Coordinates: 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12
Repubblica Italiana (Italian)
Anthem: Il Canto degli Italiani (Italian)
"The Song of the Italians"
Location of Italy (dark green)
– in Europe (light green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (light green)
and largest city
41°54′N 12°29′E / 41.900°N 12.483°E / 41.900; 12.483
see full list
0.3% other religions
• Prime Minister
• President of the Senate
• President of the Chamber of Deputies
• Upper house
Senate of the Republic
• Lower house
Chamber of Deputies
17 March 1861
2 June 1946
• Founded the EEC (now the European Union)
1 January 1958
301,338 km2 (116,347 sq mi) (71st)
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
60,589,445  (23rd)
201.3/km2 (521.4/sq mi) (63rd)
$2.233 trillion  (12th)
• Per capita
2.050 trillion (9th)
• Per capita
very high · 26th
Euro (€)b (EUR)
• Summer (DST)
Drives on the
ISO 3166 code
German is co-official in South Tyrol; French is co-official in the
Aosta Valley; Slovene is co-official in the province of
the province of Gorizia; Ladin is co-official in South Tyrol, in
Trentino and in other northern areas.
Before 2002, the Italian lira. The euro is accepted in Campione
d'Italia but its official currency is the Swiss franc.
To call Campione d'Italia, it is necessary to use the Swiss code +41.
.eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union
Italy (Italian: Italia [iˈtaːlja] ( listen)), officially
Republic (Italian: Repubblica italiana [reˈpubblika
itaˈljaːna]), is a unitary parliamentary republic in
Europe. Located in the heart of the
open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San
Marino and Vatican City.
Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2
(116,347 sq mi) and has a largely temperate seasonal and
Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants it is the
fourth most populous EU member state.
Since classical times, ancient Phoenicians, Carthaginians and Greeks
established settlements in the south of Italy, with
Celts inhabiting the centre and the north of
Italy respectively and
various ancient Italian tribes and
Italic peoples dispersed throughout
the Italian peninsula and insular Italy. The
Italic tribe known as the
Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic
that conquered and assimilated its neighbors. Ultimately the Roman
Empire emerged as the dominant power in the
Mediterranean basin and
became the leading cultural, political and religious centre of Western
During the Early Middle Ages,
Italy suffered sociopolitical collapse
amid calamitous barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous
rival city-states and maritime republics, mainly in the northern and
central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping,
commerce and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These mostly independent statelets, acting as Europe's main spice
trade hubs with Asia and the Near East, often enjoyed a greater degree
of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating
throughout Europe; however, part of central
Italy was under the
control of the theocratic Papal States, while
Southern Italy remained
largely feudal until the 19th century, partially as a result of a
succession of Byzantine, Arab, Norman, Angevin and Spanish conquests
of the region.
Renaissance began in
Italy and spread to the rest of Europe,
bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science, exploration and art.
Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars,
artists and polymaths, such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci,
Raphael, Galileo and Machiavelli. Since Middle Age, Italian explorers
such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot
Giovanni da Verrazzano
Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and
the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery.
Nevertheless, Italy's commercial and political power significantly
waned with the opening of trade routes which bypassed the
Mediterranean. Furthermore, the Italian city-states
constantly engaged one another in bloody warfare, culminating in the
Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries that left them exhausted,
with none emerging as a dominant power. They soon fell victim to
conquest by European powers such as France,
Spain and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, a rising movement in support of Italian
nationalism and independence from foreign control led to a period of
revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign
domination and political division,
Italy was almost entirely unified
in 1871, creating a great power. From the late 19th century to the
early 20th century, the new
Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy rapidly industrialised,
although mainly in the north, and acquired a colonial empire,
while the south remained largely impoverished and excluded from
industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora.
Despite being one of the main victors in World War I,
Italy entered a
period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a
fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the
Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction, and an
Italian civil war. Following the liberation of
Italy and the rise of
the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated
democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of
sociopolitical turmoil (e.g. Anni di piombo, Mani pulite, the Second
Mafia War, the
Maxi Trial and subsequent assassinations of anti-mafia
officials), became a major advanced economy.
Italy has the third largest nominal
GDP in the
Eurozone and the
eighth largest in the world. As an advanced economy the country has
the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth and it is ranked third for
its central bank gold reserve.
Italy has a very high level of human
development and it stands among the top countries for life expectancy.
The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic,
military, cultural, and diplomatic affairs, and it is both a regional
power and a great power.
Italy is a founding and
leading member of the
European Union and the member of numerous
international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the
OSCE, the WTO, the G7, G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the
Council of Europe,
Uniting for Consensus
Uniting for Consensus and many more. As a
reflection of its cultural wealth,
Italy is home to 53 World Heritage
Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country.
2.1 Prehistory and antiquity
2.2 Ancient Rome
2.3 Middle Ages
2.4 Early Modern
2.5 Italian unification
2.6 Fascist regime
2.7 Republican Italy
4.2 Law and criminal justice
4.2.1 Law enforcement
4.3 Foreign relations
4.5 Administrative divisions
5.3 Science and technology
6.1 Metropolitan cities and larger urban zone
7.2 Visual art
7.8 Fashion and design
7.10 Public holidays and festivals
8 See also
12 External links
Main article: Name of Italy
I am that Aeneas, the virtuous, who carries my household gods in my
ship with me, having snatched them from the enemy, my name is known
beyond the sky. I seek my country Italy, and a people born of Jupiter
on high. (...) The sacred statues of the gods, the Phrygian Penates,
that I had carried with me from Troy, out of the burning city, seemed
to stand there before my eyes, as I lay in sleep, perfectly clear in
the light, where the full moon streamed through the window casements.
Then they spoke to me and with their words dispelled my cares: (...)
There is a place the Greeks call Hesperia by name, an ancient land
powerful in arms and in richness of the soil: There the Oenotrians
lived: now the rumour is that a younger race has named it
their leader. That is our true home.
— Aeneid, Book I and Book III
Hypotheses for the etymology of the name "Italia" are numerous.
One is that it was borrowed via Greek from the Oscan Víteliú 'land
of calves' (cf. Lat vitulus "calf", Umb vitlo "calf"). The bull
was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted
goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free
Italy during the
Social War. Greek historian
Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this
account together with the legend that
Italy was named after
Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now
Southern Italy, according to Antiochus of Syracuse, the southern
portion of the Bruttium peninsula (modern Calabria: province of
Reggio, and part of the provinces of
Catanzaro and Vibo Valentia). But
by his time
Italy had become synonymous, and the name
also applied to most of
Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to
apply the name "Italia" to a larger region, but it was during the
reign of Emperor
Augustus (end of the 1st century BC) that the term
was expanded to cover the entire peninsula until the Alps.
Main article: History of Italy
Prehistory and antiquity
Main articles: Prehistoric Italy, Etruscan civilisation, Magna
Graecia, and Nuragic civilisation
Etruscan fresco in the Monterozzi necropolis, 5th century BCE
Italy revealed a
Neanderthal presence dating
back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern
Humans appeared about 40,000 years ago. Archaeological sites from this
period include Addaura cave, Altamura, Ceprano,
Monte Poggiolo and
Gravina in Puglia.
The Ancient peoples of pre-
Roman Italy – such as the Umbrians, the
Latins (from which the Romans emerged), Volsci, Oscans, Samnites,
Sabines, the Celts, the Ligures, and many others – were
Indo-European peoples; the main historic peoples of possible
non-Indo-European heritage include the Etruscans, the
Elymians and the
Sicani in Sicily, and the prehistoric Sardinians, who gave birth to
the Nuragic civilization. Other ancient populations being of
undetermined language families and of possible non-Indo-European
origin include the
Rhaetian people and Cammuni, known for their rock
Between the 17th and the 11th centuries BC Mycenaean Greeks
established contacts with Italy and in the 8th and 7th
centuries BC a number of
Greek colonies were established all along the
Sicily and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula, that
became known as Magna Graecia. Also, the Phoenicians established
colonies on the coasts of
Sicily and in Sardinia.
Main article: Ancient Rome
Colosseum in Rome, built c. 70 – 80 AD, is considered one of the
greatest works of architecture and engineering of ancient history
Roman Empire at its greatest extent, 117 AD
Rome, a settlement around a ford on the river
founded in 753 BC, was ruled for a period of 244 years by a
monarchical system, initially with sovereigns of
Latin and Sabine
origin, later by Etruscan kings. The tradition handed down seven
kings: Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Tullus Hostilius, Ancus Marcius,
Servius Tullius and Tarquinius Superbus. In 509
BC, the Romans expelled the last king from their city and established
an oligarchic republic.
In the wake of Julius Caesar's rise and death in the first century
Rome grew over the course of centuries into a massive empire
stretching from Britain to the borders of Persia, and engulfing the
Mediterranean basin, in which Greek and Roman and many other
cultures merged into a unique civilisation. The
Italian Peninsula was
named Italia and was not a province, but the territory of the city of
Rome, thus having a special status. The long and triumphant reign
of the first emperor, Augustus, began a golden age of peace and
Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural,
political and military forces in the world of its time. It was one of
the largest empires in world history. At its height under Trajan, it
covered 5 million square kilometres. The Roman legacy has
deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern
world; among the many legacies of Roman dominance are the widespread
use of the
Romance languages derived from Latin, the numerical system,
the modern Western alphabet and calendar, and the emergence of
Christianity as a major world religion.
In a slow decline since the third century AD, the Empire split in two
in 395 AD. The Western Empire, under the pressure of the barbarian
invasions, eventually dissolved in 476 AD, when its last Emperor was
deposed by the Germanic chief Odoacer, while the Eastern half of the
Empire survived for another thousand years.
Italy in the Middle Ages
The Iron Crown of Lombardy, for centuries symbol of the Kings of Italy
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire,
Italy was seized by the
Ostrogoths, followed in the 6th century by a brief reconquest
Byzantine Emperor Justinian. The invasion of another Germanic
tribe, the Lombards, late in the same century, reduced the Byzantine
presence to a rump realm (the Exarchate of Ravenna) and started the
end of political unity of the peninsula for the next 1,300 years. The
Lombard kingdom was subsequently absorbed into the
Frankish Empire by
Charlemagne in the late 8th century. The Franks also helped the
formation of the
Papal States in central Italy. Until the 13th
century, Italian politics was dominated by the relations between the
Holy Roman Emperors and the Papacy, with most of the Italian
city-states siding for the former (Ghibellines) or for the latter
(Guelphs) from momentary convenience.
Marco Polo, explorer of the 13th century, recorded his 24 years-long
travels in the Book of the Marvels of the World, introducing Europeans
to Central Asia and China.
It was during this chaotic era that Italian towns saw the rise of a
peculiar institution, the medieval commune. Given the power vacuum
caused by extreme territorial fragmentation and the struggle between
the Empire and the Holy See, local communities sought autonomous ways
to maintain law and order. The Investiture controversy, a conflict
over two radically different views of whether secular authorities such
as kings, counts, or dukes, had any legitimate role in appointments to
ecclesiastical offices such as bishoprics, was finally resolved by the
Concordat of Worms. In 1176 a league of city-states, the Lombard
League, defeated the German emperor
Frederick Barbarossa at the Battle
of Legnano, thus ensuring effective independence for most of northern
and central Italian cities.
Flag of the Italian Navy, displaying the coat of arms of the most
prominent maritime republics: Venice, Genoa,
Pisa and Amalfi
In coastal and southern areas, the maritime republics grew to
eventually dominate the
Mediterranean and monopolise trade routes to
the Orient. They were independent thalassocratic city-states, though
most of them originated from territories once belonging to the
Byzantine Empire. All these cities during the time of their
independence had similar systems of government in which the merchant
class had considerable power. Although in practice these were
oligarchical, and bore little resemblance to a modern democracy, the
relative political freedom they afforded was conducive to academic and
The four most prominent maritime republics were Venice, Genoa, Pisa
and Amalfi, while less known are Ragusa, Gaeta, Ancona, and Noli.
Genoa were Europe's gateway to trade with the East, and a
producer of fine glass, while
Florence was a capital of silk, wool,
banks and jewelry. The wealth such business brought to
that large public and private artistic projects could be commissioned.
The republics were heavily involved in the Crusades, providing support
but most especially taking advantage of the political and trading
opportunities resulting from these wars.
In the south,
Sicily had become an Islamic emirate in the 9th century,
thriving until the
Italo-Normans conquered it in the late 11th century
together with most of the Lombard and
Byzantine principalities of
southern Italy. Through a complex series of events, southern Italy
developed as a unified kingdom, first under the House of Hohenstaufen,
then under the
Capetian House of Anjou
Capetian House of Anjou and, from the 15th century, the
House of Aragon. In Sardinia, the former
Byzantine provinces became
independent states known in Italian as Giudicati, although some parts
of the island became controlled by
Pisa until the Aragonese
annexation in the 15th century. The
Black Death pandemic of 1348 left
its mark on
Italy by killing perhaps one third of the
population. However, the recovery from the plague led to a
resurgence of cities, trade and economy which allowed the bloom of
Humanism and Renaissance, that later spread in Europe.
Italian states before the beginning of the
Italian Wars in 1494.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, northern-central
Italy was divided
into a number of warring city-states, the rest of the peninsula being
occupied by the larger
Papal States and the Kingdom of Sicily,
referred to here as Naples. Though many of these city-states were
often formally subordinate to foreign rulers, as in the case of the
Duchy of Milan, which was officially a constituent state of the mainly
Germanic Holy Roman Empire, the city-states generally managed to
maintain de facto independence from the foreign sovereigns that had
seized Italian lands following the collapse of the Western Roman
Empire. The strongest among these city-states gradually absorbed the
surrounding territories giving birth to the Signorie, regional states
often led by merchant families which founded local dynasties. War
between the city-states was endemic, and primarily fought by armies of
mercenaries known as condottieri, bands of soldiers drawn from around
Germany and Switzerland, led largely by Italian
captains. Decades of fighting eventually saw Florence,
Venice emerged as the dominant players that agreed to the Peace of
Lodi in 1454, which saw relative calm brought to the region for the
first time in centuries. This peace would hold for the next forty
Leonardo da Vinci, the quintessential
Renaissance man, in a
self-portrait, c. 1512. Royal Library, Turin
The Renaissance, a period of vigorous revival of the arts and culture,
Italy thanks to a number of factors, as the great wealth
accumulated by merchant cities, the patronage of its dominant
families, and the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy
Conquest of Constantinople
Conquest of Constantinople at the hands of the Ottoman
Turks. The Italian
Renaissance peaked in the mid-16th
century as foreign invasions plunged the region into the turmoil of
the Italian Wars.
Medici became the leading family of
Florence and fostered and
inspired the birth of the Italian Renaissance, along with
other families of Italy, such as the Visconti and
Sforza of Milan, the
Este of Ferrara, and the Gonzaga of Mantua. Greatest artists like
Leonardo da Vinci, Brunelleschi, Botticelli, Michelangelo, Giotto,
Raphael produced inspired works – their
paintwork was more realistic-looking than had been created by Medieval
artists and their marble statues rivalled and sometimes surpassed
those of Classical Antiquity. Humanist historian
Leonardo Bruni also
split the history in the antiquity,
Middle Ages and modern period.
The ideas and ideals of the
Renaissance soon spread into Northern
Europe, France, England and much of Europe. In the meantime, the
discovery of the Americas, the new routes to Asia discovered by the
Portuguese and the rise of the Ottoman Empire, all factors which
eroded the traditional Italian dominance in trade with the East,
caused a long economic decline in the peninsula.
Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492, opening a new era in
the history of humankind
Italian Wars (1494 to 1559), ignited by the rivalry
France and Spain, the city-states gradually lost their
independence and came under foreign domination, first under Spain
(1559 to 1713) and then
Austria (1713 to 1796). In 1629–1631, a new
outburst of plague claimed about 14% of Italy's population. In
addition, as the
Spanish Empire started to decline in the 17th
century, so did its possessions in Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, and
Milan. In particular,
Southern Italy was impoverished and cut off from
the mainstream of events in Europe.
In the 18th century, as a result of the War of Spanish Succession,
Spain as the dominant foreign power, while the House
of Savoy emerged as a regional power expanding to
Sardinia. In the same century, the two-century long decline was
interrupted by the economic and state reforms pursued in several
states by the ruling élites. During the Napoleonic Wars,
Italy was invaded and reorganised as a new Kingdom of
Italy, a client state of the French Empire, while the southern
half of the peninsula was administered by Joachim Murat, Napoleon's
brother-in-law, who was crowned as King of Naples. The 1814 Congress
of Vienna restored the situation of the late 18th century, but the
ideals of the
French Revolution could not be eradicated, and soon
re-surfaced during the political upheavals that characterised the
first part of the 19th century.
Main articles: Italian unification, Kingdom of Italy, and Military
Italy during World War I
Animated map of the Italian unification, from 1829 to 1871
The birth of the
Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy was the result of efforts by Italian
nationalists and monarchists loyal to the
House of Savoy
House of Savoy to establish
a united kingdom encompassing the entire Italian Peninsula. In the
context of the 1848 liberal revolutions that swept through Europe, an
unsuccessful war was declared on Austria. The Kingdom of Sardinia
again attacked the
Austrian Empire in the Second Italian War of
Independence of 1859, with the aid of France, resulting in liberating
Giuseppe Garibaldi, considered one of the greatest generals of modern
times and one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland", commanded
and fought in many military campaigns that led eventually to the
Italian unification, and is known as the Hero of the Two Worlds
The patriotic journalist Giuseppe Mazzini, member of the secret
Carbonari and founder of the influential
political movement Young
Italy in the early 1830s, favored a unitary
republic and advocated a broad nationalist movement. His prolific
output of propaganda helped the unification movement stay active. In
Giuseppe Garibaldi led the drive for unification
Naples and Sicily, while the
House of Savoy
House of Savoy troops occupied the
central territories of the Italian peninsula, except
Rome and part of
Papal States. This allowed the Sardinian government led by Camillo
Benso, Count of Cavour, to declare a united Italian kingdom on 17
March 1861. The capital of
Italy was moved from
Turin to Florence. In
1866, Victor Emmanuel II allied with
Prussia during the
Austro-Prussian War, waging the Third Italian War of Independence
Italy to annex Venetia. Finally, as
France abandoned its
Rome during the disastrous
Franco-Prussian War of 1870,
Italians rushed to fill the power gap by taking over the Papal
States. After the unification, Victor Emmanuel, Garibaldi, Cavour and
Mazzini have been referred as Italy's Four Fathers of the
The Constitutional Law of the Kingdom of
Sardinia the Albertine
Statute of 1848, was extended to the whole
Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy in 1861,
and provided for basic freedoms of the new State, but electoral laws
excluded the non-propertied and uneducated classes from voting. The
government of the new kingdom took place in a framework of
parliamentary constitutional monarchy dominated by liberal forces.
