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Jacob Emden, also known as Ya'avetz (June 4, 1697 – April 19, 1776), was a leading German rabbi and talmudist who championed Orthodox Judaism in the face of the growing influence of the Sabbatean movement. He was acclaimed in all circles for his extensive knowledge, thus Moses Mendelssohn, founder of the Jewish Enlightenment movement, wrote to him as "your disciple, who thirsts for your words."[1] Although Emden
Emden
did not approve of the Hasidic movement
Hasidic movement
which evolved during his lifetime, his books are highly regarded amongst the Hasidim.[1] Thirty-one works were published during his lifetime, ten posthumously while others remain in manuscript.[1] Emden
Emden
was the son of the Chacham Tzvi, and a descendant of Elijah Ba'al Shem of Chelm. He lived most his life in Altona (now a part of Hamburg, Germany), where he held no official rabbinic position and earned a living by printing books.[2] His son was Meshullam Solomon, rabbi of the Hambro Synagogue in London who claimed authority as Chief Rabbi
Rabbi
of the United Kingdom from 1765 to 1780.[3]

Contents

1 Biography 2 Sabbatean
Sabbatean
controversy 3 Other notable events 4 Views on the spread of monotheism 5 Stance on polygamy and concubines 6 Published works 7 References 8 External links

Biography[edit] Until seventeen, Emden
Emden
studied Talmud
Talmud
under his father Tzvi Ashkenazi, a foremost rabbinic authority, first at Altona, then at Amsterdam (1710–1714). In 1715 Emden
Emden
married Rachel, daughter of Mordecai ben Naphtali Kohen, rabbi of Ungarisch-Brod, Moravia, and continued his studies in his father-in-law's yeshivah.[4] Emden
Emden
became well versed in all branches of Talmudic literature; later he studied philosophy, kabbalah, and grammar, and made an effort to acquire the Latin
Latin
and Dutch languages, in which, however, he was seriously hindered by his belief that a Jew should occupy himself with secular sciences only during times it was impossible to study Torah.[4] He was opposed to philosophy and maintained that the views contained in The Guide for the Perplexed could not have been authored by Maimonides, but rather by an unknown heretic.[2] Emden
Emden
spent three years at Ungarisch-Brod, where he held the office of private lecturer in Talmud. Later he became a dealer in jewelry and other articles, an occupation which compelled him to travel.[4] He generally declined to accept the office of rabbi, though in 1728 he was induced to accept the rabbinate of Emden, from which place he took his name.[4] In 1733 Emden
Emden
returned to Altona, where he obtained the permission of the Jewish community to possess a private synagogue. Emden
Emden
was at first on friendly terms with Moses Hagis, the head of the Portuguese-Jewish community at Altona, who was afterward turned against Emden
Emden
by some calumny. His relations with Ezekiel Katzenellenbogen, the chief rabbi of the German community, were positive at first, but deteriorated swiftly.[5] A few years later Emden
Emden
obtained from the King of Denmark
King of Denmark
the privilege of establishing at Altona a printing-press. He was soon attacked for his publication of the siddur (prayer book) Ammudei Shamayim, due to his harsh criticisms of the powerful local money changers. His opponents did not cease denouncing him even after he had obtained for his work the approbation of the chief rabbi of the German communities.[4] Sabbatean
Sabbatean
controversy[edit]

