HOME
The Info List - Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet





Jacques-Bénigne Lignel Bossuet (French: [bɔsɥɛ]; 27 September 1627 – 12 April 1704) was a French bishop and theologian, renowned for his sermons and other addresses. He has been considered by many to be one of the most brilliant orators of all time and a masterly French stylist. Court preacher to Louis XIV
Louis XIV
of France, Bossuet was a strong advocate of political absolutism and the divine right of kings. He argued that government was divine and that kings received their power from God. He was also an important courtier and politician. The works best known to English speakers are three great orations delivered at the funerals of Queen Henrietta Maria, widow of Charles I of England (1669), her daughter, Henriette, Duchess of Orléans (1670), and the outstanding soldier le Grand Condé (1687). His work Discours sur l'histoire universelle (or Discourse on Universal History) (1681) is regarded by many Catholics as an actualization or second edition of the City of God of St. Augustine of Hippo.

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early years 1.2 Early clerical career 1.3 Priest at Metz 1.4 Early career in Paris 1.5 Tutor to the Dauphin, 1670–1681 1.6 Bishop of Meaux, 1681–1704

1.6.1 Efforts to Combat Protestantism 1.6.2 Controversy with Fénelon 1.6.3 Death

2 Preaching 3 Works

3.1 Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture

4 Trivia 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

Biography[edit] Early years[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Bossuet was born at Dijon. He came from a family of prosperous Burgundian lawyers – on both his paternal and maternal side, his ancestors had held legal posts for at least a century. He was the fifth son born to Beneigne Bossuet, a judge of the parlement (a provincial high court) at Dijon, and Marguerite Mouchet. His parents decided on a career in the church for their fifth son, so he was tonsured at age 10. The boy was sent to school at the Collège des Godrans, a classical school run by the Jesuits
Jesuits
of Dijon. When his father was appointed to the parlement at Metz, Bossuet was left in Dijon
Dijon
under the care of his uncle Claude Bossuet d'Aiseray, a renowned scholar. At the Collège des Godrans, he gained a reputation for hard work: fellow students nicknamed him Bos suetus aratro, an "ox broken in to the plough". His father's influence at Metz
Metz
allowed him to obtain for the young Bossuet a canonicate in the cathedral of Metz
Metz
when the boy was just 13 years old.

St. Etienne's Cathedral in Metz, where Bossuet was made a canon at age 13 in 1640

