Ivan Ostromislensky
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Ivan Ivanovich Ostromislensky (russian: Иван Иванович Остромысленский, also Iwan Ostromislensky) (9 September 1880 – 16 January 1939) was a
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the world, covering over , and encom ...

Russia
n organic chemist. He is credited as the pioneer in studying
polymerization In polymer chemistry, polymerization (American English), or polymerisation (British English), is a process of reacting monomer, monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.Clayden, J. ...
of
synthetic rubber A synthetic rubber is any artificial elastomer. They are polymers synthesized from petroleum byproducts. About 32-million metric tons of rubbers are produced annually in the United States, and of that amount two thirds are synthetic. Global revenue ...
as well as
inventor An invention is a unique or novel device, method, composition or process. The invention process is a process within an overall engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machin ...

inventor
of various industrial technologies for production of synthetic rubber,
polymer A polymer (; Greek ''wikt:poly-, poly-'', "many" + ''wikt:-mer, -mer'', "part") is a Chemical substance, substance or material consisting of very large molecules, or macromolecules, composed of many Repeat unit, repeating subunits. Due to their ...

polymer
s and
pharmaceutical A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, medicinal drug or simply drug) is a drug File:Aspirine macro shot.jpg, Uncoated aspirin Tablet (pharmacy), tablets, consisting of about 90% acetylsalicylic acid, along with a ...
s.


Early life

Ostromislensky was born in
Oryol Oryol or Orel ( rus, Орёл, p=ɐˈrʲɵl, lit. ''eagle''), also known as Oriol, is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, city and the administrative center of Oryol Oblast, Russia. It is part of the Central Federal District, as well as the ...

Oryol
,
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the world, covering over , and encom ...

Russia
to a family of a nobleman, a
poruchik ''Poruchik'' ( hr, poručnik, cs, poručík, pl, porucznik, russian: пору́чик, sr, поручник, sk, poručík, uk, пору́чник) is an officer rank in the lieutenant A lieutenant ( or abbreviated Lt., Lt, LT, Lieu ...

poruchik
of elite corps. He received his education first at the Moscow cadet corps and then, from 1898 to 1902 at the Moscow Technical School. After graduation, in April 1902, Ostromislensky went to Germany, and enrolled to the
Technical School In the United States, a technical school is a two-year college that covers fields such as business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling Product (business), products (such as go ...
in
Karlsruhe Karlsruhe ( , , ; South Franconian German, South Franconian: ''Kallsruh''), formerly spelled Carlsruhe in English, is the List of cities in Baden-Württemberg by population, third-largest city of the Germany, German federal state of Baden-Württ ...

Karlsruhe
. There, he specialized in
physical chemistry Physical chemistry is the study of macroscopic The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible with the naked eye, without magnifying optical instruments. It is the opposite of microscopi ...
,
organic chemistry Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies the structure, properties and reactions of organic compounds, which contain carbon in covalent bonding.Clayden, J.; Greeves, N. and Warren, S. (2012) ''Organic Chemistry''. Oxford University ...
and
electrochemistry Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry Physical chemistry is the study of macroscopic The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible with the naked eye, without magnifying ...
. In July 1906 he returned to Russia and in February 1907 was hired at the
Moscow State University Moscow State University (MSU; russian: Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ, ''MGU'') is a public university, public research university locate ...
(MSU) as an assistant in the
laboratory A laboratory (; ; colloquially lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which science, scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed. Laboratory services are provided in a variety of sett ...

laboratory
of inorganic and physical chemistry, led by Professor Sabaneev. In 1909, Ostromislensky became a
privatdozent ''Privatdozent'' (for men) or ''Privatdozentin'' (for women), abbreviated PD, P.D. or Priv.-Doz., is an academic title conferred at some European universities, especially in German-speaking countries, to someone who holds certain formal qualificat ...
of MSU. During his work at MSU, he actively collaborated with Professor L. Chugayev, who headed the laboratory of organic and general chemistry, and started his work on synthetic rubber. cited sources: ; Волков В.А., Вонский Е.В., Кузнецова Г.И. "Остромысленский Иван Иванович" Биографический справочник. Химики. Киев, 1984 (Russian) In 1912, after an internal quarrel, Ostromislensky resigned from the MSU. He continued his work on
rubber Rubber, also called India rubber, latex, Amazonian rubber, ''caucho'', or ''caoutchouc'', as initially produced, consists of polymer A polymer (; Greek ''wikt:poly-, poly-'', "many" + ''wikt:-mer, -mer'', "part") is a Chemical substance, ...

