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Jacques René Chirac (French: [ʒak ʃiʁak]; born 29 November 1932) is a French politician who served as President of France
President of France
and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra
Co-Prince of Andorra
from 1995 to 2007. Chirac previously was Prime Minister of France
Prime Minister of France
from 1974 to 1976 and from 1986 to 1988, as well as Mayor of Paris
Paris
from 1977 to 1995. After completing his degree at Sciences Po, a term at Harvard University, and the École nationale d'administration, Chirac began his career as a high-level civil servant, and entered politics shortly after. Chirac occupied various senior positions, including Minister of Agriculture and Minister of the Interior. Chirac's internal policies initially included lower tax rates, the removal of price controls, strong punishment for crime and terrorism, and business privatisation.[1] After pursuing these policies in his second term as Prime Minister, he changed his views. He argued for more socially responsible economic policies, and was elected President in the 1995 presidential election with 52.6% of the vote in the second round, beating Socialist Lionel Jospin, after campaigning on a platform of healing the "social rift" (fracture sociale).[2] Then, Chirac's economic policies, based on dirigisme, allowing for state-directed investment, stood in opposition to the laissez-faire policies of the United Kingdom, which Chirac famously described as "Anglo-Saxon ultraliberalism".[3] He is also known for his stand against the American-led assault on Iraq, his recognition of the collaborationist French Government's role in deporting Jews, and his reduction of the presidential term from 7 years to 5 through a referendum in 2000. At the 2002 French presidential election, he won 82.2% of the vote in the second round against the far-right candidate, Jean-Marie Le Pen. During his second term, he gradually saw his approval rating drop, and he decided not to seek re-election. On 15 December 2011, the Paris
Paris
court declared Chirac guilty of diverting public funds and abusing public confidence, and gave him a two-year suspended prison sentence.

Contents

1 Early life and education

1.1 Family background and marriage: 1932–56 1.2 Education and early career: 1956–62

2 Early political career

2.1 The "bulldozer": 1962–71 2.2 Cabinet minister: 1971–74 2.3 Prime Minister of Giscard: 1974–76

3 Mayor of Paris
Paris
(1977–1995) 4 Governmental Opposition

4.1 Struggle for the right-wing leadership: 1976–86 4.2 Prime Minister of Mitterrand: 1986–88 4.3 Crossing the desert: 1988–95

5 Presidency (1995–2007)

5.1 First term: 1995–2002

5.1.1 Juppé ministry 5.1.2 State responsibility for the roundup of Jews 5.1.3 "Cohabitation" with Jospin 5.1.4 Defence policy 5.1.5 Close call

5.2 Second term: 2002–07

5.2.1 Early term 5.2.2 Assassination attempt 5.2.3 Foreign policy 5.2.4 Flight tax 5.2.5 2005 referendum on TCE 5.2.6 2005 civil unrest and CPE protests 5.2.7 Retirement

6 Post-presidency 7 Popular culture

7.1 Impact on French popular culture 7.2 Portrayals in film

8 Controversies

8.1 Osirak
Osirak
controversy 8.2 Conviction for corruption 8.3 The Clearstream
Clearstream
Affair

9 Academic works 10 Political career 11 Ministries

11.1 First Chirac ministry 11.2 Second Chirac ministry

12 Honours

12.1 National honours 12.2 Foreign honours

13 Awards and recognition 14 Publications 15 Styles of address 16 See also 17 References 18 Further reading

18.1 Primary sources 18.2 In French

19 External links

Early life and education[edit] Family background and marriage: 1932–56[edit] Chirac, born in the Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire clinic ( Paris
Paris
Ve), is the son of Abel François Marie Chirac (1898–1968), a successful executive for an aircraft company,[2] and Marie-Louise Valette (1902–1973), a housewife. His great grandparents on both sides were peasants, but his two grandfathers were teachers from Sainte-Féréole in Corrèze. According to Chirac, his name "originates from the langue d'oc, that of the troubadours, therefore that of poetry". He is a Roman Catholic. Chirac was an only child (his elder sister, Jacqueline, died in infancy before his birth). He was educated in Paris
Paris
at the Cours Hattemer, a private school.[4] He then attended the Lycée Carnot and at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand. After his baccalauréat, he served for three months as a sailor on a coal-transporter.[citation needed] Chirac played rugby union for Brive's youth team, and also played at university level. He played no. 8 and second row.[5] In 1956, he married Bernadette Chodron de Courcel, with whom he had two daughters: Laurence (born 4 March 1958, deceased 14 April 2016)[6] and Claude (6 December 1962). Claude has long worked as a public relations assistant and personal adviser,[7] while Laurence, who suffered from anorexia nervosa in her youth, did not participate in the political activities of her father.[8] Chirac is the grandfather of Martin Rey-Chirac by the relationship of Claude with French judoka Thierry Rey. Jacques and Bernadette Chirac
Bernadette Chirac
also have a foster daughter, Anh Dao Traxel. Education and early career: 1956–62[edit] Inspired by General Charles de Gaulle, Chirac started to pursue a civil service career in the 1950s. During this period, he joined the French Communist Party, sold copies of L'Humanité, and took part in meetings of a communist cell.[9] In 1950, he signed the Soviet-inspired Stockholm Appeal for the abolition of nuclear weapons – which led him to be questioned when he applied for his first visa to the United States.[10] In 1953, after graduating from the Paris
Paris
Institute of Political Studies, he attended Harvard University's summer school, before entering the ENA, the Grande école National School of Administration, which trains France's top civil servants, in 1957. Chirac trained as a reserve military officer in armoured cavalry at Saumur, where he was ranked first in his year.[11] He then volunteered to fight in the Algerian War, using personal connections to be sent despite the reservations of his superiors. His superiors did not want to make him an officer because they suspected he had communist leanings.[12] After leaving the ENA in 1959, he became a civil servant in the Court of Auditors. Early political career[edit]

