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Italian irredentism
Italian irredentism
(Italian: irredentismo italiano) was a nationalist movement during the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Italy
Italy
with irredentist goals which promoted the unification of geographic areas in which indigenous ethnic Italians
Italians
and Italian-speaking persons formed a majority, or substantial minority, of the population. Originally, the movement promoted the annexation to Italy
Italy
of territories inhabited by an Italian indigenous population, but retained by the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
after Third Italian War of Independence in 1866. During the period of Risorgimento
Risorgimento
in 1860 to 1861, Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia, Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour
Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour
who was leading the Risorgimento
Risorgimento
effort, faced the view of French Emperor Napoleon III
Napoleon III
who indicated that France
France
would support militarily the Italian unification provided that France
France
was given Nice
Nice
and Savoy
Savoy
that were held by Piedmont-Sardinia, as France
France
did not want a powerful state having control of the passages of the Alps.[1] As a result, Piedmont-Sardinia was pressured to cede Nice
Nice
and Savoy
Savoy
to France
France
in exchange for France accepting and sending troops to help the unification of Italy.[2] These included Trentino
Trentino
and Trieste, but also multilingual and multiethnic areas within the northern Italian region encompassed by the Alps, with German, Italian, Slovene, Croatian, Ladin and Istro-Romanian population such as South Tyrol, a part of Istria, Gorizia and Gradisca
Gorizia and Gradisca
and part of Dalmatia. The claims were extended later to the city of Fiume, Corsica, the island of Malta, the County of Nice
Nice
and Italian Switzerland. To avoid confusion and in line with convention, this article uses modern English place names throughout. However, most places have alternative names in Italian. See List of Italian place names in Dalmatia.

Contents

1 Characteristics 2 Origins 3 19th century 4 World War I 5 Fascism and World War II 6 Dalmatia 7 Post-World War II 8 Political figures in Italian irredentism 9 Regions claimed by Italian irredentism 10 See also 11 References

11.1 Citations 11.2 Sources

12 External links

Characteristics[edit] Italian irredentism
Italian irredentism
was not a formal organization as it was an opinion movement, advocated by several different groups, claiming that Italy had to reach its "natural borders" or unify territories inhabited by Italians. Similar nationalistic ideas were common in Europe
Europe
in the late 19th century. The term "irredentism" was successfully coined from the Italian word in many countries in the world (see List of irredentist claims or disputes). This idea of Italia irredenta is not to be confused with the Risorgimento, the historical events that led to irredentism, nor with nationalism or Imperial Italy, the political philosophy that took the idea further under fascism. The beginning of irredentism in Italy
Italy
was originated as a consequence of the French expansion in Italy
Italy
that started with the annexation of Corsica
Corsica
in 1768 and was followed by Napoleon's inclusion – inside the territories of France's First French Empire
First French Empire
– of the regions of Piedmont, Liguria
Liguria
and Tuscany. Indeed, Pasquale Paoli, the hero of Corsica, was called "the precursor of Italian irredentism" by Niccolò Tommaseo because he was the first to promote Italian language
Italian language
and socio-culture (the main characteristics of Italian irredentism) in his island. Corsica
Corsica
is one of the biggest islands in the Italian geography and Paoli wanted the Italian language
Italian language
to be the official language of his Corsican Republic. Even his Corsican Constitution of 1755 was in Italian and the short-lived university he founded in the city of Corte in 1765 used Italian. During the 19th century, the Italian irredentism
Italian irredentism
fully developed the characteristic of defending the Italian language
Italian language
from other people's languages like, for example, German in Switzerland
Switzerland
and in the Austro-Hungarian Empire or French in Nice. The liberation of Italia irredenta was perhaps the strongest motive for Italy's entry into World War I
World War I
and the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
in 1919 satisfied many irredentist claims.[3] Indeed, Italian irredentism
Italian irredentism
has even the characteristic of being originally moderate, requesting only the return to Italy
Italy
of the areas with Italian majority of population,[4] but after World War I
World War I
it became aggressive – under fascist influence – and claimed to the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
even areas where Italians
Italians
were minority or had been present only in the past. In the first case there were the Risorgimento
Risorgimento
claims on Trento, while in the second there were the fascist claims on the Ionian Islands, Savoy
Savoy
and Malta. Origins[edit] After the Italian unification
Italian unification
and Third Italian War of Independence
Third Italian War of Independence
in 1866, there were areas with Italian-speaking communities within the borders of several countries around the newly created Kingdom of Italy. The irredentists sought to annex all those areas to the newly unified Italy. The areas targeted were Corsica, Dalmatia, Gorizia, the Ionian islands,[citation needed] Istria, Malta, County of Nice, Ticino, small parts of Grisons
Grisons
and of Valais,[citation needed] Trentino, Trieste
Trieste
and Fiume. Different movements or groups born in this period: in 1877 the Italian politician Matteo Renato Imbriani invented the new term terre irredente ("unredeemed lands"); in the same year the movement Associazione in pro dell'Italia Irredenta ("Association for the Unredeemed Italy") was founded; in the 1885 was founded the Pro Patria movement ("For Fatherland") and in 1891 the Lega Nazionale Italiana ("Italian National League") was founded in Trento
Trento
and Trieste
Trieste
(in the Austrian Empire). Initially, the movement can be described as part of the more general nation-building process in Europe
Europe
in the 19th and 20th centuries when the multi-national Austro-Hungarian, Russian and Ottoman Empires were being replaced by nation-states. The Italian nation-building process can be compared to similar movements in Germany (Großdeutschland), Hungary, Serbia
Serbia
and in pre-1914 Poland. Simultaneously, in many parts of 19th century Europe
Europe
liberalism and nationalism were ideologies which were coming to the forefront of political culture. In Eastern Europe, where the Habsburg Empire
Habsburg Empire
had long asserted control over a variety of ethnic and cultural groups, nationalism appeared in a standard format. The beginning of the 19th century "was the period when the smaller, mostly indigenous nationalities of the empire – Czechs, Slovaks, Slovenes, Croats, Serbs, Ukrainians, Romanians
Romanians
– remembered their historical traditions, revived their native tongues as literary languages, reappropriated their traditions and folklore, in short reasserted their existence as nations".[5] The notion of a single united Italy
Italy
was related to the aspirations of the "majority populations". 19th century[edit]

