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Italian Somaliland ( it, Somala italiana; ar, الصومال الإيطالي, Al-Sumal Al-Italiy; so, Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaalida), was a protectorate of the
Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Kingdom of Sardinia, Sardinia was proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy, proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946, when civil discontent l ...
in present-day
Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script The Osmanya script ( so, Farta Cismaanya 𐒍𐒖𐒇𐒂𐒖 𐒋𐒘𐒈𐒑𐒛𐒒𐒕𐒖), also known as Far Soomaali (𐒍𐒖𐒇 𐒘𐒝𐒈𐒑𐒛𐒘, "Somali writing") and, in Arabic, as al-kitābah ...

Somalia
. Ruled in the 19th century by the
Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, D ...
Sultanates of
Hobyo Hobyo ( so, Hobyo),( it, Obbia), is an ancient port city in Galmudug Galmudug (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by ...
and
Majeerteen The Majeerteen ( so, Majeerteen, ar, ماجرتين; also spelled Majerteen, Macherten, Majertain, or Mijurtin) is a Somali clan. It is one of the major Somali clans, with a vast traditional territory spanning 3 major regions of Somalia: Bari, ...
in the north, and the
Hiraab Imamate The Hiraab Imamate ( so, Saldanadda Hiraab) also known as the Yacquubi Dynasty was a Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republi ...
and
Geledi Sultanate The Sultanate of the Geledi ( so, Saldanadda Geledi, ar, سلطنة غلدي) also known as the Gobroon Dynasty Somali Sultanate: The Geledi City-state Over 150 Years - Virginia Luling (2002) Page 229 was a Somali people, Somali kingdom that ruled ...
in the south, the territory was acquired in the 1880s by Italy through various treaties.Mariam Arif Gassem, ''Somalia: clan vs. nation'' (s.n.: 2002), p.4 In 1936, the region was integrated into
Italian East Africa Italian East Africa ( it, Africa Orientale Italiana, AOI) was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so, Geeska Afrika 𐒌𐒜𐒈𐒏𐒖 𐒖𐒍 ...

Italian East Africa
as the
Somalia Governorate Somalia Governorate was one of the six governorates of Italian East Africa. It was formed from the previously separate colony of Italian Somalia, enlarged by the Ogaden region of the conquered Ethiopian Empire following the Second Italo-Ethiopi ...
. This would last until Italy's loss of the region in 1941, during the East African campaign of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved —including all of the great powers—forming two opposing s: the and the . In a total war directly involving m ...
. Italian Somalia then came under British military administration until 1950, when it became a United Nations trusteeship, the Trust Territory of Somaliland under Italian administration. On July 1, 1960, the Trust Territory of Somaliland united as scheduled with the former
British Somaliland British Somaliland, officially the Somaliland Protectorate ( so, Dhulka Maxmiyada Soomaalida ee Biritishka), was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the c ...
protectorate to form the
Somali Republic The Somali Republic ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliyeed, it, Repubblica Somala, ar, الجمهورية الصومالية ) was the name of a sovereign state composing of Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the ...
.


History

The late 19th century had a huge impact in the
Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA), also known as the Somali Peninsula, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland fr ...

Horn of Africa
. The
Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, D ...

Somali
Sultan Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a Royal and noble ranks, position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun ', meaning "authority" ...

Sultan
s that then controlled the region, such as
Yusuf Ali Kenadid Yusuf Ali Kenadid ( so, Yuusuf Cali Keenadiid; 1837 - 28 september 1911) was a Somali Sultan. He was the founder of the Sultanate of Hobyo in the 1870s. Along with Sultan Mohamoud Ali Shire of the Warsangali Sultanate and King Osman Mahamuud o ...
, Boqor
Osman Mahamuud Osman Mahamuud ( so, Cismaan Maxamuud, ar, عثمان محمود), also known as `Uthman III ibn Mahmud, was a Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl off ...
, Ahmed Yusuf, and
Olol Dinle Sultan Olol Dinle ( so, Suldaan Olol Diinle) (died 1960s) was a Somali sultan who ruled Kelafo as the sultan of the Ajuran Sultanate. Olol Dinle had carved a new sultanate out of the upper reaches of the Webi Shabelle, centered at Kelafo, the tradi ...
entered into treaties with one of the European colonial powers
Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it is the largest of the British Isles, the List of European islands by area, largest European island, and the List of i ...

