Inanna (/ɪˈnɑːnə/; Sumerian: 𒀭𒈹 Dinanna) was the ancient
Sumerian goddess of love, beauty, sex, desire, fertility, war, combat,
justice, and political power. She was later worshipped by the
Akkadians, Babylonians, and Assyrians under the name Ishtar
(/ˈɪʃtɑːr/; Dištar). She was known as the "Queen of Heaven"
and was the patron goddess of the
Eanna temple at the city of Uruk,
which was her main cult center. She was associated with the planet
Venus and her most prominent symbols included the lion and the
eight-pointed star. Her husband was the god Dumuzid the Shepherd
(later known as Tammuz) and her sukkal, or personal attendant, was the
Ninshubur (who later became the male deity Papsukkal).
Inanna was worshipped in
Sumer at least as early as the
but she had little cult prior to the conquest of Sargon of Akkad.
During the post-Sargonic era, she became one of the most widely
venerated deities in the Sumerian pantheon, with temples across
Mesopotamia. The cult of Inanna-Ishtar, which may have been associated
with a variety of sexual rituals including homosexual transvestite
priests and sacred prostitution, was continued by the East Semitic
speaking people who succeeded the Sumerians in the region. She was
especially beloved by the Assyrians, who elevated her to become the
highest deity in their pantheon, ranking above their own national god
Ishtar is alluded to in the
Hebrew Bible and she greatly
influenced the Phoenician goddess Astarte, who later influenced the
development of the Greek goddess Aphrodite. Her cult continued to
flourish until its gradual decline between the first and sixth
centuries AD in the wake of Christianity, though it survived in parts
Mesopotamia as late as the eighteenth century.
Inanna appears in more myths than any other Sumerian deity. Many
of her myths involve her taking over the domains of other deities. She
was believed to have stolen the mes, which represented all positive
and negative aspects of civilization, from Enki, the god of wisdom.
She was also believed to have taken over the
Eanna temple from An, the
god of the sky. Alongside her twin brother
Utu (later known as
Inanna was the enforcer of divine justice; she destroyed
Mount Ebih for having challenged her authority, unleashed her fury
upon the gardener
Shukaletuda after he raped her in her sleep, and
tracked down the bandit woman Bilulu and killed her in divine
retribution for having murdered Dumuzid. In the standard Akkadian
version of the Epic of Gilgamesh,
Ishtar is portrayed as a spoiled and
hot-headed femme fatale who demands
Gilgamesh become her consort. When
he refuses, she unleashes the Bull of Heaven, resulting in the death
Enkidu and Gilgamesh's subsequent grapple with his mortality.
Inanna-Ishtar's most famous myth is the story of her descent into and
return from Kur, the ancient Sumerian underworld, a myth in which she
attempts to conquer the domain of her older sister Ereshkigal, the
queen of the Underworld, but is instead deemed guilty of hubris by the
seven judges of the
Underworld and struck dead. Three days later,
Ninshubur pleads with all the gods to bring
Inanna back, but all of
them refuse her except Enki, who sends two sexless beings to rescue
Inanna. They escort
Inanna out of the Underworld, but the galla, the
guardians of the Underworld, drag her husband Dumuzid down to the
Underworld as her replacement. Dumuzid is eventually permitted to
return to heaven for half the year while his sister Geshtinanna
remains in the
Underworld for the other half, resulting in the cycle
of the seasons.
2 Origins and development
4.2 Associations with the planet Venus
7 Sumerian mythology
7.1 Origin myths
7.2 Conquests and patronage
7.3 Justice myths
8 Descent into the Underworld
8.1 Sumerian version
9 Later myths
9.1 Epic of Gilgamesh
9.2 Other tales
10 Later influence
10.1 In antiquity
10.2 Modern relevance
11 Dates (approximate)
12 See also
15 Further reading
16 External links
Ishtar were originally separate, unrelated
deities, but they were equated with each other
during the reign of
Sargon of Akkad
Sargon of Akkad and came to be regarded as
effectively the same goddess under two different
names. Inanna's name may derive from the Sumerian
phrase nin-an-ak, meaning "Lady of Heaven", but the cuneiform
Inanna (𒈹) is not a ligature of the signs lady (Sumerian:
nin; Cuneiform: 𒊩𒌆 SAL.TUG2) and sky (Sumerian: an; Cuneiform:
𒀭 AN). These difficulties led some early Assyriologists
to suggest that
Inanna may have originally been a Proto-Euphratean
goddess, possibly related to the
Hurrian mother goddess Hannahannah,
who was only later accepted into the Sumerian pantheon. This idea was
supported by Inanna's youthfulness, and as well as the fact that,
unlike the other Sumerian divinities, she seems to have initially
lacked a distinct sphere of responsibilities. The view that there
Proto-Euphratean substrate language in Southern
Sumerian is not widely accepted by modern Assyriologists.