Italian unification
Italian unification
process (Risorgimento)

A precursor of the "irredentists" was the unification leader Giuseppe Garibaldi, who in 1859 as deputy for his native Nice
Nice
in the Piedmontese parliament at Turin
Turin
attacked Cavour for ceding Nice
Nice
to Napoleon III
Napoleon III
in order to get French help and approval for Italian Unification.[original research?] Irredentism
Irredentism
grew in importance in Italy
Italy
in the next years.[citation needed] On 21 July 1878, a noisy public meeting was held at Rome
Rome
with Menotti Garibaldi, the son of Giuseppe Garibaldi, as chairman of the forum and a clamour was raised for the formation of volunteer battalions to conquer the Trentino. Benedetto Cairoli, then Prime Minister of Italy, treated the agitation with tolerance.[6] However, it was mainly superficial, as most Italians
Italians
did not wish a dangerous policy against Austria and even less against France
France
for the sake of Nice
Nice
and Corsica,[citation needed] or against Britain for Malta.[6] One consequence of irredentist ideas outside of Italy
Italy
was an assassination plot organized against the Emperor Francis Joseph in Trieste
Trieste
in 1882, which was detected and foiled.[6] Guglielmo Oberdan, a Triestine and thus Austrian citizen, was executed. When the irredentist movement became troublesome to Italy
Italy
through the activity of Republicans and Socialists, it was subject to effective police control by Agostino Depretis.[6] Irredentism
Irredentism
faced a setback when the French occupation of Tunisia
Tunisia
in 1881 started a crisis in French–Italian relations. The government entered into relations with Austria and Germany, which took shape with the formation of the Triple Alliance in 1882. The irredentists' dream of absorbing the targeted areas into Italy made no further progress in the 19th century, as the borders of the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
remained unchanged and the Rome
Rome
government began to set up colonies in Eritrea
Eritrea
and Somalia
Somalia
in Africa. World War I[edit] See also: The Kingdom of Italy's entry into World War I
World War I
and Italy
Italy
in World War I
World War I
– from neutrality to intervention Italy
Italy
signed the London Pact and entered World War I
World War I
with the intention of gaining those territories perceived by irredentists as being Italian under foreign rule. According to the pact, Italy
Italy
was to leave the Triple Alliance and join the Entente Powers. Furthermore, Italy
Italy
was to declare war on Germany and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
within a month. The declaration of war was duly published on 23 May 1915.[7] In exchange, Italy
Italy
was to obtain various territorial gains at the end of the war. In April 1918, in what he described as an open letter "to the American Nation" Paolo Thaon di Revel, Commander in Chief of the Italian navy, appealed to the people of the United States to support Italian territorial claims over Trento, Trieste, Istria, Dalmatia
Dalmatia
and the Adriatic, writing that "we are fighting to expel an intruder from our home".[8] The outcome of the First World War and the consequent settlement of the Treaty of Saint-Germain met some Italian claims, including many (but not all) of the aims of the Italia irredenta party.[9] Italy gained Trieste, Gorizia, Istria
Istria
and the city of Zara. In Dalmatia, despite the Treaty of London, only territories with Italian majority as Zadar
Zadar
(Zara) with some Dalmatian islands, such as Cres
Cres
(Cherso), Lošinj
Lošinj
(Lussino) and Lastovo
Lastovo
(Lagosta) were annexed by Italy
Italy
because Woodrow Wilson, supporting Yugoslav claims and not recognizing the treaty, rejected Italian requests on other Dalmatian territories. The city of Rijeka
Rijeka
(Fiume) in the Kvarner was the subject of claim and counter-claim because it had an Italian majority, but Fiume
Fiume
had not been promised to Italy
Italy
in the London Pact, though it was to become Italian by 1924 (see Italian Regency of Carnaro, Treaty of Rapallo, 1920 and Treaty of Rome, 1924). The stand taken by the irredentist Gabriele D'Annunzio, which briefly led him to become an enemy of the Italian state,[10] was meant to provoke a nationalist revival through corporatism (first instituted during his rule over Fiume), in front of what was widely perceived as state corruption engineered by governments such as Giovanni Giolitti's. D'Annunzio briefly annexed to this "Regency of Carnaro" even the Dalmatian islands of Krk
Krk
(Veglia) and Rab
Rab
(Arbe), where there was a numerous Italian community. Fascism and World War II[edit]