Great Britain
, and
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the and from the to the and the ; overseas territories include in , in the N ...

France
or
Abyssinia The Ethiopian Empire (), also formerly known by the exonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, internal name A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify ...

Abyssinia
.


First settlement

At the end of the 19th century, a growing social-political movement developed within Italy to start expanding its influence, since many other European countries had already been doing so, which was effectively leaving Italy behind. Italy also had a huge shortage of capital and other serious economic problems. It is also argued by some historians that Italy had a minor interest in the mutton and livestock that were then plentiful in Somalia, though whatever designs Italy may have had on the resource-challenged Somali landscape were undoubtedly subordinate to its interest in the region's ports and the waters and lands to which they provided access.
Cesare Correnti
Cesare Correnti
organized an expedition under the '' Società Geografica Italiana'' in 1876. The next year, the travel journal ''L’Esploratore'' was established by Manfredo Camperio. The "Società di Esplorazioni Commerciali in Africa" was created in 1879, with the Italian industrial establishment involved as well. The "Club Africano", which three years later became the "Società Africana D’Italia", was also established in Somalia in 1880.


Majeerteen-Italian treaties

In late 1888, Sultan
Yusuf Ali Kenadid Yusuf Ali Kenadid ( so, Yuusuf Cali Keenadiid; 1837 - 28 september 1911) was a Somali Sultan. He was the founder of the Sultanate of Hobyo in the 1870s. Along with Sultan Mohamoud Ali Shire of the Warsangali Sultanate and King Osman Mahamuud o ...
entered into a treaty with Italy, making his
Sultanate of Hobyo This article includes a list of successive Muslim state An Islamic state is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associati ...
an Italian
protectorate A protectorate is a state that is controlled and protected by another sovereign state. It is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy over most internal affairs while still recognizing the suzerainty of a more powerful sovereign ...
. His rival Boqor
Osman Mahamuud Osman Mahamuud ( so, Cismaan Maxamuud, ar, عثمان محمود), also known as `Uthman III ibn Mahmud, was a Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl off ...
was to sign a similar agreement vis-a-vis his own
Majeerteen Sultanate The Majeerteen Sultanate ( so, Suldanadda Majeerteen, lit=Boqortooyada Majerteen, ar, سلطنة مجرتين), also known as Majeerteenia and Migiurtinia, was a Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia ...
(Majeerteenia) the following year. Both rulers had entered into the protectorate treaties to advance their own expansionist goals, with Sultan Kenadid looking to use Italy's support in his ongoing power struggle with Boqor Osman over the Majeerteen Sultanate, as well as in a separate conflict with the
Hiraab The Hiraab is a Somali clan of the larger Hawiye. Members live in central and southern Somalia, from Galkayo to Mogadishu. They are also present in Ethiopia and Kenya. Most of them, such as the Abgaal, live in Mogadishu. They once formed a kingdom ...
Sultanate over an area to the south of
Hobyo Hobyo ( so, Hobyo),( it, Obbia), is an ancient port city in Galmudug Galmudug (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by ...
. In signing the agreements, the rulers also hoped to exploit the rival objectives of the European imperial powers so as to more effectively assure the continued independence of their territories.Issa-Salwe (1996), 34–35. The Italians, for their part, were interested in the largely arid territory mainly because of its
port A port is a facility comprising one or more or loading areas, where ships load and discharge and passengers. Although usually situated on a sea coast or estuary, ports can also be found far inland, such as , and ; these access t ...

port
s, which could grant them access to the strategically important
Suez Canal The Suez Canal ( ar, قَنَاةُ ٱلسُّوَيْسِ, ') is an artificial sea-level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an mean, average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's bodies of water from which hei ...
and the
Gulf of Aden The Gulf of Aden ( ar, خليج عدن, so, Gacanka Cadmeed 𐒅𐒖𐒐𐒕𐒌 𐒋𐒖𐒆𐒗𐒒) also known as the ''Gulf of Berbera Berbera (; so, Barbara, ar, بربرة) is the capital of the Sahil, Somaliland, Sahil region of Somali ...