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The "bulldozer": 1962–71[edit] In April 1962, Chirac was appointed head of the personal staff of Prime Minister Georges Pompidou. This appointment launched Chirac's political career. Pompidou considered Chirac his protégé, and referred to him as "my bulldozer" for his skill at getting things done. The nickname "Le Bulldozer" caught on in French political circles, where it also referred to his abrasive manner. As late as the 1988 presidential election[2], Chirac maintained this reputation.[13] In 1995 an anonymous British diplomat said Chirac "cuts through the crap and comes straight to the point... It's refreshing, although you have to put your seat belt on when you work with him".[citation needed] At Pompidou's suggestion, Chirac ran as a Gaullist
Gaullist
for a seat in the National Assembly in 1967. He was elected deputy for his home Corrèze département, a stronghold of the left. This surprising victory in the context of a Gaullist
Gaullist
ebb permitted him to enter the government as Minister of Social Affairs. Although Chirac was well-situated in de Gaulle's entourage, being related by marriage to the general's sole companion at the time of the Appeal of 18 June
Appeal of 18 June
1940, he was more of a "Pompidolian" than a "Gaullist". When student and worker unrest rocked France
France
in May 1968, Chirac played a central role in negotiating a truce. Then, as state secretary of economy (1968–1971), he worked closely with Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, who headed the ministry of economy and finance. Cabinet minister: 1971–74[edit] After some months in the ministry of relations with Parliament, Chirac's first high-level post came in 1972 when he became Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development
Rural Development
under Pompidou, who had been elected president in 1969, after de Gaulle retired. Chirac quickly earned a reputation as a champion of French farmers' interests, and first attracted international attention when he assailed U.S., West German, and European Commission
European Commission
agricultural policies which conflicted with French interests. On 27 February 1974, after the resignation of Raymond Marcellin, Chirac was appointed Minister of the Interior. On 21 March 1974, he cancelled the SAFARI
SAFARI
project due to privacy concerns after its existence was revealed by Le Monde. From March 1974, he was entrusted by President Pompidou with preparations for the presidential election then scheduled for 1976. These elections were moved forward because of Pompidou's sudden death on 2 April 1974. Chirac vainly attempted to rally Gaullists behind Prime Minister Pierre Messmer. Jacques Chaban-Delmas announced his candidacy in spite of the disapproval of the "Pompidolians". Chirac and others published the call of the 43 in favour of Giscard d'Estaing, the leader of the non- Gaullist
Gaullist
part of the parliamentary majority. Giscard d'Estaing was elected as Pompidou's successor after France's most competitive election campaign in years. In return, the new president chose Chirac to lead the cabinet. Prime Minister of Giscard: 1974–76[edit] When Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
became president, he nominated Chirac as prime minister on 27 May 1974, in order to reconcile the "Giscardian" and "non-Giscardian" factions of the parliamentary majority. At the age of 41, Chirac stood out as the very model of the jeunes loups ("young wolves") of French politics, but he was faced with the hostility of the "Barons of Gaullism" who considered him a traitor for his role during the previous presidential campaign. In December 1974, he took the lead of the Union of Democrats for the Republic (UDR) against the will of its more senior personalities. As prime minister, Chirac quickly set about persuading the Gaullists that, despite the social reforms proposed by President Giscard, the basic tenets of Gaullism, such as national and European independence, would be retained. Chirac was advised by Pierre Juillet and Marie- France
France
Garaud, two former advisers of Pompidou. These two organised the campaign against Chaban-Delmas in 1974. They advocated a clash with Giscard d'Estaing because they thought his policy bewildered the conservative electorate. Citing Giscard's unwillingness to give him authority, Chirac resigned as Prime Minister in 1976. He proceeded to build up his political base among France's several conservative parties, with a goal of reconstituting the Gaullist
Gaullist
UDR into a Neo- Gaullist
Gaullist
group, the Rally for the Republic
Rally for the Republic
(RPR). Chirac's first tenure as prime minister was also an arguably progressive one, with improvements in both the minimum wage and the social welfare system carried out during the course of his premiership.[14] Mayor of Paris
Paris
(1977–1995)[edit] After his departure from the cabinet, Chirac wanted to gain the leadership of the political right, in order to gain the French presidency in the future. The RPR was conceived as an electoral machine against President Giscard d'Estaing. Paradoxically, Chirac benefited from Giscard's decision to create the office of mayor in Paris, which had been in abeyance since the 1871 Commune, because the leaders of the Third Republic (1871–1940) feared that having municipal control of the capital would give the mayor too much power. In 1977, Chirac stood as a candidate against Michel d'Ornano, a close friend of the president, and he won. As mayor of Paris, Chirac's political influence grew. He held this post until 1995. Chirac supporters point out that, as mayor, he provided programmes to help the elderly, people with disabilities, and single mothers, and introduced the street-cleaning Motocrotte,[15] while providing incentives for businesses to stay in Paris. His opponents contend that he installed "clientelist" policies. Governmental Opposition[edit] Struggle for the right-wing leadership: 1976–86[edit] In 1978, he attacked the pro-European policy of Valéry Giscard d'Estaing (VGE), and made a nationalist turn with the December 1978 Call of Cochin, initiated by his counsellors Marie- France
France
Garaud and Pierre Juillet, which had first been called by Pompidou. Hospitalised in Cochin hospital after a crash, he declared that "as always about the drooping of France, the pro-foreign party acts with its peaceable and reassuring voice". He appointed Yvan Blot, an intellectual who would later join the National Front, as director of his campaigns for the 1979 European election.[16] After the poor results of the election, Chirac broke with Garaud and Juillet. Vexed Marie-France Garaud stated: "We thought Chirac was made of the same marble of which statues are carved in, we perceive he's of the same faience bidets are made of."[17] His rivalry with Giscard d'Estaing intensified. Although it has been often interpreted by historians as the struggle between two rival French right-wing families (the Bonapartists, represented by Chirac, and the Orleanists, represented by VGE), both figures in fact were members of the liberal, Orleanist
Orleanist
tradition, according to historian Alain-Gérard Slama.[16] But the eviction of the Gaullist Barons and of President VGE convinced Chirac to assume a strong neo- Gaullist
Gaullist
stance. Chirac made his first run for president against Giscard d'Estaing in the 1981 election, thus splitting the centre-right vote. He was eliminated in the first round with 18% of the vote. He reluctantly supported Giscard in the second round. He refused to give instructions to the RPR voters but said that he supported the incumbent president "in a private capacity", which was interpreted as almost like de facto support of the Socialist Party's (PS) candidate, François Mitterrand, who was elected by a broad majority. Giscard has always blamed Chirac for his defeat. He was told by Mitterrand, before his death, that the latter had dined with Chirac before the election. Chirac told the Socialist candidate that he wanted to "get rid of Giscard". In his memoirs, Giscard wrote that between the two rounds, he phoned the RPR headquarters. He passed himself off as a right-wing voter by changing his voice. The RPR employee advised him "certainly do not vote Giscard!". After 1981, the relationship between the two men became tense, with Giscard, even though he had been in the same government coalition as Chirac, criticising Chirac's actions openly. After the May 1981 presidential election, the right also lost the subsequent legislative election that year. However, as Giscard had been knocked out, Chirac appeared as the principal leader of the right-wing opposition. Due to his attacks against the economic policy of the Socialist government, he gradually aligned himself with prevailing economically liberal opinion, even though it did not correspond with Gaullist
Gaullist
doctrine. While the far-right National Front grew, taking advantage of the proportional representation electoral system which had been introduced for the 1986 legislative elections, he signed an electoral pact with the Giscardian (and more or less Christian Democratic) party Union for French Democracy
Union for French Democracy
(UDF). Prime Minister of Mitterrand: 1986–88[edit]

Chirac during his second term as Prime Minister

When the RPR/UDF right-wing coalition won a slight majority in the National Assembly in the 1986 election, Mitterrand (PS) appointed Chirac prime minister (though many in Mitterrand's inner circle lobbied him to choose Jacques Chaban-Delmas instead). This unprecedented power-sharing arrangement, known as cohabitation, gave Chirac the lead in domestic affairs. However, it is generally conceded that Mitterrand used the areas granted to the President of the Republic, or "reserved domains" of the Presidency, Defence and Foreign Affairs, to belittle his Prime Minister. Chirac's cabinet sold many public companies, renewing the liberalisation initiated under Laurent Fabius's Socialist government of 1984–1986, and abolished the solidarity tax on wealth (ISF), a symbolic tax on those with high value assets introduced by Mitterrand's government. Elsewhere, the plan for university reform (plan Devaquet) caused a crisis in 1986 when a student called Malik Oussekine was killed by the police, leading to massive demonstrations and the proposal's withdrawal. It has been said during other student crises that this event strongly affected Jacques Chirac, who was afterwards careful about possible police violence during such demonstrations (e.g., maybe explaining part of the decision to "promulgate without applying" the First Employment Contract
First Employment Contract
(CPE) after large student demonstrations against it). One of his first acts concerning foreign policy was to call back Jacques Foccart (1913–1997), who had been de Gaulle's and his successors' leading counsellor for African matters, called by journalist Stephen Smith the "father of all "networks" on the continent, at the time [in 1986] aged 72."[18] Jacques Foccart, who had also co-founded the Gaullist
Gaullist
SAC militia (dissolved by Mitterrand in 1982 after the Auriol massacre) along with Charles Pasqua, and who was a key component of the "Françafrique" system, was again called to the Elysée Palace
Elysée Palace
when Chirac won the 1995 presidential election. Furthermore, confronted by anti-colonialist movements in New Caledonia, Prime Minister Chirac ordered a military intervention against the separatists in the Ouvéa cave, leading to several tragic deaths. He allegedly refused any alliance with Jean-Marie Le Pen's Front National.[19] Crossing the desert: 1988–95[edit] Chirac ran against Mitterrand for a second time in the 1988 election. He obtained 20 percent of the vote in the first round, but lost the second with only 46 percent. He resigned from the cabinet and the right lost the next legislative election. For the first time, his leadership over the RPR was challenged. Charles Pasqua
Charles Pasqua
and Philippe Séguin
Philippe Séguin
criticised his abandonment of Gaullist
Gaullist
doctrines. On the right, a new generation of politicians, the "renovation men", accused Chirac and Giscard of being responsible for the electoral defeats. In 1992, convinced a man could not become President whilst advocating anti-European policies, he called for a "yes" vote in the referendum on the Maastricht Treaty, against the opinion of Pasqua, Séguin and a majority of the RPR voters, who chose to vote "no". While he still was mayor of Paris
Paris
(since 1977), Chirac went to Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire) where he supported President Houphouët-Boigny (1960–1993), although the latter was being called a "thief" by the local population. Chirac then declared that multipartism was a "kind of luxury."[18] Nevertheless, the right won the 1993 legislative election. Chirac announced that he did not want to come back as prime minister, suggesting the appointment of Edouard Balladur, who had promised that he would not run for the presidency against Chirac in 1995. However, benefiting from positive polls, Balladur decided to be a presidential candidate, with the support of a majority of right-wing politicians. Balladur broke from Chirac along with a number of friends and allies, including Charles Pasqua, Nicolas Sarkozy, etc., who supported his candidacy. A small group of "fidels" would remain with Chirac, including Alain Juppé
Alain Juppé
and Jean-Louis Debré. When Nicolas Sarkozy became President in 2007, Juppé was one of the few "chiraquiens" to serve in François Fillon's government. Presidency (1995–2007)[edit] First term: 1995–2002[edit] Juppé ministry[edit]