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v t e

Emden
Emden
accused Jonathan Eybeschütz of being a secret Sabbatean. The controversy lasted several years, continuing even after Eybeschütz's death. Emden's assertion of Eybeschütz's heresy was chiefly based on the interpretation of some amulets prepared by Eybeschütz, in which Emden
Emden
saw Sabbatean
Sabbatean
allusions. Hostilities began before Eybeschütz left Prague, and in 1751, when Eybeschütz was named chief rabbi of the three communities of Altona, Hamburg, and Wandsbek, the controversy reached the stage of intense and bitter antagonism. Emden maintained that he was at first prevented by threats from publishing anything against Eybeschütz. He solemnly declared in his synagogue the writer of the amulets to be a Sabbatean
Sabbatean
heretic and deserving of excommunication.[4] In ''Megillat Sefer'', he even accuses Eybeschütz of having an incestuous relationship with his own daughter, and of fathering a child with her. However, there have been allegations that ''Megillat Sefer'' was tampered with, and had deliberately ridiculous accusations, as well as outlandish tales, written in to the original in order to make a mockery of Emden.[6] The majority of the community, including R. Aryeh Leib Halevi-Epstein of Konigsberg, favored Eybeschütz; thus the council condemned Emden as a slanderer. People were ordered, under pain of excommunication, not to attend Emden's synagogue, and he himself was forbidden to issue anything from his press. As Emden
Emden
still continued his philippics against Eybeschütz, he was ordered by the council of the three communities to leave Altona. This he refused to do, relying on the strength of the king's charter, and he was, as he maintained, relentlessly persecuted. His life seeming to be in actual danger, in May 1751 he left the town and took refuge in Amsterdam, where he had many friends and where he joined the household of his brother-in-law, Aryeh Leib ben Saul, rabbi of the Ashkenazic
Ashkenazic
community. Emden's cause was subsequently taken up by the court of Frederick V of Denmark, and on June 3, 1752, a judgment was given in favor of Emden, severely censuring the council of the three communities and condemning them to a fine of one hundred thalers. Emden
Emden
then returned to Altona and took possession of his synagogue and printing-establishment, though he was forbidden to continue his agitation against Eybeschütz. The latter's partisans, however, did not desist from their warfare against Emden. They accused him before the authorities of continuing to publish denunciations against his opponent. One Friday evening (July 8, 1755) his house was broken into and his papers seized and turned over to the "Ober-Präsident," Von Kwalen. Six months later Von Kwalen appointed a commission of three scholars, who, after a close examination, found nothing, which could incriminate Emden. The truth or falsity of his denunciations against Eybeschütz cannot be proved; Gershom Scholem
Gershom Scholem
wrote much on this subject, and his student Perlmutter devoted a book to proving it. According to historian David Sorkin, Eybeschütz was probably a Sabbatean,[7] and Eybeschütz's son openly declared himself to be a Sabbatean
Sabbatean
after his father's death. Other notable events[edit]

Letter of Jacob Emden
Emden
to the King of Denmark, August 20, 1743

In 1756 the members of the Synod of Constantinov applied to Emden
Emden
to aid in repressing the Sabbatean
Sabbatean
movement. As the Sabbatean
Sabbatean
referred much to the Zohar, Emden
Emden
thought it wise to examine that book, and after a careful study he concluded that a great part of the Zohar
Zohar
was the production of an impostor.[8] Emden's works show him to have been possessed of critical powers rarely found among his contemporaries. He was strictly Orthodox, never deviating the least from tradition, even when the difference in time and circumstance might have warranted a deviation from custom. Emden's opinions were often viewed as extremely unconventional from the perspective of strictly traditional mainstream Judaism, though not so unusual in more free-thinking Enlightenment circles. Emden
Emden
had friendly relations with Moses Mendelssohn, founder of the Haskalah movement, and with a number of Christian
Christian
scholars.[9] In 1772 the Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, having issued a decree forbidding burial on the day of death, the Jews in his territories approached Emden
Emden
with the request that he demonstrate from the Talmud that a longer exposure of a corpse would be against the Law. Emden referred them to Mendelssohn, who had great influence with Christian authorities and wrote in excellent German. Mendelssohn wrote the requested letter to the Duke, but privately complained to Emden
Emden
that based on the Talmud, it seemed the Duke was correct. Emden
Emden
wrote to him in strong terms, saying that it was ludicrous to assert that the custom of the entire Jewish people was blatantly incorrect, and told Mendelssohn that this kind of claim would only strengthen rumors of irreligiousness he (Mendelssohn) had aroused by his associations.[10] Views on the spread of monotheism[edit] Emden
Emden
was a traditionalist who responded to the ideals of tolerance being circulated during the 18th-century Enlightenment. He stretched the traditional inclusivist position into universal directions.[11] Believing, like Maimonides, that Christianity and Islam
Islam
have important roles to play in God's plan for mankind, he wrote:[12]

We should consider Christians and Moslems as instruments for the fulfilment of the prophecy that the knowledge of God will one day spread throughout the earth. Whereas the nations before them worshipped idols, denied God's existence, and thus did not recognize God's power or retribution, the rise of Christianity and Islam
Islam
served to spread among the nations, to the furthest ends of the earth, the knowledge that there is One God who rules the world, who rewards and punishes and reveals Himself to man.