In 1642, Bossuet enrolled in the Collège de Navarre
Collège de Navarre
in Paris
Paris
to finish his classical studies and to begin the study of philosophy and theology. His mentor at Navarre was the college's president, Nicolas Cornet, the theologian whose denunciation of Antoine Arnauld
Antoine Arnauld
at the Sorbonne in 1649 was a major episode in the Jansenist controversy. For the time being, however, Cornet and Arnaud were still on good terms. In 1643, Arnaud introduced Bossuet to the Hôtel de Rambouillet, a great centre of aristocratic culture and the original home of the Précieuses. Bossuet was already showing signs of the oratorical brilliance which served him so well throughout his life. On one celebrated occasion at the Hôtel de Rambouillet, during a dispute about extempore preaching, the 16-year-old Bossuet was called on to deliver an impromptu sermon at 11 pm. Voiture famously quipped: "I never heard anybody preach so early nor so late". Early clerical career[edit] Bossuet became a Master of Arts in 1643. He held his first thesis (tentativa) in theology on 25 January 1648, in the presence of the Prince de Condé. Later in 1648, he became a sub-deacon at Metz. He became a deacon in 1649. During this period, he preached his first sermons. He held his second thesis (sorbonica) on November 9, 1650. Then, in preparation for the priesthood, he spent the next two years in retirement under the spiritual direction of Vincent de Paul. Priest at Metz[edit] In January 1652, Bossuet re-entered public life, being named Archdeacon
Archdeacon
of Sarrebourg. He was ordained a priest on 18 March 1652. A few weeks later, he defended his brilliant doctoral work and became a Doctor of Divinity. He spent the next seven years at Metz, where his father's influence had got him a canonry at age 13 and where he now also had the office of archdeacon. He was plunged at once into the thick of controversy; for nearly half of Metz
Metz
was Protestant, and Bossuet's first appearance in print was a refutation of the Huguenot
Huguenot
pastor Paul Ferry (1655), and he frequently engaged in religious controversies with Protestants (and, less regularly, with Jews) during his time at Metz. To reconcile the Protestants with the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
became the great object of his dreams; and for this purpose, he began to train himself carefully for the pulpit, an all-important centre of influence in a land where political assemblies were unknown and novels and newspapers scarcely born. His youthful imagination was unbridled, and his ideas ran easily into a kind of paradoxical subtlety, redolent of the divinity school.[1] Nevertheless, his time at Metz
Metz
was an important time for developing his pulpit oratory and for allowing him to continue his studies of Scripture and the Fathers. He also gained political experience through his participation in the local Assembly of the Three Orders.[citation needed] In 1657, in Metz, Bossuet preached before Anne of Austria, mother of Louis XIV. As a result, he received the honorific title of "Counselor and Preacher to the King". Early career in Paris[edit] In 1657, St. Vincent de Paul
Vincent de Paul
convinced Bossuet to move to Paris
Paris
and give himself entirely to preaching.[1] (He did not entirely sever his connections with the cathedral of Metz, though: he continued to hold his benefice, and in 1664, when his widower father was ordained as a priest and became a canon at the cathedral at Metz, Bossuet was named the dean of the cathedral.)[citation needed] Bossuet quickly gained a reputation as a great preacher, and by 1660, he was preaching regularly before the court in the Chapel Royal. In 1662, he preached his famous sermon "On the Duties of Kings" to Louis XIV at the Louvre.[citation needed] In Paris, the congregations had no mercy on purely clerical logic or clerical taste; if a preacher wished to catch their ear, he had to manage to address them in terms they would agree to consider sensible and well bred. Having very stern ideas of the dignity of a priest, Bossuet refused to descend to the usual devices for arousing popular interest.[1] The narrative element in Bossuet's sermons grew shorter with each year. He never drew satirical pictures like his great rival Louis Bourdaloue. He would not write out his discourses in full, much less learn them off by heart: of the two hundred printed in his works, all but a fraction are rough drafts. Ladies such as Mme de Sévigné forsook him when Bourdaloue dawned on the Paris
Paris
horizon in 1669, though Fénelon
Fénelon
and La Bruyère, two much sounder critics, refused to follow their example.[1] Bossuet possessed the full equipment of the orator, voice, language, flexibility and strength. He never needed to strain for effect; his genius struck out at a single blow the thought, the feeling and the word. What he said of Martin Luther
Martin Luther
applies peculiarly to himself: he could fling his fury into theses and thus unite the dry light of argument with the fire and heat of passion. These qualities reached their highest point in the Oraisons funèbres (Funeral Orations).[1] Bossuet was always best when at work on a large canvas; besides, here no conscientious scruples intervened to prevent him giving much time and thought to the artistic side of his subject. The Oraison, as its name betokened, stood midway between the sermon proper and what would nowadays be called a biographical sketch. At least that was what Bossuet made it; for on this field, he stood not merely first, but alone.[1] One hundred and thirty-seven of Bossuet's sermons preached in the period from 1659 to 1669 are extant, and it is estimated that he preached more than a hundred more that have since been lost.[citation needed] Apart from state occasions, Bossuet seldom appeared in a Paris pulpit after 1669.[1] Tutor to the Dauphin, 1670–1681[edit] A favourite of the court, in 1669, Bossuet was gazetted bishop of Condom in Gascony, without being obliged to reside there. He was consecrated as a bishop on September 21, 1670, but he resigned the bishopric when he was elected to the Académie française
Académie française
in 1671.[citation needed]

The Grand Dauphin (1661–1711), only surviving legitimate son of Louis XIV
Louis XIV
(1638–1715). Bossuet served as his tutor 1670–1681.

On 18 September 1670 he was appointed tutor to the nine-year-old Dauphin, oldest child of Louis XIV. The choice was scarcely fortunate. Bossuet unbent as far as he could, but his genius was by no means fitted to enter into the feelings of a child; and the dauphin was a cross, ungainly, sullen lad. Probably no one was happier than the tutor when his charge turned sixteen and was married off to a Bavarian princess. Still, the nine years at court were by no means wasted.[citation needed] Bossuet's tutorial functions involved composing all the necessary books of instruction, including not just handwriting samples, but also manuals of philosophy, history, and religion fit for a future king of France.[citation needed] Among the books written by Bossuet during this period are three classics. First came the Traité de la connaissance de Dieu et de soi-même ("Treatise on the Knowledge of God and of One's Self") (1677), then the Discours sur l'histoire universelle ("Speech of Universal History") (1679, published 1682), and lastly the Politique tirée de l'Écriture Sainte ("Politics Drawn from Holy Scripture") (1679, published 1709). The three books fit into each other. The Traité is a general sketch of the nature of God and the nature of man. The Discours is a history of God's dealings with humanity in the past.[2] The Politique is a code of rights and duties drawn up in the light thrown by those dealings. Bossuet's conclusions are only drawn from Holy Scripture because he wished to gain the highest possible sanction for the institutions of his country and to hallow the France of Louis XIV
Louis XIV
by proving its astonishing likeness to the Israel of Solomon. Then, too, the veil of Holy Scripture enabled him to speak out more boldly than court etiquette would have otherwise allowed, to remind the son of Louis XIV
Louis XIV
that kings have duties as well as rights.[1] The Grand Dauphin had often forgotten these duties, but his son, the Petit Dauphin, would bear them in mind. The tutor's imagination looked forward to a time when France would blossom into Utopia, with a Christian philosopher on the throne. That is what made him so stalwart a champion of authority in all its forms: "le roi, Jesus-Christ et l'Eglise, Dieu en ces trois noms" ("the king, Jesus
Jesus
Christ, and the Church, God in His three names"), he says in a characteristic letter. The object of his books is to provide authority with a rational basis. Bossuet's worship of authority by no means killed his confidence in reason; what it did was make him doubt the honesty of those who reasoned otherwise than himself.[1] The whole chain of argument seemed to him so clear and simple. Philosophy proves that God exists and that He shapes and governs the course of human affairs. History shows that this governance is, for the most part, indirect, exercised through certain venerable corporations, as well civil and ecclesiastical, all of which demand implicit obedience as the immediate representatives of God. Thus all revolt, whether civil or religious, is a direct defiance of the Almighty.[1] Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
becomes a moral monster, and the revocation of the Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes
was the greatest achievement of the second Constantine. The France of his youth had known the misery of divided counsels and civil war; the France of his manhood, brought together under an absolute sovereign, had suddenly shot up into a splendour only comparable with ancient Rome. Why not, then, strain every nerve to hold innovation at bay and prolong that splendour for all time? Bossuet's own Discours sur l'histoire universelle might have furnished an answer, for there the fall of many empires is detailed; but then the Discours was composed under a single preoccupation.[1] To Bossuet, the establishment of Christianity
Christianity
was the one point of real importance in the whole history of the world. He totally ignores the history of Islam
Islam
and Asia; on Greece and Rome, he only touched insofar as they formed part of the Praeparatio Evangelica. Yet his Discours is far more than a theological pamphlet. While Pascal might refer the rise and fall of empires to Providence or chance or a little grain of sand in the English lord protectors' veins, Bossuet held fast to his principle that God works through secondary causes. It is His will that every great change should have its roots in the ages that went before it. Bossuet, accordingly, made a heroic attempt to grapple with origins and causes, and in this way, his book deserves its place as one of the very first of philosophic histories.[1] Bishop of Meaux, 1681–1704[edit]