From 2 November 1899 to 7 September 1901,
Italy participated as part
Eight-Nation Alliance forces during the
Boxer Rebellion in
China. On 7 September 1901, a concession in Tientsin was ceded to the
country, and on 7 June 1902, the concession was taken into Italian
possession and administered by a consul.
Altare della Patria
Altare della Patria in Rome, built in honor of Victor Emmanuel II,
the first king of a unified Italy. Since the end of World War I, it
holds the tomb of the Unknown Soldier
In 1913, male universal suffrage was adopted. As Northern Italy
quickly industrialised, the South and rural areas of the North
remained underdeveloped and overpopulated, forcing millions of people
to migrate abroad, while the
Italian Socialist Party
Italian Socialist Party constantly
increased in strength, challenging the traditional liberal and
conservative establishment. Starting from the last two decades of the
Italy developed into a colonial power by forcing
Somalia, Eritrea and later
Libya and the Dodecanese under its
Italy, nominally allied with the
German Empire and the Empire of
Austria-Hungary in the Triple Alliance, in 1915 joined the Allies into
the war with a promise of substantial territorial gains, that included
western Inner Carniola, former Austrian Littoral,
Dalmatia as well as
parts of the Ottoman Empire. The war was initially inconclusive, as
the Italian army get struck in a long attrition war in the Alps,
making little progress and suffering very heavy losses. Eventually, in
October 1918, the
Italians launched a massive offensive, culminating
in the victory of Vittorio Veneto. The Italian victory
marked the end of the war on the Italian Front, secured the
dissolution of the
Austro-Hungarian Empire and was chiefly
instrumental in ending the First World War less than two weeks later.
During the war, more than 650,000 Italian soldiers and as many
civilians died and the kingdom went to the brink of bankruptcy.
Under the Peace Treaties of Saint-Germain, Rapallo and Rome, Italy
obtained most of the promised territories, but not
Zara), allowing nationalists to define the victory as "mutilated".
Italy annexed the Hungarian harbour of Fiume, that was not
part of territories promised at London but had been occupied after the
end of the war by Gabriele D'Annunzio.
Italian Fascism and
Military history of Italy
Military history of Italy during
World War II
Benito Mussolini, duce of Fascist Italy
The socialist agitations that followed the devastation of the Great
War, inspired by the Russian Revolution, led to counter-revolution and
repression throughout Italy. The liberal establishment, fearing a
Soviet-style revolution, started to endorse the small National Fascist
Party, led by Benito Mussolini. In October 1922 the
Blackshirts of the
National Fascist Party
National Fascist Party attempted a coup (the "March on Rome") which
failed but at the last minute, King
Victor Emmanuel III
Victor Emmanuel III refused to
proclaim a state of siege and appointed Mussolini prime minister. Over
the next few years, Mussolini banned all political parties and
curtailed personal liberties, thus forming a dictatorship. These
actions attracted international attention and eventually inspired
similar dictatorships such as
Nazi Germany and Francoist Spain.
In 1935, Mussolini invaded Ethiopia, resulting in an international
alienation and leading to Italy's withdrawal from the League of
Italy allied with
Nazi Germany and the Empire of
Francisco Franco in the Spanish civil war. In 1939,
Italy annexed Albania, a de facto protectorate for decades. Italy
entered World War II on 10 June 1940. After initially advancing in
British Somaliland and Egypt, the
Italians were defeated in East
Africa, the Balkans,
Russia and North Africa.
Maximum extent of the
Italian Empire (1940–43)
The Armistice of Villa Giusti, which ended fighting between
Austria-Hungary at the end of World War I, resulted in Italian
annexation of neighboring parts of Yugoslavia. During the interwar
period, the fascist Italian government undertook a campaign of
Italianisation in the areas it annexed, which suppressed Slavic
language, schools, political parties, and cultural institutions.
During World War II,
Italian war crimes
Italian war crimes included extrajudicial
killings and ethnic cleansing by deportation of about 25,000
people, mainly Jews, Croats, and Slovenians, to the Italian
concentration camps, such as Rab, Gonars, Monigo, Renicci di Anghiari
and elsewhere. In
Italy and Yugoslavia, unlike in Germany, few war
crimes were prosecuted.
Yugoslav Partisans perpetrated
their own crimes during and after the war, including the foibe
killings. Meanwhile, about 250,000
Italians and anti-communist Slavs
Italy in the Istrian exodus.
An Allied invasion of
Sicily began in July 1943, leading to the
collapse of the Fascist regime and the fall of Mussolini on 25 July.
On 8 September,
Italy surrendered. The Germans helped by the Italian
fascists shortly succeeded in taking control of northern and central
Italy. The country remained a battlefield for the rest of the war, as
the Allies were slowly moving up from the south.
In the north, the Germans set up the Italian Social
Republic (RSI), a
Nazi puppet state with Mussolini installed as leader. The
post-armistice period saw the rise of a large anti-fascist resistance
movement, the Resistenza. In late April 1945, with total defeat
looming, Mussolini attempted to escape north, but was captured and
summarly executed near
Lake Como by Italian partisans. His body was
then taken to Milan, where it was hung upside down at a service
station for public viewing and to provide confirmation of his
demise. Hostilities ended on 29 April 1945, when the German forces
Italy surrendered. Nearly half a million
civilians) died in the conflict, and the Italian economy had been
all but destroyed; per capita income in 1944 was at its lowest point
since the beginning of the 20th century.
Main article: History of the Italian Republic
Alcide De Gasperi, first republican
Prime Minister of Italy
Prime Minister of Italy and one of
the Founding Fathers of the European Union
Italy became a republic after a referendum held on 2 June 1946, a
day celebrated since as
Republic Day. This was also the first time
that Italian women were entitled to vote. Victor Emmanuel III's
son, Umberto II, was forced to abdicate and exiled. The Republican
Constitution was approved on 1 January 1948. Under the Treaty of Peace
Italy of 1947, most of
Julian March was lost to Yugoslavia and,
Free Territory of Trieste
Free Territory of Trieste was divided between the two
Italy also lost all its colonial possessions, formally ending
the Italian Empire.
Fears in the Italian electorate of a possible Communist takeover
proved crucial for the first universal suffrage electoral outcome on
18 April 1948, when the Christian Democrats, under the leadership of
Alcide De Gasperi, obtained a landslide victory. Consequently, in 1949
Italy became a member of NATO. The
Marshall Plan helped to revive the
Italian economy which, until the late 1960s, enjoyed a period of
sustained economic growth commonly called the "Economic Miracle". In
Italy was a founding member of the European Economic Community
(EEC), which became the
European Union (EU) in 1993.
The signing ceremony of the Treaty of
Rome at the Palazzo dei
Conservatori on the Capitoline Hill.
Italy is a founding member of all
From the late 1960s until the early 1980s, the country experienced the
Years of Lead, a period characterised by economic crisis (especially
after the 1973 oil crisis), widespread social conflicts and terrorist
massacres carried out by opposing extremist groups, with the alleged
involvement of US and Soviet intelligence. The Years of
Lead culminated in the assassination of the Christian Democrat leader
Aldo Moro in 1978 and the
Bologna railway station massacre in 1980,
where 85 people died.
In the 1980s, for the first time since 1945, two governments were led
by non-Christian-Democrat premiers: one republican (Giovanni
Spadolini) and one socialist (Bettino Craxi); the Christian Democrats
remained, however, the main government party. During Craxi's
government, the economy recovered and
Italy became the world's fifth
largest industrial nation, gaining entry into the G7 Group. However,
as a result of his spending policies, the Italian national debt
skyrocketed during the Craxi era, soon passing 100% of the GDP.
In the early 1990s,
Italy faced significant challenges, as voters –
disenchanted with political paralysis, massive public debt and the
extensive corruption system (known as Tangentopoli) uncovered by the
'Clean Hands' investigation – demanded radical reforms. The scandals
involved all major parties, but especially those in the government
coalition: the Christian Democrats, who ruled for almost 50 years,
underwent a severe crisis and eventually disbanded, splitting up into
several factions. The Communists reorganised as a
social-democratic force. During the 1990s and the 2000s (decade),
centre-right (dominated by media magnate Silvio Berlusconi) and
centre-left coalitions (led by university professor Romano Prodi)
alternately governed the country.
In the late 2000s,
Italy was severely hit by the Great Recession. From
2008 to 2013, the country suffered 42 months of
GDP recession. The
economic crisis was one of the main problems that forced Berlusconi to
resign in 2011. The government of the conservative Prime Minister was
replaced by the technocratic cabinet of Mario Monti. Following the
2013 general election, the Vice-Secretary of the Democratic Party
Enrico Letta formed a new government at the head of a right-left Grand
coalition. In 2014, challenged by the new Secretary of the PD Matteo
Renzi, Letta resigned and was replaced by Renzi. The new government
started important constitutional reforms such as the abolition of the
Senate and a new electoral law. On 4 December the constitutional
reform was rejected in a referendum and Renzi resigned after few days
on 12 December; the Foreign Affairs Minister
Paolo Gentiloni was
appointed new Prime Minister.
Italy was affected by the
European migrant crisis
European migrant crisis in 2015 as it became
the entry point and leading destination for most asylum seekers
entering the EU. The country took in over half a million refugees,
which caused great strain on the public purse and a surge in the
support for far-right and euroskeptic political parties.
Main article: Geography of Italy
Topographic map of Italy
Italy is located in Southern Europe, between latitudes 35° and 47°
N, and longitudes 6° and 19° E. To the north,
Italy borders France,
Austria and Slovenia, and is roughly delimited by the
Alpine watershed, enclosing the
Po Valley and the Venetian Plain. To
the south, it consists of the entirety of the
Italian Peninsula and
Mediterranean islands of
Sicily and Sardinia, in addition to
many smaller islands. The sovereign states of
San Marino and the
Vatican City are enclaves within Italy, while
Campione d'Italia is an
Italian exclave in Switzerland.
The country's total area is 301,230 square kilometres
(116,306 sq mi), of which 294,020 km2
(113,522 sq mi) is land and 7,210 km2
(2,784 sq mi) is water. Including the islands,
Italy has a
coastline and border of 7,600 kilometres (4,722 miles) on the
Adriatic, Ionian, Tyrrhenian seas (740 km (460 mi)), and
borders shared with
France (488 km (303 mi)), Austria
(430 km (267 mi)),
Slovenia (232 km (144 mi)) and
Switzerland (740 km (460 mi)).
San Marino (39 km
(24 mi)) and
Vatican City (3.2 km (2.0 mi)), both
enclaves, account for the remainder.
Apennine Mountains form the peninsula's backbone and the
most of its northern boundary, where Italy's highest point is located
Monte Bianco (4,810 m or 15,780 ft).[note 1] The Po,
Italy's longest river (652 kilometres or 405 miles), flows from the
Alps on the western border with
France and crosses the
Padan plain on
its way to the Adriatic Sea. The five largest lakes are, in order of
diminishing size: Garda (367.94 km2 or 142 sq mi),
Maggiore (212.51 km2 or 82 sq mi, shared with
Switzerland), Como (145.9 km2 or 56 sq mi), Trasimeno
(124.29 km2 or 48 sq mi) and Bolsena (113.55 km2
or 44 sq mi).
Although the country includes the Italian peninsula, adjacent islands
and most of the southern Alpine basin, some of Italy's territory
extends beyond the Alpine basin and some islands are located outside
the Eurasian continental shelf. These territories are the comuni of:
Livigno, Sexten, Innichen,
Toblach (in part), Chiusaforte, Tarvisio,
Graun im Vinschgau
Graun im Vinschgau (in part), which are all part of the Danube's
drainage basin, while the Val di Lei constitutes part of the Rhine's
basin and the islands of
Lampione are on the African
Monte Bianco in
Aosta Valley, the highest point in the European Union
Dolomites in the Italian alps
Lake Como, often cited as the most beautiful lake in the world.
The Riviera in Liguria
Delta of the Po river
The Marmore Falls in Umbria
Undulating landscape in Tuscany
Faraglioni rocks, Capri
The rocky coastline of the Isle of Sant'Antioco, Sardinia
The Gulf of Macari in San Vito Lo Capo, Sicily
See also: Volcanology of Italy
Mount Etna is an active stratovolcano in Sicily
The country is situated at the meeting point of the Eurasian Plate and
the African Plate, leading to considerable seismic and volcanic
activity. There are 14 volcanoes in Italy, four of which are active:
Etna (the traditional site of Vulcan's smithy), Stromboli,
Vesuvius. The latter one is the only active volcano in mainland Europe
and is most famous for the destruction of
the eruption in 79 AD. Several islands and hills have been created by
volcanic activity, and there is still a large active caldera, the
Campi Flegrei north-west of Naples.
The high volcanic and magmatic neogenic activity is subdivided into
Magmatic Tuscan (Monti Cimini,
Tolfa and Amiata);
Magmatic Latium (Monti Volsini, Vico nel Lazio, Colli Albani,
Ultra-alkaline Umbrian Latium District (San Venanzo, Cupaello and
Mount Vesuvius, as seen from the Mount Somma
Vulcanic bell (Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei, Ischia);
Windy arch and Tyrrhenian basin (
Aeolian Islands and Tyrrhenian
African-Adriatic Avampa (Channel of Sicily, Graham Island, Etna and
Until the 1950s,
Italy was the first and only country to exploit
geothermal energy to produce electricity in the
Larderello area, and
later in the Mount
Amiata area. The high geothermal gradient that
forms part of the peninsula makes potentially exploitable also other
provinces: research carried out in the 1960s and 1970s identifies
potential geothermal fields in
Lazio and Tuscany, as well as in most
List of national parks of Italy
List of national parks of Italy and List of regional parks
National (green) and regional (orange) parks in Italy
After its quick industrial growth,
Italy took a long time to confront
its environmental problems. After several improvements, it now ranks
84th in the world for ecological sustainability. National parks
cover about 5% of the country. In the last decade,
become one of the world's leading producers of renewable energy,
ranking as the world's fourth largest holder of installed solar energy
capacity and the sixth largest holder of wind power capacity
in 2010. Renewable energies now make up about 12% of the total
primary and final energy consumption in Italy, with a future target
share set at 17% for the year 2020.
Gran Paradiso, established in 1922, is the oldest Italian national
However, air pollution remains a severe problem, especially in the
industrialised north, reaching the tenth highest level worldwide of
industrial carbon dioxide emissions in the 1990s.
Italy is the
twelfth largest carbon dioxide producer. Extensive traffic and
congestion in the largest metropolitan areas continue to cause severe
environmental and health issues, even if smog levels have decreased
dramatically since the 1970s and 1980s, and the presence of smog is
becoming an increasingly rarer phenomenon and levels of sulphur
dioxide are decreasing.
Many watercourses and coastal stretches have also been contaminated by
industrial and agricultural activity, while because of rising water
Venice has been regularly flooded throughout recent years.
Waste from industrial activity is not always disposed of by legal
means and has led to permanent health effects on inhabitants of
affected areas, as in the case of the Seveso disaster. The country has
also operated several nuclear reactors between 1963 and 1990 but,
Chernobyl disaster and a referendum on the issue the nuclear
programme was terminated, a decision that was overturned by the
government in 2008, planning to build up to four nuclear power plants
with French technology. This was in turn struck down by a referendum
following the Fukushima nuclear accident.
Deforestation, illegal building developments and poor land-management
policies have led to significant erosion all over Italy's mountainous
regions, leading to major ecological disasters like the 1963 Vajont
Dam flood, the 1998 Sarno and 2009
Fauna of Italy
Fauna of Italy and
Flora of Italy
The Italian wolf, which inhabits the
Apennine Mountains and the
Western Alps, features prominently in
Latin and Italian cultures, such
as in the legend of the founding of Rome.
Italy has the highest level of faunal biodiversity in Europe, with
over 57,000 species recorded, representing more than a third of all
European fauna. The Italian peninsula is in the centre of the
Mediterranean Sea, forming a corridor between central
Europe and North
Africa, and has 8,000 km of coastline.
Italy also receives
species from the Balkans, Eurasia, the Middle East. Italy's varied
geological structure, including the
Alps and the Apennines, Central
Italian woodlands, and Southern Italian
Garigue and Maquis shrubland,
also contribute to high climate and habitat diversity.
Italian fauna includes 4777 endemic animal species, such as the
Sardinian long-eared bat, Sardinian red deer, spectacled salamander,
Brown cave salamander, Italian cave salamander, Monte Albo cave
salamander, Sardinian brook newt, Italian newt, Italian frog, Apennine
yellow-bellied toad, Aeolian wall lizard, Sicilian wall lizard,
Italian Aesculapian snake, and Sicilian pond turtle. There are 102
mammals species in Italy, such as the Alpine marmot, Etruscan shrew
(the smallest mammal in the world), and European snow vole; notable
large mammals are the Italian wolf, Marsican brown bear, Pyrenean
chamois, Alpine ibex, rough-toothed dolphin, crested porcupine and
Mediterranean monk seal.
Italy has also recorded 516 bird species and
56213 invertebrates species.
The flora was traditionally estimated to comprise about 5,500 vascular
plant species. However, as of 2005[update], 6,759 species are
recorded in the Data bank of Italian vascular flora.
Geobotanically, the Italian flora is shared between the Circumboreal
Italy is a signatory to the Berne
Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural
Habitats and the
Habitats Directive both affording protection to the
Italian fauna and flora.
Main article: Climate of Italy
Southern Italy has a
Thanks to the great longitudinal extension of the peninsula and the
mostly mountainous internal conformation, the climate of
highly diverse. In most of the inland northern and central regions,
the climate ranges from humid subtropical to humid continental and
oceanic. In particular, the climate of the
Po valley geographical
region is mostly continental, with harsh winters and hot
The coastal areas of Liguria,
Tuscany and most of the South generally
Mediterranean climate stereotype (Köppen climate
classification Csa). Conditions on peninsular coastal areas can be
very different from the interior's higher ground and valleys,
particularly during the winter months when the higher altitudes tend
to be cold, wet, and often snowy. The coastal regions have mild
winters and warm and generally dry summers, although lowland valleys
can be quite hot in summer. Average winter temperatures vary from
0 °C (32 °F) on the
Alps to 12 °C (54 °F) in
Sicily, like so the average summer temperatures range from 20 °C
(68 °F) to over 25 °C (77 °F). Winters can vary
widely across the country with lingering cold, foggy and snowy periods
in the north and milder, sunnier conditions in the south. Summers can
be hot and humid across the country, particularly in the south while
northern and central areas can experience occasional strong
thunderstorms from spring to autumn.
