HOME
The Info List - Italian Resistance Movement


--- Advertisement ---



The Italian resistance movement
Italian resistance movement
(Italian: Resistenza italiana or just la Resistenza) is an umbrella term for resistance groups that opposed the occupying German forces and the Italian Fascist puppet regime of the Italian Social Republic
Italian Social Republic
during the later years of World War II. It was formed by Italians
Italians
of any age, gender, political opinion and social class, following the Allied invasion of the country, the armistice between Italy
Italy
and Allied armed forces, and German military occupation of northern Italy. The movement is also known as the Italian resistance and the Italian partisans (partigiani in Italian). The brutal conflict they took part in is referred to as the Italian Liberation War (when referring to the part they took in the Italian Campaign against the Axis) or as the Italian Civil War
Italian Civil War
(when referring specifically to the conflict with the Fascists). The modern Italian Republic was declared to be founded on the struggle of the resistance.

Contents

1 Resistance by Italian armed forces

1.1 In Italy

1.1.1 Rome 1.1.2 Piombino

1.2 Outside Italy 1.3 Italian military internees

2 Underground resistance

2.1 Partisan movement 2.2 Countryside 2.3 Urban areas 2.4 Female partisans 2.5 1944 uprising 2.6 Foreign contribution 2.7 Aid networks

3 Liberation

3.1 1945 uprising 3.2 Revenge killings 3.3 Casualties 3.4 Liberation Day

4 See also

4.1 In works of popular culture

5 References 6 External links

Resistance by Italian armed forces[edit] See also: Italian Co-Belligerent Army In Italy[edit]

Civilian uniformed Italians
Italians
shot by invading Germans in Barletta, September 12th 1943