Bishop Bossuet

With the period of the Dauphin's formal education ending in 1681, Bossuet was appointed Bishop of Meaux
Bishop of Meaux
by the King on 2 May 1681, which was approved by Pope Innocent XI
Pope Innocent XI
on 17 November.[3] But before he could take possession of his see, he was drawn into a violent quarrel between Louis XIV
Louis XIV
and Pope
Pope
Innocent XI. Here he found himself in a quandary: to support the Pope
Pope
meant supporting the Jesuits; and he hated their supposed casuistry and dévotion aisée almost as much as Pascal; to oppose the Pope
Pope
was to play into the hands of Louis XIV, who was eager to subject the Church to the will of the State. Bossuet therefore attempted to steer a middle course. In 1682, before the general Assembly of the French Clergy, he preached a great sermon on the unity of the Church and made it a magnificent plea for compromise. As Louis XIV
Louis XIV
insisted on his clergy making an anti-papal declaration, Bossuet got leave to draw it up and made it as moderate as he could, and when the Pope
Pope
declared it null and void, he set to work on a gigantic Defensio Cleri Gallicani, only published after his death.[1] Throughout this controversy, unlike the court bishops, Bossuet constantly resided in his diocese and took an active interest in its administration.[citation needed] Efforts to Combat Protestantism[edit] The Gallican storm a little abated, he turned back to a project very near his heart. Ever since the early days at Metz, he had been busy with schemes for uniting the Huguenots to the Catholic Church. In 1668, he converted Turenne; in 1670, he published an Exposition de la foi catholique ("Exposition of the Catholic Faith"), so moderate in tone that adversaries were driven to accuse him of having fraudulently watered down the Catholic dogmas to suit Protestant
Protestant
taste.[4] Finally, in 1688, his great Histoire des variations des Églises protestantes ("History of the Variations of the Protestant
Protestant
Churches"), perhaps the most brilliant of all his works, appeared. Few writers could have made the Justification controversy interesting or even intelligible. His argument is simple enough. Without rules, an organized society cannot hold together, and rules require an authorized interpreter. The Protestant
Protestant
churches had thrown over this interpreter; and Bossuet had small trouble in showing that, the longer they lived, the more they varied on increasingly important points.[4] For the moment, the Protestants were pulverized; but before long, they began to ask whether variation was necessarily so great an evil. Between 1691 and 1701, Bossuet corresponded with Leibniz with a view to reunion, but negotiations broke down precisely at this point. Leibniz thought his countrymen might accept individual Roman doctrines, but he flatly refused to guarantee that they would necessarily believe tomorrow what they believe today. We prefer, he said, a church eternally variable and for ever moving forwards.[4] Next, Protestant
Protestant
writers began to accumulate some alleged proofs of Rome's own variations; and here, they were backed up by Richard Simon, a priest of the Paris
Paris
Oratory and the father of biblical criticism in France. He accused St Augustine, Bossuet's own special master, of having corrupted the primitive doctrine of grace.[4] Bossuet set to work on a Defense de la tradition, but Simon calmly went on to raise issues graver still. Under a veil of politely ironic circumlocutions, such as did not deceive the Bishop of Meaux, he claimed his right to interpret the Bible
Bible
like any other book. Bossuet denounced him again and again; Simon told his friends he would wait until the old fellow was no more. Another Oratorian proved more dangerous still. Simon had endangered miracles by applying to them lay rules of evidence, but Malebranche abrogated miracles altogether. It was blasphemous, he argued, to suppose that the Author of nature would violate the law He had Himself established. Bossuet might scribble nova, mira, falsa in the margins of his book and urge Fénelon
Fénelon
to attack them; Malebranche politely met his threats by saying that to be refuted by such a pen would do him too much honor. These repeated checks soured Bossuet's temper.[4] In his earlier controversies, he had borne himself with great magnanimity, and the Huguenot
Huguenot
ministers he refuted had found him a kindly advocate at court. His approval of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes stopped far short of approving dragonnades within his Diocese of Meaux, but now his patience was waning. A dissertation by one Father Caffaro, an obscure Italian monk, became his excuse for writing certain, violent Maximes sur la comédie (1694), wherein he made an attack on the memory of Molière, dead more than twenty years.[4] Controversy with Fénelon[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Fénelon
Fénelon
(1651–1715), Bossuet's final rival

