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The Jagiellonian
Jagiellonian
dynasty was a royal dynasty, founded by Jogaila (Lithuanian pronunciation: [joːˈgaːɪˈɫaː] ( listen), the Grand Duke
Grand Duke
of Lithuania, who in 1386 was baptized as Władysław, married Queen regnant (also styled "King")[a] Jadwiga of Poland, and was crowned King of Poland
King of Poland
as Władysław II Jagiełło. The dynasty reigned in several Central European countries between the 14th and 16th centuries. Members of the dynasty were Kings of Poland (1386–1572), Grand Dukes of Lithuania
Lithuania
(1377–1392 and 1440–1572), Kings of Hungary
Hungary
(1440–1444 and 1490–1526), and Kings of Bohemia (1471–1526). The personal union between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
(converted in 1569 with the Treaty of Lublin
Treaty of Lublin
into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) is the reason for the common appellation "Poland–Lithuania" in discussions about the area from the Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
onward. One Jagiellonian
Jagiellonian
briefly ruled both Poland and Hungary
Hungary
(1440–44), and two others ruled both Bohemia
Bohemia
and Hungary
Hungary
(1490–1526) and then continued in the distaff line as a branch of the House of Habsburg. The Polish "Golden Age", the period of the reigns of Sigismund I and Sigismund II, the last two Jagiellonian
Jagiellonian
kings, or more generally the 16th century, is most often identified with the rise of the culture of Polish Renaissance. The cultural flowering had its material base in the prosperity of the elites, both the landed nobility and urban patriciate at such centers as Kraków
Kraków
and Gdańsk.

At the end of the 15th century, the Jagiellonians reigned over vast territories stretching from the Baltic to the Black to the Adriatic Sea.

Jagiellonian
Jagiellonian
Europe in the late 15th century

Contents

1 Name 2 Pre-dynasty background 3 Kingdom of Poland

3.1 Jogaila
Jogaila
and Władysław III

3.1.1 Polish–Lithuanian union 3.1.2 Struggle with the Teutonic Knights 3.1.3 Polish–Hungarian union

3.2 Casimir IV Jagiellon

3.2.1 Thirteen Years' War (1454–66) 3.2.2 Turkish and Tatar wars

3.3 Sigismund I the Old
Sigismund I the Old
and Sigismund II Augustus

3.3.1 Chicken War
Chicken War
- the rebellion of Lwów 3.3.2 Sigismund II Augustus 3.3.3 Golden Age of Polish culture

3.4 The Jagiellons and the Habsburgs

4 Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
and Bohemia

4.1 Vladislaus II of Hungary

4.1.1 King of Bohemia 4.1.2 King of Hungary

4.2 Louis II of Hungary 4.3 Jagiellons in natural line

5 Jagiellonian
Jagiellonian
Kings of Poland 6 Jagiellonian
Jagiellonian
Kings of Bohemia, Hungary
Hungary
and Croatia 7 Other members of the Jagiellonian
Jagiellonian
dynasty 8 Legacy 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References

11.1 Works cited

12 Bibliography 13 External links

Name[edit] The name comes from Jogaila
Jogaila
(Jagiełło), the first Grand Duke
Grand Duke
of Lithuania
Lithuania
to become King of Poland. In Polish, the dynasty is known as Jagiellonowie and the patronymic form: Jagiellończyk; in Lithuanian it is called Jogailaičiai, in Belarusian Яґайлавічы (Jagajłavičy), in Hungarian Jagelló, and in Czech Jagellonci, as well as Jagello or Jagellon in Latin. Pre-dynasty background[edit] The rule of Piasts, the earlier Polish ruling house (c. 962–1370) had ended with the death of King Casimir III the Great. Gediminids, the immediate predecessors of the first Jagiellonian, were rulers of medieval Lithuania
Lithuania
with the title of Grand Duke. Their realm, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, was chiefly inhabited by Lithuanians
Lithuanians
and Ruthenians. Jogaila, the eponymous first ruler of the Jagiellonin dynasty, started as the Grand Duke
Grand Duke
of Lithuania. As a result of the Union of Krewo
Union of Krewo
he then converted to Christianity
Christianity
and married the 11-year-old Hedwig of Poland (Jadwiga in Polish) (daughter of King Louis I of Hungary
Hungary
from the Angevins Dynasty). Thereby he became King of Poland
King of Poland
and founded the dynasty. Angevin rulers were the second and Jagiellonian
Jagiellonian
third dynasty of Polish Kings.[citation needed] Kingdom of Poland[edit] Jogaila
Jogaila
and Władysław III[edit] Polish–Lithuanian union[edit]

Jogaila, later Władysław II Jagiełło
Jagiełło
(c. 1352/1362 – 1 June 1434) was Grand Duke of Lithuania
Grand Duke of Lithuania
(1377–1434), King of Poland (1386–1399) alongside his wife Jadwiga, and then sole King of Poland.

In 1385 the Union of Krewo
Union of Krewo
was signed between Queen Jadwiga of Poland and Jogaila, the Grand Duke
Grand Duke
of Lithuania, the last pagan state in Europe. The act arranged for Jogaila's baptism (after which Jogaila was known in Poland by his baptismal name, Władysław, and the Polish version of his Lithuanian name, Jagiełło) (Zamoyski, the Polish Way) and for the couple's marriage and constituted the beginning of the Polish–Lithuanian union. The Union strengthened both nations in their shared opposition to the Teutonic Knights and the growing threat of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. Uniquely in Europe, the union connected two states geographically located on the opposite sides of the great civilizational divide between the Western or Latin, and the Eastern or Byzantine worlds.[1] The intention of the Union was to create a common state under Władysław II Jagiełło, but the Polish ruling oligarchy's idea of incorporation of Lithuania
Lithuania
into Poland turned out to be unrealistic. There would be territorial disputes and warfare between Poland and Lithuania
Lithuania
or Lithuanian factions; the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
at times had even found it expedient to conspire with the Teutonic Knights against the Poles. Geographic consequences of the dynastic union and the preferences of the Jagiellonian
Jagiellonian
kings accelerated the process of reorientation of Polish territorial priorities to the east.[2] The political influence of the Jagiellonian
Jagiellonian
kings was diminishing during this period, which was accompanied by the ever-increasing role in central government and national affairs of landed nobility.[b] The royal dynasty, however, had a stabilizing effect on Poland's politics. The Jagiellonian
Jagiellonian
Era is often regarded as a period of maximum political power, great prosperity, and in its later stage, the Golden Age of Polish culture. Struggle with the Teutonic Knights[edit]