Gulf of Aden
.Fitzgerald, Nina J. ''Somalia'' (New York: Nova Science, 2002), p 33 The terms of each treaty specified that Italy was to steer clear of any interference in the Sultanates' respective administrations. In return for Italian arms and an annual subsidy, the Sultans conceded to a minimum of oversight and economic concessions.Hess (1964), 416–17. The Italians also agreed to dispatch a few ambassadors to promote both the Sultanates' and their own interests. The new protectorates were thereafter managed by
Vincenzo Filonardi Vincenzo Filonardi (23 June 1853 – 17 May 1916) was an Italian politician and soldier of the Regio Esercito, who was the first governor of Italian Somalia. In 1890, he was also consul of the Kingdom of Italy to Zanzibar. Life In 1870 Vincenz ...
through a
chartered company A chartered company is an association with investors or shareholder A shareholder (also known as stockholder) is an individual or institution (including a corporation) that legally owns one or more share (finance), shares of the share capital o ...
. An Anglo-Italian border protocol was later signed on 5 May 1894, followed by an agreement in 1906 between Cavalier Pestalozza and General Swaine acknowledging that Baran fell under the Majeerteen Sultanate's administration. The last piece of land acquired by Italy in Somalia in order to form Italian Somaliland was the
Jubaland Jubaland ( so, Jubbaland, ar, , it, Oltregiuba), the Juba Valley ( so, Dooxada Jubba) or Azania ( so, Asaaniya, ar, ), is a Federal Member State in southern Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federa ...
region. Britain ceded the territory in 1925 as a reward for the Italians having joined the Allies in
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
. The British retained control of the southern half of the partitioned Jubaland territory, which was later called the
Northern Frontier District The North Eastern Province ( so, Gobolka Woqooyi Bari) is one of the former Provinces of Kenya, provinces in Kenya. It has a land area of 127,358.5 km2, with its capital at Garissa. Previously known as the Northern Frontier District (NFD), ...
(NFD).


Italo-Abyssinian campaign

In January 1887 Italian troops from Somalia fought a
battle A battle is an occurrence of combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A weapon, arm or armament is any implement or devic ...
against
Ras Ras or RAS may refer to: Arts and media * RAS Records Real Authentic Sound, a reggae record label * Rundfunk Anstalt Südtirol, a Tyrolese public broadcasting service * Rás 1, an Icelandic radio station * Rás 2, an Icelandic radio station * Ra ...
Alula Engida Ras Alula Engida ( gez, ራስ አሉላ እንግዳ) (1827 – 15 February 1897; also known by his horse name Abba Nega and by Alula Qubi) was an Ethiopian general and politician from Tigray. He was one of the important leaders of the Ethiop ...

Alula Engida
's militia in Dogali, Eritrea, where they lost 500 troops. The Prime Minister,
Agostino Depretis Agostino Depretis (31 January 181329 July 1887) was an Italian statesman and politician. He served as Prime Minister of Italy for several stretches between 1876 and 1887, and was leader of the Historical Left parliamentary group for more than a d ...

Agostino Depretis
, resigned because of this defeat in July 1887.
Francesco Crispi Francesco Crispi (4 October 1818 – 12 August 1901) was an Italian patriot and statesman. He was among the main protagonists of the Italian Risorgimento and a close friend and supporter of Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi, and one of th ...

Francesco Crispi
replaced him as Prime Minister. On May 2, 1889, the Ethiopian Emperor
Menelik II Menelik II ( gez, ዳግማዊ ምኒልክ ; horse name Abba Dagnew (Amharic: አባ ዳኘው ''abba daññäw''); 17 August 1844 – 12 December 1913), baptised as Sahle Maryam (ሣህለ ማርያም ''sahlä maryam'') was Emperor of Ethiopi ...

