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The Info List - Jackie Robinson





Jack Roosevelt Robinson (January 31, 1919 – October 24, 1972) was an American professional baseball second baseman who became the first African American
African American
to play in Major League Baseball
Baseball
(MLB) in the modern era.[1] Robinson broke the baseball color line when the Brooklyn Dodgers
Brooklyn Dodgers
started him at first base on April 15, 1947. When the Dodgers
Dodgers
signed Robinson, they heralded the end of racial segregation in professional baseball that had relegated black players to the Negro leagues since the 1880s.[2] Robinson was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962.[3] Robinson had an exceptional 10-year MLB career. He was the recipient of the inaugural MLB Rookie of the Year Award
MLB Rookie of the Year Award
in 1947, was an All-Star for six consecutive seasons from 1949 through 1954, and won the National League
National League
Most Valuable Player Award in 1949—the first black player so honored.[4][5] Robinson played in six World Series
World Series
and contributed to the Dodgers' 1955 World Series
World Series
championship. In 1997, MLB "universally" retired his uniform number, 42, across all major league teams; he was the first pro athlete in any sport to be so honored. MLB also adopted a new annual tradition, "Jackie Robinson Day", for the first time on April 15, 2004, on which every player on every team wears No. 42. Robinson's character, his use of nonviolence, and his unquestionable talent challenged the traditional basis of segregation which then marked many other aspects of American life. He influenced the culture of and contributed significantly to the civil rights movement.[6][7] Robinson also was the first black television analyst in MLB, and the first black vice president of a major American corporation, Chock full o'Nuts. In the 1960s, he helped establish the Freedom National Bank, an African-American-owned financial institution based in Harlem, New York. After his death in 1972, in recognition of his achievements on and off the field, Robinson was posthumously awarded the Congressional Gold Medal and Presidential Medal of Freedom.

Contents

1 Early life

1.1 Family and personal life 1.2 John Muir High School 1.3 Pasadena Junior College 1.4 UCLA and afterward

2 Military career 3 Post-military 4 Playing career

4.1 Negro leagues 4.2 Minor leagues 4.3 Major leagues

4.3.1 Breaking the color barrier (1947) 4.3.2 MVP, Congressional testimony, and film biography (1948–1950) 4.3.3 Pennant races and outside interests (1951–1953) 4.3.4 World Championship and retirement (1954–1956)

5 Legacy

5.1 Portrayals on stage, film and television

6 Post-baseball life 7 Family life and death 8 Awards and recognition 9 See also 10 References

10.1 Bibliography

11 Further reading 12 External links

Early life Family and personal life Robinson was born on January 31, 1919, into a family of sharecroppers in Cairo, Georgia. He was the youngest of five children born to Mallie (McGriff) and Jerry Robinson, after siblings Edgar, Frank, Matthew (nicknamed "Mack"), and Willa Mae.[8][9][10] His middle name was in honor of former President Theodore Roosevelt, who died 25 days before Robinson was born.[11][12] After Robinson's father left the family in 1920, they moved to Pasadena, California.[13][14][15] The extended Robinson family established itself on a residential plot containing two small houses at 121 Pepper Street in Pasadena. Robinson's mother worked various odd jobs to support the family.[16] Growing up in relative poverty in an otherwise affluent community, Robinson and his minority friends were excluded from many recreational opportunities.[17] As a result, Robinson joined a neighborhood gang, but his friend Carl Anderson persuaded him to abandon it.[17][18][19] John Muir High School In 1935, Robinson graduated from Washington Junior High School and enrolled at John Muir High School (Muir Tech).[20] Recognizing his athletic talents, Robinson's older brothers Mack (himself an accomplished athlete and silver medalist at the 1936 Summer Olympics)[19] and Frank inspired Jackie to pursue his interest in sports.[21][22] At Muir Tech, Robinson played several sports at the varsity level and lettered in four of them: football, basketball, track, and baseball.[15] He played shortstop and catcher on the baseball team, quarterback on the football team, and guard on the basketball team. With the track and field squad, he won awards in the broad jump. He was also a member of the tennis team.[23] In 1936, Robinson won the junior boys singles championship in the annual Pacific Coast Negro Tennis
Tennis
Tournament and earned a place on the Pomona annual baseball tournament all-star team, which included future Hall of Famers Ted Williams
Ted Williams
and Bob Lemon.[24] In late January 1937, the Pasadena Star-News
Pasadena Star-News
newspaper reported that Robinson "for two years has been the outstanding athlete at Muir, starring in football, basketball, track, baseball and tennis."[25] Pasadena Junior College After Muir, Robinson attended Pasadena Junior College (PJC), where he continued his athletic career by participating in basketball, football, baseball, and track.[26] On the football team, he played quarterback and safety. He was a shortstop and leadoff hitter for the baseball team, and he broke school broad-jump records held by his brother Mack.[15] As at Muir High School, most of Jackie's teammates were white.[24] While playing football at PJC, Robinson suffered a fractured ankle, complications from which would eventually delay his deployment status while in the military.[27][28] In 1938, he was elected to the All-Southland Junior College Team for baseball and selected as the region's Most Valuable Player.[22][29] That year, Robinson was one of 10 students named to the school's Order of the Mast and Dagger (Omicron Mu Delta), awarded to students performing "outstanding service to the school and whose scholastic and citizenship record is worthy of recognition."[30] Also while at PJC, he was elected to the Lancers, a student-run police organization responsible for patrolling various school activities.[31] An incident at PJC illustrated Robinson's impatience with authority figures he perceived as racist—a character trait that would resurface repeatedly in his life. On January 25, 1938, he was arrested after vocally disputing the detention of a black friend by police.[32] Robinson received a two-year suspended sentence, but the incident—along with other rumored run-ins between Robinson and police—gave Robinson a reputation for combativeness in the face of racial antagonism.[33] While at PJC, he was motivated by a preacher (the Rev. Karl Downs) to attend church on a regular basis, and Downs became a confidant for Robinson, a Christian.[34] Toward the end of his PJC tenure, Frank Robinson
Frank Robinson
(to whom Robinson felt closest among his three brothers) was killed in a motorcycle accident. The event motivated Jackie to pursue his athletic career at the nearby University of California, Los Angeles
University of California, Los Angeles
(UCLA), where he could remain closer to Frank's family.[22][35] UCLA and afterward

Robinson doing the long jump for UCLA

After graduating from PJC in spring 1939,[36] Robinson enrolled at UCLA, where he became the school's first athlete to win varsity letters in four sports: baseball, basketball, football, and track.[37][38] He was one of four black players on the Bruins' 1939 football team; the others were Woody Strode, Kenny Washington, and Ray Bartlett. Washington, Strode, and Robinson made up three of the team's four backfield players.[39] At a time when only a few black students played mainstream college football, this made UCLA college football's most integrated team.[40][41] They went undefeated with four ties at 6–0–4.[42] In track and field, Robinson won the 1940 NCAA championship in the long jump at 24 ft 10 1⁄4 in (7.58 m).[43] Belying his future career, Robinson's "worst sport" at UCLA was baseball; he hit .097 in his only season, although in his first game he went 4-for-4 and twice stole home.[44] While a senior at UCLA, Robinson met his future wife, Rachel Isum (b.1922), a UCLA freshman who was familiar with Robinson's athletic career at PJC.[45] He played football as a senior, but the 1940 Bruins won only one game.[46] In the spring, Robinson left college just shy of graduation, despite his mother's and Isum's reservations.[47] He took a job as an assistant athletic director with the government's National Youth Administration
National Youth Administration
(NYA) in Atascadero, California.[48][49][50] After the government ceased NYA operations, Robinson traveled to Honolulu
Honolulu
in the fall of 1941 to play football for the semi-professional, racially integrated Honolulu
Honolulu
Bears.[48][50] After a short season, Robinson returned to California in December 1941 to pursue a career as running back for the Los Angeles Bulldogs
Los Angeles Bulldogs
of the Pacific Coast Football League.[51] By that time, however, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor had taken place, drawing the United States into World War II and ending Robinson's nascent football career.[48] Military career In 1942, Robinson was drafted and assigned to a segregated Army cavalry unit in Fort Riley, Kansas. Having the requisite qualifications, Robinson and several other black soldiers applied for admission to an Officer Candidate School
Officer Candidate School
(OCS) then located at Fort Riley. Although the Army's initial July 1941 guidelines for OCS had been drafted as race neutral, few black applicants were admitted into OCS until after subsequent directives by Army leadership.[52] As a result, the applications of Robinson and his colleagues were delayed for several months.[53] After protests by heavyweight boxing champion Joe Louis
Joe Louis
(then stationed at Fort Riley) and the help of Truman Gibson (then an assistant civilian aide to the Secretary of War),[54] the men were accepted into OCS.[48][53][55] The experience led to a personal friendship between Robinson and Louis.[56][57] Upon finishing OCS, Robinson was commissioned as a second lieutenant in January 1943.[38] Shortly afterward, Robinson and Isum were formally engaged.[53]

Robinson in his Army uniform, ca. 1943, during a visit to his home in Pasadena, California, receiving a military salute from his nephew Frank

After receiving his commission, Robinson was reassigned to Fort Hood, Texas, where he joined the 761st "Black Panthers" Tank Battalion. While at Fort Hood, Robinson often used his weekend leave to visit the Rev. Karl Downs, President of Sam Huston College (now Huston-Tillotson University) in nearby Austin, Texas; Downs had been Robinson's pastor at Scott United Methodist Church while Robinson attended PJC.[32][58] An event on July 6, 1944 derailed Robinson's military career.[59] While awaiting results of hospital tests on the ankle he had injured in junior college, Robinson boarded an Army bus with a fellow officer's wife; although the Army had commissioned its own unsegregated bus line, the bus driver ordered Robinson to move to the back of the bus.[60][61][62] Robinson refused. The driver backed down, but after reaching the end of the line, summoned the military police, who took Robinson into custody.[60][63] When Robinson later confronted the investigating duty officer about racist questioning by the officer and his assistant, the officer recommended Robinson be court-martialed.[60][64] After Robinson's commander in the 761st, Paul L. Bates, refused to authorize the legal action,[65] Robinson was summarily transferred to the 758th Battalion—where the commander quickly consented to charge Robinson with multiple offenses, including, among other charges, public drunkenness, even though Robinson did not drink.[60][66] By the time of the court-martial in August 1944, the charges against Robinson had been reduced to two counts of insubordination during questioning.[60] Robinson was acquitted by an all-white panel of nine officers.[60] The experiences Robinson was subjected to during the court proceedings would be remembered when he later joined MLB and was subjected to racist attacks.[67] Although his former unit, the 761st Tank Battalion, became the first black tank unit to see combat in World War II, Robinson's court-martial proceedings prohibited him from being deployed overseas; thus, he never saw combat action.[68] After his acquittal, he was transferred to Camp Breckinridge, Kentucky, where he served as a coach for army athletics until receiving an honorable discharge in November 1944.[69] While there, Robinson met a former player for the Kansas
Kansas
City Monarchs of the Negro American League, who encouraged Robinson to write the Monarchs and ask for a tryout.[70] Robinson took the former player's advice and wrote to Monarchs' co-owner Thomas Baird.[71] Post-military After his discharge, Robinson briefly returned to his old football club, the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Bulldogs.[51] Robinson then accepted an offer from his old friend and pastor Rev. Karl Downs to be the athletic director at Samuel Huston College in Austin, then of the Southwestern Athletic Conference.[72] The job included coaching the school's basketball team for the 1944–45 season.[58] As it was a fledgling program, few students tried out for the basketball team, and Robinson even resorted to inserting himself into the lineup for exhibition games.[72][73] Although his teams were outmatched by opponents, Robinson was respected as a disciplinarian coach,[58] and drew the admiration of, among others, Langston University
Langston University
basketball player Marques Haynes, a future member of the Harlem
Harlem
Globetrotters.[74] Playing career Negro leagues