Main article: Politics of Italy
Italy has been a unitary parliamentary republic since 2 June 1946,
when the monarchy was abolished by a constitutional referendum. The
President of Italy
President of Italy (Presidente della Repubblica), currently Sergio
Mattarella since 2015, is Italy's head of state. The President is
elected for a single seven years mandate by the
Parliament of Italy
Parliament of Italy in
Italy has a written democratic constitution, resulting
from the work of a Constituent Assembly formed by the representatives
of all the anti-fascist forces that contributed to the defeat of Nazi
and Fascist forces during the Civil War.
Prime Minister since 2016
President since 2015
Italy has a parliamentary government based on a proportional voting
system. The parliament is perfectly bicameral: the two houses, the
Chamber of Deputies (that meets in Palazzo Montecitorio) and the
Senate of the
Republic (that meets in Palazzo Madama), have the same
powers. The Prime Minister, officially President of the Council of
Ministers (Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri), is Italy's head of
government. The Prime Minister and the cabinet are appointed by the
President of the Republic, but must pass a vote of confidence in
Parliament to come into office. The incumbent Prime Minister is Paolo
Gentiloni of the Democratic Party.
The prime minister is the President of the Council of
Ministers—which holds effective executive power— and he must
receive a vote of approval from it to execute most political
activities. The office is similar to those in most other parliamentary
systems, but the leader of the Italian government is not authorised to
request the dissolution of the Parliament of Italy.
Another difference with similar offices is that the overall political
responsibility for intelligence is vested in the President of the
Council of Ministers. By virtue of that, the Prime Minister has
exclusive power to: coordinate intelligence policies, determining the
financial resources and strengthening national cyber security; apply
and protect State secrets; authorise agents to carry out operations,
Italy or abroad, in violation of the law.
The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of Italy.
A peculiarity of the
Italian Parliament is the representation given to
Italian citizens permanently living abroad: 12 Deputies and 6 Senators
elected in four distinct overseas constituencies. In addition, the
Italian Senate is characterised also by a small number of senators for
life, appointed by the President "for outstanding patriotic merits in
the social, scientific, artistic or literary field". Former Presidents
Republic are ex officio life senators.
Italy's three major political parties are the Lega Nord, Democratic
Party and the Five Star Movement. During the 2018 general election
these three parties won 614 out of 630 seats available in the Chamber
of Deputies and 309 out of 315 in the Senate. Most of the seats
were won by Luigi Di Maio's
Five Star Movement
Five Star Movement with the rest going to
Berlusconi's Forza Italia which formed a centre-right coalition with
Matteo Silvani's Northern League and Giorgia Meloni's Brothers of
Italy, beyond these the rest were taken by Matteo Renzi's Democratic
Party along with Achammer and Panizza's South Tyrolean People's Party
Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Party in a centre-left coalition
and the independent Free and Equal party.
Law and criminal justice
Law of Italy and Judiciary of Italy
The Supreme Court of Cassation
The Italian judicial system is based on
Roman law modified by the
Napoleonic code and later statutes. The Supreme Court of Cassation is
the highest court in
Italy for both criminal and civil appeal cases.
Constitutional Court of Italy
Constitutional Court of Italy (Corte Costituzionale) rules on the
conformity of laws with the constitution and is a post–World War II
innovation. Since their appearance in the middle of the 19th century,
Italian organised crime and criminal organisations have infiltrated
the social and economic life of many regions in Southern Italy, the
most notorious of which being the Sicilian Mafia, which would later
expand into some foreign countries including the United States. Mafia
receipts may reach 9% of Italy's GDP.
A 2009 report identified 610 comuni which have a strong Mafia
presence, where 13 million
Italians live and 14.6% of the Italian GDP
is produced. The Calabrian 'Ndrangheta, nowadays probably
the most powerful crime syndicate of Italy, accounts alone for 3% of
the country's GDP. However, at 0.013 per 1,000 people,
only the 47th highest murder rate (in a group of 62 countries)
and the 43rd highest number of rapes per 1,000 people in the world (in
a group of 65 countries), relatively low figures among developed
Main article: Law enforcement in Italy
Alfa Romeo vehicle of the
Law enforcement in Italy
Law enforcement in Italy is provided by multiple police forces, five
of which are national, Italian agencies. The
Polizia di Stato
Polizia di Stato (State
Police) is the civil national police of Italy. Along with patrolling,
investigative and law enforcement duties, it patrols the Autostrada
(Italy's Express Highway network), and oversees the security of
railways, bridges and waterways. The
Carabinieri is the common name
for the Arma dei Carabinieri, a Gendarmerie-like military corps with
police duties. They also serve as the military police for the Italian
The Guardia di Finanza, (English: Financial Guard) is a corps under
the authority of the Minister of Economy and Finance, with a role as
police force. The Corps is in charge of financial, economic, judiciary
and public safety. The Polizia Penitenziaria (Prison Guards, literally
Penitentiary Police) operate the Italian prison system and handle the
transportation of inmates.
Main article: Foreign relations of Italy
Paolo Gentiloni with EU High Representative Federica
Italy is a founding member of the European Community, now the European
Union (EU), and of NATO.
Italy was admitted to the United Nations in
1955, and it is a member and strong supporter of a wide number of
international organisations, such as the Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development (OECD), the General Agreement on Tariffs
World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization (GATT/WTO), the Organization for
Security and Co-operation in
Europe (OSCE), the Council of Europe, and
the Central European Initiative. Its recent or upcoming turns in the
rotating presidency of international organisations include the
Organization for Security and Co-operation in
Europe in 2018, the G7
in 2017 and the EU Council from July to December 2014.
Italy is also a
recurrent Non-permanent member of the UN Security Council, the most
recently in 2017.
Italy strongly supports multilateral international politics, endorsing
the United Nations and its international security activities. As of
Italy was deploying 5,296 troops abroad, engaged in 33
NATO missions in 25 countries of the world.
troops in support of UN peacekeeping missions in Somalia, Mozambique,
and East Timor and provides support for
NATO and UN operations in
Kosovo and Albania.
Italy deployed over 2,000 troops in
Afghanistan in support of
Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) from
Italy supported international efforts to reconstruct and stabilise
Iraq, but it had withdrawn its military contingent of some 3,200
troops by 2006, maintaining only humanitarian operators and other
civilian personnel. In August 2006
Italy deployed about 2,450 troops
Lebanon for the United Nations' peacekeeping mission UNIFIL.
Italy is one of the largest financiers of the Palestinian National
Authority, contributing €60 million in 2013 alone.
Main article: Italian Armed Forces
The aircraft carrier MM Cavour
Eurofighter Typhoon operated by the Italian Air Force
The Italian Army, Navy, Air Force and
Carabinieri collectively form
the Italian Armed Forces, under the command of the Supreme Defence
Council, presided over by the President of Italy. Since 2005, military
service is voluntary. In 2010, the Italian military had 293,202
personnel on active duty, of which 114,778 are Carabinieri.
Total Italian military spending in 2010 ranked tenth in the world,
standing at $35.8 billion, equal to 1.7% of national GDP. As part
of NATO's nuclear sharing strategy
Italy also hosts 90 United States
B61 nuclear bombs, located in the
Ghedi and Aviano air bases.
Italian Army is the national ground defence force, numbering
109,703 in 2008. Its best-known combat vehicles are the Dardo infantry
fighting vehicle, the
Centauro tank destroyer and the
Ariete tank, and
among its aircraft the Mangusta attack helicopter, in the last years
deployed in EU,
NATO and UN missions. It also has at its disposal a
large number of
Leopard 1 and M113 armoured vehicles.
Italian Navy in 2008 had 35,200 active personnel with 85
commissioned ships and 123 aircraft. It is a blue-water navy. In
modern times the Italian Navy, being a member of the EU and NATO, has
taken part in many coalition peacekeeping operations around the world.
Italian Air Force
Italian Air Force in 2008 had a strength of 43,882 and operated
585 aircraft, including 219 combat jets and 114 helicopters. A
transport capability is guaranteed by a fleet of 27 C-130Js and C-27J
An autonomous corps of the military, the
Carabinieri are the
gendarmerie and military police of Italy, policing the military and
civilian population alongside Italy's other police forces. While the
different branches of the
Carabinieri report to separate ministries
for each of their individual functions, the corps reports to the
Ministry of Internal Affairs when maintaining public order and
Main articles: Regions of Italy, Metropolitan cities of Italy,
Provinces of Italy, and Municipalities of Italy
Italy is subdivided into 20 regions (regioni), five of these regions
having a special autonomous status that enables them to enact
legislation on some of their local matters. The country is further
divided into 14 metropolitan cities (città metropolitane) and 96
provinces (province), which in turn are subdivided in 7,960
municipalities (2018) (comuni).
Area (sq mi)
Main article: Economy of Italy
Milan is a global financial centre and a fashion capital of the world.
Italy has a major advanced capitalist mixed economy, ranking as
the third-largest in the
Eurozone and the eighth-largest in the
world. A founding member of the G7, the
Eurozone and the OECD, it
is regarded as one of the world's most industrialised nations and a
leading country in world trade and exports. It is a
highly developed country, with the world's 8th highest quality of life
in 2005 and the 26th Human Development Index. The country is well
known for its creative and innovative business, a large and
competitive agricultural sector (
Italy is the world's largest
wine producer), and for its influential and high-quality
automobile, machinery, food, design and fashion
Italy maintains a large automotive industry, and
is the world's seventh exporter of goods.
Italy is the world's sixth largest manufacturing country,
characterised by a smaller number of global multinational corporations
than other economies of comparable size and a large number of dynamic
small and medium-sized enterprises, notoriously clustered in several
industrial districts, which are the backbone of the Italian industry.
This has produced a manufacturing sector often focused on the export
of niche market and luxury products, that if on one side is less
capable to compete on the quantity, on the other side is more capable
of facing the competition from
China and other emerging Asian
economies based on lower labour costs, with higher quality
Italy was the world's 7th largest exporter in 2016. Its
closest trade ties are with the other countries of the European Union,
with whom it conducts about 59% of its total trade. Its largest EU
trade partners, in order of market share, are
Germany (12.9%), France
Italy is part of a monetary union, the
Eurozone (dark blue) and of the
EU single market.
The automotive industry is a significant part of the Italian
manufacturing sector, with over 144,000 firms and almost 485,000
employed people in 2015, and a contribution of 8.5% to Italian
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (abbreviated in FCA) is currently
the world's seventh-largest auto maker. The country boasts a wide
range of acclaimed products, from very compact city cars to luxury
supercars such as Maserati, Lamborghini, and Ferrari, which was rated
the world's most powerful brand by Brand Finance. Italian cars
have also won 12 times at the European Car of the Year, with 9 awards
Fiat (the most of any manufacturer), 2 by Alfa Romeo, and one
Italy is part of the European single market which represents more than
500 million consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are
determined by agreements among
European Union (EU) members and by EU
Italy introduced the common European currency, the Euro
in 2002. It is a member of the
Eurozone which represents
around 330 million citizens. Its monetary policy is set by the
European Central Bank.
Italy has been hit hard by the Financial crisis of 2007–08, that
exacerbated the country's structural problems. Effectively, after
GDP growth of 5–6% per year from the 1950s to the early
1970s, and a progressive slowdown in the 1980-90s, the country
virtually stagnated in the 2000s. The political efforts to
revive growth with massive government spending eventually produced a
severe rise in public debt, that stood at over 135% of
GDP in 2014,
ranking second in the EU only after the Greek one (at 174%). For
all that, the largest chunk of Italian public debt is owned by
national subjects, a major difference between
Italy and Greece,
and the level of household debt is much lower than the OECD
A gaping North–South divide is a major factor of socio-economic
weakness. It can be noted by the huge difference in statistical
income between the northern and southern regions and
municipalities. The richest department, Alto Adige-South Tyrol,
earns 152% of the national
GDP per capita, while the poorest region,
Calabria, 61%. The unemployment rate (11.1%) stands slightly
Eurozone average, but the disaggregated figure is 6.6%
in the North and 19.2% in the South.
Vineyards in the
Chianti region, Tuscany. The Italian food industry is
well known for the high quality and variety of its products.
According to the last national agricultural census, there were 1.6
million farms in 2010 (−32.4% since 2000) covering 12.7 million
hectares (63% of which are located in Southern Italy). The vast
majority (99%) are family-operated and small, averaging only 8
hectares in size. Of the total surface area in agricultural use
(forestry excluded), grain fields take up 31%, olive tree orchards
8.2%, vineyards 5.4%, citrus orchards 3.8%, sugar beets 1.7%, and
horticulture 2.4%. The remainder is primarily dedicated to pastures
(25.9%) and feed grains (11.6%).
Italy is the world's top wine producer, and one of the leading in
olive oil, fruits (apples, olives, grapes, oranges, lemons, pears,
apricots, hazelnuts, peaches, cherries, plums, strawberries and
kiwifruits), and vegetables (especially artichokes and tomatoes). The
most famous Italian wines are probably the Tuscan
Chianti and the
Piedmontese Barolo. Other famous wines are Barbaresco, Barbera d'Asti,
Brunello di Montalcino, Frascati, Montepulciano d'Abruzzo, Morellino
di Scansano, and the sparkling wines Franciacorta and Prosecco.
Quality goods in which
Italy specialises, particularly the already
mentioned wines and regional cheeses, are often protected under the
quality assurance labels DOC/DOP. This geographical indication
certificate, which is attributed by the European Union, is considered
important in order to avoid confusion with low-quality mass-produced
Main article: Transport in Italy
Frecciarossa 1000 high speed train, with a maximum speed of
400 km/h (249 mph), is the fastest train in
In 2004 the transport sector in
Italy generated a turnover of about
119.4 billion euros, employing 935,700 persons in 153,700
enterprises. Regarding the national road network, in 2002 there were
668,721 km (415,524 mi) of serviceable roads in Italy,
including 6,487 km (4,031 mi) of motorways, state-owned but
privately operated by Atlantia. In 2005, about 34,667,000 passenger
cars (590 cars per 1,000 people) and 4,015,000 goods vehicles
circulated on the national road network.
The national railway network, state-owned and operated by Ferrovie
dello Stato, in 2008 totalled 16,529 km (10,271 mi) of which
11,727 km (7,287 mi) is electrified, and on which 4,802
locomotives and railcars run.
The national inland waterways network comprised 1,477 km
(918 mi) of navigable rivers and channels in 2002. In 2004 there
were approximately 30 main airports (including the two hubs of
Malpensa International in
Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci International in
Rome) and 43 major seaports (including the seaport of Genoa, the
country's largest and second largest in the
Mediterranean Sea). In
Italy maintained a civilian air fleet of about 389,000 units and
a merchant fleet of 581 ships.
Italy needs to import about 80% of its energy
Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Italy
Italy does not invest enough to maintain its drinking water supply and
sanitation infrastructure, while water and sanitation tariffs are
among the lowest in the European Union. The Galli Law, passed in 1993,
aimed at raising the level of investment and to improve service
quality by consolidating service providers, making them more efficient
and increasing the level of cost recovery through tariff revenues.
Despite these reforms, investment levels have declined and remain far
Science and technology
Main article: Science and technology in Italy
Clockwise from left: Alessandro Volta, inventor of the electric
battery and discoverer of methane;
Galileo Galilei, recognized as the Father of modern science, physics
and observational astronomy;
Guglielmo Marconi, inventor of the long-distance radio
Enrico Fermi, creator of the first nuclear reactor, the Chicago
Through the centuries,
Italy has fostered the scientific community
that produced many major discoveries in physics and the other
sciences. During the
Renaissance Italian polymaths such as Leonardo da
Michelangelo (1475–1564) and Leon Battista
Alberti (1404–72) made important contributions to a variety of
fields, including biology, architecture, and engineering. Galileo
Galilei (1564–1642), a physicist, mathematician and astronomer,
played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements
include key improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical
observations, and ultimately the triumph of Copernicanism over the
Other astronomers suchs as
Giovanni Domenico Cassini
Giovanni Domenico Cassini (1625–1712) and
Giovanni Schiaparelli (1835–1910) made many important discoveries
about the Solar System. In mathematics,
Joseph Louis Lagrange
Joseph Louis Lagrange (born
Giuseppe Lodovico Lagrangia, 1736–1813) was active before leaving
Fibonacci (c. 1170 – c. 1250), and Gerolamo Cardano
(1501–76) made fundamental advances in mathematics. Luca Pacioli
established accounting to the world. Physicist Enrico Fermi
(1901–54), a Nobel prize laureate, led the team in Chicago that
developed the first nuclear reactor and is also noted for his many
other contributions to physics, including the co-development of the
quantum theory and was one of the key figures in the creation of the
nuclear weapon. He,
Emilio G. Segrè
Emilio G. Segrè ((1905–89) who discovered the
elements technetium and astatine, and the antiproton), Bruno Rossi
((1905–93) a pioneer in Cosmic Rays and X-ray astronomy) and a
number of Italian physicists were forced to leave
Italy in the 1930s
by Fascist laws against Jews,.
Other prominent physicists include:
Amedeo Avogadro (most noted for
his contributions to molecular theory, in particular the Avogadro's
law and the Avogadro constant),
Evangelista Torricelli (inventor of
Alessandro Volta (inventor of electric battery), Guglielmo
Marconi (inventor of radio),
Galileo Ferraris and Antonio Pacinotti,
pioneers of the induction motor, Alessandro Cruto, pioneer of light
bulb and Innocenzo Manzetti, eclectic pioneer of auto and robotics,
Ettore Majorana (who discovered the Majorana fermions), Carlo Rubbia
(1984 Nobel Prize in Physics for work leading to the discovery of the
W and Z particles
W and Z particles at CERN).