Residents of Fiume
Fiume
cheering the arrival of Gabriele D'Annunzio
Gabriele D'Annunzio
and his Legionari in September 1919, when Fiume
Fiume
had 22,488 (62% of the population) Italians
Italians
in a total population of 35,839 inhabitants

The irredentist D'Annunzio on a 1920 Italian Regency of Carnaro postage stamp

Fascist Italy
Italy
strove to be seen as the natural result of war heroism against a "betrayed Italy" that had not been awarded all it "deserved", as well as appropriating the image of Arditi
Arditi
soldiers. In this vein, irredentist claims were expanded and often used in Fascist Italy's desire to control the Mediterranean basin. To the east of Italy, the Fascists claimed that Dalmatia
Dalmatia
was a land of Italian culture whose Italians, including those of Italianized South Slavic descent, had been driven out of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
and into exile in Italy, and supported the return of Italians
Italians
of Dalmatian heritage.[11] Mussolini identified Dalmatia
Dalmatia
as having strong Italian cultural roots for centuries via the Roman Empire and the Republic of Venice.[12] The Fascists especially focused their claims based on the Venetian cultural heritage of Dalmatia, claiming that Venetian rule had been beneficial for all Dalmatians and had been accepted by the Dalmatian population.[12] The Fascists were outraged after World War I, when the agreement between Italy
Italy
and the Entente Allies in the Treaty of London of 1915 to have Dalmatia
Dalmatia
join Italy
Italy
was revoked in 1919.[12] To the west of Italy, the Fascists claimed that the territories of Corsica, Nice
Nice
and Savoy
Savoy
held by France
France
were Italian lands.[13][14] The Fascist regime produced literature on Corsica
Corsica
was that presented evidence of the italianità of the island.[15] The Fascist regime produced literature on Nice
Nice
that justified that Nice
Nice
was an Italian land based on historic, ethnic and linguistic grounds.[15] The Fascists quoted Medieval Italian scholar Petrarch
Petrarch
who said: "The border of Italy
Italy
is the Var; consequently Nice
Nice
is a part of Italy".[15] The Fascists quoted Italian national hero Giuseppe Garibaldi, a native of Nizza (Nice) himself, who said: " Corsica
Corsica
and Nice
Nice
must not belong to France; there will come the day when an Italy
Italy
mindful of its true worth will reclaim its provinces now so shamefully languishing under foreign domination".[15] Mussolini initially pursued promoting annexation of Corsica
Corsica
through political and diplomatic means, believing that Corsica
Corsica
could be annexed to Italy
Italy
through Italy
Italy
first encouraging the existing autonomist tendencies in Corsica
Corsica
and then independence of Corsica
Corsica
from France, that would be followed by annexation of Corsica
Corsica
into Italy.[16] In 1923, Mussolini temporarily occupied Corfu, using irredentist claims based on minorities of Italians
Italians
in the Ionian islands
Ionian islands
of Greece. Similar tactics may have been used towards the islands around the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
– through the Pro-Italian Maltese, Corfiot Italians
Italians
and Corsican Italians
Italians
– in order to control the Mediterranean sea (his Mare Nostrum, from the Latin "Our Sea"). During World War II, large parts of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
were annexed by Italy into the Governorship of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
from 1941 to 1943. Corsica
Corsica
and Nice were also administratively annexed by the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
in November 1942. Malta
Malta
was heavily bombed, but was not occupied due to Erwin Rommel's request of diverting to North Africa the forces that had been prepared for the invasion of the island. Dalmatia[edit] The Italian linguist Matteo Bartoli calculated that Italian was the primary spoken language by almost 30% of the Dalmatian population at the beginning of the Napoleonic wars.[17] Bartoli's evaluation was followed by other claims: Auguste de Marmont, the French Governor General of the Napoleonic Illyrian Provinces
Illyrian Provinces
commissioned a census in 1814–1815 which found that Dalmatian Italians