Robinson in uniform for the Kansas
Kansas
City Monarchs

In early 1945, while Robinson was at Sam Huston College, the Kansas City Monarchs sent him a written offer to play professional baseball in the Negro leagues.[58][75] Robinson accepted a contract for $400 per month.[48][76] Although he played well for the Monarchs, Robinson was frustrated with the experience. He had grown used to a structured playing environment in college, and the Negro leagues' disorganization and embrace of gambling interests appalled him.[77][78] The hectic travel schedule also placed a burden on his relationship with Isum, with whom he could now communicate only by letter.[79] In all, Robinson played 47 games at shortstop for the Monarchs, hitting .387 with five home runs, and registering 13 stolen bases.[80] He also appeared in the 1945 Negro League All-Star Game, going hitless in five at-bats.[81] During the season, Robinson pursued potential major-league interests. The Boston Red Sox
Boston Red Sox
held a tryout at Fenway Park
Fenway Park
for Robinson and other black players on April 16.[82] The tryout, however, was a farce chiefly designed to assuage the desegregationist sensibilities of powerful Boston City Councilman Isadore Muchnick.[83] Even with the stands limited to management, Robinson was subjected to racial epithets.[84] Robinson left the tryout humiliated,[82] and more than fourteen years later, in July 1959, the Red Sox became the last major league team to integrate its roster.[85] Other teams, however, had more serious interest in signing a black ballplayer. In the mid-1940s, Branch Rickey, club president and general manager of the Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Dodgers, began to scout the Negro leagues for a possible addition to the Dodgers' roster. Rickey selected Robinson from a list of promising black players and interviewed him for possible assignment to Brooklyn's International League farm club, the Montreal
Montreal
Royals.[86] Rickey was especially interested in making sure his eventual signee could withstand the inevitable racial abuse that would be directed at him.[7][87] In a famous three-hour exchange on August 28, 1945,[88] Rickey asked Robinson if he could face the racial animus without taking the bait and reacting angrily—a concern given Robinson's prior arguments with law enforcement officials at PJC and in the military.[48] Robinson was aghast: "Are you looking for a Negro who is afraid to fight back?"[87][89] Rickey replied that he needed a Negro player "with guts enough not to fight back."[87][89] After obtaining a commitment from Robinson to "turn the other cheek" to racial antagonism, Rickey agreed to sign him to a contract for $600 a month, equal to $8,156 today.[90][91] Rickey did not offer compensation to the Monarchs, instead believing all Negro league players were free agents due to the contracts' not containing a reserve clause.[92] Among those Rickey discussed prospects with was Wendell Smith, writer for the black weekly Pittsburgh Courier, who according to Cleveland Indians
Cleveland Indians
owner and team president Bill Veeck
Bill Veeck
"influenced Rickey to take Jack Robinson, for which he's never completely gotten credit."[93] Although he required Robinson to keep the arrangement a secret for the time being, Rickey committed to formally signing Robinson before November 1, 1945.[94] On October 23, it was publicly announced that Robinson would be assigned to the Royals for the 1946 season.[48][91][95] On the same day, with representatives of the Royals and Dodgers
Dodgers
present, Robinson formally signed his contract with the Royals.[96] In what was later referred to as "The Noble Experiment",[48][97] Robinson was the first black baseball player in the International League
International League
since the 1880s.[98] He was not necessarily the best player in the Negro leagues,[99] and black talents Satchel Paige and Josh Gibson
Josh Gibson
were upset when Robinson was selected first.[100] Larry Doby, who broke the color line in the American League the same year as Robinson, said, "One of the things that was disappointing and disheartening to a lot of the black players at the time was that Jack was not the best player. The best was Josh Gibson. I think that's one of the reasons why Josh died so early – he was heartbroken."[101] Rickey's offer allowed Robinson to leave behind the Monarchs and their grueling bus rides, and he went home to Pasadena. That September, he signed with Chet Brewer's Kansas
Kansas
City Royals, a post-season barnstorming team in the California Winter League.[102] Later that off-season, he briefly toured South America with another barnstorming team, while his fiancée Isum pursued nursing opportunities in New York City.[103] On February 10, 1946, Robinson and Isum were married by their old friend, the Rev. Karl Downs.[48][104][105] Minor leagues In 1946, Robinson arrived at Daytona Beach, Florida, for spring training with the Montreal Royals
Montreal Royals
of the Class AAA International League (the designation of "AAA" for the highest level of minor league baseball was first used in the 1946 season). Clay Hopper, the manager of the Royals, asked Rickey to assign Robinson to any other Dodger affiliate, but Rickey refused.[106]

Robinson with the Montreal Royals
Montreal Royals
in July 1946

Robinson's presence was controversial in racially charged Florida. As he was not allowed to stay with his teammates at the team hotel, he lodged instead at the home of a local black politician.[107][108] Since the Dodgers
Dodgers
organization did not own a spring training facility (the Dodger-controlled spring training compound in Vero Beach
Vero Beach
known as "Dodgertown" did not open until spring 1948),[109] scheduling was subject to the whim of area localities, several of which turned down any event involving Robinson or Johnny Wright, another black player whom Rickey had signed to the Dodgers' organization in January. In Sanford, Florida, the police chief threatened to cancel games if Robinson and Wright did not cease training activities there; as a result, Robinson was sent back to Daytona Beach.[110][111] In Jacksonville, the stadium was padlocked shut without warning on game day, by order of the city's Parks and Public Property director.[112][113] In DeLand, a scheduled day game was postponed, ostensibly because of issues with the stadium's electrical lighting.[114][115] After much lobbying of local officials by Rickey himself, the Royals were allowed to host a game involving Robinson in Daytona Beach.[116][117] Robinson made his Royals debut at Daytona Beach's City Island Ballpark on March 17, 1946, in an exhibition game against the team's parent club, the Dodgers. Robinson thus became the first black player to openly play for a minor league team against a major league team since the de facto baseball color line had been implemented in the 1880s.[2]

Robinson (30) playing in Montreal

Later in spring training, after some less-than-stellar performances, Robinson was shifted from shortstop to second base, allowing him to make shorter throws to first base.[66] Robinson's performance soon rebounded. On April 18, 1946, Roosevelt Stadium
Roosevelt Stadium
hosted the Jersey City Giants' season opener against the Montreal
Montreal
Royals, marking the professional debut of the Royals' Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
and the first time the color barrier had been broken in a game between two minor league clubs.[118] Pitching against Robinson was Warren Sandel
Warren Sandel
who had played against him when they both lived in California. During Robinson's first at bat, the Jersey City catcher, Dick Bouknight, demanded that Sandel throw at Robinson, but Sandel refused. Although Sandel induced Robinson to ground out at his first at bat, in his five trips to the plate, Robinson ended up with four hits, including his first hit, a three-run home run, in the game's third inning.[119] He also scored four runs, drove in three, and stole two bases in the Royals' 14–1 victory.[120] Robinson proceeded to lead the International League
International League
that season with a .349 batting average and .985 fielding percentage,[21] and he was named the league's Most Valuable Player.[121] Although he often faced hostility while on road trips (the Royals were forced to cancel a Southern exhibition tour, for example),[66] the Montreal
Montreal
fan base enthusiastically supported Robinson.[122][123] Whether fans supported or opposed it, Robinson's presence on the field was a boon to attendance; more than one million people went to games involving Robinson in 1946, an amazing figure by International League standards.[124] In the fall of 1946, following the baseball season, Robinson returned home to California and briefly played professional basketball for the short-lived Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Red Devils.[125][126] Major leagues Breaking the color barrier (1947) The following year, six days before the start of the 1947 season, the Dodgers
Dodgers
called Robinson up to the major leagues. With Eddie Stanky entrenched at second base for the Dodgers, Robinson played his initial major league season as a first baseman.[87] On April 15, 1947, Robinson made his major league debut at the relatively advanced age of 28 at Ebbets Field
Ebbets Field
before a crowd of 26,623 spectators, more than 14,000 of whom were black.[127] Although he failed to get a base hit, he walked and scored a run in the Dodgers' 5–3 victory.[127] Robinson became the first player since 1880 to openly break the major league baseball color line.[128] Black fans began flocking to see the Dodgers
Dodgers
when they came to town, abandoning their Negro league teams.[100] Robinson's promotion met a generally positive, although mixed, reception among newspapers and white major league players.[124][129] However, racial tension existed in the Dodger clubhouse.[130] Some Dodger players insinuated they would sit out rather than play alongside Robinson. The brewing mutiny ended when Dodgers
Dodgers
management took a stand for Robinson. Manager Leo Durocher
Leo Durocher
informed the team, "I do not care if the guy is yellow or black, or if he has stripes like a fuckin' zebra. I'm the manager of this team, and I say he plays. What's more, I say he can make us all rich. And if any of you cannot use the money, I will see that you are all traded."[131] Robinson was also derided by opposing teams. Some, notably the St. Louis Cardinals, threatened to strike if Robinson played, but also to spread the walkout across the entire National League. Existence of the plot was leaked by the Cardinals' team physician, Robert Hyland, to a friend, the New York Herald Tribune's Rutherford "Rud" Rennie. The reporter, concerned about protecting Hyland's anonymity and job, in turn leaked it to his Tribune colleague and editor, Stanley Woodward, whose own subsequent reporting with other sources protected Hyland.[132][133][134] The Woodward article made national headlines. After the threat was exposed, National League
National League
President Ford Frick
Ford Frick
and Baseball
Baseball
Commissioner Happy Chandler
Happy Chandler
let it be known that any striking players would be suspended. "You will find that the friends that you think you have in the press box will not support you, that you will be outcasts," threatened Chandler. "I do not care if half the league strikes. Those who do it will encounter quick retribution. All will be suspended and I don't care if it wrecks the National League
National League
for five years. This is the United States of America and one citizen has as much right to play as another."[134][135][136][137] Woodward's article received the E. P. Dutton Award in 1947 for Best Sports Reporting.[134] New York Times
New York Times
columnist Red Smith turned to the Cardinals' 1947 racial strike in 1977, as a spate of commemorative articles appeared on the 30th anniversary of Robinson's signing with the Dodgers. Smith remembered his old Herald Tribune colleagues' part in exposing the players' strike conspiracy. It would have succeeded, wrote Smith, "…if Rud Rennie and Stanley Woodward hadn't exposed their intentions in the New York Herald Tribune."[138] Robinson nonetheless became the target of rough physical play by opponents (particularly the Cardinals). At one time, he received a seven-inch gash in his leg from Enos Slaughter.[139] On April 22, 1947, during a game between the Dodgers
Dodgers
and the Philadelphia Phillies, Phillies players and manager Ben Chapman called Robinson a "nigger" from their dugout and yelled that he should "go back to the cotton fields".[140][141] Rickey later recalled that Chapman "did more than anybody to unite the Dodgers. When he poured out that string of unconscionable abuse, he solidified and united thirty men."[142] Robinson did, however, receive significant encouragement from several major league players. Robinson named Lee "Jeep" Handley, who played for the Phillies at the time, as the first opposing player to wish him well.[143] Dodgers
Dodgers
teammate Pee Wee Reese
Pee Wee Reese
once came to Robinson's defense with the famous line, "You can hate a man for many reasons. Color is not one of them."[144] In 1948, Reese put his arm around Robinson in response to fans who shouted racial slurs at Robinson before a game in Cincinnati.[145] A statue by sculptor William Behrends, unveiled at KeySpan Park
KeySpan Park
on November 1, 2005, commemorates this event by representing Reese with his arm around Robinson.[146] Jewish
Jewish
baseball star Hank Greenberg, who had to deal with racial epithets during his career, also encouraged Robinson. Following an incident where Greenberg collided with Robinson at first base, he "whispered a few words into Robinson's ear", which Robinson later characterized as "words of encouragement."[147] Greenberg had advised him to overcome his critics by defeating them in games.[147] Robinson also talked frequently with Larry Doby, who endured his own hardships since becoming the first black player in the American League
American League
with the Cleveland Indians, as the two spoke to one another via telephone throughout the season.[148] Robinson finished the season having played in 151 games for the Dodgers, with a batting average of .297, an on-base percentage of .383, and a .427 slugging percentage. He had 175 hits (scoring 125 runs) including 31 doubles, 5 triples, and 12 home runs, driving in 48 runs for the year. Robinson led the league in sacrifice hits, with 28, and in stolen bases, with 29.[149] His cumulative performance earned him the inaugural Major League Baseball
Baseball
Rookie of the Year Award (separate National and American League
American League
Rookie of the Year honors were not awarded until 1949).[150] MVP, Congressional testimony, and film biography (1948–1950) Further information: Paul Robeson
Paul Robeson
Congressional Hearings Following Stanky's trade to the Boston Braves in March 1948, Robinson took over second base, where he logged a .980 fielding percentage that year (second in the National League
National League
at the position, fractionally behind Stanky).[151] Robinson had a batting average of .296 and 22 stolen bases for the season.[152] In a 12–7 win against the St. Louis Cardinals on August 29, 1948, he hit for the cycle—a home run, a triple, a double, and a single in the same game.[153] The Dodgers briefly moved into first place in the National League
National League
in late August 1948, but they ultimately finished third as the Braves went on to win the league title and lose to the Cleveland Indians
Cleveland Indians
in the World Series.[154]