Three years later, he was battling with Bishop François Fénelon
François Fénelon
over the love of God.[4] Fénelon, 24 years his junior, was an old pupil who had suddenly become a rival; like Bossuet, Fénelon
Fénelon
was a bishop who served as a royal tutor.[citation needed] The controversy concerned their different reactions to the opinions of Jeanne Guyon: her ideas were similar to the Quietism of Molinos, which was condemned by Pope Innocent XI
Pope Innocent XI
in 1687. When Mme de Maintenon began questioning the orthodoxy of Mme Guyon's opinions, an ecclesiastical commission of three members, including Bossuet, was appointed to report on the matter. The commission issued 34 articles known as the Articles d'Issy, which condemned Mme Guyon's ideas very briefly and provided a short treatise on the orthodox, Catholic conception of prayer. Fénelon, who had been attracted to Mme Guyon's ideas, signed off on the Articles, and Mme Guyon submitted to the judgment.[citation needed] Bossuet now composed Instructions sur les états d'oraison, a work that explained the Articles d' Issy
Issy
in greater depth. Fénelon
Fénelon
refused to endorse this treatise, however, and instead composed his own explanation as to the meaning of the Articles d'Issy, his Explication des Maximes des Saints. He explained his view that the goal of human life should be to have love of God as its perfect object, with neither fear of punishment nor desire for the reward of eternal life having anything to do with this pure love of God. King Louis XIV
Louis XIV
reproached Bossuet for failing to warn him that his grandsons' tutor had such unorthodox opinions and instructed Bossuet and other bishops to respond to the Maximes des Saints.[citation needed] Bossuet and Fénelon
Fénelon
thus spent the years 1697–1699 battling each other in pamphlets and letters until the Inquisition
Inquisition
finally condemned the Maximes des Saints on 12 March 1699. Pope Innocent XII
Pope Innocent XII
selected 23 specific passages for condemnation. Bossuet triumphed in the controversy and Fénelon
Fénelon
submitted to Rome's determination of the matter.[citation needed]

Bossuet in 1702

Death[edit] Until he was over 70 years, Bossuet enjoyed good health, but in 1702 he developed chronic kidney stones.[citation needed] Two years later he was a hopeless invalid, and on 12 April 1704 he died quietly.[4] His funeral oration was given by Charles de la Rue, SJ. He was buried at Meaux Cathedral.[citation needed] Preaching[edit] Bossuet is widely considered to be one of the most influential homiliticians of all time.[5][6][7] He is one of the preachers, along with John Tillotson
John Tillotson
and Louis Bourdaloue, who began the transition from Baroque
Baroque
to Neoclassical preaching.[8][6] He preached with a simple eloquence that eschewed the grandiose extravagances of earlier preaching. He focused on ethical rather than doctrinal messages, often drawing from the lives of saints or saintly contemporaries as examples. He preached, for example, on St. Francis de Sales
Francis de Sales
as well as funeral orations on Queen Henrietta Maria of France
Henrietta Maria of France
and Henrietta Anne of England. Bossuet's funeral orations in particular had lasting importance and were translated early into many languages, including English.[9] Such was their power that even Voltaire, normally so antagonistic toward clergy, praised his oratorical excellence.[10] Works[edit]

19th-century statue of Bossuet in Meaux Cathedral

20th-century statue of Bossuet, sculpted by Ernest Henri Dubois, on display in Meaux Cathedral

An edition of Bossuet's sermons was edited by Abbé Lebarq in 6 vols. (Paris, 1890, 1896), as the Œuvres oratoires de Bossuet. His complete works were edited by Lachat in 31 vols. (Paris, 1862–1864).