Baptism of Władysław III of Poland
Władysław III of Poland
at Wawel
Wawel
in 1425

The Great War of 1409–1411, precipitated by the Lithuanian uprising in the Order controlled Samogitia, included the Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg), where the Polish and Lithuanian-Rus' armies completely defeated the Teutonic Knights. The offensive that followed lost its impact with the ineffective siege of Malbork
Malbork
(Marienburg). The failure to take the fortress and eliminate the Teutonic (later Prussian) state had for Poland dire historic consequences in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. The Peace of Thorn (1411)
Peace of Thorn (1411)
had given Poland and Lithuania rather modest territorial adjustments, including Samogitia. Afterwards there were negotiations and peace deals that didn't hold, more military campaigns and arbitrations. One attempted, unresolved arbitration took place at the Council of Constance. Polish–Hungarian union[edit] During the Hussite Wars
Hussite Wars
(1420–1434), Jagiełło, Vytautas
Vytautas
and Sigismund Korybut
Sigismund Korybut
were involved in political and military maneuvering concerning the Czech crown, offered by the Hussites
Hussites
first to Jagiełło
Jagiełło
in 1420. Zbigniew Oleśnicki became known as the leading opponent of a union with the Hussite Czech state.[4]

The Crusade of Varna
Crusade of Varna
was a series of events in 1443–44 between the crusaders and the Ottoman Empire, culminating in a devastating Christian loss at the Battle of Varna
Battle of Varna
on 10 November 1444.

The Jagiellonian
Jagiellonian
dynasty was not entitled to automatic hereditary succession, as each new king had to be approved by nobility consensus. Władysław Jagiełło
Jagiełło
had two sons late in life from his last wife, Sophia of Halshany. In 1430 the nobility agreed to the succession of the future Władysław III, only after the King gave in and guaranteed the satisfaction of their new demands. In 1434 the old monarch died and his minor son Władysław was crowned; the Royal Council led by Bishop Oleśnicki undertook the regency duties. In 1438 the Czech anti- Habsburg
Habsburg
opposition, mainly Hussite factions, offered the Czech crown to Jagiełło's younger son Casimir IV. The idea, accepted in Poland over Oleśnicki's objections, resulted in two unsuccessful Polish military expeditions to Bohemia.[4] After Vytautas' death in 1430 Lithuania
Lithuania
became embroiled in internal wars and conflicts with Poland. Casimir IV, sent as a boy by Władysław III on a mission there in 1440, was surprisingly proclaimed by the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
as a Grand Duke
Grand Duke
of Lithuania, and he stayed in Lithuania.[4] Oleśnicki gained the upper hand again and pursued his long-term objective of Poland's union with Hungary. At that time the Ottoman Empire embarked on a new round of European conquests and threatened Hungary, which needed the powerful Polish–Lithuanian ally. In 1440 Władysław III assumed the Hungarian throne. Influenced by Julian Cesarini, the young king led the Hungarian army against the Ottomans in 1443 and again in 1444. Like Cesarini, Władysław III was killed at the Battle of Varna. Beginning toward the end of Jagiełło's life, Poland was practically governed by a magnate oligarchy led by Oleśnicki. The rule of the dignitaries was actively opposed by various szlachta groups. Their leader Spytek of Melsztyn was killed during an armed confrontation in 1439, which allowed Oleśnicki to purge Poland of the remaining Hussite sympathizers and pursue his other objectives without significant opposition. Casimir IV Jagiellon[edit] In 1445 Casimir, the Grand Duke
Grand Duke
of Lithuania, was asked to assume the Polish throne vacated by the death of his brother Władysław. Casimir was a tough negotiator and did not accept the Polish nobility's conditions for his election. Casimir Jagiellon was the third and youngest son of King Władysław II Jagiełło
Jagiełło
and his fourth wife, Sophia of Halshany. His father was already 65 at the time of Casimir’s birth, and his brother Władysław III, three years his senior, was expected to become king before his majority. Strangely, little was done for his education; he was never taught Latin, nor was he trained for the responsibilities of office, despite the fact he was the only brother of the rightful sovereign.[5] He often relied on his instinct and feelings and had little political knowledge, but shared a great interest in the diplomacy and economic affairs of the country. Throughout Casimir's youth, Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki was his mentor and tutor, however, the cleric felt a strong reluctance towards him, believing that he would be an unsuccessful monarch following Władysław's death.

