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The Info List - Jacques Cousteau

Jacques-Yves Cousteau AC (French: [ʒak iv kusto]; commonly known in English as Jacques Cousteau; 11 June 1910 – 25 June 1997)[1] was a French naval officer, explorer, conservationist, filmmaker, innovator, scientist, photographer, author and researcher who studied the sea and all forms of life in water. He co-developed the Aqua-lung, pioneered marine conservation and was a member of the Académie française. Cousteau described his underwater world research in a series of books, perhaps the most successful being his first book, The Silent World: A Story of Undersea Discovery and Adventure, published in 1953. Cousteau also directed films, most notably the documentary adaptation of the book, The Silent World, which won a Palme d'or
Palme d'or
at the 1956 Cannes Film Festival. He remained the only person to win a Palme d'Or
Palme d'Or
for a documentary film, until Michael Moore
Michael Moore
won the award in 2004 for Fahrenheit 9/11.

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early years 1.2 Early 1940s: Innovation of modern underwater diving 1.3 Late 1940s: GERS and Élie Monnier 1.4 1950–1970s 1.5 1980–1990s 1.6 Death 1.7 Honors 1.8 Legacy 1.9 Religious views

2 Filmography

2.1 Legend

3 Bibliography 4 Media portrayals 5 See also

5.1 Jacques-Yves Cousteau's ships

6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Biography

"The sea, the great unifier, is man's only hope. Now, as never before, the old phrase has a literal meaning: We are all in the same boat."

Jacques Cousteau

Early years Cousteau was born on 11 June 1910, in Saint-André-de-Cubzac, Gironde, France, to Daniel and Élisabeth Cousteau. He had one brother, Pierre-Antoine. Cousteau completed his preparatory studies at the Collège Stanislas in Paris. In 1930, he entered the École Navale
École Navale
and graduated as a gunnery officer. After an automobile accident cut short his career in naval aviation, Cousteau indulged his interest in the sea. The accident caused him to break both his arms and could have even killed him. This caused Cousteau to have to change his plans in becoming a naval pilot, but it eventually worked out because of his passion for the ocean.[2] In Toulon, where he was serving on the Condorcet, Cousteau carried out his first underwater experiments, thanks to his friend Philippe Tailliez who in 1936 lent him some Fernez underwater goggles, predecessors of modern swimming goggles.[1] Cousteau also belonged to the information service of the French Navy, and was sent on missions to Shanghai and Japan (1935–1938) and in the USSR
USSR
(1939).[citation needed] On 12 July 1937 he married Simone Melchior, with whom he had two sons, Jean-Michel (born 1938) and Philippe (1940–1979). His sons took part in the adventures of the Calypso. In 1991, one year after his wife Simone's death from cancer, he married Francine Triplet. They already had a daughter Diane Cousteau (born 1980) and a son, Pierre-Yves Cousteau (born 1982), born during Cousteau's marriage to his first wife. Early 1940s: Innovation of modern underwater diving The years of World War II
World War II
were decisive for the history of diving. After the armistice of 1940, the family of Simone and Jacques-Yves Cousteau took refuge in Megève, where he became a friend of the Ichac family who also lived there. Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Marcel Ichac shared the same desire to reveal to the general public unknown and inaccessible places — for Cousteau the underwater world and for Ichac the high mountains. The two neighbors took the first ex-aequo prize of the Congress of Documentary Film in 1943, for the first French underwater film: Par dix-huit mètres de fond (18 meters deep), made without breathing apparatus the previous year in the Embiez islands (Var) with Philippe Tailliez
Philippe Tailliez
and Frédéric Dumas, using a depth-pressure-proof camera case developed by mechanical engineer Léon Vèche (engineer of Arts and Métiers and the Naval College). In 1943, they made the film Épaves (Shipwrecks), in which they used two of the very first Aqua-Lung
Aqua-Lung
prototypes. These prototypes were made in Boulogne-Billancourt
Boulogne-Billancourt
by the Air Liquide
Air Liquide
company, following instructions from Cousteau and Émile Gagnan.[3] When making Épaves, Cousteau could not find the necessary blank reels of movie film, but had to buy hundreds of small still camera film reels the same width, intended for a make of child's camera, and cemented them together to make long reels.[4][5] Having kept bonds with the English speakers (he spent part of his childhood in the United States and usually spoke English) and with French soldiers in North Africa (under Admiral Lemonnier), Jacques-Yves Cousteau (whose villa "Baobab" at Sanary
Sanary
(Var) was opposite Admiral Darlan's villa "Reine"), helped the French Navy
French Navy
to join again with the Allies; he assembled a commando operation against the Italian espionage services in France, and received several military decorations for his deeds. At that time, he kept his distance from his brother Pierre-Antoine Cousteau, a "pen anti-semite" who wrote the collaborationist newspaper Je suis partout (I am everywhere) and who received the death sentence in 1946. However, this was later commuted to a life sentence, and Pierre-Antoine was released in 1954. During the 1940s, Cousteau is credited with improving the aqua-lung design which gave birth to the open-circuit scuba technology used today. According to his first book, The Silent World: A Story of Undersea Discovery and Adventure (1953), Cousteau started diving with Fernez goggles in 1936, and in 1939 used the self-contained underwater breathing apparatus invented in 1926 by Commander Yves le Prieur.[4] Cousteau was not satisfied with the length of time he could spend underwater with the Le Prieur apparatus so he improved it to extend underwater duration by adding a demand regulator, invented in 1942 by Émile Gagnan.[4] In 1943 Cousteau tried out the first prototype aqua-lung which finally made extended underwater exploration possible. Late 1940s: GERS and Élie Monnier In 1946, Cousteau and Tailliez showed the film Épaves ("Shipwrecks") to Admiral Lemonnier, who gave them the responsibility of setting up the Groupement de Recherches Sous-marines (GRS) (Underwater Research Group) of the French Navy
French Navy
in Toulon. A little later it became the GERS (Groupe d'Études et de Recherches Sous-Marines, = Underwater Studies and Research Group), then the COMISMER ("COMmandement des Interventions Sous la MER", = "Undersea Interventions Command"), and finally more recently the CEPHISMER. In 1947, Chief Petty Officer Maurice Fargues became the first diver to die using an aqualung, while attempting a new depth record with the GERS near Toulon.[6] In 1948, between missions of mine clearance, underwater exploration and technological and physiological tests, Cousteau undertook a first campaign in the Mediterranean on board the sloop Élie Monnier,[7][8] with Philippe Tailliez, Frédéric Dumas, Jean Alinat and the scenario writer Marcel Ichac. The small team also undertook the exploration of the Roman wreck of Mahdia (Tunisia). It was the first underwater archaeology operation using autonomous diving, opening the way for scientific underwater archaeology. Cousteau and Marcel Ichac brought back from there the Carnets diving film (presented and preceded with the Cannes Film Festival
Cannes Film Festival
1951). Cousteau and the Élie Monnier then took part in the rescue of Professor Jacques Piccard's bathyscaphe, the FNRS-2, during the 1949 expedition to Dakar. Thanks to this rescue, the French Navy
French Navy
was able to reuse the sphere of the bathyscaphe to construct the FNRS-3. The adventures of this period are told in the two books The Silent World (1953, by Cousteau and Dumas) and Plongées sans câble (1954, by Philippe Tailliez). 1950–1970s In 1949, Cousteau left the French Navy. In 1950, he founded the French Oceanographic Campaigns (FOC), and leased a ship called Calypso from Thomas Loel Guinness
Thomas Loel Guinness
for a symbolic one franc a year. Cousteau refitted the Calypso as a mobile laboratory for field research and as his principal vessel for diving and filming. He also carried out underwater archaeological excavations in the Mediterranean, in particular at Grand-Congloué (1952). With the publication of his first book in 1953, The Silent World, he correctly predicted the existence of the echolocation abilities of porpoises. He reported that his research vessel, the Élie Monier, was heading to the Straits of Gibraltar
Straits of Gibraltar
and noticed a group of porpoises following them. Cousteau changed course a few degrees off the optimal course to the center of the strait, and the porpoises followed for a few minutes, then diverged toward mid-channel again. It was evident that they knew where the optimal course lay, even if the humans did not. Cousteau concluded that the cetaceans had something like sonar, which was a relatively new feature on submarines. In 1954, Cousteau conducted a survey of Abu Dhabi waters on behalf of British Petroleum. Among those accompanying him was Louis Malle
Louis Malle
who made a black-and-white film of the expedition for the company.[9] Cousteau won the Palme d'Or
Palme d'Or
at the Cannes Film Festival
Cannes Film Festival
in 1956 for The Silent World
The Silent World
co-produced with Malle. In 1957, Cousteau took over as leader of the Oceanographic Museum
Oceanographic Museum
of Monaco.[2] Afterward, with the assistance of Jean Mollard, he made a "diving saucer" SP-350, an experimental underwater vehicle which could reach a depth of 350 meters. The successful experiment was quickly repeated in 1965 with two vehicles which reached 500 meters. In 1957, he was elected as director of the Oceanographical Museum of Monaco.[2] He directed Précontinent, about the experiments of diving in saturation (long-duration immersion, houses under the sea), and was admitted to the United States National Academy of Sciences. He was involved in the creation of Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques and served as its inaugural president from 1959 to 1973.[10] Cousteau also took part in inventing the " SP-350 Denise
SP-350 Denise
Diving Saucer" in 1959 which was an invention best for exploring the ocean floor, as it allowed one to explore on solid ground.[2] In October 1960, a large amount of radioactive waste was going to be discarded in the Mediterranean Sea by the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique (CEA). The CEA argued that the dumps were experimental in nature, and that French oceanographers such as Vsevelod Romanovsky had recommended it. Romanovsky and other French scientists, including Louis Fage and Jacques Cousteau, repudiated the claim, saying that Romanovsky had in mind a much smaller amount. The CEA claimed that there was little circulation (and hence little need for concern) at the dump site between Nice and Corsica, but French public opinion sided with the oceanographers rather than with the CEA atomic energy scientists. The CEA chief, Francis Perrin, decided to postpone the dump.[11] Cousteau organized a publicity campaign which in less than two weeks gained wide popular support. The train carrying the waste was stopped by women and children sitting on the railway tracks, and it was sent back to its origin.