Chirac with Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
outside the Élysée Palace
Élysée Palace
in Paris, June 1999

During the 1995 presidential campaign, Chirac criticised the "sole thought" (pensée unique) of neoliberalism represented by his challenger on the right and promised to reduce the "social fracture", placing himself more to the centre and thus forcing Balladur to radicalise himself. Ultimately, he obtained more votes than Balladur in the first round (20.8 percent), and then defeated the Socialist candidate Lionel Jospin
Lionel Jospin
in the second round (52.6 percent). Chirac was elected on a platform of tax cuts and job programmes, but his policies did little to ease the labour strikes during his first months in office. On the domestic front, neo-liberal economic austerity measures introduced by Chirac and his conservative prime minister Alain Juppé, including budgetary cutbacks, proved highly unpopular. At about the same time, it became apparent that Juppé and others had obtained preferential conditions for public housing, as well as other perks. At the year's end Chirac faced major workers' strikes which turned itself, in November–December 1995, into a general strike, one of the largest since May 1968. The demonstrations were largely pitted against Juppé's plan on the reform of pensions, and led to the dismissal of the latter. Shortly after taking office, Chirac – undaunted by international protests by environmental groups – insisted upon the resumption of nuclear tests at Mururoa Atoll in French Polynesia in 1995, a few months before signing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.[20] Reacting to criticism, Chirac said, "You only have to look back at 1935...There were people then who were against France
France
arming itself, and look what happened." On 1 February 1996, Chirac announced that France
France
had ended "once and for all" its nuclear testing, intending to accede to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Elected as President of the Republic, he refused to discuss the existence of French military bases in Africa, despite requests by the Ministry of Defence and the Quai d'Orsay
Quai d'Orsay
(Ministry of Foreign Affairs).[18] The French Army
French Army
thus remained in Côte d'Ivoire as well as in Omar Bongo's Gabon.

Chirac with Russian President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
in 2001

Chirac and George W. Bush
George W. Bush
during the 27th G8 summit, 21 July 2001.

Chirac with German Federal Chancellor Gerhard Schröder
Gerhard Schröder
in 2003.

State responsibility for the roundup of Jews[edit] Prior to 1995, the French government had maintained that the French Republic had been dismantled when Philippe Pétain
Philippe Pétain
instituted a new French State during World War II
World War II
and that the Republic had been re-established when the war was over. It was not for France, therefore, to apologise for the roundup of Jews for deportation that happened while the Republic had not existed and was carried out by a state, Vichy France, which it did not recognise. President François Mitterrand had reiterated this position: "The Republic had nothing to do with this. I do not believe France
France
is responsible," he said in September 1994.[21] Chirac was the first President of France
President of France
to take responsibility for the deportation of Jews during the Vichy regime. In a speech made on 16 July 1995 at the site of the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup, where 13,000 Jews had been held for deportation to concentration camps in July 1942, Chirac said, "France, on that day, committed the irreparable". Those responsible for the roundup were "4500 policemen and gendarmes, French, under the authority of their leaders [who] obeyed the demands of the Nazis. ... the criminal folly of the occupiers was seconded by the French, by the French State".[22][23][24] "Cohabitation" with Jospin[edit] In 1997, Chirac dissolved parliament for early legislative elections in a gamble designed to bolster support for his conservative economic program. But instead, it created an uproar, and his power was weakened by the subsequent backlash. The Socialist Party (PS), joined by other parties on the left, soundly defeated Chirac's conservative allies, forcing Chirac into a new period of cohabitation with Jospin as prime minister (1997–2002), which lasted five years. Cohabitation significantly weakened the power of Chirac's presidency. The French president, by a constitutional convention, only controls foreign and military policy— and even then, allocation of funding is under the control of Parliament and under the significant influence of the prime minister. Short of dissolving parliament and calling for new elections, the president was left with little power to influence public policy regarding crime, the economy, and public services. Chirac seized the occasion to periodically criticise Jospin's government. Nevertheless, his position was weakened by scandals about the financing of RPR by Paris
Paris
municipality. In 2001, the left, represented by Bertrand Delanoë
Bertrand Delanoë
(PS), won a majority on the city council of the capital. Jean Tiberi, Chirac's successor at the Paris
Paris
city hall, was forced to resign after having been put under investigations in June 1999 on charges of trafic d'influences in the HLMs of Paris
Paris
affairs (related to the illegal financing of the RPR). Tiberi was finally expelled from the Rally for the Republic, Chirac's party, on 12 October 2000, declaring to the Figaro magazine on 18 November 2000: " Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
is not my friend anymore".[25] After the publication of the Jean-Claude Méry by Le Monde
Le Monde
on 22 September 2000, in which Jean-Claude Méry, in charge of the RPR's financing, directly accused Chirac of organizing the network, and of having been physically present on 5 October 1986, when Méry gave in cash 5 million Francs, which came from companies who had benefited from state deals, to Michel Roussin, personal secretary (directeur de cabinet) of Chirac,[26][27] Chirac refused to attend court in response to his summons by judge Eric Halphen, and the highest echelons of the French justice system declared that he could not be inculpated while in office. During his two terms, he increased the Elysee Palace's total budget by 105 percent (to €90 million, whereas 20 years before it was the equivalent of €43.7 million). He doubled the number of presidential cars – to 61 cars and seven scooters in the Palace's garage. He has hired 145 extra employees – the total number of the people he employed simultaneously was 963. Defence policy[edit] As the Supreme Commander of the French armed forces, he reduced the French military budget, as did his predecessor. At the end of his first term it accounted for three percent of GDP.[28] In 1998 the French aircraft carrier Clemenceau (R98)
French aircraft carrier Clemenceau (R98)
was decommissioned after 37 years of service, and another aircraft carrier was decommissioned two years later after 37 years of service, leaving the French Navy with no aircraft carrier until 2001, when Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
aircraft carrier was commissioned.[29] He also reduced expenditures on nuclear weapons[30] and the French nuclear arsenal was reduced to include 350 warheads, compared to the Russian nuclear arsenal that consists of 16,000 warheads.[31] He also published a plan which assumes reducing the number of fighters the French military has by 30.[32] After François Mitterrand
François Mitterrand
left office in 1995, Chirac began a rapprochement with NATO by joining the Military Committee and attempting to negotiate a return to the integrated military command, which failed after the French demand for parity with the United States went unmet. The possibility of a further attempt foundered after Chirac was forced into cohabitation with a Socialist-led cabinet between 1997–2002, then poor Franco-American relations after the French UN veto threat over Iraq
Iraq
in 2003 made transatlantic negotiations impossible. Close call[edit] On July 25, 2000, as Chirac and the first lady were returning from the G7 Summit in Okinawa, Japan, they were nearly killed by Air France Flight 4590 after they landed at Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
International Airport. The first couple were in an Air France
France
Boeing 747 taxiing toward the terminal when the jet had to stop and wait for Flight 4590 to take off.[33] The departing plane, an Aérospatiale-BAC Concorde, ran over a strip of metal on takeoff that punctured its left fuel tank and sliced electrical wires near the left landing gear. The sequence of events ignited a massive fire and caused the Concorde to veer left on its takeoff roll. As it reached takeoff speed and lifted off the ground, it came within 30 feet of hitting Chirac's 747. The now famous photograph of Flight 4590 ablaze, the only picture taken of the Concorde on fire, was snapped by passenger Toshihiko Sato on Chirac's jetliner. Second term: 2002–07[edit] Main article: Jacques Chirac's second term as President of France