Rome[edit] Armed resistance to the German occupation following the armistice between Italy
Italy
and Allied armed forces began with Italian regular forces: the Italian Armed Forces
Italian Armed Forces
and the Carabinieri
Carabinieri
military police. The period's best-known battle broke out in Rome
Rome
the day the armistice was announced. Regio Esercito
Regio Esercito
units such as the Sassari Division, the Granatieri di Sardegna, the Piave Division, the Ariete II Division, the Centauro Division, the Piacenza
Piacenza
Division and the "Lupi di Toscana" Division (in addition to Carabinieri, infantry and coastal artillery regiments) were deployed around the city and along surrounding roads. Outnumbered German Fallschirmjäger
Fallschirmjäger
and Panzergrenadiere were initially repelled and endured losses, but slowly gained the upper hand, aided by their experience and superior Panzer
Panzer
component. The defenders were hampered by the escape of King Victor Emmanuel III, Marshal Pietro Badoglio
Pietro Badoglio
and their staff to Brindisi, which left the generals in charge of the city without a coordinated defence plan. This caused Allied support to be canceled at the last minute, since the Fallschirmjäger
Fallschirmjäger
took the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division
82nd Airborne Division
drop zones; Brigadier General
Brigadier General
Maxwell D. Taylor
Maxwell D. Taylor
had crossed enemy lines and gone to Rome
Rome
to personally supervise the operation. The Italian Centauro II Division's absence from the battle contributed to the German defeat given its German-made tanks. It was composed primarily of ex- Blackshirts
Blackshirts
and was not trusted. By 10 September, the Germans had penetrated downtown Rome
Rome
and the Granatieri (aided by civilians) made their last stand at Porta San Paolo. At 4 pm, General Giorgio Carlo Calvi di Bergolo signed the order of surrender; the Italian divisions were disbanded, and their members taken prisoner. Although some officers participating in the battle later joined the resistance, the clash was not motivated by anti-German sentiment but by the necessity to defend the Italian capital and resist the Italian soldiers' disarmament. Generals Raffaele Cadorna, Jr. (commander of Ariete II) and Giuseppe Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo (later executed by the Germans) joined the underground; General Gioacchino Solinas (commander of the Granatieri) instead opted for the pro-German Italian Social Republic.[1] Piombino[edit] One of the most important episodes of resistance by Italian armed forces after the armistice was the battle of Piombino, Tuscany.[2] On 10 September 1943, during Operation Achse, a small German flotilla, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Karl-Wolf Albrand, tried to enter the harbour of Piombino
Piombino
but was denied access by the port authorities.[2] General Cesare Maria De Vecchi, in command of the Italian coastal forces (and a former Fascist Gerarca), commanded the port authorities to allow the German flotilla to enter, against the advice of Commander Amedeo Capuano, the Naval commander of the harbour.[2][3][4] Once they entered and landed, the German forces showed a hostile behaviour, and it became clear that their intent was to occupy the town; the local population asked for a resolved reaction by the Italian forces, threatening an insurrection, but the senior Italian commander, general Fortunato Perni, instead ordered his tanks to open fire on the civilians, to disperse the crowds; De Vecchi forbade any action against the Germans.[2][3][4] This however did not stop the protests; some junior officers, acting on their own initiative and against the orders (Perni and De Vecchi even tried to dismiss them for this), assumed command and started distributing weapons to the population, and civilian volunteers joined the Italian sailors and soldiers in the defense.[2][3][5] Battle broke out at 21:15 on 10 September, between the German landing forces (who aimed to occupy the town centre) and the Italian coastal batteries, tanks, and civilian population.[3][2][4] Italian tanks sank the German torpedo boat TA11;[6][7] Italian artillery also sank seven Marinefährprahme, the péniches Mainz and Meise (another péniche, Karin, was scuttled at the harbour entrance as a blockship) and six Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
service boats (Fl.B.429, Fl.B.538, Fl.C.3046, Fl.C.3099, Fl.C.504 e Fl.C.528), and heavily damaged the torpedo boat TA9 and the steamers Carbet and Capitano Sauro (formerly Italian).[8] Sauro and Carbet were scuttled because of the damage they had suffered.[8][9] The German attack was repelled; by the dawn of 11 September, 120 Germans had been killed and about 200-300 captured, 120 of them wounded.[4] Italian casualties had been 4 killed (two sailors, one Guardia di Finanza brigadier, and one civilian) and a dozen wounded;[10][11] four Italian submarine chasers (VAS 208, 214, 219 and 220) were also sunk during the fighting.[8] Later in the morning, however, De Vecchi ordered the prisoners to be released, and had their weapons given back to them.[3][2][12] New popular protests broke out, as the Italian units were disbanded and the senior commanders fled from the city; the divisional command surrendered Piombino
Piombino
to the Germans on 12 September, and the city was occupied.[3][4][2] Many of the sailors, soldiers and citizens who had fought in the battle of Piombino
Piombino
retreated to the surrounding woods and formed the first partisan formations in the area.[3] Outside Italy[edit] In the days following 8 September 1943 most servicemen, left without orders from higher echelons (due to Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
units ceasing Italian radio communications), were disarmed and shipped to POW
POW
camps in the Third Reich
Third Reich
(often by smaller German outfits). However, some garrisons stationed in occupied Greece, Albania, Yugoslavia and Italy
Italy
fought the Germans. Admirals Inigo Campioni
Inigo Campioni
and Luigi Mascherpa
Luigi Mascherpa
led an attempt to defend Rhodes, Kos, Leros and other Dodecanese
Dodecanese
islands from their former allies. With reinforcements from SAS, SBS and British Army troops under the command of Generals Francis Gerrard, Russell Brittorous and Robert Tilney, the defenders held on for a month. However, the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
took the islands through air and sea landings by infantry and Fallschirmjäger
Fallschirmjäger
supported by the Luftwaffe. Both Campioni and Mascherpa were captured and executed at Verona
Verona
for high treason. On 13 September 1943, the Acqui Division stationed in Cefalonia
Cefalonia
was ordered by Italian High Command to attack the Germans, despite ongoing negotiations. After a ten-day battle, the Germans executed thousands of officers and enlisted men in retaliation. Those killed in the massacre of the Acqui Division included division commander General Antonio Gandin. Other Italian forces remained trapped in Yugoslavia following the armistice and some decided to fight alongside the local resistance. Elements of the Taurinense Division, the Venezia Division, the Aosta Division and the Emilia Division were assembled in the Italian Garibaldi Partisan Division, part of the Yugoslav People's Liberation Army. When the unit finally returned to Italy
Italy
at the end of the war, half its members had been killed or were listed as missing in action. Bastia, in Corsica, was the setting of a naval battle between Italian torpedo boats and an attacking German flotilla. Italian military internees[edit] Main article: Italian military internees Italian soldiers captured by the Germans numbered around 650,000-700,000 (some 45,000 others were killed in combat, executed, or died during transport), of whom between 40,000 and 50,000 later died in the camps. Most refused cooperation with the Third Reich despite hardship, chiefly to maintain their oath of fidelity to the King. Their former allies designated them Italienische Militär-Internierte ("Italian military internees") to deny them prisoner of war status and the rights granted by the Geneva Convention. Their actions were eventually recognized as an act of unarmed resistance on a par with the armed confrontation of other Italian servicemen.[13] Underground resistance[edit] See also: Italian Social Republic
Italian Social Republic
and Italian Civil War In the first major act of resistance following the German occupation, the city of Naples
Naples
was liberated through a chaotic popular rebellion. Its people rose in the last days of September 1943. Elsewhere, the nascent movement began as independently operating groups were organized and led by previously outlawed political parties or by former officers of the Royal Italian Army. Many partisan formations were initially founded by soldiers from disbanded units of the Royal Italian Army that had evaded capture in Operation Achse, and were led by junior Army officers who had decided to resist the German occupation; they were subsequently joined and re-organized by Anti-Fascists, and became thus increasingly politicized.[14] Later the Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale
Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale
(Committee of National Liberation, or CLN), created by the Italian Communist Party, the Italian Socialist Party, the Partito d'Azione
Partito d'Azione
(a republican liberal socialist party), Democrazia Cristiana and other minor parties, largely took control of the movement in accordance with King Victor Emmanuel III's ministers and the Allies. The CLN was set up by partisans behind German lines and had the support of most groups in the region.[15] The main CLN formations included three politically varied groups: the communist Garibaldi Brigades, the Giustizia e Libertà
Giustizia e Libertà
(Justice and Freedom) Brigades related to the Partito d'Azione, and the socialist Matteotti Brigades. Smaller groups included Christian democrats and, outside the CLN, monarchists such as the Brigate Fiamme Verdi (Green Flame Brigades) and Fronte Militare Clandestino headed by Colonel Montezemolo. Another sizeable partisan group, particularly strong in Piedmont
Piedmont
(where the Fourth Army had disintegrated in September 1943), were the "autonomous" (autonomi) partisans, largely composed of former soldiers with no substantial alignment to any anti-Fascist party; an example were the 1° Gruppo Divisioni Alpine led by Enrico Martini. Relations among the groups varied. For example, in 1945, the Garibaldi partisans under Yugoslav Partisan command attacked and killed several partisans of the Catholic and azionista Osoppo
Osoppo
groups in the province of Udine. Tensions between the Catholics and the Communists in the movement led to the foundation of the Fiamme Verdi as a separate formation.[16] A further challenge to the 'national unity' embodied in the CLN came from anarchists as well as dissident-communist Resistance formations, such as Turin's Stella Rossa movement and the Movimento Comunista d'Italia (Rome's largest single anti-fascist force under Occupation), which sought a revolutionary outcome to the conflict and were thus unwilling to collaborate with 'bourgeois parties'.[17] Partisan movement[edit]