Italians
comprised 25% of the total population of Dalmatia. Accordingly, three years later an Austrian census found around 70,000 Italians
Italians
in a total of 301,000 people living in Austrian Dalmatia.[18] With the development of Croatian nationalism, critics such as Croatian historian Duško Večerina asserted that these evaluations were not conducted by modern scientific standards and that they took spoken language as the criterion, rather than blood, origin and ethnicity. They pointed out that—according to a report by Imperial court councillor Joseph Fölch in 1827—the Italian language
Italian language
was spoken by noblemen and some citizens of middle and lower classes exclusively in the coastal cities of Zadar, Šibenik
Šibenik
and Split. Since only around 20,000 people populated these towns and not all were Italian speakers, their real number was rather smaller, probably around 7% of the total population, as is asserted by the Department of Historical Studies of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts
(HAZU).[19] Not only Italian irredentists (like Gabriele D'Annunzio) but also Italian prominent scholars (like Angelo Vivante) alleged that Joseph Fölch did not include the Dalmatian islands of Cres
Cres
(Cherso), Lošinj (Lussino), Krk
Krk
(Veglia), Vis (Lissa), Hvar (Lesina), Korcula (Curzola) and many others islands with significant Italian communities and so in their opinion Folch did only a partial and mistaken estimate of the real number of the Dalmatian Italians. They reasserted that the only official evidence about the Dalmatian population comes from the 1857 Austro-Hungarian census, which showed that in this year there were 369,310 indigenous Croatians and 45,000 Italians
Italians
in Dalmatia,[20] making Dalmatian Italians
Italians
17% of the total population of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
in the mid-19th century. Dalmatia
Dalmatia
was a strategic region during World War I
World War I
that both Italy
Italy
and Serbia
Serbia
intended to seize from Austria-Hungary. Italy
Italy
joined the Triple Entente Allies in 1915 upon agreeing to the London Pact that guaranteed Italy
Italy
the right to annex a large portion of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
in exchange for Italy's participation on the Allied side. From 5–6 November 1918, Italian forces were reported to have reached Vis, Lastovo, Šibenik, and other localities on the Dalmatian coast.[21] By the end of hostilities in November 1918, the Italian military had seized control of the entire portion of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
that had been guaranteed to Italy
Italy
by the London Pact and by 17 November had seized Fiume
Fiume
as well.[22] In 1918, Admiral Enrico Millo
Enrico Millo
declared himself Italy's Governor of Dalmatia.[22] Famous Italian nationalist Gabriele d'Annunzio supported the seizure of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
and proceeded to Zadar
Zadar
in an Italian warship in December 1918.[23] The last city with a significant Italian presence in Dalmatia
Dalmatia
was the city of Zadar. In the Habsburg empire census of 1910, the city of Zadar
Zadar
had an Italian population of 9,318 (or 69.3% out of the total of 13,438 inhabitants). Zadar
Zadar
population grew to 24,100 inhabitants, of which 20,300 Italians, when was in 1942 the capital of the Governatorate of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
(the "Governatorate" fulfilled the aspirations of the Italian irredentism
Italian irredentism
in the Adriatic). In 1943, Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito
informed the Allies that Zadar
Zadar
was a chief logistic centre for German forces in Yugoslavia. By overstating its importance, he persuaded them of its military significance. Italy surrendered in September 1943 and over the following year, specifically between 2 November 1943 and 31 October 1944, Allied Forces bombarded the town fifty-four times. Nearly 2,000 people were buried beneath rubble: 10–12,000 people escaped and took refuge in Trieste
Trieste
and slightly over 1,000 reached Apulia. Tito's partisans entered in Zadar
Zadar
on 31 October 1944 and 138 people were killed.[24] With the Peace Treaty of 1947, Italians