Chirac greets the then President of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and wife Marisa Letícia during a ceremony at the Palácio da Alvorada in Brasília, Brazil, 25 May 2006.

At the age of 69, Chirac faced his fourth presidential campaign in 2002. He received 20% of the vote in the first ballot of the presidential elections in April 2002. It had been expected that he would face incumbent prime minister Lionel Jospin
Lionel Jospin
(PS) in the second round of elections; instead, Chirac faced controversial far right politician Jean-Marie Le Pen
Jean-Marie Le Pen
of National Front (FN) who came in 200,000 votes ahead of Jospin. All parties outside the National Front (except for Lutte ouvrière) called for opposing Le Pen, even if it meant voting for Chirac. The 14-day period between the two rounds of voting was marked by demonstrations against Le Pen and slogans such as "Vote for the crook, not for the fascist" or "Vote with a clothespin on your nose". Chirac won re-election by a landslide, with 82 percent of the vote on the second ballot. However, Chirac became increasingly unpopular during his second term. According to a July 2005 poll,[34] 32 percent judged Chirac favourably and 63 percent unfavorably. In 2006, The Economist
The Economist
wrote that Chirac "is the most unpopular occupant of the Elysée Palace
Elysée Palace
in the fifth republic's history."[35] Early term[edit] As the left-wing Socialist Party was in thorough disarray following Jospin's defeat, Chirac reorganised politics on the right, establishing a new party – initially called the Union of the Presidential Majority, then the Union for a Popular Movement
Union for a Popular Movement
(UMP). The RPR had broken down; a number of members had formed Eurosceptic breakaways. While the Giscardian liberals of the Union for French Democracy (UDF) had moved to the right,[36] the UMP won the parliamentary elections that followed the presidential poll with ease. During an official visit to Madagascar
Madagascar
on 21 July 2005, Chirac described the repression of the 1947 Malagasy uprising, which left between 80,000 and 90,000 dead, as "unacceptable". Despite past opposition to state intervention the Chirac government approved a €2.8 billion euro aid package to troubled manufacturing giant Alstom.[37] In October 2004, Chirac signed a trade agreement with PRC President Hu Jintao
Hu Jintao
where Alstom
Alstom
was given €1 billion euro in contracts and promises of future investment in China.[38] Assassination attempt[edit] On 14 July 2002, during Bastille Day
Bastille Day
celebrations, Chirac survived an assassination attempt by a lone gunman with a rifle hidden in a guitar case. The would-be assassin fired a shot toward the presidential motorcade, before being overpowered by bystanders.[39] The gunman, Maxime Brunerie, underwent psychiatric testing; the violent far-right group with which he was associated, Unité Radicale, was then administratively dissolved. Foreign policy[edit] Along with Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(Chirac called Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
"a personal friend"[40]), Hu Jintao, and Gerhard Schröder, Chirac emerged as a leading voice against George W. Bush
George W. Bush
and Tony Blair
Tony Blair
in 2003 during the organisation and deployment of American and British forces participating in a military coalition to forcibly remove the then current government of Iraq
Iraq
controlled by the Ba'ath Party
Ba'ath Party
under the leadership of Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
which resulted in the 2003–2011 Iraq War. Despite intense British and American pressure, Chirac threatened to veto, at that given point, a resolution in the UN Security Council that would authorise the use of military force to rid Iraq
Iraq
of alleged weapons of mass destruction, and rallied other governments to his position. " Iraq
Iraq
today does not represent an immediate threat that justifies an immediate war", Chirac said on 18 March 2003. Chirac was then the target of various American and British commentators supporting the decisions of Bush and Blair. Future Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin
Dominique de Villepin
acquired much of his popularity for his speech against the war at the United Nations (UN). After Togo's leader Gnassingbé Eyadéma's death on 5 February 2005, Chirac gave him tribute and supported his son, Faure Gnassingbé, who has since succeeded to his father.[18] On 19 January 2006, Chirac said that France
France
was prepared to launch a nuclear strike against any country that sponsors a terrorist attack against French interests. He said his country's nuclear arsenal had been reconfigured to include the ability to make a tactical strike in retaliation for terrorism.[41] In July 2006, the G8 met to discuss international energy concerns. Despite the rising awareness of global warming issues, the G8 focused on "energy security" issues. Chirac continued[when?] to be the voice[citation needed] within the G8 summit meetings to support international action to curb global warming and climate change concerns. Chirac warned that "humanity is dancing on a volcano" and called for serious action by the world's leading industrialised nations.[citation needed] Flight tax[edit] Chirac requested the Landau-report (published in September 2004) and combined with the Report of the Technical Group on Innovative Financing Mechanisms formulated upon request by the Heads of State of Brazil, Chile, France
France
and Spain
Spain
(issued in December 2004), these documents present various opportunities for innovative financing mechanisms while equally stressing the advantages (stability and predictability) of tax-based models. UNITAID
UNITAID
project was born. Today the organisation executive board is chaired by Philippe Douste-Blazy. 2005 referendum on TCE[edit] Further information: Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe On 29 May 2005, a referendum was held in France
France
to decide whether the country should ratify the proposed treaty for a Constitution of the European Union (TCE). The result was a victory for the No campaign, with 55 percent of voters rejecting the treaty on a turnout of 69 percent, dealing a devastating blow to Chirac and the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) party, and to part of the centre-left which had supported the TCE. Following the referendum defeat, Chirac replaced his Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin
Jean-Pierre Raffarin
with Domenique de Villepin. In an address to the nation, Chirac has declared that the new cabinet's top priority would be to curb unemployment, which was consistently hovering above 10 percent, calling for a "national mobilisation" to that effect.[42] 2005 civil unrest and CPE protests[edit] Further information: 2005 civil unrest in France
France
and 2006 labour protests in France Following major student protests in spring 2006, which followed civil unrest in autumn 2005 after the death of two young boys in Clichy-sous-Bois, one of the poorest French communes located in Paris' suburbs, Chirac retracted the proposed First Employment Contract
First Employment Contract
(CPE) by "promulgating [it] without applying it", an unheard-of – and, some claim, illegal – move intended to appease the protesters while giving the appearance of not making a volte-face regarding the contract, and therefore to continue his support for his Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin. Retirement[edit] In early September 2005, he suffered an event that his doctors described as a 'vascular incident'. It was reported as a 'minor stroke'[43] or a mini-stroke (also known as a transient ischemic attack).[44] He recovered and returned to his duties soon after. In a pre-recorded television broadcast aired on 11 March 2007, Jacques Chirac announced, in a widely predicted move, that he would not choose to seek a third term as France's president. (In 2000 the constitution had been amended to reduce the length of Presidents' terms to five years, so Chirac's second term was shorter than his first.)[45] "My whole life has been committed to serving France, and serving peace", Chirac said, adding that he would find new ways to serve France
France
after leaving office. He did not explain the reasons for his decision.[46] Chirac did not, during the broadcast, endorse any of the candidates running for election, but did devote several minutes of his talk to a plea against extremist politics that was considered a thinly disguised invocation to voters not to vote for Jean-Marie Le Pen
Jean-Marie Le Pen
and a recommendation to Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy
not to orient his campaign so as to include themes traditionally associated with Le Pen.[47] Post-presidency[edit] Shortly after leaving office, he launched the Fondation Chirac[48] in June 2008. Since then it has been striving for peace through five advocacy programmes: conflict prevention, access to water and sanitation, access to quality medicines and healthcare, access to land resources, and preservation of cultural diversity. It supports field projects that involve local people and provide concrete and innovative solutions. Chirac chairs the jury for the Prize for Conflict Prevention awarded every year by his foundation.[49]

Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
at Saint-Tropez in 2010

As a former President, he is entitled to a lifetime pension and personal security protection, and is ex-officio a member for life of France's constitutional council.[50] He sat for the first time on the Council on 15 November 2007, six months after leaving the French Presidency. Immediately after Sarkozy's victory, Chirac moved into a 180 square metre duplex on the Quai Voltaire in Paris
Paris
lent to him by the family of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri. During the Didier Schuller affair, the latter accused Hariri of having participated in illegal funding of the RPR's political campaigns, but the judge closed the case without further investigations.[51] In Volume 2 of his memoirs published in June 2011, Chirac mocked his successor Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy
as "irritable, rash, impetuous, disloyal, ungrateful, and un-French".[52][53] Chirac wrote that he considered firing Sarkozy previously, and conceded responsibility in allowing Jean-Marie Le Pen
Jean-Marie Le Pen
to advance in 2002.[54] A poll conducted in 2010 suggested he was the most admired political figure in France, while Sarkozy was 32nd.[52] On 11 April 2008, Chirac's office announced that he had undergone successful surgery to fit a pacemaker. In January 2009, it was reported that Chirac had been hospitalised after being attacked by his pet Maltese poodle. According to Chirac's wife Bernadette, the dog, named Sumo, had a history of unpredictable and vicious behaviour, and had previously been medicated with antidepressants in an attempt to control it.[55] Chirac is losing memory and suffers from a frail health. As President, he suffered a stroke in 2005. In February 2014 he was admitted to hospital because of pains related to gout.[56][57] On 10 December 2015, Chirac was hospitalized in Paris
Paris
for undisclosed reasons, although his state of health didn't "give any cause for concern", he remained for about a week in ICU.[58] According to his son-in-law Frederic Salat-Baroux, Chirac was again hospitalised in Paris
Paris
with a lung infection on 18 September 2016.[59] Popular culture[edit] Impact on French popular culture[edit]

Jacques Chirac. Portrait by Donald Sheridan.

Because of Jacques Chirac's long career in visible government positions, he has often been parodied or caricatured: Young Jacques Chirac is the basis of a young, dashing bureaucrat character in the 1976 Asterix
Asterix
comic strip album Obelix and Co., proposing methods to quell Gallic unrest to elderly, old-style Roman politicians. Chirac was also featured in Le Bêbête Show as an overexcited, jumpy character. Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
is a favorite character of Les Guignols de l'Info, a satiric latex puppet show. He was once portrayed as a rather likable, though overexcited, character; however, following the corruption allegations, he has been shown as a kind of dilettante and incompetent who pilfers public money and lies through his teeth. His character for a while developed a superhero alter ego, Super Menteur ("Super Liar") in order to get him out of embarrassing situations. Because of his alleged improprieties, he was lambasted in a song Chirac en prison ("Chirac in prison") by French punk band Les Wampas, with a video clip made by the Guignols. Portrayals in film[edit] His role is played by Charles Fathy in the Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
film W. and in The Conquest by Bernard Le Coq. Marc Rioufol plays Chirac in Richard Loncraine's 2010 film The Special Relationship. 2013 film La Dernière Campagne Controversies[edit] Osirak
Osirak
controversy[edit] At the invitation of Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
(then vice-president of Iraq, but de facto dictator), Chirac made an official visit to Baghdad
Baghdad
in 1975. Saddam approved a deal granting French oil companies a number of privileges plus a 23-percent share of Iraqi oil.[60] As part of this deal, France
France
sold Iraq
Iraq
the Osirak
Osirak
MTR nuclear reactor, designed to test nuclear materials. The Israeli Air Force
Israeli Air Force
alleged that the reactor's imminent commissioning was a threat to its security, and pre-emptively bombed the Osirak
Osirak
reactor on 7 June 1981, provoking considerable anger from French officials and the United Nations Security Council.[61] The Osirak
Osirak
deal became a controversy again in 2002–2003, when an international military coalition led by the United States invaded Iraq and forcibly removed Hussein's government from power. France
France
led several other European countries in an effort to prevent the invasion. The Osirak
Osirak
deal was then used by parts of the American media to criticise the Chirac-led opposition to starting a war in Iraq,[62] despite French involvement in the Gulf War.[63] Conviction for corruption[edit] Chirac has been named in several cases of alleged corruption that occurred during his term as mayor, some of which have led to felony convictions of some politicians and aides. However, a controversial judicial decision in 1999 granted Chirac immunity while he was president of France. He refused to testify on these matters, arguing that it would be incompatible with his presidential functions. Investigations concerning the running of Paris's city hall, the number of whose municipal employees increased by 25% from 1977 to 1995 (with 2,000 out of approximately 35,000 coming from the Corrèze
Corrèze
region where Chirac had held his seat as deputy), as well as a lack of financial transparency (marchés publics) and the communal debt, were thwarted by the legal impossibility of questioning him as president. The conditions of the privatisation of the Parisian water system acquired very cheaply by the Générale and the Lyonnaise des Eaux, then directed by Jérôme Monod, a close friend of Chirac, were also criticised. Furthermore, the satirical newspaper Le Canard enchaîné revealed the astronomical "food expenses" paid by the Parisian municipality (€15 million a year according to the Canard), expenses managed by Roger Romani (who allegedly destroyed all archives of the period 1978–93 during night raids in 1999–2000). Thousands of people were invited each year to receptions in the Paris
Paris
city hall, while many political, media and artistic personalities were hosted in private flats owned by the city.[64] Chirac's immunity from prosecution ended in May 2007, when he left office as president. In November 2007 a preliminary charge of misuse of public funds was filed against him.[65] Chirac is said to be the first former French head of state to be formally placed under investigation for a crime.[66] On 30 October 2009, a judge ordered Chirac to stand trial on embezzlement charges, dating back to his time as mayor of Paris.[67] On 7 March 2011, he went on trial on charges of diverting public funds, accused of giving fictional city jobs to twenty-eight activists from his political party while serving as the mayor of Paris (1977–95).[68][68][69] Along with Chirac, nine others stood trial in two separate cases, one dealing with fictional jobs for 21 people and the other with jobs for the remaining seven.[68] The President of Union for a Popular Movement, who later served as France's Minister of Foreign Affairs, Alain Juppé, was sentenced to a 14-month suspended prison sentence for the same case in 2004.[70] On 15 December 2011, Chirac was found guilty and given a suspended sentence of two years.[70] He was convicted of diverting public funds, abuse of trust and illegal conflict of interest. The suspended sentence meant he did not have to go to prison, and took into account his age, health, and status as a former head of state.[71] He did not attend his trial, since medical doctors deemed that his neurological problems damaged his memory.[70] His defence team decided not to appeal.[70][72] See also: Corruption scandals in the Paris
Paris
region The Clearstream
Clearstream
Affair[edit] Further information: Clearstream During April and May 2006, Chirac's administration was beset by a crisis as his chosen Prime Minister, Dominique de Villepin, was accused of asking Philippe Rondot, a top level French spy, for a secret investigation into Villepin's chief political rival, Nicolas Sarkozy, in 2004. This matter has been called the second Clearstream Affair. On 10 May 2006, following a Cabinet meeting, Chirac made a rare television appearance to try to protect Villepin from the scandal and to debunk allegations that Chirac himself had set up a Japanese bank account containing 300 million francs in 1992 as Mayor of Paris.[73] Chirac said that "The Republic is not a dictatorship of rumours, a dictatorship of calumny."[74] Academic works[edit] In 1954 Chirac presented The Development of the Port of New-Orleans, a short geography/economic thesis to the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris
Paris
(Sciences Po), which he had entered three years before. The 182-page typewritten work, supervised by Professor Jean Chardonnet, is illustrated by photographs, sketches and diagrams. Political career[edit] President of the French Republic: 1995–2007. Reelected in 2002. Member of the Constitutional Council of France: Since 2007. Governmental functions Prime minister: 1974–76 (Resignation) / 1986–88. Minister of Interior: March–May 1974. Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development: 1972–74. Minister of Relation with Parliament: 1971–72. Secretary of State for Economy and Finance: 1968–71. Secretary of State for Social Affairs: 1967–68. Electoral mandates European Parliament Member of European Parliament: 1979–80 (Resignation). Elected in 1979. National Assembly of France Elected in 1967, reelected in 1968, 1973, 1976, 1981, 1986, 1988, 1993: Member for Corrèze: March–April 1967 (became Secretary of State in April 1967), reelected in 1968, 1973, but he remained a minister in 1976–1986 (became Prime Minister in 1986), 1988–95 (resigned to become President of the French Republic
French Republic
in 1995). General Council President of the General Council of Corrèze: 1970–1979. Reelected in 1973, 1976. General councillor of Corrèze: 1968–88. Reelected in 1970, 1976, 1982. Municipal Council Mayor of Paris: 1977–95 (Resignation, became President of the French Republic in 1995). Reelected in 1983, 1989. Councillor of Paris: 1977–1995 (Resignation). Reelected in 1983, 1989. Municipal councillor of Sainte-Féréole: 1965–77. Reelected in 1971. Political function President of the Rally for the Republic: 1976–94 (Resignation). Ministries[edit] First Chirac ministry[edit] (27 May 1974 – 25 August 1976)

Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
– Prime Minister Jean Sauvagnargues
Jean Sauvagnargues
– Minister of Foreign Affairs Jacques Soufflet – Minister of Defence Michel Poniatowski
Michel Poniatowski
– Minister of the Interior Jean-Pierre Fourcade – Minister of Economy and Finance Michel d'Ornano
Michel d'Ornano
– Minister of Industry, Tourism, Posts, and Telecommunications Michel Durafour – Minister of Employment and Social Affairs Jean Lecanuet – Minister of Justice René Haby – Minister of National Education Simone Veil
Simone Veil
– Minister of Health Christian Bonnet – Minister of Agriculture Norbert Ségard – Minister of External Trade Robert Galley – Minister of Equipment Vincent Ansquer – Minister of Trade and Craft Pierre Abelin – Minister of Cooperation Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber
Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber
– Minister of Reforms André Jarrot – Minister of Quality of Life

Second Chirac ministry[edit] (20 March 1986 – 12 May 1988)

Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
– Prime Minister Jean-Bernard Raimond
Jean-Bernard Raimond
– Minister of Foreign Affairs André Giraud – Minister of Defence Charles Pasqua
Charles Pasqua
– Minister of the Interior Édouard Balladur
Édouard Balladur
– Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Economy, Finance, and Privatisation Alain Madelin
Alain Madelin
– Minister of Industry, Tourism, Posts, and Telecommunications Philippe Séguin
Philippe Séguin
– Minister of Employment and Social Affairs Albin Chalandon – Minister of Justice René Monory
René Monory
– Minister of National Education François Léotard
François Léotard
– Minister of Culture and Communications François Guillaume – Minister of Agriculture Bernard Pons
Bernard Pons
– Minister of Overseas Departments and Territories Pierre Méhaignerie
Pierre Méhaignerie
– Minister of Housing, Equipment, Regional Planning, and Transport André Rossinot
André Rossinot
– Minister of Relations with Parliament Michel Aurillac – Minister of Cooperation

Honours[edit] National honours[edit]

Ribbon bar Honour

Grand Master & Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the National Order of the Legion of Honour

Grand Master & Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the National Order of Merit

Commandeur of the Order of Agricultural Merit

Knight of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres

Cross for Military Valour

Combatant's Cross

Aeronautical Medal

Knight of the Order of the Black Star

North Africa Security and Order Operations Commemorative Medal

Foreign honours[edit]

Ribbon bar Country Honour

Austria Grand Star of the Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria

Azerbaijan Republic Collar of the Heydar Aliyev Order

Bolivia Commander of the Order of the Condor of the Andes

Brazil Collar of the Order of the Southern Cross

Canada Knight of the National Order of Quebec

Czech Republic Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Order of the White Lion

Estonia Member 1st Class of the of Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana

Hungary Grand Cross
Grand Cross
with Chain of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary

Italy Knight Grand Cross
Grand Cross
with Collar Order of Merit of the Italian Republic

Latvia Commander Grand Cross
Grand Cross
with Chain Order of the Three Stars

Lebanon Grand Cordon
Grand Cordon
of the National Order of the Cedar

Lithuania Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Order of Vytautas the Great

Lithuania Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Order of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Gediminas

Sovereign Military Order of Malta Civilian Class of the Order pro Merito Melitensi

Monaco Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Order of Saint-Charles

Morocco Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Order of Ouissam Alaouite

Norway Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Order of St. Olav

Poland Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland

Poland Knight of the Order of the White Eagle

Portugal Grand Collar of the Order of Prince Henry

Romania Grand Collar of the Order of the Star of Romania

Russia Member 1st Class of the Order "For Merit to the Fatherland"

Russia Medal "In Commemoration of the 300th Anniversary of Saint Petersburg"

Senegal Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the National Order of the Lion

South Africa Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Order of Good Hope

Spain Collar of the Order of Charles III

Spain Knight Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Order of Isabella the Catholic

Sweden Knight of the Royal Order of the Seraphim

Tunisia Grand Cordon
Grand Cordon
of the of the Order of Independence

Tunisia Grand Cordon
Grand Cordon
of the Order of the Republic of Tunisia

United Arab Emirates Collar of the Order of Etihad (Order of the Federation)

United Kingdom Honorary Knight Grand Cross
Grand Cross
of the Order of the Bath

Vatican City Knight of the Order of Pope Pius IX

Awards and recognition[edit]

Ig Nobel prize
Ig Nobel prize
for peace, for commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of Hiroshima with atomic bomb tests in the Pacific (1996) State Prize of the Russian Federation
State Prize of the Russian Federation
(2007)

Publications[edit]

Discours pour la France
France
à l'heure du choix, Paris, ed. Stock, 1978 La Lueur de l'espérance. Réflexion du soir pour le matin, Paris, ed. La Table ronde, 1978 Oui à l'Europe (With Alain Berger), Paris, ed. Albatros, 1984 Une ambition pour la France, Paris, ed. Albin Michel, 1988 Une nouvelle France. Réflexions 1, Paris, ed. NiL, 1994 La France
France
pour tous, Paris, ed. NiL Éditions, 1995 Mon combat pour la France, tome I, Paris, ed. Odile Jacob, 2006 Le Développement du port de la Nouvelle-Orléans, Paris, ed. Presses universitaires du Nouveau Monde, 2007 Mon combat pour la paix, tome II, Paris, ed. Odile Jacob, 2007 Demain, il sera trop tard, Paris, ed. Desclée de Brouwer, 2008 Mémoires : Tome I, Chaque pas doit être un but, Paris, ed. NiL, 2009 Mémoires : Tome II, Le Temps présidentiel, Paris, ed. NiL Éditions, 2011