Menelik II
and Italy signed a peace treaty.


Coastal settlement

Italy gained control of the ports of the Benadir coastal area with the concession of a small strip of land on the coast from the Sultan of Zanzibar, and over the following decades, Italian settlement was encouraged. In 1905, Italy assumed the responsibility of creating a colony in southern Somalia, after several failed attempts. This followed revelations that the Benadir Company had tolerated or collaborated in the perpetuation of the slave trade. The administrative regulator was Governor Mercantelli, with the six subdivisions of ,
Merca Merca ( so, Marka, Maay Maay, Maay: ''Marky'', ar, مركة) is a historic port city in the southern Lower Shebelle province of Somalia. It is located approximately to the southwest of the nation's capital Mogadishu. Merca is the traditional home ...
,
Lugh Lugh or Lug (; ga, label=Modern Irish Irish (also called in Standard Irish Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requir ...

Lugh
, Itala,
Bardera Bardera ( ar, بارديرا, so, Baardheere) is an agricultural city in Bardhere District, Gedo region of Somalia. It is the second most populous town in the Juba Valley, with Kismayo being the largest and most densely populated city in the region ...
, and Jumbo. On April 5, 1908, the Italian Parliament enacted a basic law to unite all of the parts of southern Somalia into an area called "Somalia Italiana". The colonial power was then divided between the Parliament, the metropolitan government, and the colonial government. The power of the colonial government was the only power that was changed. The civil governor controlled export rights, regulated the rate of exchange, raised or lowered native taxes, and administered all civil services and matters relating to hunting, fishing, and conservation.Hess, Robert L. ''Italian Colonialism'', p 102 The governor was in control of the police force, while nominating local residents and military arrangements. From 5 April 1908 to 5 May 1936, the Royal Corps of Somali Colonial Troops (''Regio corpo truppe coloniali della Somalia Italiana''), originally called the "Guard Corps of Benadir", served as the territory's formal military corps. At the start of its establishment, the force had 2,600 Italian officers. Between 1911 and 1912, over 1,000 Somalis from Mogadishu served as combat units along with Eritrean and Italian soldiers in the
Italo-Turkish War The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War ( tr, Trablusgarp Savaşı, "Tripolitanian War", it, Guerra di Libia, "War of Libya") was fought between the Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that existed from 1861 ...
. Most of the troops stationed never returned home until they were transferred back to Italian Somaliland in preparation for the in 1935. Effective Italian control remained largely limited to the coastal areas until the early 1920s.Ben-Ghiat, p. 310 After the collapse of the
Dervish Dervish or Darvesh or Darwīsh (from fa, درویش, ''Darvīsh'') in Islam can refer broadly to members of a Sufi fraternity ( tariqah), or more narrowly to a religious mendicant, who chose or accepted material poverty. The latter usage is fou ...
movement, wherein Diiriye Guure was sultan and wherein Mohammed Abdullah Hassan' was emir, rebellion and revolt occurred, with disputes arising between different clans in the colony. The government of the time served as a mediator while maintaining close control over the military.


Colonial development and fascist era

In 1920, a member of the
Italian Royal Family The House of Savoy ( it, Casa Savoia) is a royal dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n.''" Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the univ ...

Italian Royal Family
, The Duca degli Abruzzi, who was also a famous explorer, would establish the ''Società Agricola Italo-Somala'' (SAIS) in order to explore the agricultural potential of the territory. That same year, the '''' founded the Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi ("Villabruzzi";
Jowhar Jowhar ( so, Jowhar, ar, جوهر, it, Giohar, formerly ''Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi'' or simply ''Villabruzzi'') is the capital city of Hirshabelle Hirshabelle, officially Hirshabelle State of Somalia ( Somali: ''Dowlad goboleedka H ...