Thirteen Years' War - Battle of Chojnice in 1454

The sudden death of Sigismund Kęstutaitis
Sigismund Kęstutaitis
left the office of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
empty. The Voivode of Trakai, Jonas Goštautas, and other magnates of Lithuania, supported Casimir as a candidate to the throne. However many Polish noblemen hoped that the thirteen-year-old boy would become a Vice-regent for the Polish King in Lithuania. Casimir was invited by the Lithuanian magnates to Lithuania, and when he arrived in Vilnius
Vilnius
in 1440, he was proclaimed as the Grand Duke of Lithuania
Grand Duke of Lithuania
on 29 June 1440 by the Council of Lords. Casimir succeeded his brother Władysław III (killed at the Battle of Varna
Battle of Varna
in 1444) as King of Poland
King of Poland
after a three-year interregnum on 25 June 1447. In 1454, he married Elisabeth of Austria, daughter of the late King of the Romans
King of the Romans
Albert II of Habsburg
Habsburg
by his late wife Elisabeth of Bohemia. Her distant relative Frederick of Habsburg
Habsburg
became Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
and reigned as Frederick III until after Casimir's own death. The marriage strengthened the ties between the house of Jagiellon and the sovereigns of Hungary- Bohemia
Bohemia
and put Casimir at odds with the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
through internal Habsburg rivalry. Becoming a King of Poland
King of Poland
Casimir also freed himself from the control the Lithuanian oligarchy had imposed on him; in the Vilnius Privilege of 1447 he declared the Lithuanian nobility having equal rights with Polish szlachta. In time Kazimierz Jagiellończyk was able to remove from power Cardinal Oleśnicki and his group, basing his own power on the younger middle nobility camp instead. A conflict with the pope and the local Church hierarchy over the right to fill vacant bishop positions Casimir also resolved in his favor. Thirteen Years' War (1454–66)[edit] That same year, Casimir was approached by the Prussian Confederation for aid against the Teutonic Order, which he promised, by making the separatist Prussian regions a protectorate of the Polish Kingdom. However, when the insurgent cities rebelled against the Order, it resisted and the Thirteen Years' War (1454–1466) ensued. Casimir and the Prussian Confederation
Prussian Confederation
defeated the Teutonic Order, taking over its capital at Marienburg ( Malbork
Malbork
Castle). In the Second Peace of Thorn (1466), the Order recognized Polish sovereignty over the seceded western Prussian regions, Royal Prussia, and the Polish crown's overlordship over the remaining Teutonic Monastic State, transformed in 1525 into a duchy, Ducal Prussia. Poland regained Pomerelia
Pomerelia
and with it the all-important access to the Baltic Sea, as well as Warmia. In addition to land warfare, naval battles had taken place, where ships provided by the City of Danzig (Gdańsk) successfully fought Danish and Teutonic fleets.[6] Other 15th-century Polish territorial gains, or rather revindications, included the Duchy of Oświęcim
Duchy of Oświęcim
and Duchy of Zator
Duchy of Zator
on Silesia's border with Lesser Poland, and there was notable progress regarding the incorporation of the Piast
Piast
Masovian duchies into the Crown.

Malbork
Malbork
Castle during Thirteen Years' War (1460)

Turkish and Tatar wars[edit] The influence of the Jagiellonian
Jagiellonian
dynasty in Central Europe
Central Europe
had been on the rise. In 1471 Casimir's son Władysław became a king of Bohemia, and in 1490 also of Hungary. The southern and eastern outskirts of Poland and Lithuania
Lithuania
became threatened by Turkish invasions beginning in the late 15th century. Moldavia's involvement with Poland goes back to 1387, when Petru I, Hospodar of Moldavia, seeking protection against the Hungarians, paid Jagiełło
Jagiełło
homage in Lviv, which gave Poland access to the Black Sea
Black Sea
ports. In 1485 King Casimir undertook an expedition into Moldavia, after its seaports were overtaken by the Ottoman Turks. The Turkish controlled Crimean Tatars raided the eastern territories in 1482 and 1487, until they were confronted by King Jan Olbracht (John Albert), Casimir's son and successor. Poland was attacked in 1487–1491 by remnants of the Golden Horde. They had invaded into Poland as far as Lublin
Lublin
before being beaten at Zaslavl. King John Albert in 1497 made an attempt to resolve the Turkish problem militarily, but his efforts were unsuccessful as he was unable to secure effective participation in the war by his brothers, King Ladislaus II of Bohemia
Bohemia
and Hungary
Hungary
and Alexander, the Grand Duke
Grand Duke
of Lithuania, and because of the resistance on the part of Stephen the Great, the ruler of Moldavia. More Ottoman Empire-instigated destructive Tatar raids took place in 1498, 1499 and 1500. John Albert's diplomatic peace efforts that followed were finalized after the king's death in 1503, resulting in a territorial compromise and an unstable truce. Sigismund I the Old
Sigismund I the Old
and Sigismund II Augustus[edit]

Sigismund I the Old
Sigismund I the Old
(1467 –1548), King of Poland
King of Poland
and Grand Duke
Grand Duke
of Lithuania

The Grand Duke
Grand Duke
Alexander was elected King of Poland
King of Poland
in 1501, after the death of John Albert. In 1506 he was succeeded by Sigismund I the Old (Zygmunt I Stary) in both Poland and Lithuania, as the political realities were drawing the two states closer together. Prior to that Sigismund had been a Duke of Silesia
Duke of Silesia
by the authority of his brother Ladislaus II of Bohemia, but like other Jagiellon rulers before him, he had not pursued the Polish Crown's claim to Silesia. After the death of King Alexander I, Sigismund arrived in Vilnius, where he was elected by the Lithuanian Ducal Council on 13 September 1506 as Grand Duke
Grand Duke
of Lithuania, contrary to the Union of Mielnik, which involved a joint Polish-Lithuanian election of a monarch. On 8 December 1506 during the session of the Polish Senate in Piotrków, Sigismund was elected King of Poland. He arrived in Kraków
Kraków
on 20 January 1507 and was crowned four days later in Wawel
Wawel
Cathedral by Primate Andrzej Boryszewski. In 1518 Sigismund I married Bona Sforza d'Aragona, a young, strong-minded Italian princess. Bona's sway over the king and the magnates, her efforts to strengthen the monarch's political position, financial situation, and especially the measures she took to advance her personal and dynastic interests, including the forced royal election of the minor Sigismund Augustus in 1529 and his premature coronation in 1530, increased the discontent among szlachta activists. Chicken War
Chicken War
- the rebellion of Lwów[edit]

Chicken War
Chicken War
or Hen War, a 1537 anti-royalist and anti-absolutist rokosz (rebellion) by the Polish nobility.

The rebellion of Lwów (the so-called Chicken War) was an anti-royalist and anti-absolutist rokosz (rebellion) by the Polish nobility that occurred in 1537. The derisive name was coined by the magnates, who for the most part supported the King and claimed that the "war's" only effect was the near-extinction of the local chickens, eaten by the nobles gathered for the rebellion at Lwów, in Lesser Poland. The nobility, gathered near the city to meet with a levée en masse, called for a military campaign against Moldavia. However, the lesser and middle strata of the nobility called a rebellion, or semi-legal rebellion, to force the King to abandon his risky reforms. The nobles presented him with 36 demands, most notably: a cessation of further land acquisitions by Queen Bona, exemption of the nobility from the tithes, a clean-up of the Treasury rather than its expansion, confirmation and extension of the privileges of the nobility, lifting of the toll or exemption of the nobility from it, adoption of a law concerning incompatibilitas — the incompatibility of certain offices that were not to be joined in the same hand, the carrying out of a law requiring the appointment of only the local nobles to most important local offices and the creation of a body of permanent advisors to the king.[citation needed] Finally, the protesters criticised the role of Queen Bona, whom they blamed for the "bad education" of young Prince Sigismund Augustus (the future King Sigismund II Augustus), as well as for seeking to increase her power and influence in the state. Sigismund II Augustus[edit]