Méditation sur la brièveté de la vie (1648) Réfutation du catéchisme de Paul Ferry (1655) Oraison funèbre de Yolande de Monterby (1656) Oracion funebre e Valeria Slazar (1657) Panégyrique de saint Paul (1659) Oraison funèbre de Nicolas Cornet (1663) Oraison funèbre d'Anne d'Autriche (1667) Oraison funèbre d'Henriette Marie de France (1669) Oraison funèbre d'Henriette d'Angleterre (1670) Exposition de la doctrine de l'église catholique sur les matières de controverse (1671) Sermon
Sermon
pour la Profession de Mademoiselle de La Vallière (1675) Traité de la connaissance de Dieu et de soi-même (1677) Traité du libre arbitre (1677) Logique (1677 – published only in 1828) Conférence avec le pasteur Claude (1678 – published 1682) Discours sur l'histoire universelle or Speech of Universal History (1681) Politique tirée de l'Écriture sainte (Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture) (1679 – published 1709) Sermon
Sermon
sur l'unité de l'Église (1682) Oraison funèbre de Marie Thérèse (1683) Oraison funèbre d' Anne de Gonzague, princesse Palatine (1685) Oraison funèbre de Michel Le Tellier
Michel Le Tellier
(1686) Oraison funèbre de Mme du Blé d'Uxelles (1686) Oraison funèbre du prince de Condé (1687) Catéchisme du diocèse de Meaux (1687) Histoire des variations des Églises protestantes (1688) Explication de l'Apocalypse (1689) Avertissements aux Protestants (I, II, III) (1689) Avertissements aux Protestants (IV, V, VI) (1690–91) Défense de l'Histoire des variations (1690–91) Correspondence avec Leibniz (1691–93) Défense de la Tradition et des Saints Pères (1691–93) Traité de la concupiscence (1691–93) Lettre au P. Caffaro (1694–95) Maximes et réflexions sur la comédie (1694–95) Méditation sur l'Evangile (1694–95) Élévations sur les mystères (1694–95) Instructions sur les états d'oraison (replying to Fénelon) (1697) Relation sur le quiétisme (1698) Instructions pastorales pour les Protestants (manual for Protestant converts to Catholicism) (1701)

Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

When Bossuet was chosen to be the tutor of the Dauphin, oldest child of Louis XIV, he wrote several works for the edification of his pupil, one of which was Politics Derived from the Words of Holy Scripture, a discourse on the principles of royal absolutism. The work was published posthumously in 1709. The work consists of several books which are divided into articles and propositions which lay out the nature, characteristics, duties, and resources of royalty. To justify his propositions, Bossuet quotes liberally from the Bible
Bible
and various psalms. Throughout his essay, Bossuet emphasizes the fact that royal authority comes directly from God and that the person of the king is sacred. In the third book, Bossuet asserts that "God establishes kings as his ministers, and reigns through them over the people." He also states that "the prince must be obeyed on principle, as a matter of religion and of conscience." While he declares the absolute authority of rulers, he emphasizes the fact that kings must use their power only for the public good and that the king is not above the law "for if he sins, he destroys the laws by his example." In books six and seven, Bossuet describes the duties of the subjects to the prince and the special duties of royalty. For Bossuet, the prince was synonymous with the state, which is why, according to him, the subjects of the prince owe the prince the same duties that they owe their country. He also states that "only public enemies make a separation between the interest of the prince and the interest of the state." As far as the duties of royalty, the primary goal is the preservation of the state. Bossuet describes three ways that this can be achieved: by maintaining a good constitution, making good use of the state's resources, and protecting the state from the dangers and difficulties that threaten it. In books nine and ten, Bossuet outlines the various resources of royalty (arms, wealth, and counsel) and how they should be used. In regards to arms, Bossuet explains that there are just and unjust grounds for war. Unjust causes include ambitious conquest, pillage, and jealousy. As far as wealth is concerned, he then lays out the types of expenditures that a king has and the various sources of wealth for the kingdom. He emphasizes that the true wealth of a kingdom is its men and says that it is important to improve the people's lot and that there would be no more poor.[11] Trivia[edit]

Oeuvres, 1852

The Catholic Encyclopedia
The Catholic Encyclopedia
(1913) calls Bossuet the greatest pulpit orator of all time, ranking him even ahead of Augustine and Chrysostom. The exterior of Harvard's Sanders Theater
Sanders Theater
includes busts of the eight greatest orators of all time – they include a bust of Bossuet alongside such giants of oratory as Demosthenes, Cicero, and Chrysostom. A character in Les Misérables, being from Meaux and an orator, is nicknamed Bossuet by his friends. Bossuet was one of several co-editors on the Delphin Classics collection. Bossuet was the uncle of Louis Bossuet. See also[edit]

List of works by Eugène Guillaume

Notes[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Northcote 1911, p. 288. ^ Because of his work on Biblical chronology, Bossuet has been described as one of the last great practicians of a biblically inspired view of history. Cited by Berthoud in his paper on Heinrich Bullinger, (Berthoud, Jean-Marc, Heinrich Bullinger
Heinrich Bullinger
and the Reformation. A comprehensive faith (PDF), www.elib.org.uk ). ^ Ritzler & Sefrin 1952, p. 263. ^ a b c d e f g h Northcote 1911, p. 289. ^ New Advent. ^ a b Jacoebee 1982, pp. 227–242. ^ Edwards, Jr., p. 11. ^ Worcester, p. 134. ^ Worcester, p. 152 ^ Voltaire
Voltaire
1957, pp. 10005–1006 cited in Worcester, p. 151. ^ Bossuet 1987, pp. 31–47.