Jowhar
) as an agricultural settlement in Italian Somaliland. The area produced sugar, bananas and cotton. On December 5, 1923, was named
Governor A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the Executive (government), executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state. In federations, ''governor'' may be t ...
in charge of the new colonial administration. In November 1920, the
Banca d'Italia The Bank of Italy, known in Italian as aBanca d'Italia (), is the central bank A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages the currency and monetary policy of a State (polity), state or formal moneta ...
, the first modern bank in Italian Somaliland, was established in Mogadishu. After
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
in 1925, Trans-Juba, which was then a part of
British East Africa East Africa Protectorate (also known as British East Africa) was an area in the African Great Lakes occupying roughly the same terrain as present-day Kenya—approximately —from the Indian Ocean inland to the border with Uganda in the west. C ...
, was ceded to Italy. This concession was purportedly a reward for the Italians having joined the Allies in
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
. Following an examination of the layout of the land, the Italians began new local infrastructure projects, including the construction of hospitals, farms and schools. The relationship between the Sultanate of Hobyo and Italy soured when Sultan Kenadid refused the Italians' proposal to allow a
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common culture * British English, ...
contingent of troops to disembark in his Sultanate so that they might then pursue their battle against the Somali religious and nationalist leader Muhammad Abdullah Hassan's Dervish forces.The Majeerteen Sultanates
/ref> Viewed as too much of a threat, Sultan Kenadid was eventually exiled to
Aden Aden ( , ; ar, عدن ' : ) is a city, and since 2015, the temporary capital of , near the eastern approach to the (the ), some east of the strait . Its population is approximately 800,000 people. Aden's natural lies in the crater of a do ...

Aden
in
Yemen ) , image_map = File:Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a (''Houthi takeover in Yemen, De jure'')Aden (Temporary capital Yemeni government, in exile) , coordinates = , capital_exile = ...

Yemen
and then to
Eritrea Eritrea ( ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa region of East Africa, Eastern Africa, with its capital (and largest city) at Asmara. It is bordered by Ethiopia in the south, Sudan in the west, and Djibouti ...
. His son
Ali Yusuf Kenadid Ali Yusuf Kenadid ( so, Cali Yuusuf Keenadiid, ar, علي يوسف كينايديض) was a Somalis, Somali ruler. He was the second Suldaan, Sultan of the Sultanate of Hobyo. History Ali Yusuf was born into a Majeerteen Darod family. His father, ...
succeeded him on the throne. In 1924, Governor Cesare Maria De Vecchi adopted a policy of disarmentation of the northern Somali sultanates. Sultan Ali Yusuf Kenadid was thereafter in turn exiled.The
Dubats Dubat(Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Khan, Michael P. Streck, J ...
colonial troops and the Zaptié gendarmerie were extensively used by De Vecchi during these military campaigns. However, unlike the southern territories, the northern sultanates were not subject to direct rule due to the earlier treaties they had signed with the Italians. In 1926, the agricultural colony of ''Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi'' comprised 16 villages, with some 3,000 Somali and 200 Italian inhabitants, and was connected by a 114 km new
railway Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and contro ...
to Mogadishu. Italian colonial policy followed two principles in Italian Somaliland: preservation of the dominant clan and ethnic configurations and respect for Islam as the territory's religion. In 1928, the Italian authorities built the Mogadishu Cathedral (''Cattedrale di Mogadiscio''). It was constructed in a Norman architecture, Norman Gothic Revival architecture, Gothic style, based on the Cefalù Cathedral in Cefalù, Sicily. Following its establishment, Crown Prince Umberto II of Italy, Umberto II made his first publicized visit to Mogadishu. To commemorate the visit, the Arch of Umberto was constructed. The arch was built at the center of Mogadishu Garden. The Mogadishu International Airport was constructed that same year. The facility was regarded as one of the finest in the region. In the early 1930s, the new Italian Governors, Guido Corni and Maurizio Rava, started a policy of assimilation of the Somalis. Many Somalis were enrolled in the Italian colonial troops, and thousands of Italian colonists moved to live in Mogadishu. The city grew in size and some small manufacturing companies opened up. The Italians also settled in agricultural areas around the capital, such as Jowhar and Janale (''Genale''). In 1930, there were 22,000 Italians living in Italian Somaliland, representing 2% of the territory's population. The majority resided in the capital Mogadishu, with other Italian communities concentrated in Jowhar, Adale (''Itala''), Janale, Jamame and Kismayo.Population of Somalia in 1939
/ref> In October 1934, Crown Prince Umberto II made his second publicized visit to Italian Somaliland. King of Italy, King Victor Emmanuel III would also travel to the territory, arriving on 3 November that same year, accompanied by Emilio de Bono, after a non-stop flight from Rome. They were welcomed by the Governor Maurizio Rava and other colonial administrators. The King then traveled to ''Villabruzzi'' on 5 November who then returned to Mogadishu where he celebrated his 65th birthday on 11 November. Following his visit to Italian Somaliland, new maps and 14 stamps were published. To commemorate his visit, an triumphal arch, Arch of Triumph was constructed in Mogadishu in 1934.