rubber
(1912–1917) at Bogatyr (Russian: Богатырь), which was Russia's main rubber company. The company director showed great interest in the emerging synthetic rubber and readily financed the work of Ostromislensky, who was the pioneer of synthetic rubber in Russia. In 1905, Ostromislensky started reporting his research on the
polymerization In polymer chemistry, polymerization (American English), or polymerisation (British English), is a process of reacting monomer, monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.Clayden, J. ...
of
diene In organic chemistry a diene ( ) (diolefin ( ) or alkadiene) is a covalent compound that contains two double bonds, usually among carbon atoms. They thus contain two alkene, alk''ene'' units, with the standard prefix ''di'' of systematic nomencl ...
s and on the synthesis of the starting
monomerA monomer ( ; '' mono-'', "one" + '' -mer'', "part") is a molecule File:Pentacene on Ni(111) STM.jpg, A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. A molecule is an electrical ...

monomer
s for synthetic rubber. He had patented more than 20 ways to produce
butadiene 1,3-Butadiene (/ˌbjuːtəˈdʌɪiːn/) is the organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen chemical bond, bonds. Due to carb ...
(buta-1,3-diene), which were implemented industrially in the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a Federalism, federal socialist state in Northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a Political union, union of multiple national Republics of t ...
. The butadiene production method, which was based on
aldol condensation An aldol condensation is a condensation reaction in organic chemistry in which an enol or an enolate ion reacts with a carbonyl Chemical compound, compound to form a β-hydroxyaldehyde or β-hydroxyketone (an aldol reaction), followed by dehydratio ...
of
acetaldehyde Ethanal (common name acetaldehyde) is an organic chemical compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds ...
(1905), was also implemented on industrial scale in Germany in 1936. Another method was based on passing vapors of
ethanol Ethanol (also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic Organic may refer to: * Organic, of or relating to an organism, a living entity * Organic, of or relating to an anatomical organ (anatomy), o ...

ethanol
and
acetaldehyde Ethanal (common name acetaldehyde) is an organic chemical compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds ...
at 440–460 °C over
aluminium oxide Aluminium oxide is a chemical compound of aluminium Aluminium (aluminum in American English, American and Canadian English) is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Al and atomic number 13. Aluminium has a dens ...
(1915) and received industrial use in 1942–1943 in the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., federal di ...

United States
. In 1915, Ostromislensky also
synthesized Synthesis or synthesize may also refer to: Science Chemistry and biochemistry *Chemical synthesis, the execution of chemical reactions to form a more complex molecule from chemical precursors **Organic synthesis, the chemical synthesis of or ...
isoprene Isoprene, or 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, is a common organic compound with the formula CH2=C(CH3)−CH=CH2. In its pure form it is a colorless volatile liquid. Isoprene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon. It is produced by many plants and animals (includin ...

isoprene
via
pyrolysis The pyrolysis (or devolatilization) process is the thermal decomposition Thermal decomposition, or thermolysis, is a chemical decompositionChemical decomposition, or chemical breakdown, is the process or effect of simplifying a single chemical ...

pyrolysis
of
turpentine Turpentine (which is also called gum turpentine, spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, wood turpentine, terebenthene, terebinthine and (colloquially), turps) is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin In polymer chemistry and m ...
and polymerized it using light. Ostromislensky pioneered the studies of non-
sulfur Sulfur (in nontechnical British English: sulphur) is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consis ...

sulfur
activators of
vulcanization Vulcanization (British: Vulcanisation) refers to a range of processes for hardening rubber Rubber is also called India rubber, latex, Amazonian rubber, ''caucho'' or ''caoutchouc'', as initially produced, consists of polymer A poly ...

vulcanization
of rubber. He also proposed organic additions to rubber, such as
toluidine There are three isomers In chemistry, isomers are molecules or polyatomic ions with identical molecular formulas — that is, same number of atoms of each element (chemistry), element — but distinct arrangements of atoms in space. Isomerism is ...
and naphthylamine, in order to improve its properties. Those additives were later exploited by US companies, such as
Union Carbide Union Carbide Corporation is an American chemical corporation wholly owned (since February 6, 2001) by Dow Chemical Company. It currently employs more than 2,400 people. Union Carbide produces chemicals and polymers that undergo one or more furth ...