Map of Italy
Italy
during the Civil War, focusing on the Italian Social Republic

Rodolfo Graziani
Rodolfo Graziani
estimated the partisan strength at around 70,000-80,000 by May 1944.[18] Some 41% in the Garibaldi Brigades and 29% were Actionists of the Giustizia e Libertà
Giustizia e Libertà
Brigades.[19] One of the strongest units, the 8th Garibaldi Brigade, had 8,050 men (450 without arms) and operated in the Romagna
Romagna
area.[18] The CLN mostly operated in the Alpine area, Apennine area and Po Valley
Po Valley
of the RSI, and also in the German OZAK (the area northeast of the north end of the Adriatic Sea) and OZAV
OZAV
(Trentino and South Tyrol) zones.[18] Its losses amounted to 16,000 killed, wounded or captured between September 1943 and May 1944.[18] On 15 June 1944, the General Staff of the Esercito Nazionale Repubblicano
Esercito Nazionale Repubblicano
estimated that the partisan forces amounted to some 82,000 men, of whom about 25,000 operated in Piedmont, 14,200 in Liguria, 16,000 in the Julian March, 17,000 in Tuscany
Tuscany
and Emilia-Romagna, 5,600 in Veneto, and 5,000 in Lombardy.[20] Their ranks were gradually increased by the influx of young men escaping the Italian Social Republic's draft, as well as from deserters from the RSI armed forces.[21] By August 1944, the number of partisans had grown to 100,000, and it escalated to more than 250,000 with the final insurrection in April 1945.[22] The Italian resistance suffered 50,000 fighters killed throughout the conflict.[23][24]

An Italian partisan in Florence
Florence
on August 14, 1944

Partisan Alfredo Sforzini

Partisan unit sizes varied, depending on logistics (such as the ability to arm, clothe and feed members) and the amount of local support. The basic unit was the squadra (squad), with three or more squads (usually five) comprising a distaccamento (detachment). Three or more detachments made a brigata (brigade), of which two or more made a divisione (division). In some places, several divisions formed a gruppo divisione (divisional group). These divisional groups were responsible for a zona d'operazione (operational group). While the largest contingents operated in mountainous districts of the Alps
Alps
and the Apennine Mountains, other large formations fought in the Po River
Po River
flatland, In the large towns of northern Italy, such as Piacenza, and the surrounding valleys near the Gothic Line. Montechino Castle housed a key partisan headquarters. The Gruppi di Azione Patriottica (GAP; "Patriotic Action Groups") carried out acts of sabotage and guerrilla warfare, and the Squadre di Azione Patriottica (SAP; "Patriotic Action Squads") arranged strike actions and propaganda campaigns. As in the French Resistance, women were often important members and couriers.[25] Like their counterparts elsewhere in Europe, Italian partisans seized whatever arms they could find. The first weapons were brought by ex-soldiers fighting German occupiers from the Regio Esercito inventory: Carcano
Carcano
rifles, Beretta M1934
Beretta M1934
and M1935 pistols, Bodeo M1889 revolvers, SRCM and OTO hand grenades, and Fiat–Revelli Modello 1935, Breda 30
Breda 30
and Breda M37
Breda M37
machine guns. Later, captured K98ks, MG 34s, MG 42s, the iconic potato-masher grenades, Lugers, and Walther P38s were added to partisan kits. Submachine guns (such as the MP 40) were initially scarce, and usually reserved for squad leaders. Automatic weapons became more common as they were captured in combat and as the Social Republic regime soldiers began defecting, bringing their own guns. Beretta
Beretta
MABs began appearing in larger numbers in October 1943, when they were spirited away en masse from the Beretta factory which was producing them for the Wehrmacht. Additional weapons (chiefly of British origin) were airdropped by the Allies: PIATs, Lee–Enfield
Lee–Enfield
rifles, Bren light machine guns and Sten guns.[26] U.S.-made weapons were provided on a smaller scale from the Office of Strategic Services: Thompson submachine guns (both M1928 and M1), M3 submachine guns, United Defense M42s, and folding-stock M1 carbines. Other supplies included explosives, clothing, boots, food rations, and money (used to buy weapons or to compensate civilians for confiscations). Countryside[edit]

Resistance monument at Lys Pass in the Alps
Alps
(2008)

Partisan memorial Parma

The worst conditions and fighting took place in mountainous regions. Resources were scarce and living conditions were terrible. Due to limited supplies the resistance adopted guerrilla warfare. This involved groups of 40-50 fighters ambushing and harassing the Nazis and their allies. The size of the brigades was reflective of the resources available to the partisans. Resource limits could not support large groups in one area. Mobility was key to their success. Their terrain knowledge enabled narrow escapes in small groups when nearly surrounded by the Germans. The partisans had no permanent headquarters or bases, making them difficult to destroy.[27] The resistance fighters themselves relied heavily on the local populace for support and supplies. They would often barter or just ask for food, blankets and medicine. When the partisans took supplies from families, they would often hand out promissory notes that the peasants could convert after the war for money. The partisans slept in abandoned farms and farmhouses. One account from Paolino 'Andrea' Ranieri (a political commissar at the time) described fighters using donkeys to move equipment at night while during the day the peasants used them in the fields. The Nazis tried to split the populace from the resistance by adopting a reprisal policy of killing 10 Italians for every German killed by the Partisans. Those executed would come from the village near where an attack took place and sometimes from captive partisan fighters. The German punishments backfired and instead strengthened the relationship. Because most resistance fighters were peasants, local populations felt a need to provide for their own. One of the larger engagements was the battle for Monte Battaglia (lit. "Battle Mountain"), a mountaintop that was a part of the Gothic Line. On September 26, 1944, a joint force of 250 Partisans and three companies of U.S. soldiers from the 88th Infantry Division attacked the hill occupied by elements of the German 290th Grenadier Regiment. The Germans were caught completely by surprise. The attackers captured the hill and held it for five days against reinforced German units, securing a path for the Allied advance. Urban areas[edit] Resistance activities were different in the cities. Some Italians ignored the struggle, while others organized, such as the Patriotic Action Squads and issued propaganda. Groups such as the Patriotic Action Groups carried out military actions. A more expansive support network was devised than in the countryside. Networks of safe houses were established to hide weapons and wounded fighters. Only sympathizers were involved, because compulsion was thought to encourage betrayal. People largely supported the resistance because of economic hardships, especially inflation. Pasta
Pasta
prices tripled and bread prices had quintupled since 1938; hunger unified the underground and general population.[27] Female partisans[edit]