Antonio Meucci is known for developing a
voice-communication device which is often credited as the first
Pier Giorgio Perotto
Pier Giorgio Perotto in 1964 designed the first
Desktop Computer, the Programma 101, arguably the first kind of
commercial personal computer. In biology,
Francesco Redi has been the
first to challenge the theory of spontaneous generation by
demonstrating that maggots come from eggs of flies and he described
180 parasites in details and
Marcello Malpighi founded microscopic
Lazzaro Spallanzani conducted important research in bodily
functions, animal reproduction, and cellular theory, Camillo Golgi,
whose many achievements include the discovery of the Golgi complex,
paved the way to the acceptance of the Neuron doctrine, Rita
Levi-Montalcini discovered the nerve growth factor (awarded 1986 Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine). In chemistry,
Giulio Natta received
the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1963 for his work on high polymers.
Giuseppe Occhialini received the
Wolf Prize in Physics
Wolf Prize in Physics for the
discovery of the pion or pi-meson decay in 1947. Ennio de Giorgi, a
Wolf Prize in Mathematics
Wolf Prize in Mathematics recipient in 1990, solved Bernstein's
problem about minimal surfaces and the 19th Hilbert problem on the
regularity of solutions of Elliptic partial differential equations.
Main article: Tourism in Italy
The Amalfi Coast, a
UNESCO World Heritage Site, is one of the major
Italy is the fifth most visited country in the world, with a total of
50.7 million international arrivals in 2015. The total
contribution of travel & tourism to
GDP (including wider effects
from investment, the supply chain and induced income impacts) was
EUR162.7bn in 2014 (10.1% of GDP) and generated 1,082,000 jobs
directly in 2014 (4.8% of total employment).
Italy is well known for its cultural and environmental tourist routes
and is home to 53
UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the most in the
Milan is the 6th most visited city in
Europe and the 14th
in the world, with an average of 7.65 million international arrivals
in 2016 while
Rome is the 8th and 16th resptectively, with 7.12
million toruists. In addition,
Florence are also among
the world's top 100 destinations.
Italy's most-visited landmarks include e.g.
Coloseum and Roman Forum,
Pompeii, Uffizi Gallery, Galleria dell'Accademia, Castel Sant'Angelo,
Boboli Garden, Venaria Reale,
Turin Egyptian Museum, the Borghese
Gallery, the Royal Palace of Caserta, Cenacolo Vinciano Museum, Villa
d'Este, Pitti Palace, the Excavations of Hercolaneum,
Archaeological Museum, the
Ostia Antica Excavations
and Museum, Blu Grotto,
Venice National Archaeological Museum, Lake
Como and Pinacoteca di Brera.
Main article: Demographics of Italy
Map of population density in
Italy as of the 2011 census.
At the end of 2013,
Italy had 60,782,668 inhabitants. The
resulting population density, at 202 inhabitants per square kilometre
(520/sq mi), is higher than that of most Western European
countries. However, the distribution of the population is widely
uneven. The most densely populated areas are the
Po Valley (that
accounts for almost a half of the national population) and the
metropolitan areas of
Rome and Naples, while vast regions such as the
Apennines highlands, the plateaus of
Basilicata and the
Sardinia are very sparsely populated.
The population of
Italy almost doubled during the 20th century, but
the pattern of growth was extremely uneven because of large-scale
internal migration from the rural South to the industrial cities of
the North, a phenomenon which happened as a consequence of the Italian
economic miracle of the 1950–1960s. High fertility and birth rates
persisted until the 1970s, after which they start decline. The
population rapidly aged. At the end of the 2000s (decade), one in five
Italians was over 65 years old. However, in recent years Italy
experienced a significant growth in birth rates. The total
fertility rate has also climbed from an all-time low of 1.18 children
per woman in 1995 to 1.41 in 2008. The TFR is expected to reach
1.6–1.8 in 2030.
From the late 19th century until the 1960s
Italy was a country of mass
emigration. Between 1898 and 1914, the peak years of Italian diaspora,
Italians emigrated each year. The diaspora
concerned more than 25 million
Italians and it is considered the
biggest mass migration of contemporary times. As a result, today
more than 4.1 million Italian citizens are living abroad, while
at least 60 million people of full or part Italian ancestry live
outside of Italy, most notably in Argentina, Brazil,
Uruguay, Venezuela, the United States, Canada,
Australia and France.
Largest cities or towns in Italy
ISTAT estimates for 31 December 2014
Metropolitan cities and larger urban zone
Population1 January 2016
Functional Urban Areas
(FUA) Population (2014)
Main article: Immigration to Italy
Italy is home to a large population of migrants from Eastern Europe
and North Africa
Italy had about 5.05 million foreign residents, making
up 8.3% of the total population. The figures include more than half a
million children born in
Italy to foreign nationals—second
generation immigrants, but exclude foreign nationals who have
subsequently acquired Italian citizenship; In 2016, about 201,000
people acquired Italian citizenship (130,000 in 2014). The
official figures also exclude illegal immigrants, that were estimated
in 2008 to number at least 670,000.
Starting from the early 1980s, until then a linguistically and
culturally homogeneous society,
Italy begun to attract substantial
flows of foreign immigrants. After the fall of the Berlin Wall
and, more recently, the 2004 and 2007 enlargements of the European
Union, large waves of migration originated from the former socialist
countries of Eastern
Europe (especially Romania, Albania,
Poland). An equally important source of immigration is neighbouring
North Africa (in particular, Morocco,
Egypt and Tunisia), with soaring
arrivals as a consequence of the Arab Spring. Furthermore, in recent
years, growing migration fluxes from Asia-Pacific (notably China
and the Philippines) and
Latin America have been recorded.
Currently, about one million Romanian citizens (around 10% of them
being from the
Romani people ethnic group) are officially
registered as living in Italy, representing thus the most important
individual country of origin, followed by
about 500,000 people each. The number of unregistered Romanians is
difficult to estimate, but the Balkan Investigative Reporting Network
suggested in 2007 that there might have been half a million or
more.[note 2] Overall, at the end of the 2000s (decade) the
foreign born population of
Italy was from:
Europe (54%), Africa (22%),
Asia (16%), the Americas (8%) and Oceania (0.06%). The distribution of
immigrants is largely uneven in Italy: 87% of immigrants live in the
northern and central parts of the country (the most economically
developed areas), while only 13% live in the southern half of the
Main articles: Languages of Italy, Italian language, and Regional
Geographic distribution of the
Italian language in the world
Secondary or non-official language
According to the first article of the framework law no.482/99,
following Art. 6 of the Italian Constitution, Italy's official
language is Italian. It is estimated that there are about 64
million native Italian speakers while the total number
of Italian speakers, including those who use it as a second language,
is about 85 million. Italian is often natively spoken in a
regional variety, not to be confused with Italy's regional and
minority languages; however, the establishment of a national
education system has led to a decrease in variation in the languages
spoken across the country during the 20th century. Standardisation was
further expanded in the 1950s and 1960s due to economic growth and the
rise of mass media and television (the state broadcaster
set a standard Italian).
All the minority language groups officially recognised by Italy
Twelve historical minority languages are formally recognised by the
framework law no.482/99: Albanian, Catalan, German, Greek, Slovene,
Croatian, French, Franco-Provençal, Friulian, Ladin,
Sardinian. Of these, four languages even enjoy a co-official
status in their respective region: French in the
Aosta Valley —
Franco-Provencal is more commonly spoken there; German
in South Tyrol, and Ladin as well in some parts of the same province
and in parts of the neighbouring Trentino; and finally, Slovene in the
province of Trieste, Gorizia and Udine. A number of other Ethnologue,
UNESCO languages are not recognised by the Italian law. Like
Italy has signed the European Charter for Regional or Minority
Languages, but has not ratified it.
Because of recent immigration influx,
Italy has sizeable populations
whose native language is not Italian, nor a regional language.
According to the Italian National Institute of Statistics, Romanian is
the most common mother tongue among foreign residents in Italy: almost
800,000 people speak Romanian as their first language (21.9% of the
foreign residents aged 6 and over). Other prevalent mother tongues are
Arabic (spoken by over 475,000 people; 13.1% of foreign residents),
Albanian (380,000 people) and Spanish (255,000 people). Other
languages spoken in
Italy are Ukrainian, Hindi, Polish and Tamil
Main article: Religion in Italy
Italy is home to many of the world's largest churches and masterpieces
of architecture. Clockwise from left:
Florence Cathedral, which has
the biggest brick dome in the world; St. Peter's Basilica,
the largest church of Christendom;
Milan Cathedral, the largest
Italian church and the third largest in the world; and St Mark's
Basilica, one of the best known examples of Italo-Byzantine
Religion in Italy
Religion in Italy according to the Global Religious Landscape survey
by the Pew Forum, 2012
No religion (12.4%)
Other religions (0.3%)
Roman Catholicism is, by far, the largest religion in the country,
although since 1985 no longer officially the state religion. In
2010, the proportion of
Italians that identify themselves as Roman
Catholic was 81.2%.
The Holy See, the episcopal jurisdiction of Rome, contains the central
government of the entire Roman Catholic Church, including various
agencies essential to administration. Diplomatically, it is recognised
by other subjects of international law as a sovereign entity, headed
by the Pope, who is also the Bishop of Rome, with which diplomatic
relations can be maintained. Often incorrectly referred to
as "the Vatican", the
Holy See is not the same entity as the Vatican
City State, which came into existence only in 1929; the
Holy See dates
back to early Christian times. Ambassadors are officially accredited
not to the
Vatican City State but to "the Holy See", and papal
representatives to states and international organisations are
recognised as representing the Holy See, not the
Vatican City State.
Minority Christian faiths in
Italy include Eastern Orthodox,
Waldensians and other
Protestant communities. In 2011, there were an
estimated 1.5 million Orthodox Christians in Italy, or 2.5% of the
population; 0.5 million
Evangelicals (of whom
0.4 million are members of the Assemblies of God), 235,685 Jehovah's
Witnesses, 30,000 Waldensians, 25,000 Seventh-day
Adventists, 22,000 Latter-day Saints, 15,000 Baptists (plus some 5,000
Free Baptists), 7,000 Lutherans, 4,000
Methodists (affiliated with the
One of the longest-established minority religious faiths in
Judaism, Jews having been present in Ancient
Rome since before the
birth of Christ.
Italy has for centuries welcomed Jews expelled from
other countries, notably Spain. However, as a result of the Holocaust,
about 20% of
Italian Jews lost their lives. This, together with
the emigration that preceded and followed World War II, has left only
a small community of around 28,400 Jews in Italy.
Soaring immigration in the last two decades has been accompanied by an
increase in non-Christian faiths. In 2010, there were 1.6 million
Muslims in Italy, forming 2.6% of population. In addition, there
are more than 200,000 followers of faiths originating in the Indian
subcontinent with some 70,000
Sikhs with 22 gurdwaras across the
country, 70,000 Hindus, and 50,000 Buddhists. There were an
Italy in 2005.
The Italian state, as a measure to protect religious freedom, devolves
shares of income tax to recognised religious communities, under a
regime known as
Eight per thousand
Eight per thousand (Otto per mille). Donations are
allowed to Christian, Jewish, Buddhist and Hindu communities; however,
Islam remains excluded, since no Muslim communities have yet signed a
concordat with the Italian state. Taxpayers who do not wish to
fund a religion contribute their share to the state welfare
Main article: Education in Italy
Bologna University, established in AD 1088, is the oldest academic
institution of the world
Education in Italy
Education in Italy is free and mandatory from ages six to
sixteen, and consists of five stages: kindergarten (scuola
dell'infanzia, formerly known as asilo), primary school (scuola
primaria, formerly known as scuola elementare), lower secondary school
(scuola secondaria di primo grado, formerly known as scuola media),
upper secondary school (scuola secondaria di secondo grado, formerly
known as scuola superiore) and university (università).
Primary education lasts eight years. The students are given a basic
education in Italian, English, mathematics, natural sciences, history,
geography, social studies, physical education and visual and musical
arts. Secondary education lasts for five years and includes three
traditional types of schools focused on different academic levels: the
liceo prepares students for university studies with a classical or
scientific curriculum, while the istituto tecnico and the Istituto
professionale prepare pupils for vocational education. In 2012, the
Italian secondary education has been evalued as slightly below the
OECD average, with a strong and steady improvement in science and
mathematics results since 2003; however, a wide gap exists
between northern schools, which performed significantly better than
the national average (among the best in the world in some subjects),
and schools in the South, that had much poorer results.
Tertiary education in
Italy is divided between public universities,
private universities and the prestigious and selective superior
graduate schools, such as the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. The
university system in
Italy is generally regarded as poor for a world
cultural powerhouse, with no universities ranked among the 100 world
best and only 20 among the top 500. However, the current
government has scheduled major reforms and investments in order to
improve the overall internationalisation and quality of the
Main article: Healthcare in Italy
Olive oil and vegetables are central to the
The Italian state runs a universal public healthcare system since
1978. However, healthcare is provided to all citizens and
residents by a mixed public-private system. The public part is the
Servizio Sanitario Nazionale, which is organised under the Ministry of
Health and administered on a devolved regional basis. Healthcare
Italy accounted for 9.2% of the national
GDP in 2012, very
OECD countries' average of 9.3%.
Italy in 2000 ranked
as having the world's 2nd best healthcare system, and the
world's 2nd best healthcare performance.
Life expectancy in
Italy is 80 for males and 85 for females, placing
the country 5th in the world for life expectancy. In comparison
to other Western countries,
Italy has a relatively low rate of adult
obesity (below 10%), probably thanks to the health benefits of
Mediterranean diet. The proportion of daily smokers was 22% in
2012, down from 24.4% in 2000 but still slightly above the OECD
average. Smoking in public places including bars, restaurants,
night clubs and offices has been restricted to specially ventilated
rooms since 2005. In 2013,
UNESCO added the
Mediterranean diet to
the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of
Italy (promoter), Morocco, Spain, Portugal, Greece, Cyprus
Main article: Culture of Italy
Villa Capra "La Rotonda", one of the influential Palladian villas of
For centuries divided by politics and geography until its eventual
unification in 1861,
Italy has developed a unique culture, shaped by a
multitude of regional customs and local centres of power and
patronage. During the
Middle Ages and the Renaissance, a number
of magnificent courts competed for attracting the best architects,
artists and scholars, thus producing an immense legacy of monuments,
paintings, music and literature.
Italy has more
World Heritage Sites
World Heritage Sites (53) than any other country
in the world, and has rich collections of art, culture and literature
from many different periods. The country has had a broad cultural
influence worldwide, also because numerous
Italians emigrated to other
places during the Italian diaspora. Furthermore, the nation has,
overall, an estimated 100,000 monuments of any sort (museums, palaces,
buildings, statues, churches, art galleries, villas, fountains,
historic houses and archaeological remains).
Architecture of Italy
Italy has a very broad and diverse architectural style, which cannot
be simply classified by period, but also by region, because of Italy's
division into several regional states until 1861. This has created a
highly diverse and eclectic range in architectural designs.
Italy is known for its considerable architectural achievements,
such as the construction of arches, domes and similar structures
during ancient Rome, the founding of the
movement in the late-14th to 16th centuries, and being the homeland of
Palladianism, a style of construction which inspired movements such as
that of Neoclassical architecture, and influenced the designs which
noblemen built their country houses all over the world, notably in the
Australia and the US during the late 17th to early 20th centuries.
Several of the finest works in Western architecture, such as the
Milan Cathedral and
Florence cathedral, the Leaning
Pisa and the building designs of
Venice are found in Italy.
The city of Venice, built on 117 islands
The Leaning Tower and the Duomo of Pisa
The Royal Palace of Caserta
Castel del Monte, built by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
Temple of Concordia in the Valley of the Temples, Agrigento
Italian architecture has also widely influenced the architecture of
the world. British architect Inigo Jones, inspired by the designs of
Italian buildings and cities, brought back the ideas of Italian
Renaissance architecture to 17th-century England, being inspired by
Andrea Palladio. Additionally, Italianate architecture, popular
abroad since the 19th century, was used to describe foreign
architecture which was built in an Italian style, especially modelled
Main article: Art of Italy
The Last Supper (1494–1499), Leonardo da Vinci, Church of Santa
Maria delle Grazie, Milan
The history of Italian visual art is part of
Western painting history.
Roman art was influenced by
Greece and can in part be taken as a
descendant of ancient Greek painting. However, Roman painting does
have important unique characteristics. The only surviving Roman
paintings are wall paintings, many from villas in Campania, in
Southern Italy. Such painting can be grouped into 4 main "styles" or
periods and may contain the first examples of trompe-l'œil,
pseudo-perspective, and pure landscape.
Panel painting becomes more common during the Romanesque period, under
the heavy influence of
Byzantine icons. Towards the middle of the 13th
Medieval art and
Gothic painting became more realistic, with
the beginnings of interest in the depiction of volume and perspective
Cimabue and then his pupil Giotto. From
Giotto on, the
treatment of composition by the best painters also became much more
free and innovative. They are considered to be the two great medieval
masters of painting in western culture.
Michelangelo's David (1501–1504), Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence
Renaissance is said by many to be the golden age of
painting; roughly spanning the 14th through the mid-17th centuries
with a significant influence also out of the borders of modern Italy.
Italy artists like Paolo Uccello, Fra Angelico, Masaccio, Piero
della Francesca, Andrea Mantegna, Filippo Lippi, Giorgione,
Tintoretto, Sandro Botticelli, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo
Buonarroti, Raphael, Giovanni Bellini, and
Titian took painting to a
higher level through the use of perspective, the study of human
anatomy and proportion, and through their development of an
unprecedented refinement in drawing and painting techniques.
Michelangelo was an active sculptor from about 1500 to 1520, and his
great masterpieces including his David, Pietà, Moses. Other prominent
Renaissance sculptors include Lorenzo Ghiberti, Luca Della Robbia,
Brunelleschi and Andrea del Verrocchio.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, the High
Renaissance gave rise to a
stylised art known as Mannerism. In place of the balanced compositions
and rational approach to perspective that characterised art at the
dawn of the 16th century, the Mannerists sought instability, artifice,
and doubt. The unperturbed faces and gestures of Piero della Francesca
and the calm Virgins of
Raphael are replaced by the troubled
Pontormo and the emotional intensity of El Greco. In
the 17th century, among the greatest painters of
Italian Baroque are
Caravaggio, Annibale Carracci, Artemisia Gentileschi, Mattia Preti,
Carlo Saraceni and Bartolomeo Manfredi. Subsequently, in the 18th
century, Italian Rococo was mainly inspired by French Rococo, since
France was the founding nation of that particular style, with artists
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo and Canaletto. Italian Neoclassical
sculpture focused, with Antonio Canova's nudes, on the idealist aspect
of the movement.