Death of Barbara Radziwiłł
Barbara Radziwiłł
Painting by Józef Simmler

From the outset of his reign, Sigismund came into collision with the country's nobility, who had already begun curtailing the power of the great families. The ostensible cause of the nobility's animosity to the King was his second marriage, secretly contracted before his accession to the throne, with (said to be beautiful) Lithuanian Calvinist, Barbara Radziwiłł, daughter of Hetman Jerzy Radziwiłł. Secret marriage was strongly opposed by his mother Bona and by the magnates of the Crown. Sigismund, who took over the reign after his father's death in 1548, overcame the resistance and had Barbara crowned in 1550; a few months later the new queen died. Bona, estranged from her son returned to Italy
Italy
in 1556, where she died soon afterwards. Sigismund II possessed to a high degree the tenacity and patience that seem to have characterized all the Jagiellons, and he added to these qualities a dexterity and diplomatic finesse. No other Polish king seems to have so thoroughly understood the nature of the Polish sejm. Both the Austrian ambassadors and the papal legates testify to the care with which he controlled his nation. Everything went as he wished, they said, because he seemed to know everything in advance. He managed to get more money out of the sejm than his father ever could, and at one of his sejms he won the hearts of the assembly by unexpectedly appearing before them in the simple grey coat of a Masovian lord. Like his father, a pro-Austrian by conviction, he contrived even in this respect to carry with him the nation, often distrustful of the Germans. He avoided serious complications with the powerful Turks. Sigismund II mediated for twenty years between the Catholic Church and the Protestants. His most striking memorial may have been the Union of Lublin, which united Poland and Lithuania
Lithuania
into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth — the "Republic of the Two Nations" (Polish:Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów, Lithuanian: Abiejų Tautų Respublika). Also, German-speaking Royal Prussia
Royal Prussia
and Prussian cities were included. This achievement might well have been impossible without Sigismund. Golden Age of Polish culture[edit]

Wawel
Wawel
Hill, the castle and the cathedral

The Polish "Golden Age", the period of the reigns of Sigismund I and Sigismund II, the last two Jagiellonian
Jagiellonian
kings, or more generally the 16th century, is most often identified with the rise of the culture of Polish Renaissance. The cultural flowering had its material base in the prosperity of the elites, both the landed nobility and urban patriciate at such centers as Kraków
Kraków
and Gdańsk. As was the case with other European nations, the Renaissance inspiration came in the first place from Italy, a process accelerated to some degree by the marriage of Sigismund I to Bona Sforza. Many Poles
Poles
traveled to Italy to study and to learn its culture. As imitating Italian ways became very trendy (the royal courts of the two kings provided the leadership and example for everybody else), many Italian artists and thinkers were coming to Poland, some settling and working there for many years. While the pioneering Polish humanists, greatly influenced by Erasmus of Rotterdam, accomplished the preliminary assimilation of the antiquity culture, the generation that followed was able to put greater emphasis on the development of native elements, and because of its social diversity, advanced the process of national integration. The Academy of Kraków
Kraków
and Sigismund II possessed well-stocked libraries; smaller collections were increasingly common at noble courts, schools and the households of townspeople. Illiteracy levels were falling, as by the end of the 16th century almost every parish ran a school. The Jagiellons and the Habsburgs[edit] In 1515, during a congress in Vienna, a dynastic succession arrangement was agreed to between Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
and the Jagiellon brothers, Vladislaus II of Bohemia
Bohemia
and Hungary
Hungary
and Sigismund I of Poland and Lithuania. It was supposed to end the Emperor's support for Poland's enemies, the Teutonic and Russian states, but after the election of Charles V, Maximilian's successor in 1519, the relations with Sigismund had worsened.[7] The Jagiellon rivalry with the House of Habsburg
Habsburg
in central Europe was ultimately resolved to the Habsburgs' advantage. The decisive factor that damaged or weakened the monarchies of the last Jagiellons was the Ottoman Empire's Turkish expansion. Hungary's vulnerability greatly increased after Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent
took the Belgrade
Belgrade
fortress in 1521. To prevent Poland from extending military aid to Hungary, Suleiman had a Tatar-Turkish force raid southeastern Poland– Lithuania
Lithuania
in 1524. The Hungarian army was defeated in 1526 at the Battle of Mohács, where the young Louis II Jagiellon, son of Vladislas II, was killed. Subsequently, after a period of internal strife and external intervention, Hungary
Hungary
was partitioned between the Habsburgs and the Ottomans. Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
and Bohemia[edit] Vladislaus II of Hungary[edit] King of Bohemia[edit]

Ladislaus II Jagiellon (1456 –1516) - King of Bohemia
King of Bohemia
and Hungary