Carla Capponi, a vice-commander in the Gruppi di azione patriottica

Women played a large role. After the war, about 35,000 Italian women were recognised as female partigiane combattenti (partisan combatants) and 20,000 as patriote (patriots); they broke into these groups based on their activities. The majority were between 20 and 29. They were generally kept separate from male partisans. Few were attached to brigades and were even rarer in mountain brigades. Female countryside volunteers were generally rejected. Women still served in large numbers and had significant influence.[28] 1944 uprising[edit] See also: Italian Partisan Republics During the summer and early fall of 1944, with Allied forces nearby, partisans attacked behind German lines, led by CLNAI. This rebellion led to provisional partisan governments throughout the mountainous regions. Ossola
Ossola
was the most important of these, receiving recognition from Switzerland and Allied consulates there. An Intelligence Officer told Field Marshal Albert Kesselring, Germany's commander of occupation forces in Italy, that he estimated German casualties fighting partisans in summer 1944 amounted to 5,000 killed and between 7,000-8,000 missing/"kidnapped" (including deserters), and a similar number seriously wounded.[29] Kesselring considered the number to be exaggerated.[30] By the end of the year, German reinforcements and Mussolini's remaining forces crushed the uprising. The resistance demonstrated that not all Italians
Italians
agreed with Fascist rule, and proved that they were prepared to fight. Ten of thousands of partisans died, in addition to civilians and prisoners of war. In their attempts to suppress the resistance, German and Italian Fascist forces (especially the SS, Gestapo, and paramilitary militias such as Xª MAS and Black Brigades) committed war crimes, including summary executions and systematic reprisals against civilian population. Resistance captives and suspects were often tortured and raped. Some of the most notorious mass atrocities included the Ardeatine massacre
Ardeatine massacre
(335 Jewish civilians and political prisoners executed without a trial in a reprisal operation after a resistance bomb attack in Rome), the Sant'Anna di Stazzema massacre
Sant'Anna di Stazzema massacre
(about 560 random villagers brutally killed in an anti-partisan operation in the central mountains), the Marzabotto massacre
Marzabotto massacre
(about 770 civilians killed in similar circumstances) and the Salussola massacre
Salussola massacre
(20 partisan murdered after being tortured, as a reprisal). In all, an estimated 15,000 Italian civilians were deliberately killed, including many women and children.[31]

A woman executed by public hanging in a street of Rome, early 1944

Three Italian partisans executed by public hanging in Rimini, August 1944

German soldier examining the papers of an Italian civilian outside of Milan
Milan
(1944)

The Sant'Anna di Stazzema massacre
Sant'Anna di Stazzema massacre
memorial relief

Memorial stone in Soragna
Soragna
for two Italian partisans – killed in 1944

Foreign contribution[edit]

Partisan monument (Arcevia) with Italian and Yugoslav names

Not all resistance members were Italians; many foreigners had escaped POW
POW
camps or joined guerrilla bands as so-called "military missions". Among them were Yugoslavs, Czechs (deserters from the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia army (in Italy
Italy
for guard/patrol duty in 1944), Russians, Ukrainians, Dutch, Spaniards, Greeks, Poles, German defectors and deserters disillusioned with National Socialism[32] and Britons and Americans (ex-prisoners or advisors deployed by the SAS, SOE and OSS). Some later became well-known, such as climber and explorer Bill Tilman, reporter and historian Peter Tompkins, former RAF pilot Count Manfred Beckett Czernin, and architect Oliver Churchill. George Dunning recorded his experiences of fighting with the partisans in his book "Where bleed the many".[33] Aid networks[edit] Another task carried out by the resistance was assisting escaping POWs (an estimated 80,000 were interned in Italy
Italy
until 8 September 1943),[34] to reach Allied lines or Switzerland on paths previously used by smugglers. Some fugitives and groups of fugitives hid in safe houses, usually arranged by women (less likely to arouse suspicion). After the war, Field Marshal Harold Alexander
Harold Alexander
issued a certificate to those who thereby risked their lives. Italian Jews
Italian Jews
were aided by DELASEM, a network extending throughout occupied Italy
Italy
that included Jews and Gentiles, Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
clergy, faithful/sympathetic police officers and even some German soldiers. Since Jews were considered "enemy aliens" by the Social Republic regime, they were left with little or nothing to live on, and many were deported to Nazi concentration and extermination camps where about 7,000 died. DELASEM
DELASEM
helped thousands of Jews by offering food, shelter and money. Some of its members would later be designated Righteous Among the Nations.

Liberation[edit] 1945 uprising[edit]

Monument to the fallen at the burial place of partisans killed on April 26, 1945 at Montù Beccaria
Montù Beccaria
(2007)

On April 19, 1945, the CLN called for an insurrection (the April 25 uprising). Bologna
Bologna
was attacked by partisans on April 19 and was liberated on April 21 by the Italian Co-Belligerent Army
Italian Co-Belligerent Army
and the Polish II Corps
Polish II Corps
under Allied command; Parma
Parma
and Reggio Emilia
Reggio Emilia
were freed on April 24. Turin
Turin
and Milan
Milan
were liberated on April 25 through an insurrection following a general strike that commenced two days earlier; over 14,000 German and Fascist troops were captured in Genoa on April 26–27, when General Günther Meinhold surrendered to the CLN.[35] Many of the defeated German troops attempted to escape from Italy
Italy
and some partisans units allowed the German columns to pass through if they turned over any Italians
Italians
who were travelling with them. The forces of German occupation in Italy
Italy
officially capitulated on May 2. Some die-hard Fascists attempted to continue fighting, but were quickly suppressed by the partisans and the Allied forces. The April insurrection brought to the fore issues between the resistance and the Allies.[36] Given the revolutionary dimension of the insurrection in the industrial centers of Turin, Milan, and Genoa, where concerted factory occupations by armed workers had occurred, the Allied commanders sought to impose control as soon as they took the place of the retreating Germans. While the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
was the de facto ruler of the South, the National Liberation Committee, still embedded in German territory, existed as a populist organization which posed a threat to the monarchy and property owners in a post-war Italy. However the PCI, under directives from Moscow, enabled the Allies to carry out their program of disarming the partisans and discouraged any revolutionary attempt at changing the social system. Instead, the PCI emphasized national unity and "progressive democracy" in order to stake their claim in the post-war political situation. Despite the pressing need to resolve social issues which persisted after the fall of fascism, the resistance movement was subordinated to the interests of Allied leaders in order to maintain the status quo.[36] Revenge killings[edit]