Robinson in 1950

Racial pressure on Robinson eased in 1948 as a number of other black players entered the major leagues. Larry Doby
Larry Doby
(who broke the color barrier in the American League
American League
on July 5, 1947, just 11 weeks after Robinson) and Satchel Paige
Satchel Paige
played for the Cleveland Indians, and the Dodgers
Dodgers
had three other black players besides Robinson.[151] In February 1948, he signed a $12,500 contract (equal to $127,320 today) with the Dodgers; while a significant amount, this was less than Robinson made in the off-season from a vaudeville tour, where he answered pre-set baseball questions, and a speaking tour of the South. Between the tours, he underwent surgery on his right ankle. Because of his off-season activities, Robinson reported to training camp 30 pounds (14 kg) overweight. He lost the weight during training camp, but dieting left him weak at the plate.[155] In 1948, Wendell Smith's book, Jackie Robinson: My Own Story, was released.[156] In the spring of 1949, Robinson turned to Hall of Famer George Sisler, working as an advisor to the Dodgers, for batting help. At Sisler's suggestion, Robinson spent hours at a batting tee, learning to hit the ball to right field.[157] Sisler taught Robinson to anticipate a fastball, on the theory that it is easier to subsequently adjust to a slower curveball.[157] Robinson also noted that "Sisler showed me how to stop lunging, how to check my swing until the last fraction of a second".[157] The tutelage helped Robinson raise his batting average from .296 in 1948 to .342 in 1949.[157] In addition to his improved batting average, Robinson stole 37 bases that season, was second place in the league for both doubles and triples, and registered 124 runs batted in with 122 runs scored.[87] For the performance Robinson earned the Most Valuable Player Award for the National League.[87] Baseball
Baseball
fans also voted Robinson as the starting second baseman for the 1949 All-Star Game—the first All-Star Game to include black players.[158][159] That year, a song about Robinson by Buddy Johnson, "Did You See Jackie Robinson Hit That Ball?", reached number 13 on the charts; Count Basie recorded a famous version.[160] Ultimately, the Dodgers
Dodgers
won the National League
National League
pennant, but lost in five games to the New York Yankees in the 1949 World Series.[151] Summer 1949 brought an unwanted distraction for Robinson. In July, he was called to testify before the United States House of Representatives' Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) concerning statements made that April by black athlete and actor Paul Robeson. Robinson was reluctant to testify, but he eventually agreed to do so, fearing it might negatively affect his career if he declined.[161]

Lobby card for The Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
Story, 1950, with Minor Watson (left, playing Dodgers
Dodgers
president Branch Rickey) and Robinson

In 1950, Robinson led the National League
National League
in double plays made by a second baseman with 133.[153] His salary that year was the highest any Dodger had been paid to that point: $35,000[162] ($356,003 in 2017 dollars[163]). He finished the year with 99 runs scored, a .328 batting average, and 12 stolen bases.[152] The year saw the release of a film biography of Robinson's life, The Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
Story, in which Robinson played himself,[164] and actress Ruby Dee
Ruby Dee
played Rachael "Rae" (Isum) Robinson.[165] The project had been previously delayed when the film's producers refused to accede to demands of two Hollywood studios that the movie include scenes of Robinson being tutored in baseball by a white man.[166] The New York Times
The New York Times
wrote that Robinson, "doing that rare thing of playing himself in the picture's leading role, displays a calm assurance and composure that might be envied by many a Hollywood star."[167] Robinson's Hollywood exploits, however, did not sit well with Dodgers co-owner Walter O'Malley, who referred to Robinson as "Rickey's prima donna".[168] In late 1950, Rickey's contract as the Dodgers' team President expired. Weary of constant disagreements with O'Malley, and with no hope of being re-appointed as President of the Dodgers, Rickey cashed out his one-quarter financial interest in the team, leaving O'Malley in full control of the franchise.[169] Rickey shortly thereafter became general manager of the Pittsburgh Pirates. Robinson was disappointed at the turn of events and wrote a sympathetic letter to Rickey, whom he considered a father figure, stating, "Regardless of what happens to me in the future, it all can be placed on what you have done and, believe me, I appreciate it."[170][171][172] Pennant races and outside interests (1951–1953) Before the 1951 season, O'Malley reportedly offered Robinson the job of manager of the Montreal
Montreal
Royals, effective at the end of Robinson's playing career. O'Malley was quoted in the Montreal
Montreal
Standard as saying, "Jackie told me that he would be both delighted and honored to tackle this managerial post"—although reports differed as to whether a position was ever formally offered.[173][174] During the 1951 season, Robinson led the National League
National League
in double plays made by a second baseman for the second year in a row, with 137.[153] He also kept the Dodgers
Dodgers
in contention for the 1951 pennant. During the last game of the regular season, in the 13th inning, he had a hit to tie the game, and then won the game with a home run in the 14th. This forced a best-of-three playoff series against the crosstown rival New York Giants.[175]

Cover of a Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
comic book, issue No. 5, 1951

Despite Robinson's regular-season heroics, the Dodgers
Dodgers
lost the pennant on Bobby Thomson's famous home run, known as the Shot Heard 'Round the World, on October 3, 1951. Overcoming his dejection, Robinson dutifully observed Thomson's feet to ensure he touched all the bases. Dodgers
Dodgers
sportscaster Vin Scully
Vin Scully
later noted that the incident showed "how much of a competitor Robinson was."[176] He finished the season with 106 runs scored, a batting average of .335, and 25 stolen bases.[152] Robinson had what was an average year for him in 1952.[177] He finished the year with 104 runs, a .308 batting average, and 24 stolen bases.[152] He did, however, record a career-high on-base percentage of .436.[152] The Dodgers
Dodgers
improved on their performance from the year before, winning the National League
National League
pennant before losing the 1952 World Series
World Series
to the New York Yankees
New York Yankees
in seven games. That year, on the television show Youth Wants to Know, Robinson challenged the Yankees' general manager, George Weiss, on the racial record of his team, which had yet to sign a black player.[178] Sportswriter Dick Young, whom Robinson had described as a "bigot", said, "If there was one flaw in Jackie, it was the common one. He believed that everything unpleasant that happened to him happened because of his blackness."[179] The 1952 season was the last year Robinson was an everyday starter at second base. Afterward, Robinson played variously at first, second, and third bases, shortstop, and in the outfield, with Jim Gilliam, another black player, taking over everyday second base duties.[152] Robinson's interests began to shift toward the prospect of managing a major league team. He had hoped to gain experience by managing in the Puerto Rican Winter League, but according to the New York Post, Commissioner Happy Chandler
Happy Chandler
denied the request.[180] In 1953, Robinson had 109 runs, a .329 batting average, and 17 steals,[152] leading the Dodgers
Dodgers
to another National League
National League
pennant (and another World Series
World Series
loss to the Yankees, this time in six games). Robinson's continued success spawned a string of death threats.[181] He was not dissuaded, however, from addressing racial issues publicly. That year, he served as editor for Our Sports magazine, a periodical focusing on Negro sports issues; contributions to the magazine included an article on golf course segregation by Robinson's old friend Joe Louis.[182][183] Robinson also openly criticized segregated hotels and restaurants that served the Dodger organization; a number of these establishments integrated as a result, including the five-star Chase Park Hotel in St. Louis.[139][184] World Championship and retirement (1954–1956) In 1954, Robinson had 62 runs scored, a .311 batting average, and 7 steals. His best day at the plate was on June 17, when he hit two home runs and two doubles.[152][153] The following autumn, Robinson won his only championship when the Dodgers
Dodgers
beat the New York Yankees
New York Yankees
in the 1955 World Series. Although the team enjoyed ultimate success, 1955 was the worst year of Robinson's individual career. He hit .256 and stole only 12 bases. The Dodgers
Dodgers
tried Robinson in the outfield and as a third baseman, both because of his diminishing abilities and because Gilliam was established at second base.[185] Robinson, then 37 years old, missed 49 games and did not play in Game 7 of the World Series.[176] Robinson missed the game because manager Walter Alston decided to play Gilliam at second and Don Hoak
Don Hoak
at third base. That season, the Dodgers' Don Newcombe
Don Newcombe
became the first black major league pitcher to win twenty games in a year.[186] In 1956, Robinson had 61 runs scored, a .275 batting average, and 12 steals.[152] By then, he had begun to exhibit the effects of diabetes, and to lose interest in the prospect of playing or managing professional baseball.[180] After the season, Robinson was traded by the Dodgers
Dodgers
to the arch-rival New York Giants for Dick Littlefield
Dick Littlefield
and $35,000 cash (equal to $315,043 today). The trade, however, was never completed; unbeknownst to the Dodgers, Robinson had already agreed with the president of Chock full o'Nuts to quit baseball and become an executive with the company.[187] Since Robinson had sold exclusive rights to any retirement story to Look magazine two years previously,[187] his retirement decision was revealed through the magazine, instead of through the Dodgers
Dodgers
organization.[188] Legacy

Robinson and his son David (then age 11) are interviewed during the March on Washington, August 28, 1963.