Styles of address[edit]

Monsieur le Président de la République française (1995–2007) His Excellency The Sovereign Co-Prince of Andorra
Co-Prince of Andorra
(1995–2007)

See also[edit]

Anh Dao Traxel List of national leaders Politics of France French presidential election, 1981 French presidential election, 1988 French presidential election, 1995 French presidential election, 2002 French presidential election, 2007 Musée du Président Jacques Chirac

References[edit]

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Sticks to Being French, International Herald Tribune. ^ a b " Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
President of France
President of France
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Françafrique
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France
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Associated Press
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Alstom
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Paris
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France
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Jacques Chirac
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Nicolas Sarkozy
to criticise French president", Henry Samuel. The Telegraph. 9 June 2011. Retrieved 9 June 2011 ^ Sparks, Ian (21 January 2009). "President Chirac hospitalised after mauling by his clinically depressed poodle". Daily Mail.  ^ BBC News, 24 17 February 2014 ^ Marszal, Andrew, ed. (17 February 2014). " Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
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Jacques Chirac
found guilty of corruption", Guardian, 15 December 2011. ^ Erlanger, Steven (15 December 2011). "Chirac Found Guilty in Political Funding Case". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 December 2011.  ^ French farce, The Times, 11 May 2006 ^ Caught in deep water: Chirac swims against a tide of scandal, The Times, 11 May 2006

Further reading[edit]

Allport, Alan. Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
(Infobase Publishing, 2007), short biography excerpt Knapp, Andrew. "Jacques Chirac: Surviving without Leading?." in David Bell and John Gaffney, eds. The Presidents of the French Fifth Republic (Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2013). pp 159–180. Nester, William R. "President Chirac." in Nester, De Gaulle’s Legacy (Palgrave Macmillan 2014) pp. 151–172. Wilsford, David, ed. Political leaders of contemporary Western Europe: a biographical dictionary (Greenwood, 1995) pp 63–70.

Primary sources[edit]

Chirac, Jacques. My Life in Politics (2012).

In French[edit]

Emmanuel Hecht, Thierry Vey, Chirac de A à Z, dictionnaire critique et impertinent, Éditions Albin Michel, ISBN 2-226-07664-6 Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, Le pouvoir et la vie, tome 3 Frederic Lepage, A Table avec Chirac Jacques Chirac, La Nouvelle- Orléans
Orléans
et son port en 1954, [Presses Universitaires du Nouveau Monde], ISBN 1-931948-68-2

External links[edit]

Wikinews has news related to: Jacques Chirac

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Jacques Chirac

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jacques Chirac.

Public opinion polls on Jacques Chirac Biography at the Official Website of the Office of the French President (in French) TF1 (in French) l'Express (in French) Mairie de Paris (in French) Biography and his election (2002) (in French) Some Jacques Chirac's quotations Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
– A life in pictures photo essay Anne Applebaum, Farewell, Jacques Chirac, The Washington Post, 8 May 2007 Latest news of UNITAID
UNITAID
(initiated by Jacques Chirac) and today chaired Philippe Douste-Blazy Articles at The Guardian Appearances on C-SPAN

Political offices

Preceded by Michel Cointat Minister of Agriculture 1972–1974 Succeeded by Raymond Marcellin

Preceded by Raymond Marcellin Minister of the Interior 1974 Succeeded by Michel Poniatowski

Preceded by Pierre Messmer Prime Minister of France 1974–1976 Succeeded by Raymond Barre

New office Mayor of Paris 1977–1995 Succeeded by Jean Tiberi

Preceded by Laurent Fabius Prime Minister of France 1986–1988 Succeeded by Michel Rocard

Preceded by François Mitterrand President of France 1995–2007 Succeeded by Nicolas Sarkozy

Party political offices

Preceded by Alexandre Sanguinetti Leader of the Union of Democrats for the Republic 1974–1975 Succeeded by André Bord

New political party Leader of Rally for the Republic 1976–1994 Succeeded by Alain Juppé

Regnal titles

Preceded by François Mitterrand Co-Prince of Andorra 1995–2007 Served alongside: Joan Martí Alanis, Joan Enric Vives Sicília Succeeded by Nicolas Sarkozy

Catholic Church
Catholic Church
titles

Preceded by François Mitterrand Honorary Canon
Honorary Canon
of the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran 1995–2007 Succeeded by Nicolas Sarkozy

Diplomatic posts

Preceded by Jean Chrétien Chairperson of the Group of 7 1996 Succeeded by Bill Clinton

Chairperson of the Group of 8 2003 Succeeded by George W. Bush

Order of precedence

Preceded by Valéry Giscard d'Estaing as Former President Order of Precedence of France Former President Succeeded by Nicolas Sarkozy as Former President

v t e

Heads of state of France

Styled President of the Republic after 1871, except from 1940 to 1944 (Chief of State) and 1944 to 1947 (Chairman of the Provisional Government). Detailed monarch family tree Simplified monarch family tree

Merovingians (486–751)

Clovis I Childebert I Chlothar I Charibert I Guntram Chilperic I Sigebert I Childebert II Chlothar II Dagobert I Sigebert II Clovis II Chlothar III Childeric II Theuderic III Clovis IV Childebert III Dagobert III Chilperic II Chlothar IV Theuderic IV Childeric III

Carolingians, Robertians and Bosonids (751–987)

Pepin the Short Carloman I Charlemagne
Charlemagne
(Charles I) Louis I Charles II Louis II Louis III Carloman II Charles the Fat OdoR Charles III Robert IR RudolphB Louis IV Lothair Louis V

House of Capet
House of Capet
(987–1328)

Hugh Capet Robert II Henry I Philip I Louis VI Louis VII Philip II Louis VIII Louis IX Philip III Philip IV Louis X John I Philip V Charles IV

House of Valois
House of Valois
(1328–1589)

Philip VI John II Charles V Charles VI Charles VII Louis XI Charles VIII Louis XII Francis I Henry II Francis II Charles IX Henry III

House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
(1422–1453)

Henry VI of England

House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
(1589–1792)

Henry IV Louis XIII Louis XIV Louis XV Louis XVI Louis XVII

First Republic (1792–1804)

National Convention Directory Consulate

First Empire (1804–1815)

Napoleon
Napoleon
I Napoleon
Napoleon
II

Bourbon Restoration
Bourbon Restoration
(1815–1830)

Louis XVIII Charles X Louis XIX Henry V

July Monarchy
July Monarchy
(1830–1848)

Louis Philippe I

Second Republic (1848–1852)

Jacques-Charles Dupont de l'Eure Executive Commission Louis-Eugène Cavaignac Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte

Second Empire (1852–1870)

Napoleon
Napoleon
III

Government of National Defense (1870–1871)

Louis-Jules Trochu

Third Republic (1871–1940)

Adolphe Thiers Patrice de Mac-Mahon Jules Armand Dufaure* Jules Grévy Maurice Rouvier* Sadi Carnot Charles Dupuy* Jean Casimir-Perier Charles Dupuy* Félix Faure Charles Dupuy* Émile Loubet Armand Fallières Raymond Poincaré Paul Deschanel Alexandre Millerand Frédéric François-Marsal* Gaston Doumergue Paul Doumer André Tardieu* Albert Lebrun

Vichy France
France
(1940–1944)

Philippe Pétain

Provisional Government (1944–1947)