Mussolini
Mussolini
- captured and executed by Italian Partisans, along with his mistress Clara Petacci
Clara Petacci
and three other Fascist officials. (Milan, 1945)

A score-settling campaign ensued against pro-German collaborators, thousands of whom were rounded up by the vengeful partisans. Controversially, many of those detainees were speedily court martialed, condemned and shot, or killed without trial. Minister of Interior Mario Scelba
Mario Scelba
later put the number of the victims of such executions at 732, but other estimates were much higher. Partisan leader Ferruccio Parri, who briefly served as Prime Minister after the war in 1945, said thousands were killed.[37] During the waning hours of the war, Mussolini, accompanied by Marshal Graziani, headed to Milan
Milan
to meet with Cardinal Alfredo Ildefonso Schuster. Mussolini
Mussolini
was hoping to negotiate a deal, but was given only the option of unconditional surrender. His negotiations were an act of betrayal against the Germans. When confronted about this by Achille Marazza, Mussolini
Mussolini
said, "They [the Nazis] have always treated us as slaves. I will now resume my freedom of action." With the city already held by resistance fighters, Mussolini
Mussolini
used his connections one last time to secure passage with an escaping German convoy on its way to the Brenner Pass
Brenner Pass
with his mistress Claretta Petacci.[27] On the morning of 27 April 1945, Umberto Lazzaro (nom de guerre 'Partisan Bill'), a partisan with the 52nd Garibaldi Brigade, was checking a column of lorries carrying retreating SS troops at Dongo, Lombardy, near the Swiss border. Lazzaro recognized and arrested Mussolini. The task of executing Mussolini
Mussolini
was, according the official version, given to a 'Colonel Valerio' (identified as Walter Audisio) and the bodies of Mussolini
Mussolini
and Petacci were later brought to Milan
Milan
and hung upside down in the Piazzale Loreto
Piazzale Loreto
square. Eighteen executed prominent Fascists (including Mussolini, Fernando Mezzasoma, Luigi Gatti, Alessandro Pavolini
Alessandro Pavolini
and Achille Starace) were displayed in the square; this place was significant because the bodies of 15 executed enemies of Mussolini's regime had been displayed in this square the previous year. Casualties[edit] According to a book published in 1955 by an Italian ministerial committee on the tenth anniversary of the Liberation, casualties in Italy
Italy
among the Resistance movement
Resistance movement
amounted to 35,828 partisans killed in action or executed, and 21,168 partisans mutilated or left disabled by their wounds.[38] Another 32,000 Italian partisans had been killed abroad (in the Balkans and, to a lesser extent, in France).[39] 9,980 Italian civilians had been killed in reprisals by the German and Fascist forces.[40] In 2010, the Ufficio dell'Albo d'Oro of the Italian Ministry of Defence recorded 15,197 partisans killed; however, the Ufficio dell'Albo d'Oro only considered as partisans the members of the Resistance who were civilians before joining the partisans, whereas partisans who were formerly members of the Italian armed forces (more than half those killed) were considered as members of their armed force of origin.[41] Liberation Day[edit]

The 64th anniversary of the liberation of Italy
Italy
in Florence, Tuscany (25th April 2009)

Since 1949, April 25 has been officially celebrated as Liberation Day, also known as Anniversary of the Resistance. Speaking at the 2014 anniversary, President Giorgio Napolitano
Giorgio Napolitano
said: "The values and merits of the Resistance, from the Partisan movement and the soldiers who sided with the fight for liberation to the Italian armed forces, are indelible and beyond any rhetoric of mythicization or any biased denigration. The Resistance, the commitment to reconquer Italy's liberty and independence, was a great civil engine of ideals, but above all it was a people in arms, a courageous mobilization of young and very young citizens who rebelled against foreign power."[42] See also[edit]

Anti-fascism ANPI, an association of the participants to the Italian resistance Volante Rossa an Italian communist antifascist militia active after WWII People's Squads, an Italian left-wing antifascist militia active during the early 1920s Anni di piombo Anarchism
Anarchism
in Italy German Resistance to Nazism Japanese dissidence during the Showa period Museum of the Liberation of Rome

In works of popular culture[edit]

The Abandoned Achtung! Bandits! Bebo's Girl Blood of the Losers Captain Corelli's Mandolin Cloak and Dagger Cloak & Dagger A Day for Lionhearts A Day in Life The Dirty Dozen: The Deadly Mission Escape by Night Everybody Go Home The Fall of Italy The Fallen The Fascist The Four Days of Naples From the Clouds to the Resistance General della Rovere His Day of Glory Hornets' Nest The Hunchback of Rome Johnny the Partisan Last Days of Mussolini Little Teachers Long Night in 1943 The Man Who Will Come Massacre in Rome The Mattei Affair Miracle at St. Anna Outcry Paisan The Path to the Nest of Spiders Porzûs Rome, Open City The Seven Cervi Brothers Ten Italians
Italians
for One German Two Anonymous Letters

References[edit]