Emden
Emden
praised the ethical teachings of the founder of Christianity, considering them as being beneficial to the Gentiles by removing the prevalence of idolatry and bestowing upon them a "moral doctrine."[1][13] Emden
Emden
also suggested that ascetic Christian practices provided additional rectification of the soul in the same way that Judaic commandments do.[1] Stance on polygamy and concubines[edit] In his responsum, Emden
Emden
theoretically advocated the taking of a pilegesh (concubine) by a scholar since the Rabbis stated that "the greater the man, the greater his evil inclination." He collected many Talmudic and medieval examples from Judaic literature that support such behavior.[14][15][16] Although he never put his theories into practice, he criticised the institution of obligatory matrimony and suggested that it is permissible for a Jew to cohabit freely with a single Jewish woman or even with several women without marriage, or as an addition to the legal wife. He wished to revoke the ban on polygamy instituted by Rabbeinu Gershom as he believed it erroneously followed Christian
Christian
morals, but admitted he did not have the power to do so.[2] Published works[edit]

Various works of Emden
Emden
and his father

'Edut be-Ya'aḳov, on the supposed heresy of Eybeschütz, and including Iggeret Shum, a letter to the rabbis of the "Four Lands." Altona, 1756. Shimmush, comprising three smaller works: Shoṭ la-Sus and Meteg la-Hamor, on the growing influence of the Shabbethaians, and Sheveṭ le-Gev Kesilim, a refutation of heretical demonstrations. Amsterdam, 1758–62. Shevirat Luḥot ha-Aven, a refutation of Eybeschütz's "Luḥot 'Edut." Altona, 1759. Seḥoḳ ha-Kesil, Yeḳev Ze'ev, and Gat Derukah, three polemical works published in the "Hit'abbeḳut" of one of his pupils. Altona, 1762. Miṭpaḥat Sefarim, in two parts: the first part showing that part of the Zohar
Zohar
is not authentic but a later compilation; the second, a criticism on "Emunat Ḥakamim" and "Mishnat Ḥakamim," and other seforim and polemical letters addressed to the rabbi of Königsberg. Altona, 1761–68. Ḥerev Pifiyyot, Iggeret Purim, Teshubot ha-Minim, and Zikkaron be-Sefer, on money-changers and bankers (unpublished). Leḥem Shamayim, a commentary on the Mishnah, with a treatise in two parts, on Maimonides' "Yad," Bet ha-Beḥirah. Altona, 1728; Wandsbeck, 1733. Iggeret Biḳḳoret, responsa. Altona, 1733. She'elat Ya'abeẓ, a collection of 372 responsa. Altona, 1739–59. Siddur
Siddur
Tefillah, an edition of the ritual with a commentary, grammatical notes, ritual laws, and various treatises, in three parts: Bet-El, Sha'ar ha-Shamayim, and Migdal 'Oz. It also includes a treatise entitled Eben Boḥan, and a criticism on Menahem Lonzano's "'Avodat Miḳdash," entitled Seder Abodah. Altona, 1745–48. 'Eẓ Avot, a commentary to Avot, with Leḥem Neḳudim, grammatical notes. Amsterdam, 1751. Sha'agat Aryeh, a eulogy for his brother-in-law Aryeh Leib ben Saul, the rabbi of Amsterdam. Amsterdam, 1755. This was also included in his Ḳishshurim le-Ya'aḳov. Seder 'Olam Rabbah ve-Zuṭa, the two Seder 'Olam and the Megillat Ta'anit, edited with critical notes. Hamburg, 1757. Mor u-Ḳeẓi'ah, novellæ on the Oraḥ. Ḥayyim (the novellæ on the Yoreh De'ah, Even ha'Ezer, and Hoshen Mishpat of Mor u-Ḳeẓi'ah – unpublished) Ẓiẓim u-Feraḥim, a collection of kabalistic articles arranged in alphabetical order. Altona, 1768. Luaḥ Eresh, grammatical notes on the prayers, and a criticism of Solomon Hena's "Sha'are Tefillah." Altona, 1769. Shemesh Ẓedaḳah. Altona, 1772. Pesaḥ Gadol, Tefillat Yesharim, and Ḥoli Ketem. Altona, 1775. Sha'are 'Azarah. Altona, 1776. Divre Emet u-Mishpaṭ Shalom (n. d. and n. p.). Megillat Sefer, containing biographies of himself and of his father. Warsaw 1897 Kishshurim le Ya'akob, collection of sermons. Marginal novellæ on the Babylonian Talmud. Emes LeYaakov, notes on Zohar
Zohar
and assorted works, including Dei Rossis' Meor Einayim. Kiryas Joel, 2017

His unpublished rabbinical writings are the following:

Ẓa'aḳat Damim, refutation of the blood accusation in Poland. Halakah Pesuḳah. Hilketa li-Meshiḥa, responsum to R. Israel Lipschütz. Mada'ah Rabbah. Gal-'Ed, commentary to Rashi and to the Targum of the Pentateuch. Em la-Binah, commentary to the whole Bible. Em la-Miḳra we la-Masoret, also a commentary to the Bible.