References[edit]

Bossuet, Jacques-Benigne (1987), "Politics Derived from the Words of Holy Scripture", in Baker, Keith Michael, The Old Regime and the French Revolution, Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, pp. 31–47  Edwards, Jr., O. C., "Varieties of Sermon: A Survey", in Eijnatten, Joris van, Preaching, Sermon
Sermon
and Culture Change in the Long Eighteenth Century, p. 11 [full citation needed] Jacoebee, W. Pierre (1982), "The Classical Sermon
Sermon
and the French Literary Tradition", Australian Journal of French Studies, 19: 227–242  Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, New Advent  Ritzler, Remigius; Sefrin, Pirminus (1952), Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi V (1667–1730), Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio, p. 263  Worcester, Thomas, "The Classical Sermon", in Eijnatten, Joris van, Preaching, Sermon
Sermon
and Culture Change in the Long Eighteenth Century, p. 134, 154 [full citation needed]

Voltaire
Voltaire
(1957), Pomeau, Rene, ed., Oeuvres historiques, Paris, pp. 10005–1006 

Attribution:'

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Northcote, Stafford Henry (1911), "Bossuet, Jaques Bénigne", in Chisholm, Hugh, Encyclopædia Britannica, 4 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 287–289 

External links[edit]

French Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Jacques Bénigne Bossuet

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jacques Bégnine Bossuet.

 Connell, Archibald Browning (1878), "Jacques Bénigne Bossuet", Encyclopædia Britannica, 4 (9th ed.), pp. 70–72 

Works by or about Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet
Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet
at Internet Archive Works by Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet
Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) Discours sur l'Histoire universelle ( French text – 1681 PDF) Catholic Encyclopedia article, 'Jacques-Benigne Bossuet' (in French) Livre audio mp3 gratuit: Oraison funèbre de Henriette-Anne d’Angleterre, duchesse d’Orléans. Oraison funèbre de Henriette-Marie de France, reine de la Grand’Bretagne.

v t e

Catholic Church

Index Outline

History (Timeline)

Jesus Holy Family

Mary Joseph

Apostles Early Christianity History of the papacy Ecumenical councils Missions Great Schism of East Crusades Great Schism of West Age of Discovery Protestant
Protestant
Reformation Council of Trent Counter-Reformation Catholic Church
Catholic Church
by country Vatican City

index outline

Second Vatican Council

Hierarchy (Precedence)

Pope
Pope
(List)

Pope
Pope
Francis (2013–present)

conclave inauguration theology canonizations visits

Pope
Pope
Emeritus Benedict XVI (2005–2013)

Roman Curia College of Cardinals

Cardinal List

Patriarchate Episcopal conference Patriarch Major archbishop Primate Metropolitan Archbishop Diocesan bishop Coadjutor bishop Auxiliary bishop Titular bishop Bishop emeritus Abbot Abbess Superior general Provincial superior Grand Master Prior
Prior
(-ess) Priest Brother

Friar

Sister Monk Nun Hermit Master of novices Novice Oblate Postulant Laity

Theology

Body and soul Bible Catechism Divine grace Dogma Ecclesiology

Four Marks of the Church

Original sin

List

Salvation Sermon
Sermon
on the Mount Ten Commandments Trinity Worship

Mariology

Assumption History Immaculate Conception Mariology of the popes Mariology of the saints Mother of God Perpetual virginity Veneration

Philosophy

Natural law Moral theology Personalism Social teaching Philosophers

Sacraments

Baptism Confirmation Eucharist Penance Anointing of the Sick

Last rites

Holy orders Matrimony

Saints

Mary Apostles Archangels Confessors Disciples Doctors of the Church Evangelists Church Fathers Martyrs Patriarchs Prophets Virgins

Doctors of the Church

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Institutes, orders, and societies

Assumptionists Annonciades Augustinians Basilians Benedictines Bethlehemites Blue nuns Camaldoleses Camillians Carmelites Carthusians Cistercians Clarisses Conceptionists Crosiers Dominicans Franciscans Good Shepherd Sisters Hieronymites Jesuits Mercedarians Minims Olivetans Oratorians Piarists Premonstratensians Redemptorists Servites Theatines Trappists Trinitarians Visitandines

Associations of the faithful

International Federation of Catholic Parochial Youth Movements International Federation of Catholic Universities International Kolping Society Schoenstatt Apostolic Movement International Union of Catholic Esperantists Community of Sant'Egidio

Charities

Aid to the Church in Need Caritas Internationalis Catholic Home Missions Catholic Relief Services CIDSE

Particular churches (By country)

Latin Church Eastern Catholic Churches: Albanian Armenian Belarusian Bulgarian Chaldean Coptic Croatian and Serbian Eritrean Ethiopian Georgian Greek Hungarian Italo-Albanian Macedonian Maronite Melkite Romanian Russian Ruthenian Slovak Syriac Syro-Malabar Syro-Malankara Ukrainian