Cousteau on the Calypso.

In the 1960s Cousteau was involved with a set of three projects to build underwater "villages"; the projects were named Precontinent I, Precontinent II and Precontinent III. Each ensuing project was aimed at increasing the depth at which people continuously lived under water, and were an attempt at creating an environment in which men could live and work on the sea floor. The projects are best known as Conshelf I (1962), Conshelf II (1963), and Conshelf III (1965). The names "Precontinent", and "Continental Shelf Station" (Conshelf) were used interchangeably by Cousteau. A meeting with American television companies (ABC, Métromédia, NBC) created the series The Undersea World of Jacques Cousteau, with the character of the commander in the red bonnet inherited from standard diving dress intended to give the films a "personalized adventure" style. This documentary television series ran for ten years from 1966 to 1976. A second documentary series, The Cousteau Odyssey, ran from 1977 to 1982, among others. In 1970, he wrote the book The Shark: Splendid Savage of the Sea with his son Philippe. In this book, Cousteau described the oceanic whitetip shark as "the most dangerous of all sharks". In December 1972, two years after the volcano's last eruption, The Cousteau Society was filming Voyage au bout du monde on Deception Island, Antarctica, when Michel Laval, Calypso's second in command, was struck and killed by a rotor of the helicopter that was ferrying between Calypso and the island.[12][13] In 1973, along with his two sons and Frederick Hyman, he created the Cousteau Society for the Protection of Ocean Life, Frederick Hyman being its first President; it now has more than 300,000 members. In 1975, John Denver
John Denver
released the tribute song "Calypso" on his album "Windsong", and on the B-side of his hit song "I'm Sorry". "Calypso" became a hit on its own and was later considered the new A-side, reaching #2 on the charts. In 1976, Cousteau uncovered the wreck of HMHS Britannic. He also found the wreck of the French 17th-century ship-of-the-line La Therese in coastal waters of Crete. In 1977, together with Peter Scott, he received the UN International Environment prize. On 28 June 1979, while the Calypso was on an expedition to Portugal, his second son Philippe, his preferred and designated successor and with whom he had co-produced all his films since 1969, died in a PBY Catalina flying boat crash in the Tagus river near Lisbon. Cousteau was deeply affected. He called his then eldest son, the architect Jean-Michel, to his side. This collaboration lasted 14 years. 1980–1990s From 1980 to 1981, he was a regular on the animal reality show Those Amazing Animals, along with Burgess Meredith, Priscilla Presley, and Jim Stafford.