Ishtar occurs as an element in personal names from both the
pre-Sargonic and post-Sargonic eras in Akkad, Assyria, and
Babylonia. It is of Semitic derivation and is probably
etymologically related to the name of the West Semitic god Attar, who
is mentioned in later inscriptions from
Ugarit and southern
Arabia. The morning star may have been conceived as a male
deity who presided over the arts of war and the evening star may have
been conceived as a female deity who presided over the arts of
love. Among the Akkadians, Assyrians, and Babylonians, the name of
the male god eventually supplanted the name of his female
counterpart, but, due to extensive syncretism with Inanna, the
deity remained as female, despite the fact that her name was in the
Origins and development
Copy of the
Uruk Vase in the
Pergamon Museum in Berlin, Germany
Inanna has posed a problem for many scholars of ancient
Sumer due to
the fact that her sphere of power contained more distinct and
contradictory aspects than that of any other deity. Two major
theories regarding her origins have been proposed. The first
explanation holds that
Inanna is the result of a syncretism between
several previously unrelated Sumerian deities with totally different
domains. The second explanation holds that
Inanna was originally a
Semitic deity who entered the
Sumerian pantheon after it was already
fully structured, and who took on all the roles that had not yet been
assigned to other deities.
As early as the
Uruk period (c. 4000–3100 BC),
Inanna was already
associated with the city of Uruk. During this period, the symbol of
a ring-headed doorpost was closely associated with Inanna. The
Uruk Vase (found in a deposit of cult objects of the
period) depicts a row of naked men carrying various objects, including
bowls, vessels, and baskets of farm products, and bringing sheep
and goats to a female figure facing the ruler. The female figure
holds Inanna's symbol of the two twisted reeds of the doorpost,
while the male figure holds a box and stack of bowls, the later
cuneiform sign signifying the En, or high priest of the temple.
Seal impressions from the
Jemdet Nasr period
Jemdet Nasr period (c. 3100–2900 BC)
show a fixed sequence of symbols representing various cities,
including those of Ur, Larsa, Zabalam, Urum, Arina, and probably
Kesh. This list probably reflects the report of contributions to
Uruk from cities supporting her cult. A large number of
similar seals have been discovered from the slightly later Early
Dynastic I phase at Ur, in a slightly different order, combined with
the rosette symbol of Inanna. These seals were used to lock
storerooms to preserve materials set aside for her cult.
Akkadian period, following the conquests of Sargon of
Ishtar became so extensively syncretized that they
became regarded as effectively the same. The
Enheduanna, the daughter of Sargon, wrote numerous hymns to Inanna,
identifying her with Ishtar. Sargon himself proclaimed Inanna
and An as the sources of his authority. As a result of this,
the popularity of Inanna-Ishtar's cult skyrocketed.
Part of the front of Inanna's temple from Uruk
Ancient Sumerian statuette of two gala priests, dating to c. 2450 BC,
found in the temple of
Inanna at Mari
During the Pre-Sargonic era,
Inanna had virtually no cult, but,
after the reign of Sargon, she quickly became one of the most widely
venerated deities in the Sumerian pantheon. She had
temples in Nippur, Lagash, Shuruppak, Zabalam, and Ur, but her
main cult center was the
Eanna temple in Uruk,[Notes 1]
whose name means "House of Heaven" (Sumerian: e2-anna; Cuneiform:
𒂍𒀭 E2.AN),[Notes 2] The original patron deity of this
fourth-millennium BC city was probably An. After its dedication to
Inanna, the temple seems to have housed priestesses of the
goddess. During later times, while her cult in
Uruk continued to
Ishtar also became particularly worshipped in the Upper
Mesopotamian kingdom of
Assyria (modern northern Iraq, northeast Syria
and southeast Turkey), especially in the cities of Nineveh, Aššur
and Arbela (modern Erbil). During the reign of the Assyrian king
Ishtar rose to become the most important and widely
venerated deity in the Assyrian pantheon, surpassing even the Assyrian
national god Ashur.
Ishtar became more prominent, several lesser or regional deities
were assimilated into her, including Aya (the wife of Utu), Anatu
(a Semitic warrior goddess), Anunitu (an
Akkadian light goddess),
Agasayam (a warrior goddess), Irnini (the goddess of cedar forests in
the Lebanese mountains), Kilili or Kulili (the symbol of desirable
women), Sahirtu (the messenger of lovers), Kir-gu-lu (the bringer of
rain), and Sarbanda (the personification of sovereignty).
Androgynous and hermaphroditic men were heavily involved in the cult
of Inanna-Ishtar. During Sumerian times, a set of priests known as
gala worked in Inanna's temples, where they performed elegies and
lamentations. Gala took female names, spoke in the eme-sal
dialect, which was traditionally reserved for women, and appear to
have engaged in homosexual intercourse. During the Akkadian
Period, kurgarrū and assinnu were servants of
Ishtar who dressed in
female clothing and performed war dances in Ishtar's temples.