Further information: Racial integration in baseball Robinson's major league debut brought an end to approximately sixty years of segregation in professional baseball, known as the baseball color line.[128] After World War II, several other forces were also leading the country toward increased equality for blacks, including their accelerated migration to the North, where their political clout grew, and President Harry Truman's desegregation of the military in 1948.[189] Robinson's breaking of the baseball color line and his professional success symbolized these broader changes and demonstrated that the fight for equality was more than simply a political matter. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
said that he was "a legend and a symbol in his own time", and that he "challenged the dark skies of intolerance and frustration."[190] According to historian Doris Kearns Goodwin, Robinson's "efforts were a monumental step in the civil-rights revolution in America ... [His] accomplishments allowed black and white Americans to be more respectful and open to one another and more appreciative of everyone's abilities."[191] Beginning his major league career at the relatively advanced age of twenty-eight, he played only ten seasons from 1947 to 1956, all of them for the Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Dodgers.[192] During his career, the Dodgers played in six World Series, and Robinson himself played in six All-Star Games.[5] In 1999, he was posthumously named to the Major League Baseball
Baseball
All-Century Team.[193] Robinson's career is generally considered to mark the beginning of the post–"long ball" era in baseball, in which a reliance on raw power-hitting gave way to balanced offensive strategies that used footspeed to create runs through aggressive baserunning.[194] Robinson exhibited the combination of hitting ability and speed which exemplified the new era. He scored more than 100 runs in six of his ten seasons (averaging more than 110 runs from 1947 to 1953), had a .311 career batting average, a .409 career on-base percentage, a .474 slugging percentage, and substantially more walks than strikeouts (740 to 291).[152][192][195] Robinson was one of only two players during the span of 1947–56 to accumulate at least 125 steals while registering a slugging percentage over .425 ( Minnie Miñoso
Minnie Miñoso
was the other).[196] He accumulated 197 stolen bases in total,[152] including 19 steals of home. None of the latter were double steals (in which a player stealing home is assisted by a player stealing another base at the same time).[197] Robinson has been referred to by author David Falkner as "the father of modern base-stealing".[198]

"I'm not concerned with your liking or disliking me ... all I ask is that you respect me as a human being."

—Robinson, on his legacy[144]

Historical statistical analysis indicates Robinson was an outstanding fielder throughout his ten years in the major leagues and at virtually every position he played.[199] After playing his rookie season at first base,[87] Robinson spent most of his career as a second baseman.[200] He led the league in fielding among second basemen in 1950 and 1951.[201][202] Toward the end of his career, he played about 2,000 innings at third base and about 1,175 innings in the outfield, excelling at both.[199] Assessing himself, Robinson said, "I'm not concerned with your liking or disliking me ... all I ask is that you respect me as a human being."[144] Regarding Robinson's qualities on the field, Leo Durocher said, "Ya want a guy that comes to play. This guy didn't just come to play. He come to beat ya. He come to stuff the goddamn bat right up your ass."[203] Portrayals on stage, film and television Robinson portrayed himself in the 1950 motion picture The Jackie Robinson Story.[204] Other portrayals include:

John Lafayette, in the 1978 ABC television special "A Home Run for Love" (broadcast as an ABC Afterschool Special).[205] David Alan Grier, in the 1981 Broadway production of the musical The First.[206][207][208] Michael-David Gordon, in the 1989 Off-Broadway production of the musical Play to Win.[209] Andre Braugher, in the 1990 TNT television movie The Court-Martial of Jackie Robinson.[210][211] Blair Underwood, in the 1996 HBO
HBO
television movie Soul of the Game.[212][213] Antonio Todd in "Colors", a 2005 episode of the CBS
CBS
television series Cold Case.[214] Chadwick Boseman, in the 2013 motion picture 42.[215][216][217][218]

Robinson was also the subject of a 2016 PBS
PBS
documentary, Jackie Robinson, which was directed by Ken Burns
Ken Burns
and features Jamie Foxx doing voice-over as Robinson.[219] Post-baseball life Robinson once told future Hall of Fame inductee Hank Aaron
Hank Aaron
that "the game of baseball is great, but the greatest thing is what you do after your career is over."[220] Robinson retired from baseball at age 37 on January 5, 1957.[221] Later that year, after he complained of numerous physical ailments, his doctors diagnosed him with diabetes, a disease that also afflicted his brothers.[222] Although Robinson adopted an insulin injection regimen, the state of medicine at the time could not prevent the continued deterioration of Robinson's physical condition from the disease.[223] In his first year of eligibility for the Baseball
Baseball
Hall of Fame in 1962,[68] Robinson encouraged voters to consider only his on-field qualifications, rather than his cultural impact on the game.[224] He was elected on the first ballot, becoming the first black player inducted into the Cooperstown museum.[21]

Robinson as ABC sports announcer in 1965

In 1965, Robinson served as an analyst for ABC's Major League Baseball Game of the Week telecasts, the first black person to do so.[225] In 1966, Robinson was hired as general manager for the short-lived Brooklyn Dodgers
Brooklyn Dodgers
of the Continental Football League.[226][227] In 1972, he served as a part-time commentator on Montreal
Montreal
Expos telecasts.[228] On June 4, 1972, the Dodgers
Dodgers
retired his uniform number, 42, alongside those of Roy Campanella
Roy Campanella
(39) and Sandy Koufax
Sandy Koufax
(32).[229] From 1957 to 1964, Robinson was the vice president for personnel at Chock full o'Nuts; he was the first black person to serve as vice president of a major American corporation.[21][230] Robinson always considered his business career as advancing the cause of black people in commerce and industry.[231] Robinson also chaired the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's (NAACP) million-dollar Freedom Fund Drive in 1957, and served on the organization's board until 1967.[230] In 1964, he helped found, with Harlem
Harlem
businessman Dunbar McLaurin, Freedom National Bank—a black-owned and operated commercial bank based in Harlem.[230] He also served as the bank's first chairman of the board.[232] In 1970, Robinson established the Jackie Robinson Construction Company to build housing for low-income families.[230][233] Robinson was active in politics throughout his post-baseball life. He identified himself as a political independent,[234][235] although he held conservative opinions on several issues, including the Vietnam War (he once wrote to Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
to defend the Johnson Administration's military policy).[236] After supporting Richard Nixon in his 1960 presidential race against John F. Kennedy, Robinson later praised Kennedy effusively for his stance on civil rights.[237] Robinson was angered by conservative Republican opposition to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, though a higher percentage of Democrats voted against it in both the House and Senate. He became one of six national directors for Nelson Rockefeller's unsuccessful campaign to be nominated as the Republican candidate for the 1964 presidential election.[230] After the party nominated Senator Barry Goldwater
Barry Goldwater
of Arizona
Arizona
instead, Robinson left the party's convention commenting that he now had "a better understanding of how it must have felt to be a Jew in Hitler's Germany".[238] He later became special assistant for community affairs when Rockefeller was re-elected governor of New York in 1966.[230] Switching his allegiance to the Democrats, he subsequently supported Hubert Humphrey
Hubert Humphrey
against Nixon in 1968.[188]

Color movie still featuring Robinson in the 1960s in The Torch of Friendship promo[239]

Robinson protested against the major leagues' ongoing lack of minority managers and central office personnel, and he turned down an invitation to appear in an old-timers' game at Yankee Stadium in 1969.[240] He made his final public appearance on October 15, 1972, throwing the ceremonial first pitch before Game 2 of the World Series at Riverfront Stadium in Cincinnati. He gratefully accepted a plaque honoring the twenty-fifth anniversary of his MLB debut, but also commented, "I'm going to be tremendously more pleased and more proud when I look at that third base coaching line one day and see a black face managing in baseball."[241][242] This wish was only fulfilled after Robinson's death: following the 1974 season, the Cleveland Indians
Cleveland Indians
gave their managerial post to Frank Robinson
Frank Robinson
(no relation to Jackie), a Hall of Fame-bound player who would go on to manage three other teams. Despite the success of these two Robinsons and other black players, the number of African-American players in Major League Baseball
Baseball
has declined since the 1970s.[243][244] Family life and death After Robinson's retirement from baseball, his wife Rachel Robinson pursued a career in academic nursing. She became an assistant professor at the Yale School of Nursing
Yale School of Nursing
and director of nursing at the Connecticut Mental Health Center.[245] She also served on the board of the Freedom National Bank until it closed in 1990.[246] She and Jackie had three children: Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
Jr. (1946–1971), Sharon Robinson (b. 1950), and David Robinson (b. 1952).[247]

Robinson's family gravesite in Cypress Hills Cemetery. Robinson is buried alongside his mother-in-law Zellee Isum and his son Jackie Robinson, Jr.

Robinson's eldest son, Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
Jr., had emotional trouble during his childhood and entered special education at an early age.[248] He enrolled in the Army in search of a disciplined environment, served in the Vietnam War, and was wounded in action on November 19, 1965.[249] After his discharge, he struggled with drug problems. Robinson Jr. eventually completed the treatment program at Daytop Village
Daytop Village
in Seymour, Connecticut, and became a counselor at the institution.[250] On June 17, 1971, he was killed in an automobile accident at age 24.[251][252] The experience with his son's drug addiction turned Robinson Sr. into an avid anti-drug crusader toward the end of his life.[253] Robinson did not long outlive his son. Complications from heart disease and diabetes weakened Robinson and made him almost blind by middle age. On October 24, 1972, nine days after his appearance at the World Series, Robinson died of a heart attack at his home on 95 Cascade Road in North Stamford, Connecticut; he was 53 years old.[87][251] Robinson's funeral service on October 27, 1972, at Upper Manhattan's Riverside Church
Riverside Church
adjacent to Grant's Tomb
Grant's Tomb
in Morningside Heights, attracted 2,500 mourners.[254][255] Many of his former teammates and other famous baseball players served as pallbearers, and the Rev. Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
gave the eulogy.[254] Tens of thousands of people lined the subsequent procession route to Robinson's interment site at Cypress Hills Cemetery in Brooklyn, New York, where he was buried next to his son Jackie and mother-in-law Zellee Isum.[254] Twenty-five years after Robinson's death, the Interboro Parkway was renamed the Jackie Robinson Parkway
Jackie Robinson Parkway
in his memory. This parkway bisects the cemetery in close proximity to Robinson's gravesite.[256] After Robinson's death, his widow founded the Jackie Robinson Foundation, and she remains an officer as of 2018.[257] On April 15, 2008, she announced that in 2010 the foundation will be opening a museum devoted to Jackie in Lower Manhattan.[258] Robinson's daughter, Sharon, became a midwife, educator, director of educational programming for MLB, and the author of two books about her father.[259] His youngest son, David, who has six children, is a coffee grower and social activist in Tanzania.[260][261] Awards and recognition

Memorial in the Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
Rotunda inside Citi Field, dedicated April 15, 2009