Vladislaus was born on 1 March 1456, the oldest son of King Casimir IV of Poland and Grand Duke
Grand Duke
of Lithuania, then the head of the ruling Jagiellon dynasty of Poland, and Elizabeth of Austria, daughter of Albert, King of Germany, Hungary
Hungary
and Bohemia. He was christened as the namesake of his grandfather, King Władysław Jagiełło
Jagiełło
of Poland and Lithuania, his maternal uncle King Ladislaus the Posthumous
Ladislaus the Posthumous
of Bohemia and his paternal uncle Władysław III of Poland, an earlier king of Hungary. He was proposed for the Bohemian throne by the widow of the previous king, George of Poděbrady, and was crowned King of Bohemia
King of Bohemia
on 22 August 1471. The period after the death of George of Poděbrady
George of Poděbrady
was a time of conflict for the Bohemian throne (see Bohemian War (1468–1478)), and Vladislaus was unable to confront it. At the time of his arrival in Prague, he was only fifteen years old and significantly dominated by his advisers. The succession conflict was settled in 1479 in the Peace of Olomouc, which allowed both Vladislaus and Matthias Corvinus
Matthias Corvinus
to use the title "King of Bohemia". Vladislaus would reign in Bohemia
Bohemia
proper, while Matthias gained Moravia, Silesia, and the two Lusatias. The deal also stipulated that in case of Matthias' death, Vladislaus would pay 400,000 gulden for the entirety of the Bohemian lands. However, this payment was not made once Vladislaus became King of Hungary
King of Hungary
after the death of Matthias. King of Hungary[edit] Great chaos overcame Hungary
Hungary
when the King Matthias Corvinus
Matthias Corvinus
died without heir in 1490. His illegitimate son John Corvinus
John Corvinus
was not recognized by the Hungarian nobility, and after being forced to retreat, they called Vladislaus to Hungary, as his mother was the sister of the long ago deceased King Ladislaus and granddaughter of King Sigismund. Vladislaus was then crowned King of Hungary
King of Hungary
on 18 September 1490. Vladislaus immediately moved to Hungary, and there he lived the rest of his life, having his court and all his children born in the palace of Buda. The Hungarian nobility
Hungarian nobility
reigned and took many important decisions in his name, and his role as monarch soon passed to be in a second plan. Stephen Zápolya, the archbishop Tamás Bakócz
Tamás Bakócz
and George Szatmári
George Szatmári
continued with the Turkish war plans and tried then to maintain the Kingdom that fell in a severe economical crisis after Matthias's death. Vladislaus was a cheerful man, but after the death of his third wife, he fell into a severe depression and almost retired from all official issues. Then he gained the nickname of "Vladislaus Bene" (Polish: Władysław Dobrze, Hungarian: Dobzse László, Czech: král Dobře) because to almost any request he answered, "Bene" (Latin for "(It is) well"). Louis II of Hungary[edit]

Louis II of Hungary
Hungary
(1506 - 1526), King of Hungary
King of Hungary
and Bohemia

Louis II was the son of Ladislaus II Jagiellon and his third wife, Anne of Foix-Candale. In 1515 Louis II was married to Mary of Austria, granddaughter of Emperor Maximilian I, as stipulated by the First Congress of Vienna in 1515. His sister Anne was married to Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, then a governor on behalf of his brother Charles V, and later Emperor Ferdinand I. Following the accession to the throne of Suleiman I, the sultan sent an ambassador to Louis II to collect the annual tribute that Hungary had been subjected to. Louis refused to pay annual tribute and had the Ottoman ambassador executed and sent the head to the Sultan. Louis believed that the Papal States and other Christian States including Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
would help him. This event hastened the fall of Hungary. The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
declared war on the Kingdom of Hungary, Suleiman postponed his plan to besiege Rhodes and made an expedition to Belgrade. Louis failed to coordinate and gather his forces. At the same time, Hungary
Hungary
was unable to get assistance from other European states, which Louis had hoped for. Belgrade
Belgrade
and many strategic castles in Serbia
Serbia
were captured by the Ottomans. This was disastrous for Louis' kingdom; without the strategically important cities of Belgrade
Belgrade
and Šabac, Hungary, including Buda, was open to further Turkish conquests.

Discovery of the corpse of King Louis II after the Battle of Mohacs

After the siege of Rhodes, in 1526 Suleiman made a second expedition to subdue all of Hungary. Louis made a tactical error when he tried to stop the Ottoman army in an open field battle with a medieval army, insufficient firearms, and obsolete tactics. On 29 August 1526, Louis led his forces against Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent
of the Ottoman Empire in the disastrous Battle of Mohács. In a pincer movement, the Hungarian army was surrounded by Ottoman cavalry, and in the center, the Hungarian heavy knights and infantry were repulsed and suffered heavy casualties, especially from the well-positioned Ottoman cannons and well-armed and trained Janissary musketeers. Nearly the entire Hungarian Royal army was destroyed on the battlefield. During the retreat, the twenty-year-old king died in a marsh. As Louis had no legitimate children, Ferdinand was elected as his successor in the Kingdoms of Bohemia
Bohemia
and Hungary, but the Hungarian throne was contested by John Zápolya, who ruled the areas of the kingdom conquered by the Turks as an Ottoman client. Jagiellons in natural line[edit] Although Louis II's marriage remained childless, he probably had an illegitimate child with his mother's former lady-in-waiting, Angelitha Wass, before his marriage. This son was called John (János in Hungarian). This name appears in sources in Vienna as either János Wass or János Lanthos. The former surname is his mother's maiden name. The latter surname may refer to his occupation. "Lanthos" means "lutenist", or "bard". He received incomes from the Royal Treasury regularly. He had further offspring. Jagiellonian
Jagiellonian
Kings of Poland[edit]

Jagiellon family

Portrait Name Born Died Reign Spouse

Władysław II Jagiełło ca. 1362 1434 1386–1434 Jadwiga of Poland Anne of Cilli Elisabeth of Pilica Sophia of Halshany

Władysław III of Poland 1424 1444 1434–1444 Poland 1440–1444 Hungary none

Casimir IV Jagiellon 1427 1492 1447–1492 Elisabeth of Austria

John I Albert 1459 1501 1492–1501 none

Alexander I Jagiellon 1461 1506 1501–1506 Helena of Moscow

Sigismund I the Old 1467 1548 1507–1548 Barbara Zápolya Bona Sforza

Sigismund II Augustus 1520 1572 1530/1548-1572 Elisabeth of Austria Barbara Radziwiłł Catherine of Austria

After Sigismund II Augustus, the dynasty underwent further changes. Sigismund II's heirs were his sisters Anna Jagiellon
Anna Jagiellon
and Catherine Jagiellon. The latter had married Duke John of Finland, who thereby from 1569 became King John III of Sweden, and they had a son, Sigismund III Vasa; as a result, the Polish branch of the Jagiellonians merged with the House of Vasa, which ruled Poland from 1587 until 1668. During the interval, among others, Stephen Báthory, the husband of the childless Anna, reigned. Jagiellonian
Jagiellonian
Kings of Bohemia, Hungary
Hungary
and Croatia[edit] At one point, the Jagiellonians established dynastic control also over the kingdoms of Bohemia
Bohemia
and Hungary
Hungary
(from 1490 onwards), with Vladislaus Jagiello whom several history books call Vladisla(u)s II. After being elected and crowned King of Hungary, Vladislaus moved his court to Hungary
Hungary
from where he ruled both countries and his children were born and raised. By Louis' sudden death in Battle of Mohács
Battle of Mohács
in 1526, that royal line was extinguished in male line.