In the 19th century, major Italian Romantic painters were Francesco
Giuseppe Bezzuoli and Francesco Podesti.
Italy by the Macchiaioli, led by Giovanni
Fattori, and Giovanni Boldini; Realism by
Gioacchino Toma and Giuseppe
Pellizza da Volpedo. In the 20th century, with Futurism, primarily
through the works of
Umberto Boccioni and Giacomo Balla,
again as a seminal country for artistic evolution in painting and
Futurism was succeeded by the metaphysical paintings of
Giorgio de Chirico, who exerted a strong influence on the Surrealists
and generations of artists to follow.
Main article: Literature of Italy
Italian literature began after the founding of
Rome in 753 BC. Latin
literature was, and still is, highly influential in the world, with
numerous writers, poets, philosophers, and historians, such as Pliny
the Elder, Pliny the Younger, Virgil, Horace, Propertius,
Livy. The Romans were also famous for their oral tradition, poetry,
drama and epigrams. In early years of the 13th century, St.
Francis of Assisi
Francis of Assisi was considered the first Italian poet by literary
critics, with his religious song Canticle of the Sun.
Dante, poised between the mountain of
Purgatory and the city of
Florence, displays the famous incipit "Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra
vita" of the
Divine Comedy in a detail of Domenico di Michelino's
Another Italian voice originated in Sicily. At the court of emperor
Frederick II, who ruled the Sicilian kingdom during the first half of
the 13th century, lyrics modeled on Provençal forms and themes were
written in a refined version of the local vernacular. The most
important of these poets was the notary Giacomo da Lentini, inventor
of the sonnet form, though the most famous early sonneteer was
Guido Guinizelli is considered the founder of the Dolce Stil Novo, a
school that added a philosophical dimension to traditional love
poetry. This new understanding of love, expressed in a smooth, pure
Guido Cavalcanti and the Florentine poet Dante
Alighieri, who established the basis of the modern Italian language;
his greatest work, the Divine Comedy, is considered among the foremost
literary statements produced in
Europe during the Middle Ages;
furthermore, the poet invented the difficult terza rima. The two great
writers of the 14th century,
Petrarch and Giovanni Boccaccio, sought
out and imitated the works of antiquity and cultivated their own
Petrarch achieved fame through his collection
of poems, Il Canzoniere. Petrarch's love poetry served as a model for
centuries. Equally influential was Boccaccio's The Decameron, one of
the most popular collections of short stories ever written.
Niccolò Machiavelli, founder of the modern political science and
Renaissance authors produced a number of important works.
The Prince is one of the world's most famous
essays on political science and modern philosophy, in which the
effective truth is taken to be more important than any abstract ideal.
Another important work of the period, Ludovico Ariosto's Orlando
Furioso, continuation of Matteo Maria Boiardo's unfinished romance
Orlando Innamorato, is perhaps the greatest chivalry poem ever
written. Baldassare Castiglione's dialogue The Book of the Courtier
describes the ideal of the perfect court gentleman and of spiritual
beauty. The lyric poet
Torquato Tasso in
Jerusalem Delivered wrote a
Christian epic, making use of the ottava rima, with attention to the
Aristotelian canons of unity.
Giovanni Francesco Straparola and Giambattista Basile, which have
The Facetious Nights of Straparola
The Facetious Nights of Straparola (1550–1555) and the
Pentamerone (1634) respectively, printed some of the first known
versions of fairy tales in Europe. In the early 17th
century, some literary masterpieces were created, such as Giambattista
Marino's long mythological poem, L'Adone. The Baroque period also
produced the clear scientific prose of Galileo as well as Tommaso
Campanella's The City of the Sun, a description of a perfect society
ruled by a philosopher-priest. At the end of the 17th century, the
Arcadians began a movement to restore simplicity and classical
restraint to poetry, as in Metastasio's heroic melodramas. In the 18th
Carlo Goldoni created full written plays, many
portraying the middle class of his day.
Pinocchio, the title character of The Adventures of
Pinocchio by Carlo
Collodi, is a cultural icon and a canonical piece of children's
The Romanticism coincided with some ideas of the Risorgimento, the
patriotic movement that brought
Italy political unity and freedom from
foreign domination. Italian writers embraced Romanticism in the early
19th century. The time of Italy's rebirth was heralded by the poets
Vittorio Alfieri, Ugo Foscolo, and Giacomo Leopardi. The works by
Alessandro Manzoni, the leading Italian Romantic, are a symbol of the
Italian unification for their patriotic message and because of his
efforts in the development of the modern, unified Italian language;
his novel The Betrothed was the first Italian historical novel to
glorify Christian values of justice and Providence, and it has been
called the most famous and widely read novel in the Italian
In the late 19th century, a realistic literary movement called Verismo
played a major role in Italian literature;
Giovanni Verga and Luigi
Capuana were its main exponents. In the same period, Emilio Salgari,
writer of action adventure swashbucklers and a pioneer of science
fiction, published his
Sandokan series. In 1883, Carlo Collodi
also published the novel The Adventures of Pinocchio, the most
celebrated children's classic by an Italian author and the most
translated non-religious book in the world. A movement called
Italian literature in the early 20th century.
Filippo Tommaso Marinetti
Filippo Tommaso Marinetti wrote Manifesto of Futurism, called for the
use of language and metaphors that glorified the speed, dynamism, and
violence of the machine age.
Modern literary figures and Nobel laureates are Gabriele D'Annunzio
from 1889 to 1910, nationalist poet
Giosuè Carducci in 1906, realist
Grazia Deledda in 1926, modern theatre author Luigi Pirandello
in 1936, short stories writer
Italo Calvino in 1960, poets Salvatore
Quasimodo in 1959 and
Eugenio Montale in 1975,
Umberto Eco in 1980,
and satirist and theatre author
Dario Fo in 1997.
Prominent Italian philosophers include Cesare Beccaria, Giordano
Bruno, Benedetto Croce, Marsilio Ficino, and Giambattista Vico.
Main article: Commedia dell'arte
See also: Theatre of ancient Rome
Harlequin and Columbina, two
Commedia dell'arte stock characters,
depicted by Giovanni Domenico Ferretti
Italian theatre can be traced back to the Roman tradition. The theatre
Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from
festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, and acrobatics,
to the staging of Plautus's broadly appealing situation comedies, to
the high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies of Seneca. Although Rome
had a native tradition of performance, the
Hellenization of Roman
culture in the 3rd century BCE had a profound and energizing effect on
Roman theatre and encouraged the development of
Latin literature of
the highest quality for the stage. As with many other literary genres,
Roman dramatists was heavily influenced or tended to adapt from the
Greek. For example, Seneca's Phaedra was based on that of Euripides,
and many of the comedies of
Plautus were direct translations of works
During the 16th century and on into the 18th century, Commedia
dell'arte was a form of improvisational theatre, and it is still
performed today. Travelling troupes of players would set up an outdoor
stage and provide amusement in the form of juggling, acrobatics and,
more typically, humorous plays based on a repertoire of established
characters with a rough storyline, called canovaccio. Plays did not
originate from written drama but from scenarios called lazzi, which
were loose frameworks that provided the situations, complications, and
outcome of the action, around which the actors would improvise. The
characters of the commedia usually represent fixed social types and
stock characters, each of which has a distinct costume, such as
foolish old men, devious servants, or military officers full of false
bravado. The main categories of these characters include servants, old
men, lovers, and captains.
Carlo Goldoni, who wrote a few scenarios starting in 1734, supersed
the comedy of masks and the comedy of intrigue by representations of
actual life and manners through the characters and their behaviors. He
rightly maintained that Italian life and manners were susceptible of
artistic treatment such as had not been given them before.
Teatro di San Carlo
Teatro di San Carlo in
Naples is the oldest continuously active
venue for public opera in the world, opening in 1737, decades before
both the Milan's
La Scala and Venice's
La Fenice theatres.
Main article: Music of Italy
Giacomo Puccini, Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème,
Madama Butterfly and Turandot, are among the most frequently
worldwide performed in the standard repertoire
From folk music to classical, music has always played an important
role in Italian culture. Instruments associated with classical music,
including the piano and violin, were invented in Italy, and many of
the prevailing classical music forms, such as the symphony, concerto,
and sonata, can trace their roots back to innovations of 16th- and
17th-century Italian music.
Italy's most famous composers include the
Palestrina, Monteverdi and Gesualdo, the Baroque composers Scarlatti,
Corelli and Vivaldi, the Classical composers Paisiello, Paganini and
Rossini, and the Romantic composers
Verdi and Puccini. Modern Italian
composers such as Berio and Nono proved significant in the development
of experimental and electronic music. While the classical music
tradition still holds strong in Italy, as evidenced by the fame of its
innumerable opera houses, such as
La Scala of
Milan and San Carlo of
Naples (the oldest continuously active venue for public opera in the
world), and performers such as the pianist
Maurizio Pollini and the
late tenor Luciano Pavarotti,
Italians have been no less appreciative
of their thriving contemporary music scene.
Luciano Pavarotti, one of the most influential tenors of all time
Italy is widely known for being the birthplace of opera. Italian
opera was believed to have been founded in the early 17th century, in
Italian cities such as
Mantua and Venice. Later, works and pieces
composed by native Italian composers of the 19th and early 20th
centuries, such as Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti,
Verdi and Puccini, are
among the most famous operas ever written and today are performed in
opera houses across the world.
La Scala operahouse in
Milan is also
renowned as one of the best in the world. Famous
Italian opera singers
Enrico Caruso and Alessandro Bonci.
Introduced in the early 1920s, jazz took a particularly strong
foothold in Italy, and remained popular despite the xenophobic
cultural policies of the Fascist regime. Today, the most notable
centres of jazz music in
Italy include Milan, Rome, and Sicily. Later,
Italy was at the forefront of the progressive rock and pop movement of
the 1970s, with bands like PFM, Banco del Mutuo Soccorso, Le Orme,
Goblin, and Pooh. The same period saw diversification in the cinema of
Cinecittà films included complex scores by composers
including Ennio Morricone, Armando Trovaioli,
Piero Piccioni and Piero
Italian hip hop
Italian hip hop scene began in the early 1990s with
Articolo 31 duo, mainly influenced by the East Coast rap.
Giorgio Moroder, pioneer of
Italo disco and electronic dance music, is
known as the "Father of Disco"
Italy was also an important country in the development of disco and
electronic music, with Italo disco, known for its futuristic sound and
prominent usage of synthesisers and drum machines, being one of the
earliest electronic dance genres, as well as European forms of disco
Euro disco (which later went on to influence several genres
Eurodance and Nu-disco). Notable Italian DJs and remixers
include Benny Benassi, Gigi D'Agostino, and Gabry Ponte, member of the
Eiffel 65 group.
Producers such as Giorgio Moroder, who won three Academy Awards for
his music, were highly influential in the development of electronic
dance music. Today, Italian pop music is represented annually with the
Sanremo Music Festival, which served as inspiration for the Eurovision
song contest, and the
Festival of Two Worlds
Festival of Two Worlds in Spoleto. Singers such
as Mina, Andrea Bocelli,
Grammy winner Laura Pausini, Eros Ramazzotti
Tiziano Ferro have attained international acclaim.
Main article: Cinema of Italy
The history of Italian cinema began a few months after the Lumière
brothers began motion picture exhibitions. The first Italian film was
a few seconds, showing
Pope Leo XIII giving a blessing to the camera.
The Italian film industry was born between 1903 and 1908 with three
companies: the Società Italiana Cines, the
Ambrosio Film and the
Itala Film. Other companies soon followed in
Milan and in Naples. In a
short time these first companies reached a fair producing quality, and
films were soon sold outside Italy. Cinema was later used by Benito
Mussolini, who founded Rome's renowned
Cinecittà studio for the
production of Fascist propaganda until World War II.
After the war, Italian film was widely recognised and exported until
an artistic decline around the 1980s. Notable Italian film directors
from this period include Vittorio De Sica, Federico Fellini, Sergio
Leone, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Luchino Visconti,
and Roberto Rossellini; some of these are recognized among the
greatest and most influential filmmakers of all time.
Movies include world cinema treasures such as Bicycle Thieves, La
dolce vita, 8½,
The Good, the Bad and the Ugly
The Good, the Bad and the Ugly and Once Upon a Time
in the West. The mid-1940s to the early 1950s was the heyday of
neorealist films, reflecting the poor condition of post-war
Cinecittà in Rome, the largest film studio in Europe
As the country grew wealthier in the 1950s, a form of neorealism known
as pink neorealism succeeded, and other film genres, such as
sword-and-sandal followed as spaghetti westerns, were popular in the
1960s and 1970s. Actresses such as Sophia Loren,
Giulietta Masina and
Gina Lollobrigida achieved international stardom during this period.
Erotic Italian thrillers, or giallos, produced by directors such as
Mario Bava and
Dario Argento in the 1970s, also influenced the horror
genre worldwide. In recent years, the Italian scene has received only
occasional international attention, with movies like Life Is Beautiful
directed by Roberto Benigni, Il Postino: The Postman with Massimo
The Great Beauty
The Great Beauty directed by Paolo Sorrentino.
Cinecittà studio is today the largest film and
television production facility in continental
Europe and the centre of
the Italian cinema, where a large number of biggest box office hits
are filmed, and one of the biggest production communities in the
world. In the 1950s, the number of international productions being
made there led to Rome's being dubbed "Hollywood on the Tiber". More
than 3,000 productions have been made on its lot, of which 90 received
Academy Award nomination and 47 of these won it, from some cinema
classics to recent rewarded features (such as Ben-Hur, Cleopatra,
Romeo and Juliet, The English Patient, Gladiator, The Passion of the
Christ, and Gangs of New York).
Italy is the most awarded country at the Academy Awards for Best
Foreign Language Film, with 14 awards won, 3
Special Awards and 31
nominations. As of 2016, Italian films have also won 12 Palmes d'Or
(the second-most of any country), 11 Golden Lions and 7 Golden Bears.
Main article: Sport in Italy
The Azzurri, here players of 2012, is the men's national football team
The most popular sport in
Italy is, by far, football. Italy's
national football team (nicknamed Gli Azzurri – "the Blues") is one
of the world's most successful team as it has won four FIFA World Cups
(1934, 1938, 1982 and 2006). Italian clubs have won 48 major
European trophies, making
Italy the second most successful country in
European football. Italy's top-flight club football league is named
Serie A and ranks as the third best in
Europe and is followed by
millions of fans around the world.
Starting in 1909, the
Giro d'Italia is the second oldest of the
prestigious Grands Tours
Other popular team sports in
Italy include volleyball, basketball and
rugby. Italy's male and female national teams are often featured among
the world's best. The Italian national basketball team's best results
were gold at
Eurobasket 1983 and EuroBasket 1999, as well as silver at
Olympics in 2004. Lega Basket
Serie A is widely considered one of
the most competitive in Europe.
Rugby union enjoys a good level of
popularity, especially in the north of the country. Italy's national
team competes in the Six Nations Championship, and is a regular at the
Rugby World Cup.
Italy ranks as a tier-one nation by World Rugby. The
men's volleyball team won three consecutive World Championships (in
1990, 1994, and 1998) and earned the Olympic silver medal in 1996,
2004, and 2016.
Ferrari SF70H by Scuderia Ferrari, the oldest surviving and most
Formula One team.
Italy has a long and successful tradition in individual sports as
Bicycle racing is a very familiar sport in the country.
Italians have won the UCI World Championships more than any other
country, except Belgium. The
Giro d'Italia is a cycling race held
every May, and constitutes one of the three Grand Tours, along with
the Tour de
France and the Vuelta a España, each of which last
approximately three weeks.
Alpine skiing is also a very widespread
sport in Italy, and the country is a popular international skiing
destination, known for its ski resorts. Italian skiers achieved
good results in Winter Olympic Games, Alpine Ski World Cup, and World
Tennis has a significant following in Italy, ranking as
the fourth most practised sport in the country. The
founded in 1930, is one of the most prestigious tennis tournaments in
the world. Italian professional tennis players won the
Davis Cup in
1976 and the
Fed Cup in 2006, 2009, 2010 and 2013.
also extremely popular in Italy.
Italy has won, by far, the most
MotoGP World Championships. Italian Scuderia
Ferrari is the oldest
surviving team in Grand Prix racing, having competed since 1948, and
statistically the most successful
Formula One team in history with a
record of 228 wins.
Italy has been successful in the Olympic Games, taking
part from the first Olympiad and in 47 Games out of 48. Italian
sportsmen have won 522 medals at the Summer Olympic Games, and another
106 at the Winter Olympic Games, for a combined total of 628 medals
with 235 golds, which makes them the fifth most successful nation in
Olympic history for total medals. The country hosted two Winter
Olympics (in 1956 and 2006), and one Summer games (in 1960).
Fashion and design
Italian fashion and Italian design
Prada shop in Milan
Italian fashion has a long tradition, and is regarded as one most
important in the world. Milan,
Rome are Italy's main
fashion capitals. According to Top Global Fashion Capital Rankings
2013 by Global Language Monitor,
Rome ranked sixth worldwide when
Milan was twelfth. Major
Italian fashion labels, such as Gucci,
Armani, Prada, Versace, Valentino, Dolce & Gabbana, Missoni,
Fendi, Moschino, Max Mara, Trussardi, and Ferragamo, to name a few,
are regarded as among the finest fashion houses in the world. Also,
the fashion magazine Vogue Italia, is considered one of the most
prestigious fashion magazines in the world.
Italy is also prominent in the field of design, notably interior
design, architectural design, industrial design and urban design. The
country has produced some well-known furniture designers, such as Gio
Ponti and Ettore Sottsass, and Italian phrases such as "Bel Disegno"
and "Linea Italiana" have entered the vocabulary of furniture
design. Examples of classic pieces of Italian white goods and
pieces of furniture include Zanussi's washing machines and
fridges, the "New Tone" sofas by Atrium, and the post-modern
bookcase by Ettore Sottsass, inspired by Bob Dylan's song "Stuck
Inside of Mobile with the Memphis Blues Again". Today,
Turin are the nation's leaders in architectural design and industrial
design. The city of
Milan hosts Fiera Milano, Europe's largest design
Milan also hosts major design and architecture-related
events and venues, such as the "Fuori Salone" and the Salone del
Mobile, and has been home to the designers Bruno Munari, Lucio
Enrico Castellani and Piero Manzoni.