^ Sanna, Daniele (2005). Da Porta San Paolo
Porta San Paolo
a Salò. Gioacchino Solinas comandante antitedesco. AM&D. ISBN 88-86799-86-1.  ^ a b c d e f g h "Nell'anniversario della battaglia di Piombino, uno storico racconta perché la città merita l'onorificenza La medaglia d'oro, dopo 55 anni «Il massimo riconoscimento va concesso per ristabilire la verità» - Il Tirreno". Retrieved 25 April 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g " Piombino
Piombino
città di eroi - la Repubblica.it". Retrieved 25 April 2017.  ^ a b c d e "8 settembre '43: la breve illusione di pace". Retrieved 25 April 2017.  ^ "Interventi del Presidente - La Camera dei Deputati". Retrieved 25 April 2017.  ^ "FR L'Iphigénie of the French Navy - French Torpedo boat
Torpedo boat
of the La Melpoméne class - Allied Warships of WWII - uboat.net". Retrieved 25 April 2017.  ^ "Seekrieg 1943, September". Retrieved 25 April 2017.  ^ a b c "Penische fates". Retrieved 25 April 2017.  ^ "Wrecksite – Carbet". Retrieved 25 April 2017.  ^ "-La Nazione - PIOMBINO- Taglio del nastro per la banchina «Giorgio Perini»". 26 July 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2017.  ^ "Marinai d'Italia" (PDF). Retrieved 25 April 2017.  ^ "DE VECCHI, Cesare Maria in "Dizionario Biografico"". Retrieved 25 April 2017.  ^ Natta, Alessandro (1997). L'altra Resistenza. I militari italiani internati in Germania. Einaudi. ISBN 978-8806143145.  ^ Giuseppe Fioravanzo, La Marina dall'8 settembre 1943 alla fine del conflitto, p. 424. ^ The Italian Army 1940-45 (3) Osprey Men-at-Arms 353 ISBN 978-1-85532-866-2 ^ Charles T. O'Reilly; Forgotten Battles: Italy's War of Liberation, 1943-1945; Lexington Books; 2001; p.218 ^ Corvisieri, Silverio (1968). Bandiera Rossa nella Resistenza romana. Rome: Samona e Savelli.  ^ a b c d Moseley, Roger (2004). Mussolini: The Last 600 Days of Il Duce. Taylor Trade Publishing.  ^ Longhi, Silvano (2010). Die Juden und der Widerstand gegen den Faschismus in Italien: 1943 - 1945. Berlin.  ^ Roberto Battaglia, Storia della Resistenza italiana, pp. 336-339. ^ Giuseppe Fioravanzo, La Marina dall'8 settembre 1943 alla fine del conflitto, p. 433. ^ Resistenzialismo versus resistenza ^ "This Day in History — 9/6/1944 - Italian resistance fighters persevere". History.com. Retrieved 2013-12-30.  ^ “World War II: the Encyclopedia of the War Years, 1941-1945” p. 360 ^ " H-Net Review: Andrea Peto on Women and the Italian Resistance, 1943–45". H-Net. msu.edu. Retrieved 2013-12-30.  ^ Balbo, Adriano (2005). Quando inglesi arrivare noi tutti morti. Blu Edizioni. ISBN 88-7904-001-4.  ^ a b c Behan, Tom. The Italian Resistance: Fascists, Guerrillas and the Allies. London: Pluto, 2009. Print. ^ Slaughter, Jane. Women and the Italian Resistance: 1943-1945. Denver, CO: Arden, 1997. Print. ^ O'Reilly, Charles (2001). Forgotten Battles: Italy's War of Liberation, 1943-1945. Oxford.  ^ “Italy's Sorrow: A Year of War, 1944-1945“ p. 303 ^ Gia Marie Amella, Special
Special
for CNN. "Hidden archive exposes WWII slaughters - CNN.com". Edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 2014-05-19.  ^ Incerti, Matteo (2011). Il Bracciale di Sterline - Cento bastardi senza gloria. Una storia di guerra e passioni. Aliberti Editore. ISBN 978-88-7424-766-0.  ^ Dunning, George (1955). Where bleed the many. London, UK: Elek Books Limited.  ^ "British prisoners of the Second World War and the Korean War". The National Archives. Archived from the original on 20 June 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2013.  ^ Basil Davidson, Special
Special
Operations Europe: Scenes from the Anti-Nazi War (1980), pp. 340/360 ^ a b Ginsborg, Paul (1990). A History of Contemporary Italy. Penguin Book. pp. 57–70.  ^ See the interview with Ferruccio Parri, on "Corriere della Sera" 15th November 1997. (in Italian) ^ Giuseppe Fioravanzo, La Marina dall'8 settembre 1943 alla fine del conflitto, p. 433. ^ Giuseppe Fioravanzo, La Marina dall'8 settembre 1943 alla fine del conflitto, p. 433. ^ Giuseppe Fioravanzo, La Marina dall'8 settembre 1943 alla fine del conflitto, p. 433. ^ http://www.campagnadirussia.info/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/I_caduti_del_fronte_orientale.pdf ^ " Italy
Italy
celebrates Liberation Day - Politics - ANSAMed.it". Ansamed.info. 1944-06-04. Retrieved 2014-05-19. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Italian Resistance.

Italy
Italy
European Resistance Archive (in Italian) ANPI
ANPI
– Associazione Nazionale Partigiani d'Italia (in Italian) ANCFARGL – Associazione Nazionale Combattenti Forze Armate Regolari Guerra di Liberazione (in Italian) INSMLI – Istituto Nazionale per la Storia del Movimento di Liberazione in Italia (in Italian) Il portale della guerra di Liberazione Anarchist partisans in the Italian Resistance

v t e

Italy articles

History

Chronology

Prehistory

Italic peoples Ancient Italian peoples Pre-Nuragic Sardinia Nuragic peoples

Etruscan Civilization Nuragic Civilization Phoenician / Carthaginian colonies Magna Graecia Ancient Rome

Kingdom Republic Empire

Middle Ages

Italy
Italy
under Odoacer Ostrogoths Byzantine Italy Lombards Regnum Italiae Sardinian Judgedoms Arabs Normans Guelphs and Ghibellines Italian city-states Maritime republics

Renaissance

Italian Wars

Early Modern period Unification

Revolutions of 1820 Revolutions of 1830 Revolutions of 1848 Sicilian revolution of 1848 First War of Independence Crimean War Second War of Independence Expedition of the Thousand Third War of Independence Capture of Rome