Italian East Africa (1936–1941)

By 1935, Mogadishu began to serve as a major naval base and port for the Italians. Then Prime Minister of Italy Benito Mussolini regarded Greater Somalia (''La Grande Somalia'') as the crown jewel in Italy's colonial empire on the continent. He viewed himself less as an invader than as a liberator of the occupied Somali territories, including the Ogaden region, to which the Ethiopian Empire laid claim. On this basis, he justified his plan to invade Ethiopia. In October 1935, the southern front of the Second Italo-Abyssinian War was launched into Ethiopia from Italian Somaliland. The Italian General Rodolfo Graziani commanded the invasion forces in the south. Over 40,000 Somali troops served in the war, mostly as combat units. They backed up the over 80,000 Italians serving alongside them at the start of the offensive. Many of the Somalis were veterans from serving in Italian Libya. During the invasion of Ethiopia, Mogadishu served as a chief supply base. In June 1936, after the war ended, Italian Somaliland became part of
Italian East Africa Italian East Africa ( it, Africa Orientale Italiana, AOI) was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so, Geeska Afrika 𐒌𐒜𐒈𐒏𐒖 𐒖𐒍 ...

Italian East Africa
(''Africa Orientale Italiana'') forming the
Somalia Governorate Somalia Governorate was one of the six governorates of Italian East Africa. It was formed from the previously separate colony of Italian Somalia, enlarged by the Ogaden region of the conquered Ethiopian Empire following the Second Italo-Ethiopi ...
. The new colony of the Italian Empire also included Ethiopia and
Eritrea Eritrea ( ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa region of East Africa, Eastern Africa, with its capital (and largest city) at Asmara. It is bordered by Ethiopia in the south, Sudan in the west, and Djibouti ...
. To commemorate the victory, an triumphal arch, Arch of Triumph was constructed in Mogadishu. From 1936 to 1940, new roads were constructed in the region, such as the "Imperial Road" from Mogadishu to Addis Abeba, Addis Ababa. New railways (114 km from Mogadishu to Jowhar) and many schools, hospitals, ports and bridges were also built. Since the start of the colony, many Somali troops fought in the so-called Royal Corps of Somali Colonial Troops, ''Regio Corpo Truppe Coloniali''. The soldiers were enrolled as
Dubats Dubat(Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Khan, Michael P. Streck, J ...
, Zaptié and Bands (Italian Army irregulars), Bande irregolari. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved —including all of the great powers—forming two opposing s: the and the . In a total war directly involving m ...
, these troops were regarded as a wing of the Italian Army's Infantry Division, as was the case in Italian Libyan Colonial Division, Libya and Italian 1st Eritrean Division, Eritrea. The Zaptié were considered the best: they provided a ceremonial escort for the Italian Viceroy (
Governor A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the Executive (government), executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state. In federations, ''governor'' may be t ...
) as well as the territorial police. There were already more than one thousand such soldiers in 1922. In 1941, in Italian Somaliland and Ethiopia, 2,186 Zaptìé plus an additional 500 recruits under training officially constituted a part of the Carabinieri. They were organised into a battalion commanded by Major Alfredo Serranti that defended Battle of Culqualber, Culqualber (Ethiopia) for three months until this military unit was destroyed by the Allies of World War II, Allies. After heavy fighting, all the Italian Carabinieri, including the Somali troops, received full military honors from the British. In 1935, there were over 50,000 Italian Somalis, Italians settlers living in Italian Somaliland, constituting 5% of the territory's population. Of those, 20,000 resided in Mogadishu (''Mogadiscio''), representing around 40% of the city's 50,000 residents. Mogadishu was an administrative capital of Italian East Africa, and new buildings were erected in the Italian architectural tradition. Other Italian settler communities were concentrated in Jowhar, Adale (''Itala''), Janale, Jamame, and Kismayo. These figures do not include the more than 220,000 Italian soldiers stationed throughout Italian Somaliland during the Second Italo-Ethiopian War. The colony was also one of the most developed in Africa in terms of the standard of living of the colonists and of the local inhabitants, mainly in the urban areas. By 1940, the Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi ("Villabruzzi";
Jowhar Jowhar ( so, Jowhar, ar, جوهر, it, Giohar, formerly ''Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi'' or simply ''Villabruzzi'') is the capital city of Hirshabelle Hirshabelle, officially Hirshabelle State of Somalia ( Somali: ''Dowlad goboleedka H ...