According to a poll conducted in 1947, Robinson was the second most popular man in the country, behind Bing Crosby.[262] In 1999, he was named by Time on its list of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century.[263] Also in 1999, he ranked number 44 on the Sporting News list of Baseball's 100 Greatest Players[264] and was elected to the Major League Baseball All-Century Team
Major League Baseball All-Century Team
as the top vote-getter among second basemen.[265] Baseball
Baseball
writer Bill James, in The New Bill James Historical Baseball
Baseball
Abstract, ranked Robinson as the 32nd greatest player of all time strictly on the basis of his performance on the field, noting that he was one of the top players in the league throughout his career.[266] Robinson was among the 25 charter members of UCLA's Athletics Hall of Fame
UCLA's Athletics Hall of Fame
in 1984.[44] In 2002, Molefi Kete Asante included Robinson on his list of 100 Greatest African Americans.[267] Robinson has also been honored by the United States Postal Service on three separate postage stamps, in 1982, 1999, and 2000.[268] The City of Pasadena
City of Pasadena
has recognized Robinson in several ways. Brookside Park, situated next to the Rose Bowl, features a baseball diamond and stadium named Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
Field.[269] The city's Human Services Department operates the Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
Center, a community outreach center that provides health services.[270] In 1997, a $325,000 bronze sculpture (equal to $495,450 today) by artists Ralph Helmick, Stu Schecter, and John Outterbridge depicting oversized nine-foot busts of Robinson and his brother Mack was erected at Garfield Avenue, across from the main entrance of Pasadena City Hall; a granite footprint lists multiple donors to the commission project, which was organized by the Robinson Memorial Foundation and supported by members of the Robinson family.[271][272]

Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
Stadium, with the No. 42 on the center field wall

Major League Baseball
Baseball
has honored Robinson many times since his death. In 1987, both the National and American League
American League
Rookie of the Year Awards were renamed the " Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
Award" in honor of the first recipient (Robinson's Major League Rookie of the Year Award in 1947 encompassed both leagues).[273][274] On April 15, 1997, Robinson's jersey number, 42, was retired throughout Major League Baseball, the first time any jersey number had been retired throughout one of the four major American sports leagues. Under the terms of the retirement, a grandfather clause allowed the handful of players who wore number 42 to continue doing so in tribute to Robinson, until such time as they subsequently changed teams or jersey numbers.[275] This affected players such as the Mets' Butch Huskey and Boston's Mo Vaughn. The Yankees' Mariano Rivera, who retired at the end of the 2013 season,[276][277] was the last player in Major League Baseball
Baseball
to wear jersey number 42 on a regular basis. Since 1997, only Wayne Gretzky's number 99, retired by the NHL in 2000, has been retired league-wide.[278] There have also been calls for MLB to retire number 21 league-wide in honor of Roberto Clemente, a sentiment opposed by the Robinson family.[279] The Hispanics Across America advocacy group wants Clemente's number set aside the way the late Robinson's No. 42 was in 1997, but Sharon Robinson maintained the position that such an honor should remain in place for Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
only. As an exception to the retired-number policy, MLB began honoring Robinson by allowing players to wear number 42 on April 15, Jackie Robinson Day, which is an annual observance that started in 2004.[280][281] For the 60th anniversary of Robinson's major league debut, MLB invited players to wear the number 42 on Jackie Robinson Day in 2007.[280] The gesture was originally the idea of outfielder Ken Griffey, Jr., who sought Rachel Robinson's permission to wear the number.[282] After receiving her permission, Commissioner Bud Selig not only allowed Griffey to wear the number, but also extended an invitation to all major league teams to do the same.[283] Ultimately, more than 200 players wore number 42, including the entire rosters of the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Dodgers, New York Mets, Houston Astros, Philadelphia Phillies, St. Louis Cardinals, Milwaukee Brewers, and Pittsburgh Pirates.[280] The tribute was continued in 2008, when, during games on April 15, all members of the Mets, Cardinals, Washington Nationals, and Tampa Bay Rays
Tampa Bay Rays
wore Robinson's number 42.[284][285] On June 25, 2008, MLB installed a new plaque for Robinson at the Baseball
Baseball
Hall of Fame commemorating his off-the-field impact on the game as well as his playing statistics.[224] In 2009, all uniformed personnel (players, managers, coaches, and umpires) wore number 42 on April 15.[286]

Planned home of the Jackie Robinson Museum
Jackie Robinson Museum
and Learning Center

At the November 2006 groundbreaking for Citi Field, the new ballpark for the New York Mets, it was announced that the main entrance, modeled on the one in Brooklyn's old Ebbets Field, would be called the Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
Rotunda. The rotunda was dedicated at the opening of Citi Field
Citi Field
on April 16, 2009.[287] It honors Robinson with large quotations spanning the inner curve of the facade and features a large freestanding statue of his number, 42, which has become an attraction in itself. Mets owner Fred Wilpon announced that the Mets—in conjunction with Citigroup
Citigroup
and the Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
Foundation—will create a Jackie Robinson Museum
Jackie Robinson Museum
and Learning Center, located at the headquarters of the Jackie Robinson Foundation
Jackie Robinson Foundation
at One Hudson Square, along Canal Street in lower Manhattan. Along with the museum, scholarships will be awarded to "young people who live by and embody Jackie's ideals."[288][289][290] The museum hopes to open by 2019.[291] At Dodger Stadium
Dodger Stadium
in Los Angeles, a statue of Robinson was introduced in 2017.[292] Since 2004, the Aflac National High School Baseball
Baseball
Player of the Year has been presented the " Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
Award".[293] Robinson has also been recognized outside of baseball. In December 1956, the NAACP recognized him with the Spingarn Medal, which it awards annually for the highest achievement by an African-American.[230] President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
posthumously awarded Robinson the Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom
on March 26, 1984,[294] and on March 2, 2005, President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
gave Robinson's widow the Congressional Gold Medal, the highest civilian award bestowed by Congress; Robinson was only the second baseball player to receive the award, after Roberto Clemente.[295] On August 20, 2007, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger
Arnold Schwarzenegger
and his wife, Maria Shriver, announced that Robinson was inducted into the California Hall of Fame, located at The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts
The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts
in Sacramento.[296]

Rachel Robinson
Rachel Robinson
(holding the award) accepts the posthumous Congressional Gold Medal
Congressional Gold Medal
for her husband from President George W. Bush in a March 2, 2005 ceremony in the Capitol Rotunda. Also pictured are Nancy Pelosi
Nancy Pelosi
and Dennis Hastert

A number of buildings have been named in Robinson's honor. The UCLA Bruins baseball team plays in Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
Stadium,[297] which, because of the efforts of Jackie's brother Mack, features a memorial statue of Robinson by sculptor Richard H. Ellis.[298] The stadium also unveiled a new mural of Robinson by Mike Sullivan on April 14, 2013. City Island Ballpark in Daytona Beach, Florida
Daytona Beach, Florida
was renamed Jackie Robinson Ballpark in 1990 and a statue of Robinson with two children stands in front of the ballpark. His wife Rachel was present for the dedication on September 15. 1990.[299][300] A number of facilities at Pasadena City College
Pasadena City College
(successor to PJC) are named in Robinson's honor, including Robinson Field, a football/soccer/track facility named jointly for Robinson and his brother Mack.[301] The New York Public School system has named a middle school after Robinson,[302] and Dorsey High School plays at a Los Angeles
Los Angeles
football stadium named after him.[303] In 1976, his home in Brooklyn, the Jackie Robinson House, was declared a National Historic Landmark.[304] Brooklyn residents want to turn his home into a city landmark.[305] Robinson also has an asteroid named after him, 4319 Jackierobinson.[306] In 1997, the United States Mint
United States Mint
issued a Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
commemorative silver dollar, and five-dollar gold coin.[307] That same year, New York City renamed the Interboro Parkway in his honor. In 2011, the U.S. placed a plaque at Robinson's Montreal
Montreal
home to honor the ending of segregation in baseball.[308] The house, on 8232 avenue de Gaspé near Jarry Park, was Robinson's residence when he played for the Montreal Royals
Montreal Royals
during 1946. In a letter read during the ceremony, Rachel Robinson, Jackie's widow, wrote: "I remember Montreal
Montreal
and that house very well and have always had warm feeling for that great city. Before Jack and I moved to Montreal, we had just been through some very rough treatment in the racially biased South during spring training in Florida. In the end, Montreal
Montreal
was the perfect place for him to get his start. We never had a threatening or unpleasant experience there. The people were so welcoming and saw Jack as a player and as a man."[309] On November 22, 2014, UCLA announced that it would officially retire the number 42 across all university sports, effective immediately. While Robinson wore several different numbers during his UCLA career, the school chose 42 because it had become indelibly identified with him.[310] The only sport this did not affect was men's basketball, which had previously retired the number for Walt Hazzard
Walt Hazzard
(although Kevin Love
Kevin Love
was actually the last player in that sport to wear 42, with Hazzard's blessing).[311][312][313][314] In a move paralleling that of MLB when it retired the number, UCLA allowed three athletes (in women's soccer, softball, and football) who were already wearing 42 to continue to do so for the remainder of their UCLA careers. The school also announced it would prominently display the number at all of its athletic venues.[310] A jersey Robinson brought home with him in 1947 after his rookie season was sold at an auction for $2.05 million on November 19, 2017. The price was the highest ever paid for a post-World War II jersey.[315] See also

Baseball
Baseball
portal

Civil Rights Game
Civil Rights Game
(including MLB Beacon Awards) DHL Hometown Heroes Glass ceiling List of African-American firsts List of first black Major League Baseball
Baseball
players by team and date List of Major League Baseball
Baseball
batting champions List of Major League Baseball
Baseball
career stolen bases leaders List of Major League Baseball
Baseball
retired numbers List of Major League Baseball
Baseball
annual stolen base leaders List of Major League Baseball
Baseball
players who spent their entire career with one franchise List of Major League Baseball
Baseball
players to hit for the cycle List of NCAA major college football yearly rushing leaders List of NCAA major college yearly punt and kickoff return leaders