Portrait Name Born Died Reign Spouse

Vladislaus II of Bohemia
Bohemia
and Hungary 1456 1516 1471–1516 Bohemia 1490–1516 Hungary
Hungary
and Croatia Barbara of Brandenburg Beatrice of Naples Anne of Foix-Candale

Louis II of Hungary
Hungary
and Bohemia 1506 1526 1516–1526 Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia Mary of Austria

Other members of the Jagiellonian
Jagiellonian
dynasty[edit]

Portrait Name Born Died Spouse Offices and Titles

Hedwig Jagiellon of Poland 1457 1502 George, Duke of Bavaria Duchess of Bavaria-Landshut

Saint
Saint
Casimir 1458 1484 none Saint
Saint
of the Roman Catholic Church Patron saint
Patron saint
of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

Sophia Jagiellon of Poland 1464 1512 Frederick I, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach Margravine of Brandenburg-Ansbach Margravine of Brandenburg-Kulmbach

Fryderyk Jagiellończyk 1468 1503 none Archbishop of Gniezno Bishop of Kraków Primate of Poland

Anna Jagiellon
Anna Jagiellon
of Poland 1476 1503 Bogislaw X, Duke of Pomerania Duchess consort of Pomerania

Barbara Jagiellon
Barbara Jagiellon
of Poland 1478 1534 George, Duke of Saxony Duchess consort of Saxony Margravine consort of Meissen

Anne of Bohemia
Bohemia
and Hungary 1503 1547 Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor Queen consort of the Romans Queen consort of Bohemia
Bohemia
and Hungary

Hedwig Jagiellon of Poland 1513 1573 Joachim II Hector, Elector of Brandenburg Electress consort of Brandenburg

Isabella Jagiellon
Isabella Jagiellon
of Poland 1519 1559 John Zápolya Queen consort of Eastern Hungary

Sophia Jagiellon of Poland 1522 1575 Henry V, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg Duchess consort of Brunswick-Lüneburg Brienne claim

Anna Jagiellon
Anna Jagiellon
of Poland 1523 1596 Stephen Báthory King of Poland Queen consort of Poland Brienne claim

Catherine Jagiellon
Catherine Jagiellon
of Poland 1526 1583 John III of Sweden Queen consort of Sweden

Legacy[edit]

The Jagiellonian University
Jagiellonian University
in Kraków Jagiellonian
Jagiellonian
Library of the Jagiellonian University
Jagiellonian University
in Kraków Globus Jagellonicus, is by some considered to be the oldest existing globe to show the Americas Jagiellonian
Jagiellonian
tapestries is a collection of tapestries Jagiellonia Białystok, a football club, based in Białystok Jagiellonia Tuszyn, a former football club based in Tuszyn Jagiełło
Jagiełło
Oak, most noted of the Białowieża Forest
Białowieża Forest
oaks Jagiellonia, a fraternal society founded in 1910 in Vienna

See also[edit]

History of Poland during the Jagiellon dynasty List of Polish rulers List of Czech rulers List of Hungarian rulers List of Lithuanian rulers

v t e

Family tree of the Jagiellonian
Jagiellonian
dynasty

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vladislaus II (Jogaila)[i] ca.1351–1434 G. Duke of Lithuania, 1377–1401 King of Poland, 1386–1434

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Elisabeth Bonifacia 1399

 

 

Hedwig 1408–1431

 

 

Vladislaus III 1424–1444 King of Poland, 1434–1444 King of Hungary, 1440–1444

 

 

Casimir 1426–1427

 

 

Casimir IV 1427–1492 G. Duke of Lithuania, 1440–1492 King of Poland, 1447–1492

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vladislaus II 1456–1516 King of Bohemia, 1471–1516 King of Hungary, 1490–1516

 

Hedwig 1457–1502 Duchess of Bavaria-Landshut, 1475–1502

 

Saint
Saint
Casimir 1458–1484

 

John I Albert 1459–1501 King of Poland, 1492–1501

 

Alexander 1461–1506 G. Duke of Lithuania, 1492–1506 King of Poland, 1501–1506

 

Sophia 1464–1512 Margravine of Brandenburg-Ansbach, 1479–1512

 

Elisabeth 1465–1466

 

Sigismund I 1467–1548 King of Poland
King of Poland
and G. Duke of Lithuania, 1506–1548

 

Frederick 1468–1503 Bishop of Kraków, 1488–1503 Archbishop of Gniezno, 1493–1503

 

Elisabeth 1472–after 1480

 

Anna 1476–1503 Duchess of Pomerania, 1491–1503

 

Barbara 1478–1534 Margravine of Meissen, 1494–1534

 

Elisabeth ca.1483–1517 Duchess of Liegnitz, 1515–1517

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anna 1503–1547 Queen of Hungary
Hungary
and Bohemia, 1526–1547 Queen of the Romans, 1531–1547

 

Louis II 1506–1526 King of Hungary
King of Hungary
and Bohemia, 1516–1526

 

 

 

 

 

Hedwig 1513–1573 Electress of Brandenburg, 1535–1573

 

Anna 1515–1520

 

Isabella 1519–1559 Queen of Hungary, 1539–1540

 

Sigismund II Augustus 1520–1571 King of Poland
King of Poland
and G. Duke of Lithuania, 1548–1572

 

Sophia 1522–1575 Duchess of Brunswick- Wolfenbüttel, 1556–1568

 

Anna 1523–1596 Queen of Poland and G. Duchess of Lithuania, 1575–1586

 

Catherine 1526–1583 Duchess of Finland, 1562–1583 Queen of Sweden, 1569–1583

Notes:

^ kings are marked in gold, queens – in pale gold.

v t e

Monarchs of Central Europe: the House of Jagiellon and their competitors, 1377–1572

-1570 — – -1560 — – -1550 — – -1540 — – -1530 — – -1520 — – -1510 — – -1500 — – -1490 — – -1480 — – -1470 — – -1460 — – -1450 — – -1440 — – -1430 — – -1420 — – -1410 — – -1400 — – -1390 — – -1380 —