Cousteau's Diving Saucer

In 1980, Cousteau traveled to Canada to make two films on the Saint Lawrence River and the Great Lakes, Cries from the Deep and St. Lawrence: Stairway to the Sea.[14] In 1985, he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom
from Ronald Reagan. On 24 November 1988, he was elected to the Académie française, chair 17, succeeding Jean Delay. His official reception under the cupola took place on 22 June 1989, the response to his speech of reception being given by Bertrand Poirot-Delpech. After his death, he was replaced by Érik Orsenna
Érik Orsenna
on 28 May 1998. In June 1990, the composer Jean Michel Jarre
Jean Michel Jarre
paid homage to the commander by entitling his new album Waiting for Cousteau. He also composed the music for Cousteau's documentary "Palawan, the last refuge". On 2 December 1990, his wife Simone Cousteau died of cancer. In June 1991, in Paris, Jacques-Yves Cousteau remarried, to Francine Triplet, with whom he had (before this marriage) two children, Diane and Pierre-Yves. Francine Cousteau currently continues her husband's work as the head of the Cousteau Foundation and Cousteau Society. From that point, the relations between Jacques-Yves and his elder son worsened. In November 1991, Cousteau gave an interview to the UNESCO Courier, in which he stated that he was in favour of human population control and population decrease. Widely quoted on the Internet are these two paragraphs from the interview: "What should we do to eliminate suffering and disease? It's a wonderful idea but perhaps not altogether a beneficial one in the long run. If we try to implement it we may jeopardize the future of our species...It's terrible to have to say this. World population must be stabilized and to do that we must eliminate 350,000 people per day. This is so horrible to contemplate that we shouldn't even say it. But the general situation in which we are involved is lamentable".[15] In 1992, he was invited to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for the United Nations' International Conference on Environment and Development, and then he became a regular consultant for the UN and the World Bank. In 1996, he sued his son who wished to open a holiday center named "Cousteau" in the Fiji
Fiji
Islands. On 11 January 1996, Calypso was accidentally rammed and sunk in the port of Singapore
Singapore
by a barge. The Calypso was refloated and towed home to France. Death Jacques-Yves Cousteau died of a heart attack on 25 June 1997 in Paris, 2 weeks after his 87th birthday.[16] He was buried in the family vault at Saint-André-de-Cubzac, his birthplace.[17] An homage was paid to him by the town by naming the street which runs out to the house of his birth "rue du Commandant Cousteau", where a commemorative plaque was placed. Honors During his lifetime, Jacques-Yves Cousteau received these distinctions:

Cross of War 1939–1945 (1945) National Geographic Society's Special
Special
Gold Medal in 1961[18] Commander of the Legion of Honour (1972) Officer of the Order of Maritime Merit (1980) Grand Cross of the National Order of Merit (1985) U.S. Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom
(1985) Induction into the Television Hall of Fame (1987) Commander of the Order of Arts and Letters Honorary Companion of the Order of Australia
Honorary Companion of the Order of Australia
(26 January 1990)[19]

Legacy

Cousteau's submarine near Oceanographic Museum
Oceanographic Museum
in Monaco

Cousteau's legacy includes more than 120 television documentaries, more than 50 books, and an environmental protection foundation with 300,000 members.[1] Cousteau liked to call himself an "oceanographic technician." He was, in reality, a sophisticated showman, teacher, and lover of nature. His work permitted many people to explore the resources of the oceans. His work also created a new kind of scientific communication, criticized at the time by some academics. The so-called "divulgationism", a simple way of sharing scientific concepts, was soon employed in other disciplines and became one of the most important characteristics of modern television broadcasting. The Cousteau Society and its French counterpart, l'Équipe Cousteau, both of which Jacques-Yves Cousteau founded, are still active today. The Society is currently attempting to turn the original Calypso into a museum and it is raising funds to build a successor vessel, the Calypso II. In his last years, after marrying again, Cousteau became involved in a legal battle with his son Jean-Michel over Jean-Michel licensing the Cousteau name for a South Pacific resort, resulting in Jean-Michel Cousteau being ordered by the court not to encourage confusion between his for-profit business and his father's non-profit endeavours. In 2007, the International Watch Company
International Watch Company
introduced the IWC Aquatimer Chronograph "Cousteau Divers" Special
Special
Edition. The timepiece incorporated a sliver of wood from the interior of Cousteau's Calypso research vessel. Having developed the diver's watch, IWC offered support to The Cousteau Society. The proceeds from the timepieces' sales were partially donated to the non-profit organization involved in conservation of marine life and preservation of tropical coral reefs.[20] Religious views Though he was not particularly a religious man, Cousteau believed that the teachings of the different major religions provide valuable ideals and thoughts to protect the environment.[21] In a Chapter entitled "The Holy Scriptures and The Environment" in the posthumous work The Human, the Orchid, and the Octopus, he is quoted as stating that "The glory of nature provides evidence that God exists".[22] Filmography

No [A] Year (Fr/En) [B] French English [C] Cousteau Film

1. Early Short Films

1S 1942 Par dix-huit mètres de fond

Yes

2S 1943 Épaves Shipwrecks Yes

3S 1944 Paysages du silence Silent Lands… Yes

4S 1948 Phoques au Sahara

N/A

5S 1949 Autour d'un récif

N/A

6S 1949 Une plongée du Rubis A Dive on Board the Rubis Yes

7S 1949 Carnet de plongée (avec Marcel Ichac)

