipients of Spanish Decorations Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines". Gov.ph. Retrieved 2016-09-24.  ^ "Jaime L. Cardinal Sin, D.D". Cbcponline.net. Retrieved 2016-09-24. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jaime Lachica Sin.

O'Donnell, Michelle (June 21, 2005). "Cardinal Jaime Sin, a Champion of the Poor in the Philippines, Is Dead at 76". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-01-08.  "Philippine Cardinal Jaime L. Sin Dies at 76". Washington Post Retrieved 2011-09-18. Archdiocese of Manila
Archdiocese of Manila
Biostatistics Catholic Hierarchy – Jaime Lachica Cardinal Sin †

Catholic Church
Catholic Church
titles

Preceded by Paul Aijirô Yamaguchi Titular Bishop
Titular Bishop
of Massa Lubrense February 10, 1967 – October 8, 1972 Succeeded by Robert Fealey Morneau

Preceded by Julio Rosales CBCP President 1976 - 1981 Succeeded by Antonio Lloren Mabutas

Preceded by Jose Maria Cuenco Archbishop
Archbishop
of Jaro October 8, 1972 – January 21, 1974 Succeeded by Artemio Casas

Preceded by Rufino Santos Archbishop
Archbishop
of Manila 1974–2003 Succeeded by Gaudencio Rosales

Preceded by Rufino Santos Cardinal-Priest
Cardinal-Priest
of S. Maria ai Monti May 24, 1976 – June 21, 2005 Succeeded by Jorge Urosa

v t e

Filipino Cardinals

Metropolitan See of Manila

Rufino J. Santos † Jaime Sin
Jaime Sin
† Gaudencio Rosales Luis Antonio Tagle

Metropolitan See of Cebu

Julio Rosales
Julio Rosales
y Ras † Ricardo Vidal
Ricardo Vidal

Metropolitan See of Cotabato

Orlando Quevedo

The Roman Curia

José Tomás Sánchez †

Titular Churches

S. Maria ai Monti
S. Maria ai Monti
(Santos) Sacro Cuore di Gesù a Vitinia (J. Rosales) S. Maria ai Monti
S. Maria ai Monti
(Sin) Ss. Pietro e Paolo a Via Ostiense
Ss. Pietro e Paolo a Via Ostiense
(Vidal) S. Pio V a Villa Carpegna (Sánchez) Santissimo Nome di Maria in Via Latina (G. Rosales) San Felice da Cantalice a Centocelle
San Felice da Cantalice a Centocelle
(Tagle) S. Maria Regina Mundi a Torre Spaccata (Quevedo)

Catholicism portal Philippines
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Philippines
and People Power Revolution

Batas militar sa Pilipinas

Background

1965 Presidential elections Conjugal dictatorship Philippines–United States relations US imperialism Cold War Vietnam War First Quarter Storm Communist insurgency Sabah claim Jabidah massacre Islamic insurgency 1969 elections Agrarian reform Coco Levy Fund scam

Events

Proclamation No. 1081 Human rights violations Plaza Miranda bombing 1973 Constitution 1978 elections Interim Batasang Pambansa Assassination of Benigno Aquino Jr. Snap elections

People

Regime

Ferdinand Marcos Imelda Marcos Fabian Ver Danding Cojuangco Cesar Virata Arturo Tolentino

Opposition

Ninoy Aquino Corazon Aquino Salvador Laurel Juan Ponce Enrile Fidel V. Ramos Gringo Honasan Jaime Cardinal Sin Claudio Teehankee Jovito Salonga Jose Diokno Diosdado Macapagal

Communists

Jose Maria Sison Bernabe Buscayno

Locations

Landmarks

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Areas

Makati Mandaluyong Pasig San Juan Quezon City

Aftermath

Events

Nepotism Operation Big Bird Mendiola massacre 1987 elections Coup d'état Japanese Official Development Assistance scandal Death of Ferdinand Marcos

Institutions

Aquino Presidency Presidential Commission on Good Government 1987 Constitution Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program Philippine National Police Ramos Presidency

Literature

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film

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Timeline

History

First Mass Spanish occupation Expulsion of Jesuits Gomburza Philippine Revolution American occupation World War II
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Contemporary

EDSA Dos World Meeting of Families Death of John Paul II Death of Cardinal Sin Criticism of corruption Death of Corazón Aquino Reproductive Health Bill debate Year of Faith Revision of the Roman Missal Canonization of Pedro Calungsod Election of Francis 2013 Philippine election Pork Barrel scam Million People March Bohol earthquake Pope Francis' visit to the Philippines 2016 International Eucharistic Congress

Archdioceses

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Prelates

Luis Antonio Cardinal Tagle Ricardo Cardinal Vidal Orlando Cardinal Quevedo Gaudencio Cardinal Rosales José Advincula Ramón Arguelles Fernando Capalla Oscar Cruz Ángel Lagdameo Antonio Ledesma José S. Palma Rómulo Valles Socrates Villegas

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Devotions

Jesus

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Culture

Christmas

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Chief Commander (Punong Komandante)

Emilio Aguinaldo Hassanal Bolkiah Chiang Kai-shek Dwight D. Eisenhower Leonardo Espina Francisco Franco José P. Laurel Douglas MacArthur Ferdinand Marcos Imelda Marcos Sergio Osmeña Jesse Robredo Chino Roces Franklin D. Roosevelt Jaime Sin Achmad Sukarno Lorenzo Tañada Maxwell D. Taylor Claudio Teehankee

Grand Commander (Marangal na Komandante)

Gilbert Teodoro Emilio Yap Fernando Zóbel de Ayala Jaime Zóbel de Ayala Jaime Augusto Zóbel de Ayala II

Grand Officer (Marangal na Pinuno)

Teodoro Locsin Jr.

Commander (Komandante)

Benigno Aquino Jr. Eulogio Balao Alfredo Montelibano Sr.

Officer (Pinuno)

Benigno Aquino Jr. Manny Pacquiao

Legionnaire (Lehiyonaryo)

Escuadrón 201 Teddy Boy Locsin Edith Nourse Rogers Richard Sakakida

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 54945245 LCCN: n84182396 ISNI: 0000 0001 1472 8973 GND: 118831836 NLA: 35753426 NKC: js20050627028 BN

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