Grand Duchy of Lithuania

Jogaila, 1377–1381

Jogaila, 1382–1392

Vytautas 1392–1430

Švitrigaila, 1430–1432

Sigismund Kęstutaitis, 1432–1440

Casimir IV 1440–1492

Alexander, 1492–1506

Sigismund I 1506–1548

Sigismund II Augustus 1548–1572

Kingdom of Poland

Louis I, 1370–1382

Hedwig, 1382–1399

 

Vladislaus II (Jogaila) 1386–1433

Vladislaus III, 1434–1444

Casimir IV 1447–1492

John I Albert, 1492–1501

Alexander, 1501–1506

Sigismund I 1506–1548

Sigismund II Augustus 1548–1572

Kingdom of Hungary

Louis I, 1342–1382

Mary, 1382–1387

Sigismund 1387–1437

Albert II, 1437–1439

Matthias Corvinus 1458–1490

Matthias Corvinus 1458–1490

Ladislaus V, 1445–1457

Vladislaus I, 1440–1444

Vladislaus II 1490–1516

Louis II, 1516–1526

Ferdinand I 1526–1564

Maximilian II, 1564–1576

Kingdom of Bohemia

Wenceslaus IV 1378–1419

Sigismund 1419–1437

Albert II, 1437–1439

Ladislaus 1440–1457

George 1458–1471

Vladislaus II 1471–1516

Louis II, 1516–1526

Ferdinand I 1526–1564

Maximilian II, 1564–1576

  House of Jagiellon

  Other Gediminids

  Capetian House of Anjou

  House of Luxembourg

  House of Habsburg

 Other

Notes[edit]

^ Jadwiga was crowned King of Poland
King of Poland
— Hedvig Rex Poloniæ, not Hedvig Regina Poloniæ. Polish law had no provision for a female ruler (queen regnant), but did not specify that the King had to be a male. The masculine gender of her title was also meant to emphasize that she was monarch in her own right, not a queen consort. ^ This is true especially regarding legislative matters and legal framework. Despite the restrictions the nobility imposed on the monarchs, the Polish kings had never become figureheads. In practice they wielded considerable executive power, up to and including the last king, Stanisław August Poniatowski. Some were at times even accused of absolutist tendencies, and it may be for the lack of sufficiently strong personalities or favorable circumstances that none of the kings had succeeded in significant and lasting strengthening of the monarchy.[3]

References[edit]

^ Krzysztof Baczkowski – Dzieje Polski późnośredniowiecznej (1370–1506) (History of Late Medieval Poland (1370–1506)), p. 55; Fogra, Kraków
Kraków
1999, ISBN 83-85719-40-7 ^ Wyrozumski 1986, pp. 178–180 ^ Gierowski 1986, pp. 144–146, 258–261 ^ a b c Wyrozumski 1986, pp. 198–206 ^ "Casimir IV - king of Poland". Retrieved 13 February 2017.  ^ Wyrozumski 1986, pp. 207–213 ^ Gierowski 1986, pp. 122–125, 151

Works cited[edit]

Gierowski, Józef Andrzej (1986). Historia Polski 1505–1764 (History of Poland 1505–1764). Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe (Polish Scientific Publishers PWN). ISBN 83-01-03732-6.  Wyrozumski, Jerzy (1986). Historia Polski do roku 1505 (History of Poland until 1505). Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe (Polish Scientific Publishers PWN). ISBN 83-01-03732-6. 

Bibliography[edit]

Małgorzata Duczmal, Jagiellonowie. Leksykon biograficzny, Kraków 1996. Stanisław Grzybowski, Dzieje Polski i Litwy (1506–1648), Kraków 2000. ISBN 83-85719-48-2 Paweł Jasienica, Polska Jagiellonów (1963), ISBN 978-83-7469-522-0 Wojciech Dominiak, Bożena Czwojdrak, Beata Jankowiak-Konik, Jagiellonowie Marek Derwich, Monarchia Jagiellonów (1399–1586) Krzysztof Baczkowski, Polska i jej sąsiedzi za Jagiellonów Henryk Litwin, Central European Superpower, BUM Magazine, October 2016.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to House of Jagiellon.

Rulers of Poland Jagiellonian
Jagiellonian
Dynasty Pages and Forums on Lithuanian history Jagiellonian
Jagiellonian
Observatory The Jagiellonians: Dynasty, Memory and Identity in Central Europe
Central Europe
- a major 5-year research project conducted by the Oxford University

v t e

Monarchs of Poland

Piast
Piast
dynasty

Siemowit Lestek Siemomysł Mieszko I Bolesław I the Brave Bezprym Mieszko II Lambert (Bolesław the Forgotten) Casimir I the Restorer Bolesław II the Generous Władysław I Herman Zbigniew Bolesław III Wrymouth

Fragmentation period

Supreme Princes

Władysław II the Exile Bolesław IV the Curly Mieszko III the Old Casimir II the Just Leszek the White Władysław III Spindleshanks Władysław Odonic Mieszko IV Tanglefoot Konrad I Henry the Bearded Henry II the Pious Bolesław V the Chaste Leszek II the Black Henryk IV Probus Przemysł II

See also

Dukes of Silesia Dukes of Greater Poland Dukes of Little Poland Dukes of Masovia Dukes of Cuyavia Dukes of Sieradz-Łęczyca Dukes of Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Pomerania Dukes of Pomerania

Přemyslid dynasty

Wenceslaus II Wenceslaus III

Restored Piast
Piast
dynasty

Władysław I the Elbow-high Casimir III the Great

Capet-Anjou dynasty

Louis I the Hungarian Jadwiga

Jagiellonian
Jagiellonian
dynasty

Władysław II Jagiełło Władysław III of Varna Casimir IV John I Albert Alexander Sigismund I the Old Sigismund II Augustus

Elective monarchy

Henry of Valois Anna Jagiellon Stephen Báthory Sigismund III Vasa Władysław IV Vasa John II Casimir Vasa Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki John III Sobieski August II the Strong Stanisław I August III the Saxon Stanisław August Poniatowski

Italics indicates monarchs of questioned historicity or entirely legendary.

v t e

Royal houses of Europe

Nordic countries

Denmark

Knýtlinga Fairhair Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Finland

Bjelbo Mecklenburg Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Vasa Palatinate-Zweibrücken Hesse Holstein-Gottorp Romanov