Italians
still living in Zadar
Zadar
followed the Italian exodus from Dalmatia
Dalmatia
and only about 100 Dalmatian Italians
Italians
now remain in the city. Post-World War II[edit] After World War II, Italian Irredentism
Irredentism
diminished along with the defeated Fascists and the Monarchy of the House of Savoy. After the Treaty of Paris (1947) and the Treaty of Osimo
Treaty of Osimo
(1975), all territorial claims were abandoned by the Italian State (see Foreign relations of Italy). Today, Italy, France, Malta, Greece, Croatia
Croatia
and Slovenia
Slovenia
are all members of the European Union, while Montenegro
Montenegro
and Albania
Albania
are candidates for accession. They[who?] often cited the then-Italian Deputy Gianfranco Fini, who in Senigallia
Senigallia
in 2004 gave an interview to the Slobodna Dalmacija
Slobodna Dalmacija
daily newspaper at the 51st gathering of the Italians
Italians
who left Yugoslavia after World War II, in which he was reported to have said: "From the son of an Italian from Fiume
Fiume
I learned that those areas were and are Italian, but not because at any particular historical moment our army planted Italians
Italians
there. This country was Venetian, and before that Roman".[25] Rather than issuing an official rebuttal of those words, Carlo Giovanardi, then Parliamentary Affairs Minister in Berlusconi's government, affirmed Fini's words by saying "that he told the truth".[26] These sources pointed out that on the 52nd gathering of the same association, in 2005, Carlo Giovanardi
Carlo Giovanardi
was quoted by the Večernji list daily newspaper as saying that Italy
Italy
would launch a cultural, economic and touristic invasion in order to restore "the Italianness of Dalmatia" while participating in a roundtable discussion on the topic " Italy
Italy
and Dalmatia
Dalmatia
today and tomorrow".[27] Giovanardi later declared that he had been misunderstood[28] and sent a letter to the Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in which he condemned nationalism and ethnic strife.[29] They underlined that Alleanza Nazionale
Alleanza Nazionale
(a former Italian conservative party) derived directly from the Italian Social Movement
Italian Social Movement
(MSI), a neo-fascist party. In 1994, Mirko Tremaglia, a member of the MSI and later of Alleanza Nazionale, described Rijeka, Istria
Istria
and Dalmatia
Dalmatia
as "historically Italian" and referred to them as "occupied territories", saying that Italy
Italy
should "tear up" the 1975 Treaty of Osimo
Treaty of Osimo
with the former Yugoslavia and block Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia's accession to European Union
European Union
membership until the rights of their Italian minorities were respected.[30] In 2001, Italian president Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
gave the golden medal (for the aerial bombings endured during World War II) to the last Italian administration of Zadar, represented by its Gonfalone, owned by the association "Free municipality of Zadar
Zadar
in exile". Croatian authorities complained that he was awarding a fascist institution, even if the motivations for the golden medal explicitly recalled the contribution of the city to the Resistance against Fascism. The motivations were contested by several Italian right-wing associations, such as the same "Free municipality of Zadar
Zadar
in exile" and the Lega Nazionale.[31] On 12 December 2007, the Italian post office issued a stamp with a photo of the Croatian city of Rijeka
Rijeka
and with the text " Fiume
Fiume
– eastern land once part of Italy" ("Fiume-terra orientale già italiana").[32][33] Some Croatian sources affirmed that "già italiana" could also mean "already Italian", even if according to Italian syntaxis the correct meaning in this case is only "previously Italian". 3.5 million copies of the stamp were printed [1] [2][permanent dead link], but it was not delivered by the Italian Post Office in order to forestall a possible diplomatic crisis with Croatian and Slovenian authorities [3][permanent dead link]. Nevertheless, some of the stamps leaked out and came in official use, and it became widely available. Political figures in Italian irredentism[edit]