Charles de Gaulle Félix Gouin Georges Bidault Vincent Auriol Léon Blum

Fourth Republic (1947–1958)

Vincent Auriol René Coty

Fifth Republic (1958–present)

Charles de Gaulle Alain Poher* Georges Pompidou Alain Poher* Valéry Giscard d'Estaing François Mitterrand Jacques Chirac Nicolas Sarkozy François Hollande Emmanuel Macron

Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. Acting heads of state are denoted by an asterisk*. Millerand held the presidency in an acting capacity before being fully elected.

v t e

Heads of government of France

Restoration

Talleyrand Richelieu Dessolles Decazes Richelieu Villèle Martignac Polignac

July Monarchy

V. de Broglie Laffitte Perier Soult Gérard Maret Mortier V. de Broglie Thiers Molé Soult Thiers Soult Guizot Molé

Second Republic

Dupont de l'Eure Arago Cavaignac Barrot Hautpoul Faucher

Second Empire

Ollivier Cousin-Montauban

Government of National Defense

Trochu

Third Republic

Dufaure A. de Broglie Cissey Buffet Dufaure Simon A. de Broglie Rochebouët Dufaure Waddington Freycinet Ferry Gambetta Freycinet Duclerc Fallières Ferry Brisson Freycinet Goblet Rouvier Floquet Tirard Freycinet Loubet Ribot Dupuy Casimir-Perier Dupuy Ribot Bourgeois Méline Brisson Dupuy Waldeck-Rousseau Combes Rouvier Sarrien Clemenceau Briand Monis Caillaux Poincaré Briand Barthou Doumergue Ribot Viviani Briand Ribot Painlevé Clemenceau Millerand Leygues Briand Poincaré François-Marsal Herriot Painlevé Briand Herriot Poincaré Briand Tardieu Chautemps Tardieu Steeg Laval Tardieu Herriot Paul-Boncour Daladier Sarraut Chautemps Daladier Doumergue Flandin Bouisson Laval Sarraut Blum Chautemps Blum Daladier Reynaud Pétain

Vichy France

Pétain Laval Flandin Darlan Laval

Provisional Government

De Gaulle Gouin Bidault Blum

Fourth Republic

Ramadier Schuman Marie Schuman Queuille Bidault Queuille Pleven Queuille Pleven Faure Pinay Mayer Laniel Mendès France Faure Mollet Bourgès-Maunoury Gaillard Pflimlin De Gaulle

Fifth Republic

De Gaulle Debré Pompidou Couve de Murville Chaban-Delmas Messmer Chirac Barre Mauroy Fabius Chirac Rocard Cresson Bérégovoy Balladur Juppé Jospin Raffarin Villepin Fillon Ayrault Valls Cazeneuve Philippe

v t e

Candidates in the French presidential election, 1981

Winner

François Mitterrand
François Mitterrand
(PS)

Lost in runoff

Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
(UDF; incumbent)

Other candidates

Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
(RPR) Georges Marchais
Georges Marchais
(PCF) Brice Lalonde
Brice Lalonde
(MEF) Arlette Laguiller
Arlette Laguiller
(LO) Michel Crépeau (PRG) Michel Debré
Michel Debré
(DVD) Marie- France
France
Garaud (DVD) Huguette Bouchardeau
Huguette Bouchardeau
(PSU)

v t e

Candidates in the French presidential election, 1988

Winner

François Mitterrand
François Mitterrand
(PS; incumbent)

Lost in runoff

Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
(RPR)

Other candidates

Raymond Barre
Raymond Barre
(UDF) Jean-Marie Le Pen
Jean-Marie Le Pen
(FN) André Lajoinie (PCF) Antoine Waechter
Antoine Waechter
(Greens) Pierre Juquin
Pierre Juquin
(PSU/LCR) Arlette Laguiller
Arlette Laguiller
(LO) Pierre Lambert
Pierre Lambert
(PT)

v t e

Candidates in the French presidential election, 1995

Winner

Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
(RPR)

Lost in runoff

Lionel Jospin
Lionel Jospin
(PS)

Other candidates

Édouard Balladur
Édouard Balladur
(RPR/UDF) Jean-Marie Le Pen
Jean-Marie Le Pen
(FN) Robert Hue
Robert Hue
(PCF) Arlette Laguiller
Arlette Laguiller
(LO) Philippe de Villiers
Philippe de Villiers
(MPF) Dominique Voynet
Dominique Voynet
(Greens) Jacques Cheminade
Jacques Cheminade
(POE)

v t e

Candidates in the French presidential election, 2002

Winner

Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
(RPR; incumbent)

Lost in runoff

Jean-Marie Le Pen
Jean-Marie Le Pen
(FN)

Other candidates

Lionel Jospin
Lionel Jospin
(PS) François Bayrou
François Bayrou
(UDF) Arlette Laguiller
Arlette Laguiller
(LO) Jean-Pierre Chevènement
Jean-Pierre Chevènement
(MDC) Noël Mamère
Noël Mamère
(Greens) Olivier Besancenot
Olivier Besancenot
(LCR) Jean Saint-Josse (CPNT) Alain Madelin
Alain Madelin
(DL) Robert Hue
Robert Hue
(PCF) Bruno Mégret
Bruno Mégret
(MNR) Christiane Taubira
Christiane Taubira
(PRG) Corinne Lepage
Corinne Lepage
(CAP21) Christine Boutin
Christine Boutin
(FRS) Daniel Gluckstein
Daniel Gluckstein
(PT)

v t e

Presidents of the European Council

President-in-Office (1975–2009)

Liam Cosgrave Aldo Moro Gaston Thorn Joop den Uyl James Callaghan Leo Tindemans Anker Jørgensen Helmut Schmidt Valéry Giscard d'Estaing Jack Lynch Francesco Cossiga Charles Haughey Pierre Werner Dries van Agt Margaret Thatcher Wilfried Martens Anker Jørgensen Poul Schlüter Helmut Kohl Andreas Papandreou François Mitterrand Garret FitzGerald Bettino Craxi Jacques Santer Ruud Lubbers Wilfried Martens Felipe González François Mitterrand Giulio Andreotti Ruud Lubbers Aníbal Cavaco Silva John Major Poul Nyrup Rasmussen Jean-Luc Dehaene Jacques Chirac Felipe González Lamberto Dini Romano Prodi John Bruton Wim Kok Jean-Claude Juncker Tony Blair Viktor Klima Gerhard Schröder Paavo Lipponen António Guterres Jacques Chirac Göran Persson Guy Verhofstadt José María Aznar
José María Aznar
López Anders Fogh Rasmussen Costas Simitis Silvio Berlusconi Bertie Ahern Jan Peter Balkenende Jean-Claude Juncker Tony Blair Wolfgang Schüssel Matti Vanhanen Angela Merkel José Sócrates Janez Janša Nicolas Sarkozy Mirek Topolánek Jan Fischer Fredrik Reinfeldt

Permanent President (since 2009)

Herman Van Rompuy Donald Tusk

v t e

Secretaries-general of the Union of Democrats for the Republic

René Tomasini Alain Peyrefitte Alexandre Sanguinetti Jacques Chirac André Bord Yves Guéna

v t e

Current members of the Constitutional Council of France

President of the council

Fabius (P)

former Presidents of the Republic

Giscard Chirac Sarkozy Hollande

members

Pinault (S) Luquiens (A) Charasse (P) Hyest (S) Jospin (A) Bazy-Malaurie (A) Maestracci (P) Belloubet (S)

inactive, Chirac since March 2011, Sarkozy since January 2013 Nominated by: (P) President of the Republic • (S) president of the Senate • (A) president of the National Assembly

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 31994554 LCCN: n50038160 ISNI: 0000 0001 2126 584X GND: 118520466 SELIBR: 293573 SUDOC: 026787024 BNF: cb118967018 (data) BNE: XX5400394 SNAC: w6qw727x

French politics portal Biog

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