Norway

Fairhair Knýtlinga Hardrada Gille Sverre Bjelbo Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Holstein-Gottorp Bernadotte Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Sweden

Munsö Stenkil Sverker Eric Bjelbo Estridsen Mecklenburg Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Vasa Palatinate-Zweibrücken Hesse-Kassel Holstein-Gottorp Bernadotte

Iceland

Fairhair Bjelbo Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Britain and Ireland

England

Mercia Wuffing Kent Sussex Essex Bernicia Deira Northumbria Uí Ímair Wessex Knýtlinga Normandy Angevin Plantagenet Lancaster York Tudor

Scotland

Fergus Óengus Strathclyde Mann and the Isles Alpin Northumbria Bernicia Uí Ímair Galloway Dunkeld Sverre Balliol Bruce Stuart

Wales

Dinefwr Aberffraw Gwynedd Mathrafal Cunedda Tudor

Ireland

Ulaid Dál Riata Érainn Corcu Loígde Laigin Connachta Uí Néill Ó Gallchobhair Ó Domhnail Ó Néill Ó Máel Sechlainn Mac Murchada Ó Briain Mac Lochlainn Ó Conchobhair

Gaelic Ireland

Laigin Síl Conairi Ulaid Dáirine Osraige Cruthin Dál nAraidi Connachta Uí Fiachrach Uí Briúin Uí Néill Síl nÁedo Sláine Clann Cholmáin Eóganachta Chaisil Glendamnach Raithlind Uí Dúnlainge Uí Ímair
Uí Ímair
(Norse) Uí Ceinnselaig Dál gCais Ó Briain Mac Carthaig Ó Conchobhair Ó Ruairc De Burgh (Norman) FitzGerald (Norman) Ó Domhnaill Ó Néill

Great Britain

Stuart Orange-Nassau Hanover Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Windsor

Eastern Europe

Albania

Angevin Progon Arianiti Thopia Kastrioti Dukagjini Wied Zogu Ottoman Savoy

Armenia2

Orontid Artaxiad Arsacid Bagratid Artsruni Rubenids Hethumids Lusignan Savoy

Bosnia

Boričević Kulinić Kotromanić Kosača Ottoman Habsburg-Lorraine

Bulgaria

Dulo Krum Cometopuli Asen Smilets Terter Shishman Sratsimir Battenberg Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Croatia

Trpimirović Domagojević Svačić Ottoman Luxembourg Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine Bonaparte Savoy (disputed)

Cyprus2

Plantagenet Lusignan Ottoman Savoy

Georgia1

Pharnavazid Artaxiad Arsacid Ottoman Chosroid Bagrationi

Greece

Argead Macedonian Doukas Komnenos Angelos Laskaris Palaiologos Ottoman Wittelsbach Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Lithuania

Mindaugas Gediminids Jagiellon Valois Báthory Vasa Wiśniowiecki Sobieski Wettin Leszczyński Poniatowski Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov

Moldavia

Dragoș (Drăgoșești) Rossetti Bogdan-Muşat Movilești Drăculeşti Ghica Cantacuzene Cantemirești Racoviță Mavrocordato Ypsilantis Soutzos Mourousi Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Basarab

Montenegro

Vojislavljević Balšić Ottoman Crnojević Petrović-Njegoš

Romania

House of Basarab Rossetti Bogdan-Mușat Movilești Drăculești Ghica Cantacuzene Cantemirești Romanov Racoviță Ottoman Mavrocordato Ypsilantis Soutzos Mourousi Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Romania/Royal family

Russia1

Rurik Borjigin Godunov Shuysky Vasa Romanov

Serbia

Vlastimirović Vukanović Nemanjić Lazarević Mrnjavčević Dejanović Branković Ottoman Obrenović Karađorđević

Turkey1

Ottoman

Ukraine

Rurikids Piast Gediminids Olshanski Olelkovich Giray Romanov Habsburg-Lorraine

1 Transcontinental country. 2 Entirely in Southwest Asia
Asia
but having socio-political connections with Europe.

Western Europe

Belgium

Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

France

Merovingian Carolingian Capet Valois Bourbon Bonaparte Orléans

Italy

Aleramici Appiani Bonaparte Bourbon-Parma Bourbon-Two Sicilies Carolingian Della Rovere Este Farnese Flavian Gonzaga Grimaldi Habsburg Julio-Claudian Malatesta Malaspina Medici Montefeltro Nerva–Antonine Ordelaffi Orsini Palaiologos Pallavicini Savoy Severan Sforza Visconti

Luxembourg

Orange-Nassau Nassau-Weilburg Bourbon-Parma

Monaco

Grimaldi

Netherlands

Bonaparte Orange-Nassau (Mecklenburg) (Lippe) (Amsberg)

Portugal

Vímara Peres Burgundy Aviz Habsburg
Habsburg
Spanish Braganza

Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Spain

Asturias Barcelona Jiménez Burgundy Champagne Capet Évreux Trastámara Habsburg Bourbon

Bonaparte Savoy

Central Europe

Austria

Babenberg Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine

Bohemia

Přemyslid Piast Luxembourg Jagiellon Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine

Germany

Ascania Carolingian Conradines Ottonian Luitpolding Salian Süpplingenburg Hohenstaufen Welf Habsburg Hanover Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Nassau Luxembourg Wittelsbach Schwarzburg Brunswick-Lüneburg House of Pomerania Hohenzollern Württemberg Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Orange-Nassau Nassau-Weilburg Mecklenburg Vasa Palatine Zweibrücken Hesse Holstein-Gottorp Romanov Bonaparte Wettin Lippe Zähringen

Hungary

Árpád Přemyslid Wittelsbach Angevin Luxembourg Hunyadi Jagiellon Szapolyai Ottoman Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine

Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein

Poland

Piast Přemyslid Samborides Griffins Jagiellon Valois Báthory Vasa Wiśniowiecki Sobieski Wettin Leszczyński Poniatowski

After partitions:

Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Kingdom of Poland Habsburg
Habsburg
Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Wettin Duchy of Warsaw Lefebvre Duchy of Gdańsk Hohenzollern Duchy of Poznań

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 22948809 GN

.