Liturgical rites

Alexandrian Antiochian Armenian Byzantine East Syrian Latin

Anglican Use Ambrosian Mozarabic Roman

West Syrian

Catholicism portal Pope
Pope
portal Vatican City
Vatican City
portal

Book Name Media

Category Templates WikiProject

v t e

History of the Catholic Church

General

History of the Catholic Church

By country or region

History of the Papacy Timeline of the Catholic Church Catholic ecumenical councils History of the Roman Curia Catholic Church
Catholic Church
art Religious institutes Christian monasticism Papal States Role of Christianity
Christianity
in civilization

Church beginnings, Great Church

Jesus John the Baptist Apostles

Peter John Paul

Saint Stephen Great Commission Council of Jerusalem Apostolic Age Apostolic Fathers Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus Pope
Pope
Victor I Tertullian

Constantine to Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
and Christianity Arianism Archbasilica of St. John Lateran First Council of Nicaea Pope
Pope
Sylvester I First Council of Constantinople Biblical canon Jerome Vulgate Council of Ephesus Council of Chalcedon Benedict of Nursia Second Council of Constantinople Pope
Pope
Gregory I Gregorian chant

Early Middle Ages

Third Council of Constantinople Saint Boniface Byzantine Iconoclasm Second Council of Nicaea Charlemagne Pope
Pope
Leo III Fourth Council of Constantinople East–West Schism

High Middle Ages

Pope
Pope
Urban II Investiture Controversy Crusades First Council of the Lateran Second Council of the Lateran Third Council of the Lateran Pope
Pope
Innocent III Latin Empire Francis of Assisi Fourth Council of the Lateran Inquisition First Council of Lyon Second Council of Lyon Bernard of Clairvaux Thomas Aquinas

Late Middle Ages

Pope
Pope
Boniface VIII Avignon Papacy Pope
Pope
Clement V Council of Vienne Knights Templar Catherine of Siena Pope
Pope
Alexander VI

Reformation Counter-Reformation

Reformation Counter-Reformation Thomas More Pope
Pope
Leo X Society of Jesus Ignatius of Loyola Francis Xavier Dissolution of the Monasteries Council of Trent Pope
Pope
Pius V Tridentine Mass Teresa of Ávila John of the Cross Philip Neri Robert Bellarmine

Baroque
Baroque
Period to the French Revolution

Pope
Pope
Innocent XI Pope
Pope
Benedict XIV Suppression of the Society of Jesus Anti-clericalism Pope
Pope
Pius VI Shimabara Rebellion Edict of Nantes Dechristianization of France during the French Revolution

19th century

Pope
Pope
Pius VII Pope
Pope
Pius IX Dogma of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
of the Virgin Mary Our Lady of La Salette Our Lady of Lourdes First Vatican Council Papal infallibility Pope
Pope
Leo XIII Mary of the Divine Heart Prayer of Consecration
Consecration
to the Sacred Heart Rerum novarum

20th century

Pope
Pope
Pius X Our Lady of Fátima Persecutions of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Pius XII Pope
Pope
Pius XII Pope
Pope
Pius XII Consecration
Consecration
to the Immaculate Heart of Mary Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary Lateran Treaty Pope
Pope
John XXIII Second Vatican Council Pope
Pope
Paul VI Pope
Pope
John Paul I Pope
Pope
John Paul II World Youth Day

1995 2000

21st century

Catholic Church
Catholic Church
sexual abuse cases Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI World Youth Day

2002 2005 2008 2011 2013 2016

Pope
Pope
Francis

Pope
Pope
portal Vatican City
Vatican City
portal Catholicism portal

v t e

History of Catholic theology

General history

History of the Catholic Church Early Christianity History of the papacy Ecumenical Councils Timeline of the Catholic Church History of Christianity History of Christian theology

Church beginnings

Paul Clement of Rome First Epistle of Clement Didache Ignatius of Antioch Polycarp Epistle of Barnabas The Shepherd of Hermas Aristides of Athens Justin Martyr Epistle to Diognetus Irenaeus Montanism Tertullian Origen Antipope Novatian Cyprian

Constantine to Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Eusebius Athanasius of Alexandria Arianism Pelagianism Nestorianism Monophysitism Ephrem the Syrian Hilary of Poitiers Cyril of Jerusalem Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nyssa Ambrose John Chrysostom Jerome Augustine of Hippo John Cassian Orosius Cyril of Alexandria Peter Chrysologus Pope
Pope
Leo I Boethius Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite Pope
Pope
Gregory I

Early Middle Ages

Isidore of Seville John Climacus Maximus the Confessor Monothelitism Ecthesis Bede John of Damascus Iconoclasm Transubstantiation
Transubstantiation
dispute Predestination
Predestination
disputes Paulinus II of Aquileia Alcuin Benedict of Aniane Rabanus Maurus Paschasius Radbertus John Scotus Eriugena