N/A

8S 1955 La Fontaine de Vaucluse (avec Louis Malle)

N/A

9S 1955 Station 307

N/A

10S 1955 Récifs de coraux

N/A

11S 1957 La Galère engloutie (avec Jacques Ertaud)

N/A

12S 1959 Histoire d'un poisson rouge The Golden Fish Yes

13S 1960 Vitrines sous la mer (avec Georges Alépée)

N/A

14S 1960 Prince Albert I

N/A

2. Movies I

1F 1956 Le Monde du silence The Silent World Yes

2F 1964 Le Monde sans soleil World Without Sun Yes

3. The Odyssey of the Cousteau Team I (also known as "The Undersea World of Jacques Cousteau")

1 1966 L’aventure Précontinent Conshelf Adventure Yes

2 1967/1968 Les Requins Sharks Yes

3 1967/1968 La jungle de corail The Savage World of the Coral Jungle Yes

4 1967/1968 Le Destin des tortues de mer Search in the Deep Yes

5 1968 Baleines et cachalots Whales Yes

6 1968/1969 Le voyage surprise de Pepito et Cristobal The Unexpected Voyage of Pepito and Cristobal Yes

7 1968/1969 Trésor englouti Sunken Treasure Yes

8 1968/1969 La légende du lac Titicaca The Legend of Lake Titicaca Yes

9 1969 Les baleines du désert The Desert Whales Yes

10 1969/1970 La nuit des calmars The Night of the Squid Yes

11 1969/1970 La retour des Éléphants de mer The Return of the Sea Elephants Yes

12 1970 Ces incroyables machines plongeantes Those Incredible Diving Machines Yes

13 1970 La mer vivante The Water Planet Yes

14 1970 La tragédie des Saumons rouges The Tragedy of the Red Salmon Yes

15 1970/1971 Le lagon des navires perdus Lagoon of Lost Ships Yes

16 1971 Les Dragons des Galápagos The Dragons of the Galapagos Yes

17 1971 Cavernes englouties Secrets of the Sunken Caves Yes

18 1971 Le sort des Loutres de mer The Unsinkable Sea Otter Yes

19 1971/1972 Les dernières Sirènes The Forgotten Mermaids Yes

20 1972/1971 Pieuvre, petite pieuvre Octopus, Octopus Yes

21 1972 Le chant des dauphins A Sound of Dolphins Yes

22 1973 500 millions d’années sous la mer 500 Million Years Beneath the Sea Yes

23 1973/1972 Le sourire du Morse A Smile of the Walrus Yes

24 1973 Hippo, Hippo Hippo! Yes

25 1973 La baleine qui chante The Singing Whale Yes

26 1974/1973 Mission Cousteau en Antarctique. Partie I. La glace et le feu Cousteau in the Antarctic. Part I. South to Fire and Ice Yes

27 1974 Mission Cousteau en Antarctique. Partie II. Le vol du Pingouin Cousteau in the Antarctic. Part II. The Flight of Penguins Yes

28 1974 Mission Cousteau en Antarctique. Partie III. La vie sous un océan de glace Cousteau in the Antarctic. Part III. Beneath the Frozen World Yes

29 1974 Mission Cousteau en Antarctique. Partie IV. Blizzard à Esperanza Cousteau in the Antarctic. Part IV. Blizzard at Hope Bay Yes

30 1975/1974 Patagonie: La vie au bout du monde Life at the End of the World Yes

31 1975 L’hiver des Castors Beavers of the North Country Yes

32 1975 Les Fous du Corail The Coral Divers of Corsica Yes

33 1975 Les requins dormeurs du Yucatán The Sleeping Sharks of Yucatán Yes

34 1976/1975 Coup d’aile sous la mer: Isabella The Sea Birds of Isabella Yes

35 1976 Au cœur des récifs des Caraïbes Mysteries of the Hidden Reefs Yes

36 1976 Le Poisson qui a gobé Jonas / El Gran Pez que se tragó a Jonás The Fish That Swallowed Jonah Yes

37 1976 La Marche des langoustes The Incredible March of the Spiny Lobsters Yes

4. Movies II

3F 1975 / 1976 Voyage au bout du monde Voyage to the Edge of the World Yes

5. Oasis in Space

1S 1977

What Price Progress? No

2S 1977

Troubled Waters No

3S 1977

Grain of Conscience No

4S 1977

Population Time Bomb No

5S 1977

The Power Game No

6S 1977

Visions of Tomorrow No

6. The Cousteau Odyssey II (also known as "The Jacques Cousteau Odyssey", continue "The Odyssey of the Cousteau Team")

38 1977 L’énigme du Britannic Calypso’s Search for the Britannic Yes

39 1978 Le butin de Pergame sauvé des eaux Diving for Roman Plunder Yes

40 1978 À la recherche de l’Atlantide. Partie I Calypso’s Search for Atlantis. Part I Yes

41 1978 À la recherche de l’Atlantide. Partie II Calypso’s Search for Atlantis. Part II Yes

42 1978 Le testament de l'île de Pâques Blind Prophets of Easter Island Yes

43 1978 Ultimatum sous la mer Time Bomb at Fifty Fathoms Yes

44 1979 Le sang de la mer Mediterranean: Cradle or Coffin? Yes

45 1979 Le Nil. Partie I The Nile. Part I Yes

46 1979 Le Nil. Partie II The Nile. Part II Yes

47 1980 Fortunes de mer Lost Relics of the Sea Yes

48 1980/1981 Clipperton: île de la solitude Clipperton: The Island Time Forgot Yes

49 1981/1982 Sang chaud dans la mer Warm-Blooded Sea: Mammals of the Deep Yes

7. North American Adventures

1F 1981 Les Pièges de la mer Cries from the Deep No

2F 1982 Du grand large aux grands lac Saint Lawrence: Stairway to the Sea Yes

8. Cousteau's Amazon Series

1S 1982 Objectif Amazone: Branle-bas sur la Calypso Calypso Countdown: Rigging for the Amazon Yes