Main article: Italian cuisine
Some typical Italian foods: pizza (Margherita), pasta (Carbonara),
espresso, and gelato
Italian cuisine has developed through centuries of social and
political changes, with roots as far back as the 4th century BC.
Italian cuisine in itself takes heavy influences, including Etruscan,
ancient Greek, ancient Roman, Byzantine, and Jewish. Significant
changes occurred with the discovery of the
New World with the
introduction of items such as potatoes, tomatoes, bell peppers and
maize, now central to the cuisine but not introduced in quantity until
the 18th century.
Italian cuisine is noted for its regional
diversity, abundance of difference in taste, and is
known to be one of the most popular in the world, wielding strong
Mediterranean diet forms the basis of Italian cuisine, rich in
pasta, fish, fruits and vegetables and characterised by its extreme
simplicity and variety, with many dishes having only four to eight
ingredients. Italian cooks rely chiefly on the quality of the
ingredients rather than on elaborate preparation. Dishes and
recipes are often derivatives from local and familial tradition rather
than created by chefs, so many recipes are ideally suited for home
cooking, this being one of the main reasons behind the ever-increasing
worldwide popularity of Italian cuisine, from America to
Asia. Ingredients and dishes vary widely by region.
A key factor in the success of
Italian cuisine is its heavy reliance
on traditional products;
Italy has the most traditional specialities
protected under EU law. Cheese, cold cuts and wine are a major
part of Italian cuisine, with many regional declinations and Protected
Designation of Origin or
Protected Geographical Indication
Protected Geographical Indication labels, and
along with coffee (especially espresso) make up a very important part
of the Italian gastronomic culture. Desserts have a long
tradition of merging local flavours such as citrus fruits, pistachio
and almonds with sweet cheeses like mascarpone and ricotta or exotic
tastes as cocoa, vanilla and cinnamon. Gelato, tiramisù and
cassata are among the most famous examples of Italian desserts, cakes
Public holidays and festivals
Public holidays in Italy and Italian festivals
Venice Film Festival is the oldest film festival in the world and
one of the "Big Three" alongside Cannes and Berlin.
Public holidays celebrated in
Italy include religious, national and
regional observances. Italy's National Day, the Festa della
Republic Day) is celebrated on 2 June each year, and
commemorates the birth of the Italian
Republic in 1946.
The Saint Lucy's Day, which take place on 13 December, is very popular
among children in some Italian regions, where she plays a role similar
to Santa Claus. In addition, the Epiphany in
Italy is associated
with the folkloristic figure of the Befana, a broomstick-riding old
woman who, in the night between 5 and 6 January, bringing good
children gifts and sweets, and bad ones charcoal or bags of
Assumption of Mary
Assumption of Mary coincides with
Ferragosto on 15
August, the summer vacation period which may be a long weekend or most
of the month. Each city or town also celebrates a public holiday
on the occasion of the festival of the local patron saint, for
Rome on 29 June (Saints Peter and Paul) and
Milan on 7
December (S. Ambrose).
There are many festivals and festivities in Italy. Some of them
Palio di Siena
Palio di Siena horse race, Holy Week rites, Saracen Joust
Saint Ubaldo Day
Saint Ubaldo Day in Gubbio,
Giostra della Quintana
Giostra della Quintana in
Foligno, and the Calcio Fiorentino. In 2013,
UNESCO has included among
the intangible cultural heritage some
Italian festivals and pasos,
such as the Varia di Palmi, the
Macchina di Santa Rosa
Macchina di Santa Rosa in Viterbo, the
Festa dei Gigli in Nola, and faradda di li candareri in Sassari.
Other festivals include the carnivals in Venice, Viareggio, Satriano
di Lucania, Mamoiada, and Ivrea, mostly known for its Battle of the
Oranges. The prestigious
Venice International Film Festival, awarding
the "Golden Lion" and held annually since 1932, is the oldest film
festival in the world.
Index of Italy-related articles
Outline of Italy
^ Official French maps show the border detouring south of the main
summit, and claim the highest point in
Italy is Mont Blanc de
Courmayeur (4,748 m or 15,577 ft), but these are
inconsistent with an 1861 convention and topographic watershed
^ According to Mitrica, an October 2005 Romanian report estimates that
1,061,400 Romanians are living in Italy, constituting 37% of
2.8 million immigrants in that country but it is unclear how
the estimate was made, and therefore whether it should be taken
^ a b "The Global Religious Landscape" (PDF). Pewforum.org. Archived
(PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 2 October
^ "National demographic estimate, December 2016". ISTAT. Archived from
the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 February 2018.
Retrieved 12 January 2018.
Gini coefficient of equivalsed disposable income (source: SILC)".
Luxembourg: Eurostat. 15 June 2017. Archived from the original on 4
March 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development
Programme. 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 March 2017.
Retrieved 23 March 2017.
Comune di Campione d'Italia". Comune.campione-d-italia.co.it. 14
July 2010. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 30
^ Search the agreements database Archived 29 March 2014 at the Wayback
Machine. Council of the
European Union (retrieved 13 October 2013).
^ Italy: The
World Factbook Archived 9 July 2017 at the Wayback
Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency (retrieved 13 October 2013).
^ "Country names". Archived from the original on 19 May 2011.
BBC News –
Italy profile – Facts". BBC News. Archived from the
original on 25 September 2013.
^ Sée, Henri. "Modern Capitalism Its Origin and Evolution" (PDF).
University of Rennes. Batoche Books. Archived (PDF) from the original
on 7 October 2013. Retrieved 29 August 2013.
^ a b Jepson, Tim (2012). National Geographic Traveler: Italy.
National Geographic Books,. ISBN 9781426208614.
^ Bonetto, Cristian (2010). Discover Italy. Lonely Planet.
^ Bouchard, Norma; Ferme, Valerio (2013).
Italy and the Mediterranean:
Words, Sounds, and Images of the Post-Cold War Era. Palgrave
Macmillan. ISBN 9781137343468. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
^ "Unification of Italy". Library.thinkquest.org. 4 April 2003.
Archived from the original on 7 March 2009. Retrieved 19 November
^ "The Italian Colonial Empire". All Empires. Archived from the
original on 24 February 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2012. At its peak,
just before WWII, the
Italian Empire comprehended the territories of
present time Italy, Albania, Rhodes, Dodecanese, Libya, Ethiopia,
Eritrea, the majority of Somalia and the little concession of Tientsin
^ "Microsoft Word - 447F3DE3-55E9-08D35E.doc" (PDF). Archived (PDF)
from the original on 28 April 2017. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
^ "IMF Advanced Economies List. World Economic Outlook, April 2016, p.
148" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 April 2016.
CIA (2008). "Appendix B. International Organizations and Groups".
World Factbook. Archived from the original on 9 April 2008. Retrieved
10 April 2008.
^ Country and Lending Groups. Archived 2 July 2014 at the Wayback
Machine. World Bank. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
^ Gabriele Abbondanza,
Italy as a Regional Power: the African Context
from National Unification to the Present Day (Rome: Aracne, 2016)
Operation Alba may be considered one of the most important
instances in which
Italy has acted as a regional power, taking the
lead in executing a technically and politically coherent and
determined strategy." See Federiga Bindi,
Italy and the European Union
(Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2011), p. 171.
Canada Among Nations, 2004: Setting Priorities Straight.
McGill-Queen's Press – MQUP. 17 January 2005. p. 85.
ISBN 0773528369. Retrieved 13 June 2016. ("The United
States is the sole world's superpower. France, Italy,
Germany and the
United Kingdom are great powers")
^ Sterio, Milena (2013). The right to self-determination under
international law : "selfistans", secession and the rule of the
great powers. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. p. xii
(preface). ISBN 0415668182. Retrieved 13 June 2016. ("The
great powers are super-sovereign states: an exclusive club of the most
powerful states economically, militarily, politically and
strategically. These states include veto-wielding members of the
United Nations Security Council (United States, United Kingdom,
France, China, and Russia), as well as economic powerhouses such as
Italy and Japan.")
^ Alberto Manco, Italia. Disegno storico-linguistico, 2009, Napoli,
L'Orientale, ISBN 978-88-95044-62-0
^ J.P. Mallory and D.Q. Adams, Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture
(London: Fitzroy and Dearborn, 1997), 24.
^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities, 1.35, on LacusCurtius
^ Aristotle, Politics, 7.1329b Archived 10 September 2015 at the
Wayback Machine., on Perseus
^ Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War, 6.2.4 Archived 24 September 2015
at the Wayback Machine., on Perseus
^ Pallottino, M., History of Earliest Italy, trans. Ryle, M &
Soper, K. in Jerome Lectures, Seventeenth Series, p. 50
^ Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers 2001, ch. 2.
^ "Istituto Italiano di Preistoria e Protostoria". IIPP. 29 January
2010. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013.
^ The Mycenaeans Archived 27 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
and Italy: the archaeological and archaeometric ceramic evidence,
University of Glasgow, Department of Archaeology
^ Emilio Peruzzi, Mycenaeans in early Latium, (Incunabula Graeca 75),
Edizioni dell'Ateneo & Bizzarri, Roma, 1980
^ Gert Jan van Wijngaarden, Use and Appreciation of Mycenaean Pottery
in the Levant,
Italy (1600–1200 B.C.): The Significance
of Context, Amsterdam Archaeological Studies, Amsterdam University
^ Bryan Feuer, Mycenaean civilization: an annotated bibliography
through 2002, McFarland & Company; Rev Sub edition (2 March 2004)
^ Mommsen, Theodor (1855). History of Rome, Book II: From the
Abolition of the Monarchy in
Rome to the Union of Italy. Leipzig:
Reimer & Hirsel.
^ Taagepera, Rein (1979). "Size and Duration of Empires:
Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D". Social Science History.
Duke University Press. 3 (3/4): 125. doi:10.2307/1170959.
^ Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (2006).
"East-West Orientation of Historical Empires" (PDF). Journal of
world-systems research. 12 (2): 222. ISSN 1076-156X. Archived
(PDF) from the original on 29 August 2016. Retrieved 6 February
^ Richard, Carl J. (2010). Why we're all Romans : the Roman
contribution to the western world (1st pbk. ed.). Lanham, Md.: Rowman
& Littlefield. pp. xi–xv. ISBN 0-7425-6779-6.
^ Sarris, Peter (2011). Empires of faith : the fall of
the rise of Islam, 500 – 700 (1st. pub. ed.). Oxford: Oxford UP.
p. 118. ISBN 0-19-926126-1.
^ Nolan, Cathal J. (2006). The age of wars of religion,
1000–1650 : an encyclopedia of global warfare and civilization
(1. publ. ed.). Westport (Connecticut): Greenwood Press. p. 360.
Marco Polo - Exploration - HISTORY.com". Retrieved January 9,
^ Jones, Philip (1997). The Italian city-state : from Commune to
Signoria. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 55–77.
^ a b Lane, Frederic C. (1991). Venice, a maritime republic (4. print.
ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 73.
^ Ali, Ahmed Essa with Othman (2010). Studies in Islamic
civilization : the Muslim contribution to the Renaissance.
Herndon, VA: International Institute of Islamic Thought.
pp. 38–40. ISBN 1-56564-350-X.
^ Stéphane Barry and Norbert Gualde, "The Biggest Epidemics of
History" (La plus grande épidémie de l'histoire), in L'Histoire n°
310, June 2006, pp. 45–46
^ "Plague". Brown University. Archived 31 August 2009 at the Wayback
^ Jensen 1992, p. 64.
^ a b Strathern, Paul The Medici: Godfathers of the
^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Renaissance, 2008, O.Ed.
^ Har, Michael H. History of Libraries in the Western World, Scarecrow
Press Incorporate, 1999, ISBN 0-8108-3724-2
^ Norwich, John Julius, A Short History of Byzantium, 1997, Knopf,
^ Peter Barenboim, Sergey Shiyan, Michelangelo: Mysteries of Medici
Chapel, SLOVO, Moscow, 2006 Archived 11 May 2011 at the Wayback
Machine.. ISBN 5-85050-825-2
^ Leonardo Bruni; James Hankins (9 October 2010). History of the
Florentine People. 1. Boston: Harvard University Press. Archived from
the original on 3 January 2013.
^ Karl Julius Beloch, Bevölkerungsgeschichte Italiens, volume 3, pp.
^ Thomas James Dandelet, John A. Marino (2007).
Spain in Italy:
Politics, Society, and Religion 1500–1700. Leiden: Koninklijke
Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-15429-2.
^ Galasso, Giuseppe (1972). Storia d'Italia 1: I caratteri originali.
Turin: Einaudi. pp. 509–10.
^ Napoleon Bonaparte, "The Economy of the Empire in Italy:
Instructions from Napoleon to Eugène, Viceroy of Italy," Exploring
the European Past: Texts & Images, Second Edition, ed. Timothy E.
Gregory (Mason: Thomson, 2007), 65–66.
^ a b "Scholar and Patriot". Manchester University Press – via
Giuseppe Garibaldi (Italian revolutionary)". Archived from the
original on 26 February 2014. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
^ Mack Smith, Denis (1997). Modern Italy; A Political History. Ann
Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-10895-6
^ (Bosworth (2005), pp. 49.)
^ Burgwyn, H. James: Italian foreign policy in the interwar period,
1918–1940. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1997. Page 4.
^ Schindler, John R.: Isonzo: The Forgotten Sacrifice of the Great
War. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001. Page 303.
^ Mack Smith, Denis: Mussolini. Knopf, 1982. Page 31.
^ Mortara, G (1925). La Salute pubblica in Italia durante e dopo la
Guerra. New Haven: Yale University Press.
^ James H. Burgwyn (2004). General Roatta's war against the partisans
in Yugoslavia: 1942 Archived 21 September 2013 at the Wayback
Machine., Journal of Modern Italian Studies, Volume 9, Number 3, pp.
^ Italy's bloody secret (archived by WebCite), written by Rory
Carroll, Education, The Guardian, June 2001
Effie Pedaliu (2004) JSTOR 4141408? Britain and the 'Hand-over'
of Italian War Criminals to Yugoslavia, 1945–48. Journal of
Contemporary History. Vol. 39, No. 4,
Special Issue: Collective
Memory, pp. 503–529
^ Oliva, Gianni (2006) «Si ammazza troppo poco». I crimini di guerra
italiani. 1940–43 Archived 20 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.,
Mondadori, ISBN 88-04-55129-1
^ Baldissara, Luca & Pezzino, Paolo (2004). Crimini e memorie di
guerra: violenze contro le popolazioni e politiche del ricordo,
L'Ancora del Mediterraneo. ISBN 978-88-8325-135-1
^ Viganò, Marino (2001), "Un'analisi accurata della presunta fuga in
Svizzera", Nuova Storia Contemporanea (in Italian), 3
^ "1945: Italian partisans kill Mussolini". BBC News. 28 April 1945.
Archived from the original on 26 November 2011. Retrieved 17 October
Italy – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Archived
from the original on 19 March 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
^ Adrian Lyttelton (editor), "Liberal and fascist Italy, 1900–1945",
Oxford University Press, 2002. pp. 13
^ Damage Foreshadows A-Bomb Test, 1946/06/06 (1946). Universal
Newsreel. 1946. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
^ "Italia 1946: le donne al voto, dossier a cura di Mariachiara
Fugazza e Silvia Cassamagnaghi" (PDF). Archived from the original
(PDF) on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
^ "Commissione parlamentare d'inchiesta sul terrorismo in Italia e
sulle cause della mancata individuazione dei responsabili delle stragi
(Parliamentary investigative commission on terrorism in
Italy and the
failure to identify the perpetrators)" (PDF) (in Italian). 1995.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2006. Retrieved 2 May
^ (in English) / (in Italian) / (in French) /(in German) "Secret
Warfare: Operation Gladio and NATO's Stay-Behind Armies". Swiss
Federal Institute of Technology / International Relation and Security
Network. Archived from the original on 25 April 2006. Retrieved 2 May
^ "Clarion: Philip Willan, Guardian, 24 June 2000, page 19".
Cambridgeclarion.org. 24 June 2000. Archived from the original on 29
March 2010. Retrieved 24 April 2010.
^ The so-called Second
Republic was born by forceps: not with a revolt
of Algiers, but formally under the same Constitution, with the mere
replacement of one ruling class to another: Buonomo, Giampiero (2015).
"Tovaglie pulite". Mondoperaio edizione online. Archived from the
original on 24 March 2016. – via Questia
Italy starts to show the strains of migrant influx". The Local.
Archived from the original on 29 April 2017. Retrieved 10 January
^ "Italy's far right jolts back from dead". Politico. 3 February 2016.
Archived from the original on 19 January 2017. Retrieved 10 January
^ "Morphometric and hydrological characteristics of some important
Italian lakes". Largo Tonolli 50, 28922 Verbania Pallanza: Istituto
per lo Studio degli Ecosistemi. Archived from the original on 5
February 2010. Retrieved 3 March 2010.
^ "Clima, cibo e ville. Il lago più bello è quello di Como" (in
Italian). Il Corriere della Sera. 2014. Archived from the original on
27 September 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
^ et al. Scrocca et al. cidScro .
^ "Inventario delle risorse geotermiche nazionali". UNMIG. 2011.
Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 14 September
Italy – Environment". Dev.prenhall.com. Archived from the
original on 1 July 2009. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
^ "National Parks in Italy". Parks.it. 1995–2010. Archived from the
original on 29 March 2010. Retrieved 15 March 2010.
REN21 (15 July 2010). "Renewables 2010 Global Status Report" (PDF).
REN21. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 August 2011. Retrieved
16 July 2010.
^ "Photovoltaic energy barometer 2010 – EurObserv'ER". Retrieved 30
October 2010. [permanent dead link]
^ "World Wind Energy Report 2010" (PDF). Report. World Wind Energy
Association. February 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4
September 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
Italy – Environment". Encyclopedia of the Nations. Archived from
the original on 4 January 2011. Retrieved 7 April 2010.
^ United Nations Statistics Division, Millennium Development Goals
Carbon dioxide emissions (CO2), thousand metric tons of
CO2 Archived 25 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine. (collected by
^ Human-produced, direct emissions of carbon dioxide only. Excludes
other greenhouse gases; land-use, land-use-change and forestry
(LULUCF); and natural background flows of CO2 (See also: Carbon cycle)
^  Archived 3 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Duncan Kennedy (14 June 2011). "
Italy nuclear: Berlusconi accepts
referendum blow". Bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 12 June
2011. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
^ Nick Squires (2 October 2009). "
Sicily mudslide leaves scores dead".