High Middle Ages

Roscellinus Gregory of Narek Berengar of Tours Peter Damian Anselm of Canterbury Joachim of Fiore Peter Abelard Decretum Gratiani Bernard of Clairvaux Peter Lombard Anselm of Laon Hildegard of Bingen Hugh of Saint Victor Dominic de Guzmán Robert Grosseteste Francis of Assisi Anthony of Padua Beatrice of Nazareth Bonaventure Albertus Magnus Boetius of Dacia Henry of Ghent Thomas Aquinas Siger of Brabant Thomism Roger Bacon

Mysticism
Mysticism
and reforms

Ramon Llull Duns Scotus Dante Alighieri William of Ockham Richard Rolle John of Ruusbroec Catherine of Siena Brigit of Sweden Meister Eckhart Johannes Tauler Walter Hilton The Cloud of Unknowing Heinrich Seuse Geert Groote Devotio Moderna Julian of Norwich Thomas à Kempis Nicholas of Cusa Marsilio Ficino Girolamo Savonarola Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

Reformation Counter-Reformation

Erasmus Thomas Cajetan Thomas More John Fisher Johann Eck Francisco de Vitoria Thomas of Villanova Ignatius of Loyola Francisco de Osuna John of Ávila Francis Xavier Teresa of Ávila Luis de León John of the Cross Peter Canisius Luis de Molina
Luis de Molina
(Molinism) Robert Bellarmine Francisco Suárez Lawrence of Brindisi Francis de Sales

Baroque
Baroque
period to French Revolution

Tommaso Campanella Pierre de Bérulle Pierre Gassendi René Descartes Mary of Jesus
Jesus
of Ágreda António Vieira Jean-Jacques Olier Louis Thomassin Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet François Fénelon Cornelius Jansen
Cornelius Jansen
(Jansenism) Blaise Pascal Nicolas Malebranche Giambattista Vico Alphonsus Liguori Louis de Montfort Maria Gaetana Agnesi Alfonso Muzzarelli Johann Michael Sailer Clement Mary Hofbauer Bruno Lanteri

19th century

Joseph Görres Felicité de Lamennais Luigi Taparelli Antonio Rosmini Ignaz von Döllinger John Henry Newman Henri Lacordaire Jaime Balmes Gaetano Sanseverino Giovanni Maria Cornoldi Wilhelm Emmanuel Freiherr von Ketteler Giuseppe Pecci Joseph Hergenröther Tommaso Maria Zigliara Matthias Joseph Scheeben Émile Boutroux Modernism Léon Bloy Désiré-Joseph Mercier Friedrich von Hügel Vladimir Solovyov Marie-Joseph Lagrange George Tyrrell Maurice Blondel Thérèse of Lisieux

20th century

G. K. Chesterton Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange Joseph Maréchal Pierre Teilhard de Chardin Jacques Maritain Étienne Gilson Ronald Knox Dietrich von Hildebrand Gabriel Marcel Marie-Dominique Chenu Romano Guardini Edith Stein Fulton Sheen Henri de Lubac Jean Guitton Josemaría Escrivá Adrienne von Speyr Karl Rahner Yves Congar Bernard Lonergan Emmanuel Mounier Jean Daniélou Hans Urs von Balthasar Alfred Delp Edward Schillebeeckx Thomas Merton René Girard Johann Baptist Metz Jean Vanier Henri Nouwen

21st century

Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI Walter Kasper Raniero Cantalamessa Michał Heller Peter Kreeft Jean-Luc Marion Tomáš Halík Scott Hahn Robert Barron

Catholicism portal Pope
Pope
portal

v t e

Académie française
Académie française
seat 37

Daniel Hay du Chastelet de Chambon (1635) Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet
Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet
(1671) Melchior de Polignac
Melchior de Polignac
(1704) Odet-Joseph Giry (1741) Charles Batteux
Charles Batteux
(1761) Antoine-Marin Lemierre (1780) Félix-Julien-Jean Bigot de Préameneu
Félix-Julien-Jean Bigot de Préameneu
(1803) Mathieu de Montmorency
Mathieu de Montmorency
(1825) Alexandre Guiraud
Alexandre Guiraud
(1826) Jean-Jacques Ampère
Jean-Jacques Ampère
(1847) Lucien-Anatole Prévost-Paradol
Lucien-Anatole Prévost-Paradol
(1865) Camille Rousset
Camille Rousset
(1871) Paul Thureau-Dangin
Paul Thureau-Dangin
(1893) Pierre de La Gorce
Pierre de La Gorce
(1914) Maurice de Broglie
Maurice de Broglie
(1934) Eugène Tisserant
Eugène Tisserant
(1961) Jean Daniélou
Jean Daniélou
(1972) Ambroise-Marie Carré (1975) René Girard
René Girard
(2005)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 2467099 LCCN: n81018145 ISNI: 0000 0001 2098 4244 GND: 118513915 SELIBR: 178767 SUDOC: 026741059 BNF: cb118930724 (data) BIBSYS: 90546927 MusicBrainz: 5a5a550b-aac6-47fd-b5c7-0615bc8444cc NLA: 36405590 NDL: 00520198 NKC: jn20000600950 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV13273 BNE: XX1001477 SN

.