Monarchy and the World Wars

Kingdom of Italy Colonial Empire World War I Fascist Italy World War II Resistance Civil War

Republic

Economic Boom Years of Lead Years of Mud Mani pulite

By topic

Citizenship Currency Economy Fashion Flags Genetic Historic states Military Music Postal Railways

Geography

Peninsula Northern

Northwest Northeast

Central Southern

South Insular

Climate Fauna Flora Mountains

Prealps Alps Apennines

Volcanology

Volcanoes

Beaches Canals Caves Earthquakes Islands Lakes National parks Rivers Valleys

Politics

Constitution Elections Referendums Foreign relations

Missions

Judiciary Law enforcement Military Parliament

Chamber of Deputies Senate

Political parties President Prime Minister Council of Ministers Regions Provinces Metropolitan cities Comune Municipalities Cities

Economy

Economic history

Milan Naples Rome Turin

Regions by GDP Automotive industry Banking

Central Bank

Companies Energy Government debt Science and technology Stock exchange Taxation Telecommunications

Internet

Tourism Trade unions Transportation Welfare

Society

Abortion Adoption Billionaires Capital punishment Corruption Crime Demographics Education

Secondary Higher Universities

Emigration Fathers' rights movement Feminism Gambling Health Healthcare Immigration LGBT rights Nobility Prostitution Racism Religion Smoking Social class Terrorism Women

Culture

Duecento Trecento Quattrocento Cinquecento Seicento Settecento

Architecture Art Castles Cinema Cuisine

Beer Wine

Decorations Design Fashion Festivals Folklore Italian language

Regional Italian Italian literature

Italophilia Italophobia Languages Media

Newspapers Radio TV

Monuments Music

Classical Folk Opera Popular

Mythology National symbols

Anthem Emblem Flag

Regions

National monument Personification

People Philosophy Public holidays

Festa della Repubblica

Sculpture Sport Traditions World Heritage Sites

Italy
Italy
portal Category Commons News Quotes Travel WikiProject

v t e

World War II

Asia and the Pacific

China South-East Asia North and Central Pacific South-West Pacific

Europe

Western Eastern

Mediterranean and Middle East

North Africa East Africa Italy

West Africa Atlantic North America South America

Casualties Military engagements Conferences Commanders

Participants

Allies (leaders)

Australia Belgium Brazil Canada China Cuba Czechoslovakia Denmark Ethiopia France Free France
Free France
(from June 1940) Greece India Italy
Italy
(from September 1943) Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Philippines (Commonwealth) Poland South Africa Southern Rhodesia Soviet Union United Kingdom United States

Puerto Rico

Yugoslavia

Axis and Axis-aligned (leaders)

Albania Bulgaria Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China Independent State of Croatia Finland Germany Hungary Free India Iraq Italy
Italy
(until September 1943) Italian Social Republic Japan Manchukuo Philippines (Second Republic) Romania Slovakia Thailand Vichy France

Armed neutrality

Resistance

Albania Austria Belgium Bulgaria Czech lands Denmark Estonia Ethiopia France Germany Greece Hong Kong Italy Japan Jewish Korea Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malaya Netherlands Northeast China Norway Philippines Poland

Anti-communist

Romania Thailand Soviet Union Slovakia Western Ukraine Vietnam Yugoslavia

Monarchists

Timeline

Prelude

Africa Asia Europe

1939

Poland Phoney War Winter War Atlantic Changsha China

1940

Weserübung Netherlands Belgium France

Armistice of 22 June 1940

Britain North Africa West Africa British Somaliland North China Baltic States Moldova Indochina Greece Compass

1941

East Africa Yugoslavia Shanggao Greece Crete Iraq Soviet Union (Barbarossa) Finland Lithuania Syria and Lebanon Kiev Iran Leningrad Gorky Moscow Sevastopol Pearl Harbor

The outbreak of the Pacific War

Hong Kong Philippines Changsha Malaya Borneo (1941–42)

1942

Burma Changsha Java Sea Coral Sea Gazala Dutch Harbor Attu (occupation) Kiska Zhejiang-Jiangxi Midway Rzhev Blue Stalingrad Singapore Dieppe El Alamein Guadalcanal Torch

1943

Tunisia Kursk Smolensk Gorky Solomon Islands Attu Sicily Cottage Lower Dnieper Italy

Armistice of Cassibile

Gilbert and Marshall Islands Burma Northern Burma and Western Yunnan Changde

1944

Monte Cassino / Shingle Narva Korsun–Cherkassy Tempest Ichi-Go Overlord Neptune Normandy Mariana and Palau Bagration Western Ukraine Tannenberg Line Warsaw Eastern Romania Belgrade Paris Dragoon Gothic Line Market Garden Estonia Crossbow Pointblank Lapland Hungary Leyte Ardennes

Bodenplatte

Philippines (1944–1945) Burma (1944–45)

1945

Vistula–Oder Iwo Jima Western invasion of Germany Okinawa Italy
Italy
(Spring 1945) Borneo Syrmian Front Berlin Czechoslovakia Budapest West Hunan Guangxi Surrender of Germany Project Hula Manchuria Manila Borneo Taipei Atomic bombings

Debate

Kuril Islands

Shumshu

Surrender of Japan

End of World War II
World War II
in Asia

Aspects

General

Famines

Bengal famine of 1943 Chinese famine of 1942–43 Greek Famine of 1941-1944 Dutch famine of 1944–45 Vietnamese Famine of 1945

Air warfare of World War II Blitzkrieg Comparative military ranks Cryptography Diplomacy Home front

United States Australian United Kingdom

Lend-Lease Manhattan Project Military awards Military equipment Military production Nazi plunder Opposition Technology

Allied cooperation

Total war Strategic bombing Puppet states Women Art and World War II

Aftermath

Expulsion of Germans Operation Paperclip Operation Osoaviakhim Operation Keelhaul Occupation of Germany Territorial changes of Germany Soviet occupations

Romania Poland Hungary Baltic States

Occupation of Japan First Indochina War Indonesian National Revolution Cold War Decolonization Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany Popular culture