References

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Jackie Robinson
Award recognizes the nation's top high school player entering his senior year that demonstrates outstanding character, exhibits leadership and embodies the values of being a student athlete in both his schoolwork and community affairs.  See also: Baseball
Baseball
awards#U.S. high-school baseball. ^ "Announcement of the recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom". Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Presidential Library. February 21, 1984. Retrieved September 13, 2009.  ^ " Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
receives Congressional Gold Medal". USA Today. March 2, 2005. Retrieved September 13, 2009.  ^ "Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger
Arnold Schwarzenegger
and First Lady Maria Shriver Announce the California Hall of Fame
California Hall of Fame
2007 Inductees". PR Newswire. August 20, 2007. Retrieved February 11, 2013.  ^ "Steele Field at Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
Stadium". UCLA Athletics. Archived from the original on July 25, 2011. Retrieved September 13, 2009.  ^ "UCLA history project: Robinson statue". UCLA.edu. Retrieved May 6, 2009.  ^ "Jack Roosevelt "Jackie" Robinson – Daytona Beach, Florida". waymarking.com. Retrieved April 12, 2013.  ^ " Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
Ballpark". City of Daytona Beach. Retrieved April 12, 2013.  ^ "Robinson Stadium". www.pasadena.edu. Pasadena City College Foundation. Archived from the original on July 20, 2011. Retrieved January 17, 2011.  ^ Anderson, Dave (April 1, 1997). "Robinson 'stood up for what he believed'". The New York Times. Retrieved September 12, 2009.  ^ Reinhold, Robert (November 3, 1991). "Fearing gang violence, school forfeits a game". The New York Times. Retrieved September 12, 2009.  ^ Lee, Jane (July 26, 2007). "Historic sports sites rarely take landmark status". USA Today. Retrieved October 7, 2008.  ^ "Residents Want To Turn Jackie Robinson's Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Home into City Landmark". NY1. Archived from the original on May 17, 2013. Retrieved April 12, 2013.  ^ " 4319 Jackierobinson (1981 ER14)". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. May 11, 2009. Retrieved September 26, 2009.  ^ "The Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
Commemorative Coin Set". United States Mint. Retrieved March 2, 2010.  ^ Banerjee, Sidhartha (February 28, 2011). "Jackie Robinson's old Montreal
Montreal
apartment to be commemorated by U.S. government". CTV. The Canadian Press. Retrieved October 21, 2011.  ^ Phillips, Randy (February 28, 2011). " Baseball
Baseball
great's home away from hate". The Montreal
Montreal
Gazette. Archived from the original on March 3, 2011. Retrieved March 1, 2011.  ^ a b "UCLA Honors Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
by Retiring #42 Across All Sports" (Press release). UCLA Athletics. November 22, 2014. Retrieved November 23, 2014.  ^ "2011–12 UCLA Men's Basketball
Basketball
Media Guide" (PDF). UCLA Athletic Department. 2011. pp. 116–118. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 5, 2012.  ^ Smith, Shelley (November 18, 2011). " Walt Hazzard
Walt Hazzard
lived for others". ESPNLosAngeles.com. Archived from the original on May 24, 2012.  ^ Painter, Jill (March 28, 2006). "UCLA Basketball
Basketball
Notebook: Wooden Won't Make Trip To Indianapolis". Daily News (Los Angeles). Retrieved May 22, 2012. (subscription required) ^ Hoffarth, Tom (October 14, 2007). "The Numbers Game From 00 To 99, Which Player Would You Choose for the All-Time Southern California Roster? No.32 Is Likely To Be Hottest Debate". Daily News (Los Angeles). Retrieved May 23, 2012. (subscription required) ^ "Rare Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
jersey sold for $2.05 million". The Spokesman-Review. Associated Press. November 20, 2017. Retrieved December 9, 2017. 

Bibliography

Bigelow, Barbara Carlisle, ed. (1994). Contemporary Black Biography: Profiles from the International Black Community. 6. Detroit: Gale Research. ISBN 0-8103-8558-9.  Bryant, Howard (2002). Shut Out: A Story of Race and Baseball
Baseball
in Boston. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92779-X.  (2002 CASEY Award winner). Dorinson, Joseph; Warmund, Joram, eds. (1999). Jackie Robinson: Race, Sports, and the American Dream. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-0317-9.  Eig, Jonathan (2007). Opening Day: The Story of Jackie Robinson's First Season. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-9460-2.  (2007 CASEY Award nominee). Falkner, David (1995). Great Time Coming: The Life of Jackie Robinson, from Baseball
Baseball
to Birmingham. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-79336-5.  Gutman, Dan (1999). Jackie & Me: A Baseball
Baseball
Card Adventure. New York: Avon. ISBN 0-380-80084-5.  Kirwin, Bill (2005). Out of the Shadows: African American
African American
Baseball from the Cuban Giants to Jackie Robinson. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-7825-X.  Lamb, Chris (2006). Blackout: The Untold Story of Jackie Robinson's First Spring Training. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-8047-5.  Linge, Mary Kay (2007). Jackie Robinson: A Biography. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-33828-0.  Long, Michael G., ed. (2007). First Class Citizenship: the Civil Rights Letters of Jackie Robinson. New York: Henry Holt. ISBN 0-8050-8710-9.  McNeil, William F. (2000). The Dodgers
Dodgers
Encyclopedia. Sports Publishing. ISBN 1-58261-316-8.  Nemec, David; Flatow, Scott (2008). Great Baseball
Baseball
Feats, Facts & Firsts (expanded & updated ed.). New York: Signet. ISBN 0-451-22363-2.  Rampersad, Arnold (1997). Jackie Robinson: A Biography. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-679-44495-5.  (1997 CASEY Award nominee). Robinson, Jackie; as told to Duckett, Alfred (1995) [1972]. I Never Had It Made. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-055597-1. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Robinson, Rachel; with Daniels, Lee (1996). Jackie Robinson: An Intimate Portrait. New York: Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-3792-1.  (1996 CASEY Award nominee). Robinson, Sharon (2001). Jackie's Nine: Jackie Robinson's Values to Live By. New York: Scholastic. ISBN 0-439-23764-5.  Robinson, Sharon (2004). Promises To Keep: How Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
Changed America. New York: Scholastic. ISBN 0-439-42592-1.  Simon, Scott (2002). Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
and the Integration of Baseball. Hoboken: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-26153-X.  Stout, Glenn; Richard A. Johnson (phot. ed.) (2004). The Dodgers: 120 Years of Dodgers
Dodgers
Baseball. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 978-0-618-21355-9.  Tygiel, Jules (1983). Baseball's Great Experiment: Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
and His Legacy. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-503300-0.  (1983 CASEY Award nominee). Tygiel, Jules (2002). Extra Bases: Reflections on Jackie Robinson, Race, and Baseball
Baseball
History. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-9447-9.  Williams, Pat; with Sielski, Mike (2005). How to Be Like Jackie Robinson: Life Lessons from Baseball's Greatest Hero. Deerfield Beach, Florida: HCI. ISBN 0-7573-0173-8. 

Further reading

Robinson, Jackie, Jules Tygiel (fr), eds. (1997). The Jackie Robinson Reader: Perspectives on an American Hero. Dutton Penguin. ISBN 978-0-525-94096-8. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)

External links

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Jackie Robinson

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jackie Robinson.

Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
Foundation

Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
at the Baseball
Baseball
Hall of Fame Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or The Baseball Cube, or Baseball-Reference (Minors), or Retrosheet

Negro league baseball
Negro league baseball
statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference (Negro leagues) National Archives: Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
White House Correspondence FBI file on Jackie Robinson Martin Stone's Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
File: Correspondence, programs, and souvenirs and Newspaper clippings at Cleveland Public Library. According to the extensive archive's description: "Martin Stone, attorney and communications executive was an attorney for Jackie Robinson and later a trustee of the Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
Foundation." Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
on IMDb Birthplace of Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
historical marker

v t e

Jackie Robinson

Topics

Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
Day Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
House Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
Foundation Paul Robeson
Paul Robeson
Congressional hearings

Family

Rachel Robinson
Rachel Robinson
(wife) Mack Robinson (brother)

Films

The Jackie Robinson Story
The Jackie Robinson Story
(1950) The Court-Martial of Jackie Robinson (1990) Soul of the Game (1996) 42 (2013) Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
(2016)

Musicals

The First (1981) Play to Win (1989)

Namesakes

Radiology Associates Field at Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
Ballpark Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
Stadium Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
Parkway

Related

Branch Rickey Wendell Smith

Links to related articles

Preceded by Wally Westlake Hitting for the cycle August 29, 1948 Succeeded by Wally Westlake

v t e

Brooklyn Dodgers
Brooklyn Dodgers
1955 World Series
World Series
champions

1 Pee Wee Reese 4 Duke Snider 6 Carl Furillo 8 George Shuba 10 Rube Walker 12 Frank Kellert 14 Gil Hodges 15 Sandy Amorós 17 Carl Erskine 18 Jim Hughes 19 Jim Gilliam 23 Don Zimmer 30 Billy Loes 32 Sandy Koufax 34 Russ Meyer 36 Don Newcombe 37 Ed Roebuck 39 Roy Campanella
Roy Campanella
(NL MVP) 40 Roger Craig 41 Clem Labine 42 Jackie Robinson 43 Don Hoak 45 Johnny Podres
Johnny Podres
( World Series
World Series
MVP) 46 Don Bessent 48 Karl Spooner 54 Dixie Howell

Manager 24 Walter Alston

Coaches 22 Billy Herman 31 Jake Pitler 33 Joe Becker

1955 Brooklyn Dodgers
Brooklyn Dodgers
season Dodgers–Yankees rivalry Subway Series

v t e

National League
National League
Rookie of the Year Award

1947: J. Robinson 1948: Dark 1949: Newcombe 1950: Jethroe 1951: Mays 1952: Black 1953: Gilliam 1954: Moon 1955: Virdon 1956: F. Robinson 1957: Sanford 1958: Cepeda 1959: McCovey 1960: F. Howard 1961: B. Williams 1962: Hubbs 1963: Rose 1964: Allen 1965: Lefebvre 1966: Helms 1967: Seaver 1968: Bench 1969: Sizemore 1970: Morton 1971: E. Williams 1972: Matlack 1973: Matthews 1974: McBride 1975: Montefusco 1976: Metzger & Zachry 1977: Dawson 1978: Horner 1979: Sutcliffe 1980: Howe 1981: Valenzuela 1982: Sax 1983: Strawberry 1984: Gooden 1985: Coleman 1986: Worrell 1987: Santiago 1988: Sabo 1989: Walton 1990: Justice 1991: Bagwell 1992: Karros 1993: Piazza 1994: Mondesi 1995: Nomo 1996: Hollandsworth 1997: Rolen 1998: Wood 1999: Williamson 2000: Furcal 2001: Pujols 2002: Jennings 2003: Willis 2004: Bay 2005: R. Howard 2006: Ramírez 2007: Braun 2008: Soto 2009: Coghlan 2010: Posey 2011: Kimbrel 2012: Harper 2013: Fernández 2014: deGrom 2015: Bryant 2016: Seager 2017: Bellinger

v t e

National League
National League
MVP Award

1931: Frisch 1932: Klein 1933: Hubbell 1934: Dean 1935: Hartnett 1936: Hubbell 1937: Medwick 1938: Lombardi 1939: Walters 1940: McCormick 1941: Camilli 1942: Cooper 1943: Musial 1944: Marion 1945: Cavarretta 1946: Musial 1947: Elliott 1948: Musial 1949: J. Robinson 1950: Konstanty 1951: Campanella 1952: Sauer 1953: Campanella 1954: Mays 1955: Campanella 1956: Newcombe 1957: Aaron 1958: Banks 1959: Banks 1960: Groat 1961: F. Robinson 1962: Wills 1963: Koufax 1964: Boyer 1965: Mays 1966: Clemente 1967: Cepeda 1968: B. Gibson 1969: McCovey 1970: Bench 1971: Torre 1972: Bench 1973: Rose 1974: Garvey 1975: Morgan 1976: Morgan 1977: Foster 1978: Parker 1979: Hernandez & Stargell 1980: Schmidt 1981: Schmidt 1982: Murphy 1983: Murphy 1984: Sandberg 1985: McGee 1986: Schmidt 1987: Dawson 1988: K. Gibson 1989: Mitchell 1990: Bonds 1991: Pendleton 1992: Bonds 1993: Bonds 1994: Bagwell 1995: Larkin 1996: Caminiti 1997: Walker 1998: Sosa 1999: Jones 2000: Kent 2001: Bonds 2002: Bonds 2003: Bonds 2004: Bonds 2005: Pujols 2006: Howard 2007: Rollins 2008: Pujols 2009: Pujols 2010: Votto 2011: Braun 2012: Posey 2013: McCutchen 2014: Kershaw 2015: Harper 2016: Bryant 2017: Stanton

v t e

Major League Baseball
Baseball
All-Century Team

Pitchers

Nolan Ryan Sandy Koufax Cy Young Roger Clemens Bob Gibson Walter Johnson Warren Spahn Christy Mathewson Lefty Grove