Union Carbide
. In 1913, Ostromislensky published a book on "Rubber and its analogs", which was the first Russian textbook on chemistry and technology of rubber. It summarized most available bibliography on the subject, including foreign
patent A patent is a type of intellectual property that gives its owner the legal right to exclude others from making, using, or selling an invention for a limited period of years in exchange for publishing an sufficiency of disclosure, enabling disclo ...

patent
s which were inaccessible to most Russian readers. The book also described 16 original methods of industrial synthesis and polymerization of di
alkene , the simplest alkene. In chemistry, an alkene is a hydrocarbon that contains a carbon–carbon double bond. The term is often used as synonym of olefin, that is, any hydrocarbon containing one or more double bonds.H. Stephen Stoker (2015): G ...

alkene
s (alka
diene In organic chemistry a diene ( ) (diolefin ( ) or alkadiene) is a covalent compound that contains two double bonds, usually among carbon atoms. They thus contain two alkene, alk''ene'' units, with the standard prefix ''di'' of systematic nomencl ...
s). In 1910s, Ostromislensky also started shifting his attention toward biochemical, immunochemical and pharmaceutical research, as indicated by that he had two doctoral degrees from
University of Zurich The University of Zurich (UZH, german: Universität Zürich), located in the city of Zürich , neighboring_municipalities = Adliswil, Dübendorf, Fällanden, Kilchberg, Zurich, Kilchberg, Maur, Switzerland, Maur, Oberengstringen, Opfikon, ...

University of Zurich
, in philosophy and medicine. In 1913, he started his own company named "private chemical and bacteriological laboratory". There he performed a number of studies on the immunological specificity and chemical nature of
antibodies An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein Proteins are large biomolecules or macromolecules that are comprised of one or more long chains of amino acid residue (biochemistry), residues. Proteins per ...

antibodies
and
antigen In immunology Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms. Immunology charts, measures, and contextualizes the Physiology, physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health ...
s and published the results in the Journal of Physical and Chemical Society in 1915. Ostromislensky investigated the possibility of synthesis of antibodies ''
in vitro ''In vitro'' (meaning in glass, or ''in the glass'') studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context. Colloquially called "test-tube experiments", these studies in biology an ...

in vitro
'' and proposed a theory of antibody synthesis, which is regarded as one of the first versions of the so-called matrix theory of antibody synthesis. The theory had strong influence on the development of
immunochemistry Immunochemistry is the study of the chemistry of the immune system. This involves the study of the properties, functions, interactions and production of the chemical components (antibodies/immunoglobulins, toxin, epitopes of proteins like CD4, an ...
, but was later proven incorrect. Medical interests of Ostromislensky are also illustrated by his essay on "dream in humans and animals", which examined the toxicological, immunological and physiological aspects of a dream. He considered sleep as a process of self-poisoning by some
toxin A toxin is a harmful substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded. The term was first used by organic chemist Ludwig Brieger (1849–1919), derived from the word toxic ...
, which shortens the lifetime. Between 1918 and 1920, Ostromislensky headed a chemical therapeutic laboratory of the Chemical-Pharmaceutical Institute in Moscow. There he studied the structure and properties of the popular foreign drug
Salvarsan 300px, The structure of Arsphenamine has been proposed to be akin to the dimer azobenzene (A), but mass spectral studies published in 2005 suggest it is actually a mixture of the trimer (B) and the pentamer (C). Arsphenamine, also known as Salvars ...

Salvarsan
and developed the method of manufacturing a domestic analogue called Arsol. Arsol was based on relatively cheap production of colloidal
arsenic Arsenic is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same num ...

arsenic
that was important in the time of the Civil Wars and economic crisis in Russia.


Life abroad

In October 1921, Ostromislensky left Russia and moved to
Latvia Latvia ( or ; lv, Latvija ; ltg, Latveja; liv, Leţmō), officially known as the Republic of Latvia ( lv, Latvijas Republika, links=no, ltg, Latvejas Republika, links=no, liv, Leţmō Vabāmō, links=no), is a country in the Baltic reg ...

Latvia
. There he assumed a position of assistant professor at the department of organic chemistry of
University of Latvia The University of Latvia ( lv, Latvijas Universitāte, shortened ''LU'') is a state-run university located in Riga Riga (; lv, Rīga , liv, Rīgõ) is the capital of Latvia and is home to 627,487 inhabitants (2020), which is a third of Lat ...