Guglielmo Oberdan Cesare Battisti Nazario Sauro Carmelo Borg Pisani Giuseppe Garibaldi Gabriele D'Annunzio Petru Simone Cristofini Petru Giovacchini Maria Pasquinelli

Regions claimed by Italian irredentism[edit]

Istria
Istria
Dalmatia
Dalmatia
Nice
Nice
province Corsica
Corsica
Savoy
Savoy
Malta
Malta
Ionian Islands
Ionian Islands
Canton Ticino, parts of Canton Vallese and Italian Graubünden
Italian Graubünden
San Marino
San Marino
Coastal parts of Vlorë
Vlorë
region and Vlorë
Vlorë
Palagruža
Palagruža
Tunisia
Tunisia

See also[edit]

Kingdom of Italy Istrian exodus Italian Empire Italian Regency of Carnaro Italian Unification

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Adda Bruemmer Bozeman. Regional Conflicts Around Geneva: An Inquiry Into the Origin, Nature, and Implications of the Neutralized Zone of Savoy
Savoy
and of the Customs-free Zones of Gex and Upper Savoy. P. 196. ^ Adda Bruemmer Bozeman. Regional Conflicts Around Geneva: An Inquiry Into the Origin, Nature, and Implications of the Neutralized Zone of Savoy
Savoy
and of the Customs-free Zones of Gex and Upper Savoy. Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press, 1949. P. 196. ^ irredentism Archived 2008-05-10 at the Wayback Machine. - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-07 ^ NYTimes on Italian irredentism
Italian irredentism
in Istria ^ Sperber, Jonathan. The European Revolutions, 1848-1851. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. page 99. ^ a b c d  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Irredentists". Encyclopædia Britannica. 14 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 840.  ^ 11 NATIONS NOW INVOLVED IN WAR; Washington Expects Rumania, Bulgaria, and Greece
Greece
Soon to Join the Allies. TRADE PROBLEMS CREATED Switzerland, Now Isolated, Must Look to Italy
Italy
for Means to Get in Supplies. 11 NATIONS NOW INVOLVED IN WAR May 24, 1915, Monday Page 1, 749 words - The New York Times ^ Italy's Navy Chief Explains Italian Claims; Trent,...(14 April 1918) - The New York Times ^ ITALY'S PRICE FOR NEUTRALITY (28 March 1915) - The New York Times ^ Stato Libero Di Fiume
Fiume
Archived 2007-12-22 at the Wayback Machine. - (English: "Free State Of Fiume") ^ Jozo Tomasevich. War and Revolution in Yugoslavia 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press, 2001. P. 131. ^ a b c Larry Wolff. Venice And the Slavs: The Discovery of Dalmatia in the Age of Enlightenment. Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press, P. 355. ^ Aristotle A. Kallis. Fascist Ideology: Expansionism in Italy
Italy
and Germany 1922-1945. London, England; UK; New York, New York, USA: Routledge, 2000. P. 118. ^ Mussolini Unleashed, 1939-1941: Politics and Strategy in Fascist Italy's Last War. Cambridge, England, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1986, 1999. P. 38. ^ a b c d Davide Rodogno. Fascism's European Empire: Italian Occupation during the Second World War. Cambridge, England, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006. P. 88. ^ John Gooch. Mussolini and his Generals: The Armed Forces and Fascist Foreign Policy, 1922-1940. Cambridge, England, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Pp. 452. ^ Bartoli, Matteo. Le parlate italiane della Venezia Giulia e della Dalmazia. p.46 ^ Italian irredentism
Italian irredentism
in Dalmatia ^ O broju Talijana/Talijanaša u Dalmaciji XIX. Stoljeća”, Zavod za povijesne znanosti HAZU u Zadru, 2002, UDK 949.75:329.7”19”Dalmacija 2002, p. 344 (“Concerning the number of Italians/pro- Italians
Italians
in Dalmatia
Dalmatia
in the 19th century”) See http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=18696 ^ Statistisches Handbüchlein für die Oesterreichische Monarchie Page 38 - Von Direction der Administrativen Statistik, Österreich - Veröffentlicht 1861 ^ Giuseppe Praga, Franco Luxardo. History of Dalmatia. Giardini, 1993. Pp. 281. ^ a b Paul O'Brien. Mussolini in the First World War: the Journalist, the Soldier, the Fascist. Oxford, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Berg, 2005. Pp. 17. ^ A. Rossi. The Rise of Italian Fascism: 1918-1922. New York, New York, USA: Routledge, 2010. Pp. 47. ^ Lovrovici, don Giovanni Eleuterio. Zara dai bombardamenti all'esodo (1943-1947) Tipografia Santa Lucia - Marino. Roma, 1974. p. 66. ^ Slobodna Dalmacija
Slobodna Dalmacija
Gianfranco Fini: "Dalmacija, Rijeka
Rijeka
i Istra oduvijek su talijanske zemlje", October 13, 2004. ("Dalmatia, Rijeka
Rijeka
and Istria
Istria
are ancient Italian lands") See http://arhiv.slobodnadalmacija.hr/20041013/temedana01.asp ^ Slobodna Dalmacija
Slobodna Dalmacija
Davorin Rudolf: Utroba koja je porodila talijanski iredentizam još uvijek je plodna, Mar 18, 2006 (The bowels that gave birth to Italian irrendentism are still fertile) ^ Nacional Archived 2013-02-17 at Archive.is
Archive.is
Talijanski ministar najavio invaziju na Dalmaciju, Oct 19, 2005 ("Italian minister announced an invasion on Dalmatia") ^ "Veleni nazionalisti sulla casa degli italiani" su Corriere della Sera del 21/10/2005 ("Nationalist poisons on the house of Italians") archiviostampa.it ^ CROATIA "We Are Ready to Invade Dalmatia" Italian minister says Archived 2011-07-15 at the Wayback Machine. - 24/10/2005 - Pioneer Investors ^ Italian Coalition Trips on Old Yugoslavia Issue By JOHN TAGLIABUE, Published: Monday, April 25, 1994 - New York Times ^ Lega Nazionale Medaglia d'oro al comune di Zara ("Golden Medal to the Municipality of Zadar") ^ (in Croatian) Index.hr MVP uputio prosvjednu notu Italiji zbog poštanske marke s nacionalističkim natpisom (The Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs has sent a protest note to Italy, because of issue of a stamp with nationalistic text) ^ B92 - Internet, Radio and TV station Archived 2011-06-08 at the Wayback Machine. Zagreb protests over Italian stamp