Jowhar
) had a population of 12,000 people, of whom nearly 3,000 were Italian Somalis, and enjoyed a notable level of development with a small manufacturing area with agricultural industries (sugar mills, etc.). In the second half of 1940, Italian troops Italian invasion of British Somaliland, invaded British Somaliland, and ejected the British. The Italians also occupied Kenyan areas bordering
Jubaland Jubaland ( so, Jubbaland, ar, , it, Oltregiuba), the Juba Valley ( so, Dooxada Jubba) or Azania ( so, Asaaniya, ar, ), is a Federal Member State in southern Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federa ...
around the villages of Moyale and Buna, Kenya, Buna. Although the Italian leadership believed were unsure where the British army would land first, Operation Canvas, to capture southern Somalia occurred first in January 1941, whereas the subsequent attempt to capture British Somaliland happened two months later in Operation Appearance. In the spring of 1941, Britain regained control of
British Somaliland British Somaliland, officially the Somaliland Protectorate ( so, Dhulka Maxmiyada Soomaalida ee Biritishka), was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the c ...
and conquered Italian Somaliland with the Ogaden. However, until the summer of 1943, there was an Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia, Italian guerrilla war in all the areas of the former Italian East Africa.


British Military Administration (1941–1950)

British forces occupied Italian Somaliland and militarily administered the territory as well as British Somaliland. Faced with growing Italian political pressure inimical to continued British tenure and Somali aspirations for independence, the Somalis and the British came to see each other as allies. The first modern Somali political party, the Somali Youth Club (SYC), was subsequently established in Mogadishu in 1943; it was later renamed the Somali Youth League (SYL).I. M. Lewis, ''A pastoral democracy: a study of pastoralism and politics among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa'' (LIT Verlag Münster: 1999), p.304. The SYL evolved into the dominant party and had a moderate ideology. Hizbia Digil Mirifle Somali (HDMS) party served as the principal opposition to the right, although its platform was generally in agreement with that of the SYL. In November 1949, the United Nations finally opted to grant Italy trusteeship of Italian Somaliland, but only under close supervision and on the condition — first proposed by the Somali Youth League (SYL) and other nascent Somali political organizations, such as Hizbia Digil Mirifle Somali (later Hizbia Dastur Mustaqbal Somali, or HDMS) and the Somali National League (SNL), that were then agitating for independence — that Somalia achieve independence within ten years.Zolberg, Aristide R., et al., ''Escape from Violence: Conflict and the Refugee Crisis in the Developing World'', (Oxford University Press: 1992), p.106Gates, Henry Louis, ''Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience'', (Oxford University Press: 1999), p.1749


Trust Territory of Somalia (1950–1960)