War crimes

Allied war crimes

Soviet war crimes British war crimes United States war crimes

German (Forced labour) / Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
war crimes

Holocaust Aftermath Response Prosecution

Italian war crimes Japanese war crimes

Unit 731 Prosecution

Croatian war crimes

against the Serbs against the Jews

Romanian war crimes

Wartime sexual violence

German military brothels Camp brothels Rape during the occupation of Japan Sook Ching Comfort women Rape of Nanking Rape of Manila Rape during the occupation of Germany Rape during the liberation of France Rape during the liberation of Poland

Prisoners

Finnish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union German prisoners of war in the United States Italian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union Japanese prisoners of war in World War II German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war Polish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union Romanian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union Soviet prisoners of war in Finland

Bibliography Category Portal

v t e

Resistance to Nazism in World War II
World War II
by country

Albania Austria Belgium Bulgaria Channel Islands Czechoslovakia Denmark France Germany Greece Hungary Italy Luxembourg Netherlands Norway Poland Romania Soviet Union

Belarus Estonia Latvia Lithuania Ukraine

Yugoslavia

Slovenia

See also: Jewish

v t e

Italian Communist Party

General Secretary

Amadeo Bordiga
Amadeo Bordiga
(1922–1923) Executive Committee (1923–1924) Antonio Gramsci
Antonio Gramsci
(1924–1927) Camilla Ravera
Camilla Ravera
(1927–1930) Palmiro Togliatti
Palmiro Togliatti
(1930–1934) Ruggero Grieco
Ruggero Grieco
(1934–1938) Palmiro Togliatti
Palmiro Togliatti
(1938–1964) Luigi Longo (1964–1972) Enrico Berlinguer
Enrico Berlinguer
(1972–1984) Alessandro Natta
Alessandro Natta
(1984–1988) Achille Occhetto
Achille Occhetto
(1988–1991)

Related articles

Italian Socialist Party L'Ordine Nuovo Culturalists Communist Party of Italy
Italy
(banned in 1926) L'Unità XII International Brigade
XII International Brigade
(Garibaldi Battalion) Italian resistance movement National Liberation Committee May 1947 crises AvtoVAZ Tolyatti Italian Communist Youth Federation Marxist-Leninism Bordigism Eurocommunism Meliorism

Derivatives

International Communist Party Communist Party of Italy
Italy
(Marxist–Leninist) / Italian Marxist–Leninist Party Union of Italian Communists (Marxist–Leninist) Proletarian Democracy Democratic Party of the Left
Democratic Party of the Left
/ Democrats of the Left
Democrats of the Left
/ Democratic Party Communist Refoundation Party
Communist Refoundation Party
/ Party of Italian Communists

Alliances

Popular Democratic Front (1947–1948) Historic Compromise
Historic Compromise
(1976–1980)

v t e

Italian Socialist Party

Secretary

Carlo Dell'Avalle (1892-1894) Filippo Turati
Filippo Turati
(1895-1896) Enrico Ferri (1896) Carlo Dell'Avalle (1896-1898) Alfredo Bertesi (1898-1899) Enrico Bertini (1899-1900) Savino Varazzani (1900-1904) Enrico Ferri (1904-1906) Oddino Morgari (1906-1908) Pompeo Ciotti (1908-1912) Costantino Lazzari
Costantino Lazzari
(1912-1918) Egidio Gennari (1918) Costantino Lazzari
Costantino Lazzari
(1918-1919) Arturo Vella (1919) Nicola Bombacci
Nicola Bombacci
(1919-1920) Egidio Gennari (1920-1921) Giovanni Bacci
Giovanni Bacci
(1921) Domenico Fioritto (1921-1923) Tito Oro Nobili (1923-1925) Olindo Vernocchi (1925-1930) Ugo Coccia (1930-1932) Pietro Nenni
Pietro Nenni
(1933-1939) Giuseppe Saragat, Oddino Morgari and Angelo Tasca (1939-1942) Giuseppe Romita (1942–1943) Pietro Nenni
Pietro Nenni
(1943–1945) Sandro Pertini
Sandro Pertini
(1945) Rodolfo Morandi (1945–1946) Ivan Matteo Lombardo (1946–1947) Lelio Basso
Lelio Basso
(1947–1948) Alberto Jacometti (1948–1949) Pietro Nenni
Pietro Nenni
(1949–1963) Francesco De Martino (1963–1968) Mario Tanassi
Mario Tanassi
(1966–1968) Mauro Ferri (1968–1969) Francesco De Martino (1969–1970) Giacomo Mancini (1970–1972) Francesco De Martino (1972–1976) Bettino Craxi
Bettino Craxi
(1976–1993) Giorgio Benvenuto
Giorgio Benvenuto
(1993) Ottaviano Del Turco (1993–1994) Valdo Spini (1994)

Related articles

Italian Labour Party Italian Revolutionary Socialist Party Fasci Siciliani Avanti! Critica Sociale Marxism Revolutionary socialism Maximalists National syndicalism Reformist socialism Democratic socialism Division over World War I National Liberation Committee Italian resistance movement Craxism Sigonella incident Banco Ambrosiano
Banco Ambrosiano
scandal Mani pulite

Derivatives

Italian Reformist Socialist Party Fasci of Revolutionary Action / National Fascist Party
National Fascist Party
/ Republican Fascist Party Communist Party of Italy
Italy
/ Italian Communist Party
Italian Communist Party
/ International Communist Party Unitary Socialist Party Maximalist Italian Socialist Party Socialist Unity Italian Democratic Socialist Party Italian Socialists
Italian Socialists
/ Italian Democratic Socialists
Italian Democratic Socialists
/ Socialist League Labour Federation Reformist Socialist Party Socialist Party / New Italian Socialist Party Forza Italia
Forza Italia
(social-democrats faction) Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy
Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy
(social-democrats faction)

Alliances

Popular Democratic Front (1947-1948) Organic Centre-left (1962-1976) Unified Socialist Party (1966-1971) Pentapartito
Pentapartito
(1981-1993) Alliance of P

.