References[edit]

^ a b c d e Falk, Harvey. Journal of ecumenical studies Volume 19, no. 1 (Winter 1982), Rabbi
Rabbi
Jacob Emden's Views on Christianity, pp. 105–11. ^ a b c Louis Jacobs (1995). The Jewish religion: a companion. Oxford University Press. p. 146. ISBN 978-0-19-826463-7. Retrieved July 19, 2011.  ^ Jacob Emden
Emden
(May 4, 2011). Megilat Sefer: The Autobiography of Rabbi Jacob Emden
Emden
(1697–1776). PublishYourSefer.com. p. 353. ISBN 978-1-61259-001-1. Retrieved July 19, 2011.  ^ a b c d e f Solomon Schechter, M. Seligsohn. Emden, Jacob Israel ben Zebi, Jewish Encyclopedia
Jewish Encyclopedia
(1906). ^ Shachter, Jacob J. (1988). Rabbi
Rabbi
Jacob Emden: Life and Major Works. Cambridge, Massachusetts. p. 107.  ^ Gestetner, Avraham Shmuel Yehuda. מגילת פלסתר [Megilas Plaster] (in Hebrew). Monsey, NY.  ^ David Sorkin, The Transformation of German Jewry, 1780–1840, Wayne State University Press, 1999, p. 52. ^ Taken from the Public Domain Jewish Encyclopedia
Jewish Encyclopedia
article ^ The Jewish enlightenment, by Shmuel Feiner, ch. 1, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003 ^ Sheilos Yaavetz, by Jacob Emden, Volume three, siman 44-47, new edition of Keren Zichron Moshe Yoseph, 2016 ^ Rabbi
Rabbi
Dr. Alan Brill. Judaism and Other Religions: An Orthodox perspective Archived January 20, 2012, at the Wayback Machine., commissioned by the World Jewish Congress
World Jewish Congress
for the World Symposium of Catholic Cardinals and Jewish Leaders (January 2004). ^ Gentile, Jewish Encyclopedia
Jewish Encyclopedia
(1906). ^ Sandra B. Lubarsky (November 1990). Tolerance and transformation: Jewish approaches to religious pluralism. Hebrew Union College Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-87820-504-2. Retrieved July 19, 2011.  ^ Winkler, Gershon. "The responsum of Rabbi
Rabbi
Yaakov Emden
Emden
from Sheylot Ye'avitz, vol. 2, no. 15" (PDF). Retrieved 28 November 2017.  ^ עמדין, יעקב בן צבי (תרמד). שאילת יעבץ. למברג. p. חלק ב סימן טו. Retrieved 28 November 2017.  Check date values in: date= (help) ^ Winkler, Gershon. "The responsum of Rabbi
Rabbi
Yaakov Emden
Emden
from Sheylot Ye'avitz, vol. 2, no. 15" (PDF). Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved November 28, 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)

External links[edit]

Emden, Jacob Israel Ben Zebi Ashkenazi, jewishencyclopedia.com Jacob Emden, jewishvirtuallibrary.org Rabbi
Rabbi
Jacob Emden's View on Christianity and the Noachite Commandments, Reprinted from the Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 19:1, Winter 1982 , from Shelyot Ye'avetz, v 2, 15 Cohen, Mortimer J. (1948), "Was Eibeschuetz a Sabbatian?", The Jewish Quarterly Review, XXXIX (1): 51–62 . Cohen, Mortimer Joseph, Jacob Emden, A Man of Controversy, Philadelphia, Dropsie College for Hebrew and Cognate Learning, 1937. Schacter, Jacob J., Rabbi
Rabbi
Jacob Emden: Life and Major Works, Diss., Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 1988.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 82152450 LCCN: n85177222 ISNI: 0000 0001 1476 0703 GND: 118989316 SELIBR: 51611 SUDOC: 031260454 BNF: cb12250973h (data) SN

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