2 1983 Au pays des milles rivières Journey to a Thousand Rivers Yes

3 1983 La rivière enchantée The Enchanted River Yes

4 1983 Ombres fuyantes — Indiens de l’Amazonie Shadows in the Wilderness — Indians of the Amazon Yes

5 1983/1984 La rivière de l’or River of Gold Yes

6 1984 Message d’un monde perdu Legacy of a Lost World Yes

7 1984 Un avenir pour l’Amazonie Blueprints for Amazonia Yes

8 1984 Tempête de neige sur la jungle Snowstorm in the Jungle Yes

9. Other releases I

1 1985 Le Mississippi. Partie I. Un Allié récalcitrant Cousteau at Mississippi. The Reluctant Ally Yes

2 1985 Le Mississippi. Partie II. Allié et adversaire Cousteau at Mississippi. The Friendly Foe Yes

3 1985 Jacques-Yves Cousteau: mes premier 75 ans (1) Jacques Cousteau: The First 75 Years (1) No

4 1985 Jacques-Yves Cousteau: mes premier 75 ans (2) Jacques Cousteau: The First 75 Years (2) No

5 1985 Alcyone, fille du vent Riders of the Wind Yes

6S 1988

Island of Peace Yes

10. Cousteau's Rediscovery of the World I (also known as "Rediscover the World")

1 1986 Haïti: L’eau de chagrin Haiti: Waters of Sorrow Yes

2 1986 Cuba: les eaux du destin Cuba: Waters of Destiny Yes

3 1986 Cap Horn: les eaux du vent Cape Horn: Waters of the Wind Yes

4 1986 L’héritage de Cortez Sea of Cortez: Legacy of Cortez Yes

5 1987 Les Îles Marquises: montagnes de la mer The Marquesas Islands: Mountains from the Sea Yes

6 1987 Îles du Détroit: les eaux de la discorde Channel Islands: Waters of Contention Yes

7 1987 Îles du Détroit: à l’approche d’une marée humaine Channel Islands: Days of Future Past Yes

8 1988 Nouvelle-Zélande: la Rose et le dragon New Zealand: The Rose and the Dragon Yes

9 1988 Nouvelle-Zélande: au pays du long nuage blanc New Zealand: The Heron of the Single Flight Yes

10 1988 Nouvelle-Zélande: le Péché et la Rédemption New Zealand: The Smoldering Sea Yes

11 1988 Au pays des totems vivants Pacific Northwest: Land of the Living Totems Yes

12 1988 Tahiti: l’eau de feu Tahiti: Fire Waters Yes

13 1988 Les Requins de l'île au trésor Cocos Island: Sharks of Treasure Island Yes

14 1988/1989 Mer de Béring: Le crépuscule du chasseur en Alaska Bering Sea: Twilight of the Alaskan Hunter Yes

15 1988/1989 Australie: l’ultime barrière Australia: The Last Barrier Yes

16 1989 Bornéo: Le spectre de la tortue Borneo: The Ghost of the Sea Turtle Yes

17 1989 Papouasie Nouvelle-Guinée I: La machine à remonter le temps Papua New Guinea I: Into the Time Machine Yes

18 1989 Papouasie Nouvelle-Guinée II: La rivière des hommes crocodiles Papua New Guinea II: River of Crocodile Men Yes

19 1989 Papouasie Nouvelle-Guinée III: La coeur de feu Papua New Guinea III: Center of Fire Yes

20 1989 Thaïlande: les forçats de la mer Thailand: Convicts of the Sea Yes

21 1989/1990 Bornéo: la Forêt sans terre Borneo: Forests Without Land Yes

11. Other releases II

7 1990 Scandale à Valdez Outrage at Valdez No

8 1990 Lilliput en Antarctique Lilliput in Antarctica Yes

12. Cousteau's Rediscovery of the World II (also known as "Rediscover the World")

22 1990 Andaman, les îles invisibles Andaman Islands: Invisible Islands Yes

23 1990/1991 Australie: à l’ouest du bout du monde Australia: Out West, Down Under Yes

24 1991 Australie: le peuple de la mer desséchée Australia: People of the Dry Sea Yes

25 1991 Australie: le peuple de l’eau et du feu Australia: People of Fire and Water Yes

26 1991 Australie: les trésors de la mer Australia: Fortunes in the Sea Yes

27 1991 Tasmanie, une île s'éveille Tasmania: Australia’s Awakening Island Yes

28 1991 Indonésie: les vergers de l’enfer Indonesia I: The Devil’s Orchard Yes

29 1991 Sumatra: le cœur de la mer Indonesia II: Sumatra, the Heart of the Sea Yes

30 1991/1992 Nauru, îlot ou planète Nauru: The Island Planet Yes

31 1991/1992 La grand requin blanc, seigneur solitaire des mers The Great White Shark — Lonely Lord of the Sea No

32 1991 Palawan, le dernier refuge Palawan: The Last Refuge Yes

33 1992 Danube I: le lever de rideau Danube I: The Curtain Rises Yes

34 1992 Danube II: le rêve de Charlemagne Danube II: Charlemagne’s Dream Yes

35 1992 Danube III: les Cris du Fleuve Danube III: The River Cries Out Yes

36 1992 Danube IV: les Débordements du Fleuve Danube IV: Rivalries Overflow Yes

37 1993 La société secrète des Cétacés Bahamas: The Secret Societies of Dolphins and Whales No

38 1993 Mékong: le don de l’eau Mekong: The Gift of Water No

39 1993 Vietnam et Cambodge: le riz et les fusils Vietnam and Cambodia: Children of Rice and Guns No

13. Other releases III

9 1995 La Légende de Calypso Calypso’s Legend Yes

10 1995 Profond, loin, longtemps Deeper, Farther, Longer Yes

11 1996 Les promisses de la mer The Mirage of the Sea Yes

14. Cousteau's Rediscovery of the World III (also known as "Rediscover the World")

40 1995 Madagascar I: l'île des esprits Madagascar I: Island of Heart and Soul Yes