Catchers

Johnny Bench Yogi Berra

Infielders

Lou Gehrig Mark McGwire Jackie Robinson Rogers Hornsby Mike Schmidt Brooks Robinson Cal Ripken Jr. Ernie Banks Honus Wagner

Outfielders

Babe Ruth Hank Aaron Ted Williams Willie Mays Joe DiMaggio Mickey Mantle Ty Cobb Ken Griffey Jr. Pete Rose Stan Musial

v t e

National League
National League
batting champions

1876: Barnes 1877: White 1878: Hines 1879: Hines 1880: Gore 1881: Anson 1882: Brouthers 1883: Brouthers 1884: Kelly 1885: Connor 1886: Kelly 1887: Thompson 1888: Anson 1889: Brouthers 1890: Glasscock 1891: Hamilton 1892: Brouthers 1893: Hamilton 1894: Duffy 1895: Burkett 1896: Burkett 1897: Keeler 1898: Keeler 1899: Delahanty 1900: Wagner 1901: Burkett 1902: Beaumont 1903: Wagner 1904: Wagner 1905: Seymour 1906: Wagner 1907: Wagner 1908: Wagner 1909: Wagner 1910: Magee 1911: Wagner 1912: Zimmerman 1913: Daubert 1914: Daubert 1915: Doyle 1916: Chase 1917: Roush 1918: Wheat 1919: Roush 1920: Hornsby 1921: Hornsby 1922: Hornsby 1923: Hornsby 1924: Hornsby 1925: Hornsby 1926: Hargrave 1927: Waner 1928: Hornsby 1929: O'Doul 1930: Terry 1931: Hafey 1932: O'Doul 1933: Klein 1934: Waner 1935: Vaughan 1936: Waner 1937: Medwick 1938: Lombardi 1939: Mize 1940: Garms 1941: Reiser 1942: Lombardi 1943: Musial 1944: D. Walker 1945: Cavarretta 1946: Musial 1947: H. Walker 1948: Musial 1949: Robinson 1950: Musial 1951: Musial 1952: Musial 1953: Furillo 1954: Mays 1955: Ashburn 1956: Aaron 1957: Musial 1958: Ashburn 1959: Aaron 1960: Groat 1961: Clemente 1962: Davis 1963: Davis 1964: Clemente 1965: Clemente 1966: Alou 1967: Clemente 1968: Rose 1969: Rose 1970: Carty 1971: Torre 1972: Williams 1973: Rose 1974: Garr 1975: Madlock 1976: Madlock 1977: Parker 1978: Parker 1979: Hernandez 1980: Buckner 1981: Madlock 1982: Oliver 1983: Madlock 1984: Gwynn 1985: McGee 1986: Raines 1987: Gwynn 1988: Gwynn 1989: Gwynn 1990: McGee 1991: Pendleton 1992: Sheffield 1993: Galarraga 1994: Gwynn 1995: Gwynn 1996: Gwynn 1997: Gwynn 1998: L. Walker 1999: L. Walker 2000: Helton 2001: L. Walker 2002: Bonds 2003: Pujols 2004: Bonds 2005: Lee 2006: Sanchez 2007: Holliday 2008: Jones 2009: Ramírez 2010: González 2011: Reyes 2012: Posey 2013: Cuddyer 2014: Morneau 2015: Gordon 2016: LeMahieu 2017: Blackmon

v t e

National League
National League
season stolen base leaders

1886: Andrews 1887: Ward 1888: Hoy 1889: Fogarty 1890: Hamilton 1891: Hamilton 1892: Ward 1893: Brown 1894: Hamilton 1895: Hamilton 1896: Kelley 1897: Lange 1898: Delahanty 1899: Sheckard 1900: Donovan & Van Haltren 1901: Wagner 1902: Wagner 1903: Chance & Sheckard 1904: Wagner 1905: Devlin & Maloney 1906: Chance 1907: Wagner 1908: Wagner 1909: Bescher 1910: Bescher 1911: Bescher 1912: Bescher 1913: Carey 1914: Burns 1915: Carey 1916: Carey 1917: Carey 1918: Carey 1919: Burns 1920: Carey 1921: Frisch 1922: Carey 1923: Carey 1924: Carey 1925: Carey 1926: Cuyler 1927: Frisch 1928: Cuyler 1929: Cuyler 1930: Cuyler 1931: Frisch 1932: Klein 1933: Martin 1934: Martin 1935: Galan 1936: Martin 1937: Galan 1938: Hack 1939: Hack & Handley 1940: Frey 1941: Murtaugh 1942: Reiser 1943: Vaughan 1944: Barrett 1945: Schoendienst 1946: Reiser 1947: Robinson 1948: Ashburn 1949: Robinson 1950: Jethroe 1951: Jethroe 1952: Reese 1953: Bruton 1954: Bruton 1955: Bruton 1956: Mays 1957: Mays 1958: Mays 1959: Mays 1960: Wills 1961: Wills 1962: Wills 1963: Wills 1964: Wills 1965: Wills 1966: Brock 1967: Brock 1968: Brock 1969: Brock 1970: Tolan 1971: Brock 1972: Brock 1973: Brock 1974: Brock 1975: Lopes 1976: Lopes 1977: F. Taveras 1978: Moreno 1979: Moreno 1980: LeFlore 1981: Raines 1982: Raines 1983: Raines 1984: Raines 1985: Coleman 1986: Coleman 1987: Coleman 1988: Coleman 1989: Coleman 1990: Coleman 1991: Grissom 1992: Grissom 1993: Carr 1994: Biggio 1995: Veras 1996: Young, Sr. 1997: Womack 1998: Womack 1999: Womack 2000: Castillo 2001: Pierre & Rollins 2002: Castillo 2003: Pierre 2004: Podsednik 2005: Reyes 2006: Reyes 2007: Reyes 2008: W. Taveras 2009: Bourn 2010: Bourn 2011: Bourn 2012: Cabrera 2013: Young Jr. 2014: Gordon 2015: Gordon 2016: Villar 2017: Gordon

v t e

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Dodgers

Formerly the Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Robins and the Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Dodgers. Based in Los Angeles, California

Franchise

History in Brooklyn History in Los Angeles Seasons Award winners Records No-hitters Players First-round draft picks Managers Owners and executives Coaches Broadcasters Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Dodgers
Dodgers
Radio Network SportsNet LA Hall of Famers Opening Day starting pitchers

Ballparks

Washington Park Eastern Park Ridgewood Park Washington Park Ebbets Field Roosevelt Stadium Proposed domed stadium Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Memorial Coliseum Dodger Stadium Spring training: Whittington Park Majestic Park Barrs Field Tinker Field Clearwater Athletic Field City Island Ball Park Gran Stadium de La Habana Holman Stadium Camelback Ranch

Culture

Dodger Dog The First Rick Monday
Rick Monday
saves the American flag Chavez Ravine Dodger blue "I Love L.A." Roy Campanella
Roy Campanella
Award Historic Dodgertown Vin Scully Tommy Lasorda Nancy Bea Hilda Chester 2011 bankruptcy 42

Lore

Chronicle-Telegraph Cup 1955 World Series Fernandomania Kirk Gibson's 1988 World Series
World Series
home run Orel Hershiser's scoreless innings streak Sandy Koufax's perfect game "Shot Heard 'Round the World" NL tie-breaker games/series

1946 NL tie-breaker series 1951 NL tie-breaker series 1959 NL tie-breaker series 1962 NL tie-breaker series 1980 NL West tie-breaker game

Rivalries

San Francisco Giants Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Angels New York Yankees

Subway Series

Hall of Fame members

Walter Alston Roy Campanella Don Drysdale Leo Durocher Burleigh Grimes Willie Keeler Sandy Koufax Vin Scully Tommy Lasorda Walter O'Malley Pee Wee Reese Branch Rickey Jackie Robinson Wilbert Robinson Duke Snider Don Sutton Dazzy Vance Zack Wheat

Key personnel

Owner: Guggenheim Baseball
Baseball
Management President: Stan Kasten President of Baseball
Baseball
Operations: Andrew Friedman General Manager: Farhan Zaidi Manager: Dave Roberts

World Series Championships (6)

1955 1959 1963 1965 1981 1988

League pennants (23)

American Association: 1889 National League: 1890 1899 1900 1916 1920 1941 1947 1949 1952 1953 1955 1956 1959 1963 1965 1966 1974 1977 1978 1981 1988 2017

Division titles (16)

1974 1977 1978 1981 (first half) 1983 1985 1988 1995 2004 2008 2009 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

Wild card berths (2)

1996 2006

Minor league affiliates

AAA: Oklahoma City Dodgers AA: Tulsa Drillers A Adv.: Rancho Cucamonga Quakes A: Great Lakes Loons Rookie Adv.: Ogden Raptors Rookie: AZL Dodgers DSL Dodgers
Dodgers
1 DSL Dodgers
Dodgers
2 Minor League Rosters

Seasons (136)

1880s

1880 · 1881 · 1882 · 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889

1890s

1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899

1900s

1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909

1910s

1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919

1920s

1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929

1930s

1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939

1940s

1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949

1950s

1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959

1960s

1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969

1970s

1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

1980s

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

1990s

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

2000s

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

2010s

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

v t e

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Dodgers
Dodgers
retired numbers

1 Pee Wee Reese 2 Tommy Lasorda 4 Duke Snider 19 Jim Gilliam 20 Don Sutton 24 Walter Alston 32 Sandy Koufax 39 Roy Campanella 42 Jackie Robinson 53 Don Drysdale MIC Vin Scully

v t e

Baseball
Baseball
Hall of Fame Class of 1962

BBWAA Vote

Bob Feller
Bob Feller
(93.8%) Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
(77.5%)

Veterans Committee

Bill McKechnie Edd Roush

v t e

Members of the National Baseball
Baseball
Hall of Fame

Pitchers

Alexander Bender Blyleven M. Brown R. Brown Bunning Carlton Chesbro Clarkson Cooper Coveleski Cummings Day Dean Dihigo Drysdale Eckersley Faber Feller Fingers Ford B. Foster Galvin B. Gibson Glavine Gomez Gossage Grimes Grove Haines Hoffman Hoyt Hubbell Hunter Jenkins R. Johnson W. Johnson Joss Keefe Koufax Lemon Lyons Maddux Marichal Marquard Martínez Mathewson McGinnity Méndez Morris Newhouser Nichols Niekro Paige Palmer Pennock Perry Plank Radbourn Rixey Roberts Rogan Ruffing Rusie Ryan Seaver H. Smith Smoltz Spahn Sutter Sutton Vance Waddell Walsh Welch Wilhelm J. Williams Willis Wynn Young

Catchers

Bench Berra Bresnahan Campanella Carter Cochrane Dickey Ewing Ferrell Fisk J. Gibson Hartnett Lombardi Mackey Piazza Rodríguez Santop Schalk