In 1949, when the British military administration ended, Italian Somaliland became a United Nations trusteeship known as the Trust Territory of Somaliland. Under Italian administration, this trust territory lasted ten years, from 1950 to 1960, with legislative elections held in Italian Somaliland parliamentary election, 1956, 1956 and Italian Somaliland parliamentary election, 1956, 1959. During the 1950s, with UN funds pouring in and the presence of experienced Italian administrators who had come to see the region as their home, infrastructural and educational development blossomed in the region. School enrollment during this period was free. The decade passed relatively without incident, and was marked by positive growth in virtually all aspects of local life. In the Italian Somaliland parliamentary election, 1956, 1956 parliamentary election, the Somali Youth League would win 54.29% of votes versus 26.01% for the nearest party, the Hizbia Digil Mirifle Somali. The SYL would also earn 416 of the 663 seats in the 1958 municipal election, with the HDMS securing 175 seats. By the Italian Somaliland parliamentary election, 1959, 1959 parliamentary election, SYL would capture an even greater share of votes by winning 75.58% of the total ballot. Italian language, Italian was an official language in Italian Somaliland during the Fiduciary Mandate, as well as in the first years of independence. By 1952, the majority of Somalis had some understanding of the language. In 1954, the Italian government established post-secondary institutions of law, economics and social studies in Mogadishu, the territory's capital. These institutions were satellites of the Sapienza University of Rome, University of Rome, which provided all the instruction material, faculty and administration.


Independence (1960)

On July 1, 1960, the Trust Territory of Somaliland (the former Italian Somaliland) and the State of Somaliland, former British Somaliland political union, united to form the
Somali Republic The Somali Republic ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliyeed, it, Repubblica Somala, ar, الجمهورية الصومالية ) was the name of a sovereign state composing of Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the ...
(Somalia), with Mogadishu as the nation's capital.Encyclopædia Britannica, ''The New Encyclopædia Britannica'', (Encyclopædia Britannica: 2002), p.835 A government was formed by Abdullahi Issa and Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal and other members of the trusteeship and protectorate governments, with Haji Bashir Ismail Yusuf as President of the Parliament of Somalia, Somali National Assembly, Aden Abdullah Osman Daar as List of Presidents of Somalia, President of the Somali Republic, and Abdirashid Ali Shermarke as Prime Minister of Somalia, Prime Minister (later to become President from 1967–1969). On 20 July 1961 and through a popular Somali constitutional referendum, 1961, referendum, the people of Somalia ratified a new constitution, which was first drafted in 1960.Greystone Press Staff, ''The Illustrated Library of The World and Its Peoples: Africa, North and East'', (Greystone Press: 1967), p. 338


Governors


See also

* Italian Somalis * Italian Eritrea * Italian Libya


References


Further reading

* Antonicelli, Franco. ''Trent'anni di storia italiana 1915 - 1945''. Mondadori Editore. Torino, 1961. * * Hess, Robert L. ''Italian Colonialism in Somalia''. University of Chicago P. Chicago, 1966. * * Tripodi, Paolo. ''The Colonial Legacy in Somalia''. St. Martin's P Inc. New York, 1999. * Fitzgerald, Nina J. ''Somalia''. Nova Science, Inc. New York, 2002.


External links


"La Somalia Italiana", written in 1925 by Romolo Onor (in Italian).

"Atlante delle colonie italiane". Detailed Atlas of Italian colonies, written by Baratta Mario and Visintin Luigi in 1928 (in Italian).


* [https://www.delcampe.it/it/collezionismo/cartoline/somalia/search?&page=1 Collection of photos of "Somalia italiana" (1885-1960)] {{coord missing, Somalia Italian Somaliland, Italian colonisation in Africa, Somaliland 1941 disestablishments in Africa Former Italian-speaking countries Former colonies in Africa Former Italian colonies, Somaliland Italy–Somalia relations States and territories established in 1889 1889 establishments in Somalia 1889 establishments in the Italian Empire 1936 disestablishments in the Italian Empire Former polities of the interwar period