41 1995 Madagascar II: l'île des esprits Madagascar II: Island of Heart and Soul Yes

42 1996 Afrique du Sud: les diamants du désert South Africa: Diamonds of the Desert Yes

43 1996 Afrique du Sud: sanctuaires pour la vie South Africa: Sanctuaries for Life Yes

44 1996/1997 À travers la Chine par le fleuve Jaune China: Across China with the Yellow River Yes

45 1997/1999 Le lac Baïkal Lake Baikal: Beneath the Mirror Yes

Legend

^ actual order, it is incorrect on the official filmography ^ actual years, they are incorrect on the official filmography ^ actual names, they are incorrect on the official filmography

S – short film F – full-length film <only number> – length of the film is about 45 minutes

Bibliography

The Silent World
The Silent World
(1953, with Frédéric Dumas) Captain Cousteaus Underwater Treasury (1959, with James Dugan) The Living Sea (1963, with James Dugan) World Without Sun (1965) The Undersea Discoveries of Jacques-Yves Cousteau (1970–1975, 8-volumes, with Philippe Diolé)

The Shark: Splendid Savage of the Sea (1970) Diving for Sunken Treasure (1971) Life and Death in a Coral Sea (1971) The Whale: Mighty Monarch of the Sea (1972) Octopus and Squid: The Soft Intelligence (1973) Three Adventures: Galápagos, Titicaca, the Blue Holes (1973) Diving Companions: Sea Lion, Elephant Seal, Walrus (1974) Dolphins (1975)

The Ocean World of Jacques Cousteau (1973–78, 21 volumes)

Oasis in Space (vol 1) The Act of Life (vol 2) Quest for Food (vol 3) Window in the Sea (vol 4) The Art of Motion (vol 5) Attack and Defense (vol 6) Invisible Messages (vol 7) Instinct and Intelligence (vol 8) Pharaohs of the Sea (vol 9) Mammals in the Sea (vol 10) Provinces of the Sea (vol 11) Man Re-Enters Sea (vol 12) A Sea of Legends (vol 13) Adventure of Life (vol 14) Outer and Inner Space (vol 15) The Whitecaps (vol 16) Riches of the Sea (vol 17) Challenges of the Sea (vol 18) The Sea in Danger (vol 19) Guide to the Sea and Index (vol 20) Calypso (1978, vol 21)

A Bill of Rights for Future Generations (1979) Life at the Bottom of the World (1980) The Cousteau United States Almanac of the Environment (1981, a.k.a. The Cousteau Almanac of the Environment: An Inventory of Life on a Water Planet) Jacques Cousteau's Calypso (1983, with Alexis Sivirine) Marine Life of the Caribbean (1984, with James Cribb and Thomas H. Suchanek) Jacques Cousteau's Amazon Journey (1984, with Mose Richards) Jacques Cousteau: The Ocean World (1985) The Whale (1987, with Philippe Diolé) Jacques Cousteau: Whales (1988, with Yves Paccalet) The Human, The Orchid and The Octopus (and Susan Schiefelbein, coauthor; Bloomsbury 2007)

Media portrayals Jacques Cousteau
Jacques Cousteau
has been portrayed in films:

The American comedy film The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou, directed by Wes Anderson
Wes Anderson
and first released in December 2004, portrays Steve Zissou, a fictional oceanographer strongly inspired by Jacques Cousteau.[23][24][25] The French film The Odyssey, directed by Jérôme Salle
Jérôme Salle
and first released in October 2016, focuses on Cousteau's life, especially regarding his relation with his first wife, Simone Melchior, and his second son, Philippe Cousteau.[26][27][24][25]

See also

Underwater diving
Underwater diving
portal

Scuba diving Aqua-lung HMHS Britannic William Beebe Precontinent Conshelf Two Albert Falco

Jacques-Yves Cousteau's ships

RV Calypso SP-350 Denise
SP-350 Denise
("the Diving saucer") Alcyone (ship)