First basemen

Anson Bagwell Beckley Bottomley Brouthers Cepeda Chance Connor Foxx Gehrig Greenberg G. Kelly Killebrew Leonard McCovey Mize Murray Pérez Sisler Suttles Taylor Terry Thomas Thome

Second basemen

Alomar Biggio Carew E. Collins Doerr Evers Fox Frisch Gehringer Gordon Grant Herman Hornsby Lajoie Lazzeri Mazeroski McPhee Morgan J. Robinson Sandberg Schoendienst

Third basemen

Baker Boggs Brett J. Collins Dandridge J. Johnson Jones Kell Lindstrom Mathews Molitor B. Robinson Santo Schmidt Traynor J. Wilson D. White

Shortstops

Aparicio Appling Bancroft Banks Boudreau Cronin Davis T. Jackson Jennings Larkin Lloyd Maranville Reese Ripken Jr. Rizzuto Sewell O. Smith Tinker Trammell Vaughan Wagner Wallace Ward Wells Yount

Outfielders

Aaron Ashburn Averill Bell Brock W. Brown Burkett Carey Charleston Clarke Clemente Cobb Combs Crawford Cuyler Dawson Delahanty DiMaggio Doby Duffy Flick Goslin Griffey Jr. Guerrero Gwynn Hafey Hamilton Heilmann Henderson Hill Hooper Irvin R. Jackson Kaline Keeler Kelley K. Kelly Kiner Klein Mantle Manush Mays T. McCarthy Medwick Musial O'Rourke Ott Puckett Raines J. Rice S. Rice F. Robinson Roush Ruth Simmons Slaughter Snider Speaker Stargell Stearnes Thompson Torriente L. Waner P. Waner Wheat B. Williams T. Williams H. Wilson Winfield Yastrzemski Youngs

Managers

Alston Anderson Cox Durocher Hanlon Harris Herzog Huggins La Russa Lasorda López Mack J. McCarthy McGraw McKechnie W. Robinson Selee Southworth Stengel Torre Weaver D. Williams

Executives / pioneers

Barrow Bulkeley Cartwright Chadwick Chandler Comiskey Dreyfuss R. Foster Frick Giles Gillick Griffith Harridge Hulbert B. Johnson Kuhn Landis La. MacPhail Le. MacPhail Manley O'Malley Pompez Posey Rickey Ruppert Schuerholz Selig Spalding Veeck Weiss S. White Wilkinson G. Wright H. Wright Yawkey

Umpires

Barlick Chylak Conlan Connolly Evans Harvey Hubbard Klem McGowan O'Day

v t e

Major League Baseball
Baseball
on ABC

Related programs

Major League Baseball
Baseball
Game of the Week (1953–1954; 1960; 1965) Monday Night Baseball
Baseball
(1976–1988) Thursday Night Baseball
Baseball
(1989) Baseball
Baseball
Night in America (1994–1995) ESPN
ESPN
Major League Baseball
Baseball
(broadcasters)

Non-MLB programs

Little League World Series
World Series
(broadcasters) Wide World of Sports

Related articles

The Baseball
Baseball
Network World Series
World Series
television ratings Television contracts List of events on Wide World of Sports

1953 season

Chicago White Sox Cleveland Indians Philadelphia Athletics

ABC's owned & operated TV stations

WABC 7 ( Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Dodgers, August 17, 1953-October 1, 1953) WLS 7 (Chicago Cubs, 2015-present) KTRK 13 (Houston Astros, 1962-1972) WFIL 6 (later WPVI) (Philadelphia Athletics, 1949-1954; Philadelphia Phillies, 1959-1970)

Sponsors

Falstaff Brewing Corporation L&M

Commentators

The Baseball
Baseball
Network All-Star Game ALCS ALDS NLCS NLDS World Series

Key figures

Gary Bender Jack Buck Ken Coleman Dizzy Dean Bob DeLaney Don Drysdale Curt Gowdy Merle Harmon Keith Jackson George Kell Gene Kirby Jim Lampley Al Michaels Brent Musburger Bob Prince Chris Schenkel Gary Thorne Jack Whitaker Steve Zabriskie

Color commentators

Johnny Bench Buddy Blattner Lou Brock Steve Busby Norm Cash Howard Cosell Don Drysdale Leo Durocher Carl Erskine Tommy Hutton Jim Kaat Reggie Jackson Bob Gibson Tommy Henrich Tim McCarver Joe Morgan Jim Palmer Jackie Robinson Steve Stone Bob Uecker Earl Weaver Bill White Warner Wolf

Guest commentators

Johnny Bench Rick Dempsey Mark Fidrych Tommy John Tommy Lasorda Billy Martin Ross Porter Tom Seaver

Hosts & field reporters

Jack Arute Tim Brant Dave Diles Corey McPherrin John Saunders Al Trautwig Lesley Visser

"Inside Pitch" scouting analysts

Tony Gwynn Paul Molitor Steve Sax Mike Schmidt

Lore

Roger Maris' 61 home run season (1961) "The Bird" (1976) "The Double" (1995)

Tiebreaker games

1959 National League
National League
playoff series 1978 AL East Playoff 1980 NL West Playoff

LCS games

Chris Chambliss' Walk-Off Home Run
Chris Chambliss' Walk-Off Home Run
(1976) "Garvey Home Run" (1984) "Gatorade Glove Play" (1984) "You're Looking at One for the Ages Here" (1986)

World Series
World Series
games

"Ladies and Gentlemen, the Bronx Is Burning" (1977) "Mr. October" (1977) "The Call" (1985) 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

World Series

1948 1949 1950 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1994 (cancelled) 1995 (Games 1, 4-5)

AL Championship Series

1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1995 (Games 1–2)

NL Championship Series

1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1995 (Games 1–2)

AL Division Series

1981 1995 2002 (ABC Family, coverage produced by ESPN)

NL Division Series

1995 2002 (ABC Family, coverage produced by ESPN)

All-Star Game

1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1995

Music

"Hello Old Friend" "Lights"

Seasons

Saturday Game of the Week

1953 1954 1959 (NL tie-breaker series) 1960 1961 (prime time games) 1965

Monday Night Baseball

1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 (now on Thursday nights)

The Baseball
Baseball
Network

1994 1995

v t e

National Football Foundation Gold Medal winners

1958: Dwight D. Eisenhower 1959: Douglas MacArthur 1960: Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
& Amos Alonzo Stagg 1961: John F. Kennedy 1962: Byron "Whizzer" White 1963: Roger Q. Blough 1964: Donold B. Lourie 1965: Juan T. Trippe 1966: Earl H. "Red" Blaik 1967: Frederick L. Hovde 1968: Chester J. LaRoche 1969: Richard Nixon 1970: Thomas J. Hamilton 1971: Ronald Reagan 1972: Gerald Ford 1973: John Wayne 1974: Gerald B. Zornow 1975: David Packard 1976: Edgar B. Speer 1977: Louis H. Wilson 1978: Vincent dePaul Draddy 1979: William P. Lawrence 1980: Walter J. Zable 1981: Justin W. Dart 1982: Silver Anniversary Awards (NCAA) - All Honored Jim Brown, Willie Davis, Jack Kemp, Ron Kramer, Jim Swink 1983: Jack Kemp 1984: John F. McGillicuddy 1985: William I. Spencer 1986: William H. Morton 1987: Charles R. Meyer 1988: Clinton E. Frank 1989: Paul Brown 1990: Thomas H. Moorer 1991: George H. W. Bush 1992: Donald R. Keough 1993: Norman Schwarzkopf 1994: Thomas S. Murphy 1995: Harold Alfond 1996: Gene Corrigan 1997: Jackie Robinson 1998: John H. McConnell 1999: Keith Jackson 2000: Fred M. Kirby II 2001: Billy Joe "Red" McCombs 2002: George Steinbrenner 2003: Tommy Franks 2004: William V. Campbell 2005: Jon F. Hanson 2006: Joe Paterno
Joe Paterno
& Bobby Bowden 2007: Pete Dawkins
Pete Dawkins
& Roger Staubach 2008: John Glenn 2009: Phil Knight
Phil Knight
& Bill Bowerman 2010: Bill Cosby 2011: Robert Gates 2012: Roscoe Brown 2013: National Football League
National Football League
& Roger Goodell 2014: Tom Catena
Tom Catena
& George Weiss 2015: Condoleezza Rice 2016: Archie Manning

v t e

1956–63 International League
International League
Hall of Fame inductees

George Earnshaw
George Earnshaw
(1956) Joe McCarthy (1956) Jimmy Ripple
Jimmy Ripple
(1956) Bruno Betzel
Bruno Betzel
(1957) Ike Boone (1957) Rube Parnham (1957) Jack Bentley (1958) George Selkirk
George Selkirk
(1958) Jimmy Walsh (1958) Fritz Maisel
Fritz Maisel
(1959) Harry Smythe
Harry Smythe
(1959) George Stallings
George Stallings
(1959) Howie Moss (1960) Rocky Nelson (1960) Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
(1960) Patrick T. Powers
Patrick T. Powers
(1961) Joe Brown (1962) Dick Porter
Dick Porter
(1963)

Complete list (1947–55) (1956–63) (2007–09) (2010–present)

v t e

Members of the National College Baseball
Baseball
Hall of Fame

Players

Jim Abbott Steve Arlin Joe Arnold Eddie Bane Sal Bando Alan Bannister Floyd Bannister Lance Berkman Bill Bordley Tom Borland Lou Brock Joe Carter Will Clark Matt DeSalvo Darren Dreifort Kirk Dressendorfer J. D. Drew Alex Fernandez Mike Fiore Terry Francona Eddy Furniss Nomar Garciaparra Ralph Garr Danny Goodwin Dick Groat Neal Heaton Don Heinkel Al Holland Burt Hooton Bob Horner Dick Howser Pete Incaviglia Tim Jorgensen Mike Kelly Brooks Kieschnick Fred Lynn Barry Larkin Tino Martinez William Clarence Matthews Ben McDonald Oddibe McDowell Dave Magadan Rick Monday Keith Moreland John Olerud Tom Paciorek Rafael Palmeiro Rick Reichardt Roy Smalley III Phil Stephenson Mickey Sullivan B. J. Surhoff Greg Swindell Derek Tatsuno Robin Ventura Frank Viola Tim Wallach Todd Walker Brad Wilkerson Dave Winfield Rich Wortham

Coaches

Bob Bennett Skip Bertman Robert Braddy Chuck Brayton Jim Brock Ed Cheff Rod Dedeaux Bibb Falk Ron Fraser Augie Garrido Gordie Gillespie Wayne Graham Cliff Gustafson Larry Hays Bill Holowaty Ralph Waldo Emerson Jones Wally Kincaid Jerry Kindall Demie Mainieri Ron Polk Frank Sancet Don Schaly Dick Siebert Gene Stephenson Mickey Sullivan Tommy Thomas Bob Todd Gary Ward Bill Wilhelm John Winkin Bobby Winkles

Veterans

Jack Barry Owen Carroll Billy Disch Lou Gehrig Christy Mathewson Branch Rickey Jackie Robinson Joe Sewell George Sisler Charles Teague

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 57427186 LCCN: n79141359 ISNI: 0000 0000 8137 088X GND: 11954248X NLA: 36515473 NDL: 00454404 NKC: pna2012687886 BNE: XX5484585 SN

.