The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 6 October
2009. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
Livy (1797). The history of Rome. George Baker (trans.). Printed for
^ "ITALY'S FIFTH NATIONAL REPORT TO THE CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL
DIVERSITY" (PDF). Italian Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea.
Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 17 May
^ Pignatti, S.,1982
Flora d’Italia. Edagricole, Bologna, vol. 1–3,
^ Riccardo Guarino, Sabina Addamiano, Marco La Rosa, Sandro Pignatti
Flora Italiana Digitale:an interactive identification tool for the
Flora of Italy
Flora of Italy Archived 26 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Adriana Rigutti, Meteorologia, Giunti, p. 95, 2009.
^ Thomas A. Blair, Climatology: General and Regional, Prentice Hall
^ "Climate Atlas of Italy". Network of the Air Force Meteorological
Service. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 30
^ Smyth, Howard McGaw Italy: From Fascism to the Republic
(1943–1946) The Western Political Quarterly vol. 1 no. 3 (pp.
205–222), September 1948.JSTOR 442274
^ "About us – Sistema di informazione per la sicurezza della
Repubblica". www.sicurezzanazionale.gov.it. Archived from the original
on 29 March 2015.
^ Claudio Tucci (11 November 2008). "Confesercenti, la crisi economica
rende ancor più pericolosa la mafia". Confesercenti (in Italian).
Ilsole24ore.com. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011.
Retrieved 21 April 2011.
^ Nick Squires (9 January 2010). "
Italy claims finally defeating the
mafia". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 29 April
2011. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
^ Kiefer, Peter (22 October 2007). "Mafia crime is 7% of
GDP in Italy,
group reports". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1
May 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
^ Maria Loi (1 October 2009). "Rapporto Censis: 13 milioni di italiani
convivono con la mafia". Censis (in Italian). Antimafia Duemila.
Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 21 April
^ Kington, Tom (1 October 2009). "Mafia's influence hovers over
13 m Italians, says report". The Guardian. London. Archived from
the original on 8 September 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
^ ANSA (14 March 2011). "Italy:
Anti-mafia police arrest 35 suspects
Lombardy region". adnkronos.com. Mafia Today. Archived
from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
^ "Crime Statistics – Murders (per capita) (most recent) by
country". NationMaster.com. Archived from the original on 29 September
2008. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
^ "MISSIONI/ATTIVITA' INTERNAZIONALI DAL 1 October 2013 AL 31 December
2013 – SITUAZIONE AL 11.12.2013" (PDF). Italian Ministry of Defence.
Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 27
^ "Italian soldiers leave for
Lebanon Archived 2 September 2006 at the
Wayback Machine. Corriere della Sera, 30 August 2006
Italy donates 60 million euros to PA". Ma'an News Agency. 4
September 2013. Archived from the original on 18 October 2014.
Retrieved 27 January 2014.
^ "Law n°226 of August 23, 2004". Camera.it. Archived from the
original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
^ "The Military Balance 2010", pp. 141–145. International Institute
for Strategic Studies, 3 February 2010.
^ Italian Ministry of Defence. "Nota aggiuntiva allo stato di
previsione per la Difesa per l'anno 2009" (PDF) (in Italian). Archived
from the original (PDF) on 4 May 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
^ Hans M. Kristensen / Natural Resources Defense Council (2005).
"NRDC: U.S. Nuclear Weapons in
Europe – part 1" (PDF). Archived from
the original (PDF) on 1 January 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
^ "Marina Militare (Italian military navy website)" (in Italian).
Marina.difesa.it. Archived from the original on 24 November 2010.
Retrieved 30 May 2011.
Carabinieri Force is linked to the Ministry of Defence".
Carabinieri. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 14
^ "Codici comuni, province e regioni". www.istat
.it (in Italian).
Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 17 January
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 October 2017.
Retrieved 22 October 2017.
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product (2015)" (PDF). The World Bank: World
Development Indicators database. World Bank. 28 April 2017. Archived
(PDF) from the original on 1 February 2017. Retrieved 17 May
^ Sensenbrenner, Frank; Arcelli, Angelo Federico. "Italy's Economy Is
Much Stronger Than It Seems". The Huffington Post. Archived from the
original on 6 December 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
^ Dadush, Uri. "Is the Italian Economy on the Mend?". Carnegie Europe.
Archived from the original on 13 July 2015. Retrieved 25 November
^ "Doing Business in Italy: 2014 Country Commercial Guide for U.S.
United States Commercial Service. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
^ The Economist Intelligence Unit's quality-of-life index Archived 23
July 2012 at WebCite, Economist, 2005
^ "The Global Creativity Index 2011" (PDF). Martin Prosperity
Institute. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 September 2014.
Retrieved 26 November 2014.
^ Aksoy, M. Ataman; Ng, Francis. "The Evolution of Agricultural Trade
Flows" (PDF). The World Bank. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29
November 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
^ Pisa, Nick (12 June 2011). "
France to become world's
largest wine producer". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 3
September 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
^ "Automotive Market Sector Profile – Italy" (PDF). The Canadian
Trade Commissioner Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5
December 2014. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
^ "Data & Trends of the European Food and Drink Industry
2013–2014" (PDF). FoodDrinkEurope. Archived from the original (PDF)
on 6 December 2014. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
Italy fashion industry back to growth in 2014". Reuters. Archived
from the original on 5 December 2014. Retrieved 26 November
^ Leblanc, John (25 April 2014). "The top 10 largest automakers in the
world". Driving. Archived from the original on 17 March 2017.
Retrieved 29 April 2017.
^ "Trade in goodsExports, Million US dollars, 2016". OECD. Archived
from the original on 15 April 2017. Retrieved 17 May 2017.
^ "Manufacturing, value added (current US$) Archived 10 October 2017
at the Wayback Machine.". accessed on 17 May 2017.
^ "Knowledge Economy Forum 2008: Innovative Small And Medium
Enterprises Are Key To
Europe & Central Asian Growth". The World
Bank. 19 May 2005. Archived from the original on 23 June 2008.
Retrieved 17 June 2008.
CIA – The World Factbook". CIA. Archived from the original on 11
February 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
^ "Auto: settore da 144mila imprese in Italia e 117 mld fatturato".
adnkronos.com. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015.
Retrieved 23 September 2015.
^ "Country Profiles – Italy". acea.thisconnect.com. Archived from
the original on 11 February 2008. Retrieved 9 February 2008.
Fiat Chrysler to spin off Ferrari, issue $2.5 billion convertible
bond". Archived from the original on 29 October 2014. Retrieved 29
^ Haigh, Robert (18 February 2014). "
Ferrari – The World's Most
Powerful Brand". Brand Finance. Archived from the original on 2
February 2016. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
^ Andrews, Edmund L. (1 January 2002). "Germans Say Goodbye to the
Mark, a Symbol of Strength and Unity". The New York Times. Archived
from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
^ Taylor Martin, Susan (28 December 1998). "On Jan. 1, out of
many arises one Euro". St. Petersburg Times. p. National,
^ Orsi, Roberto. "The Quiet Collapse of the Italian Economy". The
London School of Economics. Archived from the original on 19 November
2014. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
^ Nicholas Crafts, Gianni Toniolo (1996). Economic growth in Europe
since 1945. Cambridge University Press. p. 428.
^ Balcerowicz, Leszek. "Economic Growth in the European Union" (PDF).
The Lisbon Council. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 July 2014.
Retrieved 8 October 2014.
^ ""Secular stagnation" in graphics". The Economist. Archived from the
original on 23 November 2014. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
^ "Government debt increased to 93.9% of
GDP in euro area and to 88.0%
in EU28" (PDF). Eurostat. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21
October 2014. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
Italy Be Better Off than its Peers?". CNBC. 18 May 2010.
Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 30 May
Household debt and the OECD's surveillance of member states" (PDF).
OECD Economics Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9
January 2015. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
^ "Oh for a new risorgimento". The Economist. Archived from the
original on 24 October 2014. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
Comune per Comune, ecco la mappa navigabile dei redditi dichiarati
in Italia". www.lastampa.it. Archived from the original on 5 April
GDP per capita at regional level" (PDF). Istat. Archived (PDF) from
the original on 26 October 2017. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
Euro area unemployment rate at 11%". Eurostat. Archived (PDF) from
the original on 31 July 2017. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
^ Istat. "Employment and unemployment: second quarter 2017" (PDF).
Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 October 2017. Retrieved 26
^ a b c "Censimento Agricoltura 2010". ISTAT. 24 October 2010.
Archived from the original on 13 February 2015. Retrieved 11 February
^ "OIV report on the State of the vitiviniculture world market".
news.reseau-concept.net. Réseau-CONCEPT. 2010. Archived from the
original (PowerPoint presentation) on 28 July 2011.
Frecciarossa 1000 in Figures".
Ferrovie dello Stato
Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane.
Archived from the original on 18 December 2014. Retrieved 24 November
^ a b European Commission. "Panorama of Transport" (PDF). Archived
from the original (PDF) on 7 April 2009. Retrieved 3 May 2009.
^ "Energy imports, net (% of energy use)". World Bank. Archived from
the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 24 November 2014.
^ Eurostat. "Energy, transport and environment indicators" (PDF).
Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 November 2009. Retrieved 10 May
^ Eurostat. "Panorama of energy" (PDF). Archived from the original
(PDF) on 3 June 2010. Retrieved 10 May 2009.
^ L. Anwandter and P. Rubino (2006). "Risks, uncertainties and
conflicts of Interest in the Italian water sector: A review and
proposals for reform". Materiali UVAL (Public Investment Evaluation
Unit of the Department for Development and Cohesion Policies (DPS) in
the Ministry for Economic Development), According to ISTAT figures
analysed by the Water Resources Surveillance Committee (CoViRi),.
p. 9. Missing or empty url= (help)
^ Bardelli, Lorenzo. "Pro aqua Italian policy to get prices and
governance right". Utilitatis, 29th International Congress of CIRIEC,
Wien, 14 September 2012. p. 16. Missing or empty url=
^ Albasser, Francesco (May 2012). "The Italian Water industry –
Beyond the Public/Private debate & back to basics, Presentation at
the Conference Water Loss Europe". in3act Energy. p. 12.
Missing or empty url= (help)
^ Giuliano Pancaldi, "Volta: Science and culture in the age of
enlightenment", Princeton University Press, 2003.
^ Weidhorn, Manfred (2005). The Person of the Millennium: The Unique
Impact of Galileo on World History. iUniverse. p. 155.
^ Bondyopadhyay, Prebir K. (1995). "
Guglielmo Marconi – The father
of long distance radio communication – An engineer's tribute". 25th
European Microwave Conference, 1995. p. 879.
^ "Enrico Fermi, architect of the nuclear age, dies". Autumn 1954.
Archived from the original on 17 November 2015.
^ Lucia Orlando, "Physics in the 1930s: Jewish Physicists'
Contribution to the Realization of the" New Tasks" of Physics in
Italy." Historical studies in the physical and biological sciences
(1998): 141–181. JSTOR 27757806
^ Wheen, Andrew. Dot-Dash to Dot.com: How Modern Telecommunications
Evolved from the Telegraph to the Internet. Archived 29 April 2016 at
the Wayback Machine. Springer, 2010. p. 45. Web. 23 September 2011.
^ Cleveland, Cutler (Lead Author) ; Saundry, Peter (Topic
Editor). Meucci, Antonio. Archived 26 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
Encyclopedia of Earth, 2006. Web. 22 July 2012.
^ "Foreign tourist numbers in
Italy head towards new record" Archived
1 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine., Retrieved 21 May 2017.
^ "2016 Tourism Highlights". World Tourism Organization. Retrieved 4
^ "Travel & Tourism Economic Impact 2015 Italy" (PDF). World
Travel and Tourism Council. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10
October 2017. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
^ "The World Heritage Convention". UNESCO. Archived from the original
on 27 August 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2010.
^ "Global Destination Cities Index by Mastercard, 2016 edition" (PDF).
Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2016.
^ "2013 Survey on Museums, Monuments and Archeological sites" (PDF).
Italian Ministry of Heritage and Cultural Activities. Archived (PDF)
from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
^ "National demographic balance, 2013" (PDF). Istat. Archived (PDF)
from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
^ EUROSTAT. "Ageing characterises the demographic perspectives of the
European societies – Issue number 72/2008" (PDF). Archived from the
original (PDF) on 2 January 2009. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
^ ISTAT. "Crude birth rates, mortality rates and marriage rates
2005–2008" (PDF) (in Italian). Archived (PDF) from the original on
21 August 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2009.
^ ISTAT. "Average number of children born per woman 2005–2008" (PDF)
(in Italian). Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 August 2011.
Retrieved 3 May 2009.
^ "Previsioni della popolazione, 2011–2065, dati al 1° gennaio".
Demo.istat.it. Archived from the original on 6 March 2013. Retrieved
12 March 2013.
^ "Causes of the Italian mass emigration". ThinkQuest Library. 15
August 1999. Archived from the original on 1 July 2009. Retrieved 11
^ Favero, Luigi e Tassello, Graziano. Cent'anni di emigrazione
italiana (1861–1961) Introduction
^ "Statistiche del Ministero dell'Interno". Archived from the original
on 27 February 2010.
^ Lee, Adam (3 April 2006). "Unos 20 millones de personas que viven en
Argentina tienen algún grado de descendencia italiana" (in
Spanish). Archived from the original on 11 June 2008. Retrieved 27
^ Consulta Nazionale Emigrazione. Progetto ITENETs – "Gli italiani
in Brasile"; pp. 11, 19 Archived 12 February 2012 at the Wayback
Machine. . Retrieved 10 September 2008.
^ "Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Uruguay, provinces and territories
– 20% sample data". Archived from the original on 11 May 2011.
^ Santander Laya-Garrido, Alfonso. Los Italianos forjadores de la
nacionalidad y del desarrollo economico en Venezuela. Editorial
Vadell. Valencia, 1978
^ American FactFinder,
United States Census Bureau. "U.S Census Bureau
– Selected Population Profile in the United States". American
United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on
30 April 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
^ "Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories
– 20% sample data". Archived from the original on 1 November
^ "20680-Ancestry by Country of Birth of Parents – Time Series
Statistics (2001, 2006 Census Years) – Australia". Australian Bureau
of Statistics. 27 June 2007. Archived from the original on 1 October
2007. Retrieved 30 December 2008.
^ "The Cambridge survey of world migration Archived 13 April 2016 at
the Wayback Machine.". Robin Cohen (1995). Cambridge University Press.
p. 143. ISBN 0-521-44405-5
^ Roberto, Vincenzo Patruno, Marina Venturi, Silvestro. "Demo-Geodemo.
– Mappe, Popolazione, Statistiche Demografiche dell'ISTAT".
demo.istat.it. Archived from the original on 9 July 2011.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 September 2015.
Retrieved 3 November 2017.
^ "Resident Foreigners on 31st December 2016". Istat. Archived from
the original on 22 June 2017. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
^ "Immigrants.Stat". Istat. Archived from the original on 9 July 2017.
Retrieved 15 June 2017.
^ "National demographic balance 2016". Istat. Retrieved 15 June
^ "National demographic balance 2014". Istat. Archived from the
original on 2 May 2017. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
^ Elisabeth Rosenthal, "
Italy cracks down on illegal immigration
Archived 21 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine.". The Boston Globe. 16
^ Allen, Beverly (1997). Revisioning
Italy national identity and
global culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
p. 169. ISBN 978-0-8166-2727-1.
Milan police in Chinatown clash Archived 10 October 2017 at the
Wayback Machine.". BBC News. 13 April 2007.
^ "EUROPE: Home to Roma, And No Place for Them". IPS ipsnews.net.
Archived 5 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Balkan Investigative Reporting Network". Birn.eu.com. 8 November
2007. Archived from the original on 29 October 2008. Retrieved 4
^ Mitrica, Mihai Un milion de romani s-au mutat in Italia ("One
million Romanians have moved to Italy"). Evenimentul Zilei, 31 October
2005. Visited 11 April 2006.
^ a b "Legge 15 Dicembre 1999, n. 482 "Norme in materia di tutela
delle minoranze linguistiche storiche" pubblicata nella Gazzetta
Ufficiale n. 297 del 20 dicembre 1999". Italian Parliament. Archived
from the original on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
Italian language Archived 30 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Eurobarometer – Europeans and their languages" (485 KB).
February 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 April
Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The
World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007
Italian language Archived 2 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
University of Leicester
UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in danger". www.unesco.org.
Archived from the original on 18 December 2016. Retrieved 2 January
^ "Italian language". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 November 2008.
Archived from the original on 29 November 2009. Retrieved 19 November
^ "Lingue di Minoranza e Scuola: Carta Generale".
www.minoranze-linguistiche-scuola.it. Archived from the original on 10
^ [L.cost. 26 febbraio 1948, n. 4, Statuto speciale per la Valle
d'Aosta; L.cost. 26 febbraio 1948, n. 5, Statuto speciale per il
Trentino-Alto Adige; L. cost. 31 gennaio 1963, n. 1, Statuto speciale
della Regione Friuli Venezia Giulia]
^ "Ready for Ratification". European Centre for Minority Issues.
Archived from the original on 3 January 2018.
^ "Linguistic diversity among foreign citizens in Italy". Italian
National Institute of Statistics. Archived from the original on 30
July 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
^ "The Duomo of
Florence Tripleman". tripleman.com. Archived from
the original on 6 December 2009. Retrieved 25 March 2010.
^ "Brunelleschi's Dome". Brunelleschi's Dome.com. Archived from the
original on 16 April 2010. Retrieved 25 March 2010.
St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica (Basilica di San Pietro) in Rome, Italy".
reidsitaly.com. Archived from the original on 23 February 2015.
^ See List of largest church buildings in the world; note that the #3
First Family Church
First Family Church building in Kansas, is now a school
^ "Basilica di San Marco". Archived from the original on 5 March 2015.
Retrieved 10 February 2016.
^ "Catholicism No Longer Italy's State Religion". Sun Sentinel. 4 June
1985. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 7
^ a b "The Global Catholic Population". pewresearch.org. Pew Research
Center. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 24
^ Text taken directly from "Archived copy". Archived from the original
on 31 December 2010. Retrieved 5 February 2016. (viewed on 14
December 2011), on the website of the British Foreign &
^ The Holy See's sovereignty has been recognized explicitly in many
international agreements and is particularly emphasized in article 2
Lateran Treaty of 11 February 1929, in which "
the sovereignty of the
Holy See in international matters as an
inherent attribute in conformity with its traditions and the
requirements of its mission to the world" (Lateran Treaty, English
^ Leustean, Lucian N. (2014). Eastern
Christianity and Politics in the
Twenty-First Century. Routledge. p. 723.