Sources[edit]

Bartoli, Matteo. Le parlate italiane della Venezia Giulia e della Dalmazia. Tipografia italo-orientale. Grottaferrata. 1919. Colonel von Haymerle, Italicae res, Vienna, 1879 - the early history of irredentists. Lovrovici, don Giovanni Eleuterio. Zara dai bombardamenti all'esodo (1943–1947). Tipografia Santa Lucia – Marino. Roma. 1974. Petacco, Arrigo. A tragedy revealed: the story of Italians
Italians
from Istria, Dalmatia, Venezia Giulia (1943–1953). University of Toronto Press. Toronto. 1998. Večerina, Duško. Talijanski Iredentizam ("Italian Irredentism"). ISBN 953-98456-0-2. Zagreb. 2001. Vivante, Angelo. Irredentismo adriatico ("The Adriatic
Adriatic
Irredentism"). 1984.

External links[edit]

Unredeemed Italy
Italy
(Google Book) Articles on the History of Dalmatia Articles on the Italians
Italians
in Dalmatia Articles on Zadar, when was a city of the Kingdom of Italy. Slovene - Italian relations between 1880-1918 (in Italian) Movimento irredentista italiano Italian irredentist movement (in Croatian) Hrvati AMAC Gdje su granice (EU-)talijanskog bezobrazluka? (Where are the limits of Italian arrogancy?; page contains the speech of Italian deputy) (in Croatian) Slobodna Dalmacija
Slobodna Dalmacija
Počasni građanin Zadra kočnica talijanskoj ratifikaciji SSP-a (in Italian) D'Annunzio and Rijeka (in Italian) Politicamentecorretto.com Guglielmo Picchi Forza Italia (in Italian) Italia chiama Italia Francobollo Fiume: bloccata l'emissione (in Italian) Trieste.rvnet.eu Stoppato il francobollo per Fiume, bufera: protestano Unione degli istriani, An e Forza Italia (contains the scan of the stamp)

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