References

^ a b c "Cousteau Society". Archived from the original on 25 January 2009. Retrieved 12 September 2013.  ^ a b c d " Jacques Cousteau
Jacques Cousteau
French ocean explorer and engineer". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2016-03-02.  ^ "le Scaphandre Autonome". Espalion-12.com. Archived from the original on 30 October 2012. Retrieved 10 November 2012.  ^ a b c The Silent World. J. Y. Cousteau with Frédéric Dumas. Hamish Hamilton, London. 1953 ^ Capitaine de frégate PHILIPPE TAILLIEZ, Plongées sans câble, Arthaud, Paris, January 1954, Dépôt légal 1er trimestre 1954 - Édition N° 605 - Impression N° 243 (in French) ^ Ecott, Tim (2001). Neutral Buoyancy: Adventures in a Liquid World. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 0-87113-794-1. LCCN 2001018840.  ^ Sevellec, E.J. (1 December 2006). "Naissance du GERS et des premiers plongeurs démineurs" (in French). Philippe.tailliez.net. Retrieved 18 February 2010.  According to Sevellec, the Élie Monnier was an old German tugboat originally called Albatros and handed over to France
France
as a war reparation, and then re-baptised in honor of the maritime engineer Élie Monnier who had disappeared while diving at Mers-el-Kébir
Mers-el-Kébir
on the wreck of the battleship Bretagne ^ Riffaud, C. ""La règne du scaphandre à casque", in La grande aventure des hommes sous la mer". Users.skynet.be. ISBN 2-226-03502-8. Retrieved 10 November 2012.  ^ Morton, Michael Quentin (June 2015). "Calypso in the Arabian Gulf: Jacques Cousteau's Undersea Survey of 1954". Liwa. 5 (9): 3–28. Retrieved 17 August 2016.  ^ "Jacques-Yves Cousteau (1959-1973)". Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques. Retrieved 2 April 2013.  ^ Jacob Darwin Hamblin, Poison in the Well: Radioactive Waste in the Oceans at the Dawn of the Nuclear Age (Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2008). ^ "Accident kills Cousteau aide in Argentina (December 30, 1972)". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 4 December 2016.  ^ "Hero and Calypso at Deception Island
Deception Island
1972-73". www.palmerstation.com. Retrieved 4 December 2016.  ^ Ohayon, Albert (2009). "When Cousteau Came to Canada". NFB.ca. National Film Board of Canada. Retrieved 25 October 2009.  ^ "Article: Jacques-Yves Cousteau. (Interview) AccessMyLibrary - Promoting library advocacy". AccessMyLibrary. 1 November 1991. Retrieved 10 November 2012.  ^ "Jacques Cousteau".  ^ "La "conversion" du commandant Cousteau à l'Islam". Atheisme.free.fr. Retrieved 10 November 2012.  ^ Jean-Michel Cousteau
Jean-Michel Cousteau
(11 June 2010). " Jacques Cousteau
Jacques Cousteau
"would be heartbroken" at our seas today". Archived from the original on 14 June 2010. Retrieved 12 September 2013.  ^ "It's an Honour - Honours - Search Australian Honours". Itsanhonour.gov.au. 26 January 1990. Retrieved 10 November 2012.  ^ "Diver's Watch Bearing a Piece of Cousteau's Legendary Vessel Watches Channel". Watches.infoniac.com. 27 July 2007. Retrieved 10 November 2012.  ^ Vision.org. The Voice of a Silent World. Spring 2013 Issue ^ Cousteau, Jacques; ed. by Schiefelbein, Susan. 2010. The Human, the Orchid, and the Octopus: Exploring and Conserving Our Natural World. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781596917552 ^ "32 Facts About 'The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou'". Mental Floss. Retrieved 2016-10-21.  ^ a b "Watch: First International Trailer For Jacques Cousteau
Jacques Cousteau
Biopic 'The Odyssey' Starring Lambert Wilson & Audrey Tautou". The Playlist. Retrieved 2016-10-21.  ^ a b "L'Odyssée : Lambert Wilson dans la peau de Cousteau". Le Figaro. Retrieved 2016-10-21.  ^ "World Premiere of Wild Bunch-Sold 'The Odyssey' Closes San Sebastian". Variety. Retrieved 2016-10-21.  ^ "Ce que le biopic sur Cousteau, "L'Odyssée", nous apprend de son côté obscur". The Huffington Post (French Edition). Retrieved 2016-10-21. 

Further reading

Undersea Explorer: The Story of Captain Cousteau (1957) by James Dugan Jacques Cousteau
Jacques Cousteau
and the Undersea World (2000) by Roger King Jacques-Yves Cousteau: His Story Under the Sea (2002) by John Bankston Jacques Cousteau: A Life Under the Sea (2008) by Kathleen Olmstead

External links

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Jacques Cousteau

The Cousteau Society Jacques Cousteau
Jacques Cousteau
on IMDb Jacques Cousteau
Jacques Cousteau
at Find a Grave Jacques Cousteau
Jacques Cousteau
centennial: 'The sea is everything' Ocean Treasures Memorial Library Ocean Treasures Memorial Library/Jacques-Yves Cousteau Memorial Ocean Treasures Memorial Library/His Legacy Ocean Treasures Memorial Library/Photos

v t e

Académie française
Académie française
seat 17

François de Cauvigny de Colomby (1634) François Tristan l'Hermite
François Tristan l'Hermite
(1649) Hippolyte-Jules Pilet de La Mesnardière (1655) François de Beauvilliers, 1st duc de Saint-Aignan
François de Beauvilliers, 1st duc de Saint-Aignan
(1663) François-Timoléon de Choisy (1687) Antoine Portail
Antoine Portail
(1724) Pierre-Claude Nivelle de La Chaussée
Pierre-Claude Nivelle de La Chaussée
(1736) Jean-Pierre de Bougainville (1754) Jean-François Marmontel
Jean-François Marmontel
(1763) Louis-Marcelin de Fontanes
Louis-Marcelin de Fontanes
(1803) Abel-François Villemain
Abel-François Villemain
(1821) Émile Littré
Émile Littré
(1871) Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
(1881) Gaston Paris
Paris
(1896) Frédéric Masson (1903) Georges Lecomte
Georges Lecomte
(1924) Jean Delay
Jean Delay
(1959) Jacques Cousteau
Jacques Cousteau
(1988) Érik Orsenna
Érik Orsenna
(1998)

v t e

Underwater divers

Pioneers of diving

Aquanaut Jacques Cousteau Hans Hass Arne Zetterström

Underwater scientists and archaeologists

Michael Arbuthnot Robert Ballard George Bass Mensun Bound Eugenie Clark James P. Delgado Sylvia Earle John Christopher Fine George R. Fischer Anders Franzén Honor Frost David Gibbins Robert F. Marx Charles T. Meide Mark M. Newell John Peter Oleson Margaret Rule Gunter Schöbel E. Lee Spence Robert Sténuit Peter Throckmorton

Record holders

Sheck Exley Nuno Gomes Jacques Mayol Tanya Streeter

Underwater filmmakers

Samir Alhafith Andrew Wight

Underwater photographers

Tamara Benitez Georges Beuchat Adrian Biddle Jonathan Bird Eric Cheng Neville Coleman Jacques Cousteau John D. Craig Ben Cropp Bernard Delemotte David Doubilet John Christopher Fine Dermot FitzGerald Rodney Fox Ric Frazier Stephen Frink Peter Gimbel Monty Halls Hans Hass Henry Way Kendall Rudie Kuiter Joseph B. MacInnis Luis Marden Agnes Milowka Noel Monkman Steve Parish Zale Parry Pierre Petit Leni Riefenstahl Peter Scoones Brian Skerry Wesley C. Skiles E. Lee Spence Philippe Tailliez Ron and Valerie Taylor Albert Tillman John Veltri Stan Waterman Jiang Wenhao J. Lamar Worzel