^ "Le religioni in Italia: I Testimoni di Geova (Religions in Italy:
The Jehovah's Witnesses)" (in Italian). Center for Studies on New
Religions. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 30 May
^ "Chiesa Evangelica Valdese – Unione delle chiese Metodiste e
Valdesi (Waldensian Evangelical Church – Union of Waldensian and
Methodist churches)" (in Italian). Chiesa Evangelica Valdese –
Unione delle chiese Metodiste e Valdesi (Waldensian Evangelical Church
– Union of Waldensian and Methodist churches). Archived from the
original on 11 February 2006. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
^ "World Council of Churches – Evangelical Methodist Church in
Italy". World Council of Churches. Archived from the original on 9
July 2008. Retrieved 30 October 2010.
^ Dawidowicz, Lucy S. (1986). The war against the Jews, 1933–1945.
New York: Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-34302-5. p. 403
^ "THE JEWISH COMMUNITY OF ITALY Unione delle Comunita Ebraiche
Italiane". The European Jewish Congress. Archived from the original on
13 March 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
Sikhs in Italy". Nriinternet.com. 15 November 2004. Archived
from the original on 7 February 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2010.
^ "Unione Buddhista Italiana – UBI: L'Ente". Buddhismo.it. 18 August
2009. Archived from the original on 4 April 2007. Retrieved 30 October
^ "Most Baha'i Nations (2005)". QuickLists > Compare Nations >
Religions >. The Association of Religion Data Archives. 2005.
Archived from the original on 14 April 2010. Retrieved 30 January
Islam denied income tax revenue – Adnkronos Religion".
Adnkronos.com. 7 April 2003. Archived from the original on 20 June
2013. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
^ Camera dei deputati Dossier BI0350 Archived 27 September 2013 at the
Wayback Machine.. Documenti.camera
.it (10 March 1998). Retrieved on 12
^ "Law 27 December 2007, n.296". Italian Parliament. Archived from the
original on 6 December 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
^ " Human Development Reports" (PDF). Hdr.undp.org. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
^ "PISA 2012 Results" (PDF). OECD. Archived (PDF) from the original on
4 March 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
^ "The literacy divide: territorial differences in the Italian
education system" (PDF). Parthenope University of Naples. Archived
from the original (PDF) on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 16 November
^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2015". Shanghai Ranking
Consultancy. 2015. Archived from the original on 30 October 2015.
Retrieved 29 October 2015.
^ "Italy's Budget/4: 500 new university "chairs of excellence" open up
to foreign professors and scholars". Il Sole 24 Ore Digital Edition.
Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 16 November
^ a b "
Italy – Health". Dev.prenhall.com. Archived from the original
on 1 July 2009. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
^ a b "
OECD Health Statistics 2014 How Does
Italy Compare?" (PDF).
OECD. 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September
^ "The World Health Organization's ranking of the world's health
systems". ΦΩΤΗΣ ΚΟΥΤΣΟΥΚΗΣ (Photius Coutsoukis).
Archived from the original on 5 January 2010. Retrieved 27 October
^ "World Health Statistics 2016: Monitoring health for the SDGs Annex
B: tables of health statistics by country, WHO region and globally".
World Health Organization. 2016. Archived from the original on 23 June
2016. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
^ "Global Prevalence of Adult Obesity" (PDF). International Obesity
Taskforce. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 December 2009.
Retrieved 29 January 2008.
^ "Smoking Ban Begins in
Europe DW.COM 10 January 2005".
Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 21 June 2015. Retrieved
1 August 2010.
UNESCO Culture Sector, Eighth Session of the Intergovernmental
Committee (8.COM) – from 2 to 7 December 2013". Archived from the
original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
UNESCO – Culture – Intangible Heritage – Lists & Register
– Inscribed Elements –
Mediterranean Diet". Archived from the
original on 15 April 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
^ Killinger, Charles (2005). Culture and customs of
Italy (1. publ.
ed.). Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. p. 3.
^ Cole, Alison (1995). Virtue and magnificence : art of the
Renaissance courts. New York: H.N. Abrams.
^ Eyewitness Travel (2005), pg. 19
Italy Archived 15 January 2012 at the Wayback
^ "History – Historic Figures:
Inigo Jones (1573–1652)". BBC. 1
January 1970. Archived from the original on 21 August 2013. Retrieved
12 March 2013.
^ "Roman Painting". art-and-archaeology.com. Archived from the
original on 26 July 2013.
^ "Roman Wall Painting". accd.edu. Archived from the original on 19
^ "Poetry and Drama: Literary Terms and Concepts.". The Rosen
Publishing Group. 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
^ Brand, Peter; Pertile, Lino, eds. (1999). "2 – Poetry. Francis of
Assisi (pp. 5ff.)". The Cambridge History of Italian Literature.
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-52166622-0. Archived from
the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
^ Ernest Hatch Wilkins, The invention of the sonnet, and other studies
Italian literature (Rome: Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, 1959),
^ "Giovanni Boccaccio: The Decameron.". Encyclopædia Britannica.
Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 18 December
^ Steven Swann Jones, The Fairy Tale: The Magic Mirror of Imagination,
Twayne Publishers, New York, 1995, ISBN 0-8057-0950-9, p38
^ Bottigheimer 2012a, 7; Waters 1894, xii; Zipes 2015, 599.
^ Opie, Iona; Opie, Peter (1974), The Classic Fairy Tales, Oxford and
New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-211559-6 See
page 20. The claim for earliest fairy-tale is still debated, see for
example Jan M. Ziolkowski, Fairy tales from before fairy tales: the
Latin past of wonderful lies, University of Michigan Press,
2007. Ziolkowski examines Egbert of Liège's
Latin beast poem Fecunda
natis (The Richly Laden Ship, c. 1022/24), the earliest known version
of "Little Red Riding Hood". Further info: Little Red Pentecostal,
Peter J. Leithart, 9 July 2007.
^ a b Giovanni Gasparini. La corsa di Pinocchio. Milano, Vita e
Pensiero, 1997. p. 117. ISBN 88-343-4889-3
Carlo Collodi – Children's Literature Review".
Encyclopedia.com. Archived from the original on 3 October 2015.
Retrieved 1 October 2015.
^ Archibald Colquhoun. Manzoni and his Times. J. M. Dent & Sons,
^ Gaetana Marrone; Paolo Puppa (2006). Encyclopedia of Italian
Literary Studies. Routledge. p. 1654.
^ The 20th-Century art book (Reprinted. ed.). dsdLondon: Phaidon
Press. 2001. ISBN 0714835420.
^ "All Nobel Prizes in Literature". Nobelprize.org. Archived from the
original on 29 May 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
^ Gassner, John (1992). Theatre and Drama in the Making. New York:
Applause Theatre Books.
^ Chaffee, Judith; Crick, Olly (2015). The Routledge Companion to
Commedia Dell'Arte. London and New York: Rutledge Taylor and Francis
Group. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-415-74506-2.
^ "The Theatre and its history". Teatro di San Carlo's official
website. 23 December 2013.
^ "Quick Opera Facts 2007". OPERA America. 2007. Archived from the
original on 1 October 2006. Retrieved 23 April 2007.
^ Alain P. Dornic (1995). "An Operatic Survey". Opera Glass. Archived
from the original on 14 September 2007. Retrieved 23 April 2007.
^ a b Kimbell, David R. B (29 April 1994). Italian Opera. Google
Books. ISBN 978-0-521-46643-1. Retrieved 20 December 2009.
^ "This record was a collaboration between Philip Oakey, the
big-voiced lead singer of the techno-pop band the Human League, and
Giorgio Moroder, the Italian-born father of disco who spent the '80s
writing synth-based pop and film music." Evan Cater. "Philip Oakey
& Giorgio Moroder: Overview". AllMusic. Retrieved 21 December
^ "The Cinema Under Mussolini". Ccat.sas.upenn.edu. Archived from the
original on 31 July 2010. Retrieved 30 October 2010.
^ Ebert, Roger. "The Bicycle Thief /
Bicycle Thieves (1949)". Chicago
Sun-Times. Archived from the original on 20 July 2010. Retrieved 8
^ "The 25 Most Influential Directors of All Time". MovieMaker
Magazine. Archived from the original on 11 December 2015.
^ "10 Most Influential Directors Of All Time". WhatCulture.com.
Archived from the original on 21 November 2015.
^ "Historical origins of italian neorealism – Neorealism – actor,
actress, film, children, voice, show, born, director, son, cinema,
scene". Filmreference.com. Archived from the original on 14 May 2012.
Retrieved 7 September 2011.
^ "Italian Neorealism – Explore – The Criterion Collection".
Criterion.com. Archived from the original on 18 September 2011.
Retrieved 7 September 2011.
^ Bondanella, Peter E. (2001). Italian Cinema: From Neorealism to the
Present. Continuum. p. 13. ISBN 9780826412478.
^ Hamil, Sean; Chadwick, Simon (2010). Managing football : an
international perspective (1st ed., dodr. ed.). Amsterdam:
Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 285.
^ "Previous FIFA World Cups". FIFA.com. Archived from the original on
25 January 2011. Retrieved 8 January 2011.
^ "Union Cycliste Internationale". Archived from the original on 14
^ "Ferrari". Formula 1 – The Official F1 Website. Archived from the
original on 8 February 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
^ Foot, John. Pedalare! Pedalare! : a history of Italian cycling.
London: Bloomsbury. p. 312. ISBN 978-1-4088-2219-7.
^ Hall, James (23 November 2012). "
Italy is best value skiing country,
report finds". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 3
October 2013. Retrieved 29 August 2013.
^ "Il tennis è il quarto sport in Italia per numero di praticanti".
Federazione Italiana Tennis. Archived from the original on 27
September 2013. Retrieved 29 August 2013.
^ "New York Takes Top Global Fashion Capital Title from London, edging
past Paris". Languagemonitor.com. Archived from the original on 22
February 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
^ Press, Debbie (2000). "Your Modeling Career: You Don't Have to Be a
Superstar to Succeed". ISBN 978-1-58115-045-2.
^ Miller (2005) p. 486
^ a b c Insight Guides (2004) p.220
^ "Design City Milan". Wiley. Archived from the original on 6 December
2010. Retrieved 3 January 2010.
^ "Frieze Magazine – Archive –
Milan and Turin". Frieze. Archived
from the original on 10 January 2010. Retrieved 3 January 2010.
^ "Italian Cooking: History of Food and Cooking in
Rome and Lazio
Region, Papal Influence, Jewish Influence, The Essence of Roman
Italian Cooking". Inmamaskitchen.com. Archived from the original on 10
April 2010. Retrieved 24 April 2010.
^ "The Making of Italian Food...From the Beginning". Epicurean.com.
Archived from the original on 27 March 2010. Retrieved 24 April
^ Del Conte, 11–21.
^ Related Articles (2 January 2009). "
Italian cuisine – Britannica
Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Archived from the original on 16
July 2010. Retrieved 24 April 2010.
^ "Italian Food – Italy's Regional Dishes & Cuisine".
Indigoguide.com. Archived from the original on 2 January 2011.
Retrieved 24 April 2010.
Regional Italian Cuisine". Rusticocooking.com. Archived from the
original on 10 April 2010. Retrieved 24 April 2010.
^ "Which country has the best food?". CNN. 6 January 2013. Archived
from the original on 29 June 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
^ Freeman, Nancy (2 March 2007). "American Food, Cuisine".
Sallybernstein.com. Archived from the original on 18 April 2010.
Retrieved 24 April 2010.
^ The Silver Spoon ISBN 88-7212-223-6, 1997 ed.
^ Mario Batali Simple Italian Food: Recipes from My Two Villages
(1998), ISBN 0-609-60300-0
^ "Most Americans Have Dined Outin the Past Month and, Among Type of
Cuisine, American Food is Tops Followed by Italian" (PDF). Harris
interactive. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 May 2013.
Retrieved 31 August 2013.
^ Kazmin, Amy (26 March 2013). "A taste for Italian in New Delhi".
Financial Times. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
^ Keane, John. "
Italy leads the way with protected products under EU
schemes". Bord Bia. Archived from the original on 29 March 2014.
Retrieved 5 September 2013.
^ Marshall, Lee (30 September 2009). "Italian coffee culture: a
guide". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 October
2013. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
^ Jewkes, Stephen (13 October 2012). "World's first museum about
gelato culture opens in Italy". Times Colonist. Archived from the
original on 16 October 2013. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
^ Squires, Nick (23 August 2013). "Tiramisu claimed by Treviso". The
Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 29 August 2013.
Retrieved 5 September 2013.
^ a b Anderson, Ariston. "Venice: David Gordon Green's 'Manglehorn,'
Abel Ferrara's 'Pasolini' in Competition Lineup". The Hollywood
Reporter. Archived from the original on 18 February 2016.
^ "Addio, Lido: Last Postcards from the
Venice Film Festival". TIME.
Archived from the original on 20 September 2014.
^ "Festività nazionali in Italia" (in Italian). Italian Embassy in
London. Archived from the original on 24 June 2012. Retrieved 15 April
^ Alio, Jacqueline. "Saint Lucy – Sicily's Most Famous Woman", Best
Sicily Magazine, 2009 Archived 15 October 2012 at the Wayback
^ Roy, Christian (2005). Traditional Festivals. ABC-CLIO. p. 144.
ISBN 9781576070895. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
^ Jonathan Boardman (2000). Rome: A Cultural and Literary Companion
(Google Books). University of California: Signal Books. p. 219.
^ "Festività nazionali in Italia" (in Italian). Governo Italiano –
Dipartimento per il Cerimoniale dello Stato. Archived from the
original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
^ "Celebrations of big shoulder-borne processional structures".
UNESCO.org. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved
29 November 2014.
Hacken, Richard. "History of Italy: Primary Documents". EuroDocs:
Harold B. Lee Library: Brigham Young University. Retrieved 6 March
"FastiOnline: A database of archaeological excavations since the year
2000". International Association of Classical Archaeology (AIAC).
2004–2007. Retrieved 6 March 2010.
Hibberd, Matthew. The media in
Italy (McGraw-Hill International, 2007)
Sarti, Roland, ed. Italy: A reference guide from the
the present (2004)
Sassoon, Donald. Contemporary Italy: politics, economy and society
since 1945 (Routledge, 2014)
Italy History – Italian History Index" (in Italian and English).
European University Institute, The World Wide Web Virtual Library.
1995–2010. Retrieved 6 March 2010.
Find more aboutItalyat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
News from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Travel guide from Wikivoyage
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Data from Wikidata
(in Italian) Government website
(in Italian) Official site of the Italian Parliament
Official site of the President of the Italian Republic
Italian Higher Education for International Students
Italian National and Regional parks
Italian tourism official website
Site of the Ministry of Economy and Finance
Italy from the BBC News
"Italy". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
Italy from UCB Libraries GovPubs
Italy at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Encyclopædia Britannica entry
Italy from the OECD
Italy at the EU
Wikimedia Atlas of Italy
Geographic data related to
Italy at OpenStreetMap
Key Development Forecasts for
Italy from International Futures
Articles related to Italy
Ancient Italian peoples
Phoenician / Carthaginian colonies
Italy under Odoacer
Guelphs and Ghibellines
Early Modern period
Revolutions of 1820
Revolutions of 1830
Revolutions of 1848
Sicilian revolution of 1848
First War of Independence
Second War of Independence
Expedition of the Thousand
Third War of Independence
Capture of Rome
Monarchy and the World Wars
Kingdom of Italy
World War I
World War II
Years of Lead
Years of Mud
Chamber of Deputies
Council of Ministers
Regions by GDP
Science and technology
Fathers' rights movement
Festa della Repubblica
World Heritage Sites
Regions of Italy
Lat. and Long. 41°54′N 12°29′E / 41.900°N 12.483°E /
41.900; 12.483 (Rome)
Places adjacent to Italy
(Ligurian Sea, Sea of Sardinia, Tyrrhenian Sea)
(Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea)
Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe
Bosnia and Herzegovina
States with limited
autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark
Akrotiri and Dhekelia2
Sovereign Base Areas
British Overseas Territory
Isle of Man
Special areas of
autonomous region subject to the Åland Convention of 1921
unincorporated area subject to the
country of the
United Kingdom subject to the British-Irish Agreement
1 Oceanic islands within the vicinity of
Europe are usually grouped
with the continent even though they are not situated on its
2 Some countries completely outside the conventional geographical
Europe are commonly associated with the continent due to
Countries and territories of the
States with limited recognition
Dependencies and other territories
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia (UK)
Member states of the European Union
United Kingdom (details)
Future enlargement of the European Union
Council of Europe
Committee of Ministers
Court of Human Rights
Commissioner for Human Rights
Commission for the Efficiency of Justice
Commission against Racism and Intolerance
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Saar (assoc. 1950–1956)
1 Provisionally referred to by the Council of
Europe as "the
Republic of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute.
North Atlantic Treaty
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
North Atlantic Treaty
Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe
Allied Command Transformation
Chairman of the Military Committee
Supreme Allied Commander Europe
Supreme Allied Commander Transformation
Atlantic Treaty Association
Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council
Istanbul Cooperation Initiative
Partnership for Peace
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
OECD Anti-Bribery Convention
Testing of Chemicals
World Trade Organization
Accession and membership
Dispute Settlement Body
International Trade Centre
Chronology of key events
Doha Development Round
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures
Technical Barriers to Trade
Trade Related Investment Measures
Trade in Services
Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
Roberto Azevêdo (Director-General)
Antigua and Barbuda
Central African Republic
Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
Papua New Guinea
St. Kitts and Nevis
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
Trinidad and Tobago
United Arab Emirates
Special administrative regions of the People's
Republic of China,
participates as "Hong Kong, China" and "Macao China".
Republic of China, participates as "Separate Customs
Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu", and "Chinese Taipei"
Group of Eight
Group of Eight (G8) and
Group of Eight
Group of Eight + Five (G8+5)
Group of Six
Group of Seven
G20 major economies
Republic of Korea
Organization for Security and Co-operation in
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bodies and posts
Commissioner on National Minorities
Representative on Freedom of the Media
European Union portal
ISNI: 0000 0001 2186 9395