University of Latvia
in
Riga Riga (; lv, Rīga , liv, Rīgõ, ) is the capital of Latvia Latvia ( or ; lv, Latvija ; ltg, Latveja; liv, Leţmō), officially known as the Republic of Latvia ( lv, Latvijas Republika, links=no, ltg, Latvejas Republika, links=n ...

Riga
. There he taught two major courses, on chemistry of rubber and on chemotherapeutic drugs. In May 1922, at the invitation of Dr. A. Hopkinson from the US "Rubber Company" Ostromislensky moved to New York. There he continued his work on chemistry and technology of rubber and pharmaceuticals in two companies,
United States Rubber Company The United States Rubber Company (Uniroyal) is an American manufacturer of tire A tire (American English) or tyre (British English) is a ring-shaped component that surrounds a Rim (wheel), wheel's rim to transfer a vehicle's load from the ...
and
Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company is an American multinational tire manufacturing company founded in 1898 by Frank Seiberling Franklin Augustus “Frank” Seiberling''Find A Grave'', database and imageshttps://www.findagrave.com: accessed 24 A ...
. In 1925, he opened his "Ostro Research Laboratory", where he studied the pharmaceutical properties of various compounds based on arsenic and vegetable oils which were used to treat
leprosy Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a chronic (medicine), long-term infection by the bacteria ''Mycobacterium leprae'' or ''Mycobacterium lepromatosis''. Infection can lead to damage of the Peripheral nervous system, nerves, respirat ...

leprosy
. He also advocated commercial production of chemotherapeutic drugs and pyrazolone. In 1928 he received a US patent for production of
polystyrene Polystyrene (PS) is a synthetic aromatic forms of benzene (top) combine to produce an average structure (bottom) In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, com ...

polystyrene
which was used by US Rubber for the first commercial production of polystyrene in the early 1930s. He also patented his early work on the synthesis of
polyvinyl chloride Polyvinyl chloride (colloquial: polyvinyl, Vinyl polymer, vinyl; abbreviated: PVC) is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer (after polyethylene and polypropylene). About 40 million tons of PVC are produced each year. ...
in the US.I. Ostromislensky (1929) "Polymer of vinyl chloride and process of making the same" In 1930, Ostromislensky received U.S. citizenship and was invited to work in the company
Union Carbide Union Carbide Corporation is an American chemical corporation wholly owned (since February 6, 2001) by Dow Chemical Company. It currently employs more than 2,400 people. Union Carbide produces chemicals and polymers that undergo one or more furth ...

Union Carbide
to develop commercial production of butadiene from ethanol. The production ceased only after the
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great ...
, because it could not compete with
butyleneButene, also known as butylene, is an alkene , the simplest alkene. In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their ...
-based technologies. In the US, Ostromislensky improved several industrial technologies of synthetic rubber production. He also developed a technology for producing
safety glass Safety glass is glass Glass is a non- crystalline, often transparency and translucency, transparent amorphous solid, that has widespread practical, technological, and decorative use in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optics. Glass ...
for the automobile windshields. In one of developed by him reactions, ethanol is
oxidized (mild reducing agent) are added to powdered potassium permanganate (strong oxidizing agent), a violent redox reaction accompanied by self-ignition starts. Redox (reduction–oxidation, pronunciation: or ) is a type of chemical reaction A ...

oxidized
to
acetaldehyde Ethanal (common name acetaldehyde) is an organic chemical compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds ...
, which reacts with additional ethanol over a
tantalum Tantalum is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numb ...

tantalum
-promoted porous
silica Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula , most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms. In many parts of the world, silica is the major constituent of sand. Silica is one ...

silica
catalyst at 325–350 °C to yield butadiene:Kirshenbaum, I. (1978). Butadiene. In M. Grayson (Ed.), ''Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 3rd ed.'', vol. 4, pp. 313–337. New York: John Wiley & Sons. : + CH3CHO → CH2=CH-CH=CH2 + 2 : 500px This process was used in the United States to produce government rubber during World War II, and remains in use today in China and India.


Death and legacy

Ostromislensky died at the age 58. His scientific work did not receive appropriate recognition during his lifetime, but was widely praised afterwards. He was among the first 5 scientists inducted into the International Rubber Science Hall of Fame.


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Ostromislensky, Ivan Karlsruhe Institute of Technology alumni 1880 births 1939 deaths Russian physical chemists American physical chemists Organic chemists Russian inventors Electrochemists University of Latvia faculty 20th-century American inventors