Underwater explorers

Sheck Exley Martyn Farr Jill Heinerth William Hogarth Main Bill Stone

Related

Freediving Scientific diving Technical diving Underwater diving

Category Glossary Portal

v t e

BAFTA Fellowship recipients

1971–2000

Alfred Hitchcock
Alfred Hitchcock
(1971) Freddie Young (1972) Grace Wyndham Goldie (1973) David Lean
David Lean
(1974) Jacques Cousteau
Jacques Cousteau
(1975) Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1976) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1976) Denis Forman (1977) Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
(1978) Lew Grade
Lew Grade
(1979) Huw Wheldon
Huw Wheldon
(1979) David Attenborough
David Attenborough
(1980) John Huston
John Huston
(1980) Abel Gance
Abel Gance
(1981) Michael Powell
Michael Powell
& Emeric Pressburger
Emeric Pressburger
(1981) Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
(1982) Richard Attenborough
Richard Attenborough
(1983) Hugh Greene (1984) Sam Spiegel
Sam Spiegel
(1984) Jeremy Isaacs (1985) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1986) Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini
(1987) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1988) Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1989) Paul Fox (1990) Louis Malle
Louis Malle
(1991) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1992) David Plowright (1992) Sydney Samuelson (1993) Colin Young (1993) Michael Grade
Michael Grade
(1994) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1995) Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
(1996) Ronald Neame
Ronald Neame
(1996) John Schlesinger
John Schlesinger
(1996) Maggie Smith
Maggie Smith
(1996) Woody Allen
Woody Allen
(1997) Steven Bochco
Steven Bochco
(1997) Julie Christie
Julie Christie
(1997) Oswald Morris (1997) Harold Pinter
Harold Pinter
(1997) David Rose (1997) Sean Connery
Sean Connery
(1998) Bill Cotton
Bill Cotton
(1998) Eric Morecambe
Eric Morecambe
& Ernie Wise
Ernie Wise
(1999) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1999) Michael Caine
Michael Caine
(2000) Stanley Kubrick
Stanley Kubrick
(2000) Peter Bazalgette
Peter Bazalgette
(2000)

2001–present

Albert Finney
Albert Finney
(2001) John Thaw
John Thaw
(2001) Judi Dench
Judi Dench
(2001) Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(2002) Merchant Ivory Productions (2002) Andrew Davies (2002) John Mills
John Mills
(2002) Saul Zaentz
Saul Zaentz
(2003) David Jason (2003) John Boorman
John Boorman
(2004) Roger Graef (2004) John Barry (2005) David Frost
David Frost
(2005) David Puttnam
David Puttnam
(2006) Ken Loach
Ken Loach
(2006) Anne V. Coates (2007) Richard Curtis
Richard Curtis
(2007) Will Wright (2007) Anthony Hopkins
Anthony Hopkins
(2008) Bruce Forsyth
Bruce Forsyth
(2008) Dawn French
Dawn French
& Jennifer Saunders
Jennifer Saunders
(2009) Terry Gilliam
Terry Gilliam
(2009) Nolan Bushnell
Nolan Bushnell
(2009) Vanessa Redgrave
Vanessa Redgrave
(2010) Shigeru Miyamoto
Shigeru Miyamoto
(2010) Melvyn Bragg
Melvyn Bragg
(2010) Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
(2011) Peter Molyneux
Peter Molyneux
(2011) Trevor McDonald (2011) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(2012) Rolf Harris
Rolf Harris
(2012) Alan Parker
Alan Parker
(2013) Gabe Newell
Gabe Newell
(2013) Michael Palin
Michael Palin
(2013) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(2014) Rockstar Games
Rockstar Games
(2014) Julie Walters
Julie Walters
(2014) Mike Leigh
Mike Leigh
(2015) David Braben (2015) Jon Snow (2015) Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
(2016) John Carmack
John Carmack
(2016) Ray Galton & Alan Simpson (2016) Mel Brooks
Mel Brooks
(2017) Joanna Lumley
Joanna Lumley
(2017) Ridley Scott
Ridley Scott
(2018)

v t e

International Emmy Founders Award

Jim Henson
Jim Henson
(1980) Shaun Sutton / Roone Arledge (1981) Michael Landon
Michael Landon
(1982) Herbert Brodkin (1983) David L. Wolper (1984) David Attenborough
David Attenborough
(1985) Donald L. Taffner (1986) Jacques Cousteau
Jacques Cousteau
(1987) Goar Mestre (1988) Paul Fox (1989) Joan Ganz Cooney
Joan Ganz Cooney
(1990) Adrian Cowell (1991) Bill Cosby
Bill Cosby
(1992) Richard Dunn (1993) Film on Four (1994) Don Hewitt
Don Hewitt
(1995) Reg Grundy
Reg Grundy
(1996) Jac Venza
Jac Venza
(1997) Robert Halmi Sr. (1998) Hisashi Hieda
Hisashi Hieda
(1999) John Hendricks (2000) Pierre Lescure
Pierre Lescure
(2001) Howard Stringer
Howard Stringer
(2002) HBO
HBO
(2003) MTV International
MTV International
(2004) Oprah Winfrey
Oprah Winfrey
(2005) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(2006) Al Gore
Al Gore
(2007) Dick Wolf
Dick Wolf
(2008) David Frost
David Frost
(2009) Simon Cowell
Simon Cowell
(2010) Nigel Lythgoe
Nigel Lythgoe
(2011) Ryan Murphy / Norman Lear
Norman Lear
/ Alan Alda
Alan Alda
(2012) J. J. Abrams
J. J. Abrams
(2013) Matthew Weiner
Matthew Weiner
(2014) Julian Fellowes
Julian Fellowes
(2015) Shonda Rhimes
Shonda Rhimes
(2016)

v t e

Television Hall of Fame Class of 1987

Johnny Carson Jacques Cousteau Leonard Goldenson Jim Henson Bob Hope Ernie Kovacs Eric Sevareid

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 73851811 LCCN: n81103293 ISNI: 0000 0001 2321 0463 GND: 119156644 SELIBR: 182331 SUDOC: 026803690 BNF: cb118980323 (data) NLA: 35031668 NDL: 00436756 NKC: jn19990001515 BNE: XX886772 SNAC: w6q245js