Akkadian proverbs seem to suggest that they may have also had
homosexual proclivities. Gwendolyn Leick, an anthropologist known
for her writings on Mesopotamia, has compared these individuals to the
contemporary Indian hijra. In one
described as transforming men into women.
According to the early scholar Samuel Noah Kramer, towards the end of
the third millennium BC, kings of
Uruk may have established their
legitimacy by taking on the role of the shepherd Dumuzid, Inanna's
consort. This ritual lasted for one night on the tenth day of the
Akitu, the Sumerian new year festival, which was
celebrated annually at the spring equinox. The king would then
partake in a "sacred marriage" ceremony, during which he engaged
in ritualized sexual intercourse with the high priestess of Inanna,
who took on the role of the goddess. In the late twentieth
century, the historicity of the sacred marriage ritual was treated by
scholars as more-or-less an established fact, but, largely due to
the writings of Pirjo Lapinkivi, many have begun to regard the sacred
marriage as a literary invention rather than an actual ritual.
The cult of
Ishtar may have involved sacred
prostitution, but this is disputed.
Hierodules known as ishtaritum are reported to have worked in Ishtar's
temples, but it is unclear if such priestesses actually performed
any sex acts and several modern scholars have argued that they did
not. Women across the ancient Near East worshipped
dedicating to her cakes baked in ashes (known as kamān tumri). A
dedication of this type is described in an
Akkadian hymn. Several
clay cake molds discovered at Mari are shaped like naked women with
large hips clutching their breasts. Some scholars have suggested
that the cakes made from these molds were intended as representations
The eight-pointed star was Inanna-Ishtar's most common symbol.
Here it is shown alongside the solar disk of her brother Shamash
(Sumerian Utu) and the crescent moon of her father Sin (Sumerian
Nanna) on a boundary stone of Meli-Shipak II, dating to the twelfth
Lions were one of Inanna-Ishtar's primary symbols. The lion
above comes from the
Ishtar Gate, the eighth gate to the inner city of
Babylon, which was constructed in around 575 BC under the orders of
Inanna-Ishtar's most common symbol was the eight-pointed star,
though the exact number of points sometimes varies. Six-pointed
stars also occur frequently, but their symbolic meaning is
unknown. The eight-pointed star seems to have originally borne a
general association with the heavens, but, by the Old Babylonian
Period, it had come to be specifically associated with the planet
Venus, with which
Ishtar was identified. Starting during this same
period, the star of
Ishtar was normally enclosed within a circular
disc. During later Babylonian times, slaves who worked in Ishtar's
temples were sometimes branded with the seal of the eight-pointed
star. On boundary stones and cylinder seals, the eight-pointed
star is sometimes shown alongside the crescent moon, which was the
symbol of Sin (Sumerian Nanna) and the rayed solar disk, which was a
Shamash (Sumerian Utu).
Inanna's cuneiform ideogram was a hook-shaped twisted knot of reeds,
representing the doorpost of the storehouse, a common symbol of
fertility and plenty. The rosette was another important symbol of
Inanna, which continued to be used as a symbol of
Ishtar after their
syncretism. During the Neo-Assyrian Period, the rosette may have
actually eclipsed the eight-pointed star and become Ishtar's primary
symbol. The temple of
Ishtar in the city of
Aššur was adorned
with numerous rosettes.
Ishtar was associated with lions, which the ancient
Mesopotamians regarded as a symbol of power. Her associations with
lions began during Sumerian times; a chlorite bowl from the temple
Nippur depicts a large feline battling a giant snake and
a cuneiform inscription on the bowl reads "
Inanna and the Serpent,"
indicating that the cat is supposed to represent the goddess.
Ishtar was frequently depicted as a
heavily armed warrior goddess with a lion as one of her
Doves were also prominent animal symbols associated with
Inanna-Ishtar. Doves are shown on cultic objects associated
Inanna as early as the beginning of the third millennium BC.
Lead dove figurines were discovered in the temple of
Aššur, dating to the thirteenth century BC and a painted fresco
Mari, Syria shows a giant dove emerging from a palm tree in the
temple of Ishtar, indicating that the goddess herself was
sometimes believed to take the form of a dove.
Associations with the planet Venus
Inanna was associated with the planet Venus, which at that
time was known as "the morning and evening star". Several hymns
Inanna in her role as the goddess of the planet Venus.
Theology professor Jeffrey Cooley has argued that, in many myths,
Inanna's movements may correspond with the movements of the planet
Venus in the sky. In Inanna's Descent to the Underworld, unlike
any other deity,
Inanna is able to descend into the netherworld and
return to the heavens. The planet
Venus appears to make a similar
descent, setting in the West and then rising again in the East. An
introductory hymn describes
Inanna leaving the heavens and heading for
Kur, what could be presumed to be, the mountains, replicating the
rising and setting of
Inanna to the West. In
Shukaletuda is described as scanning the heavens in
search of Inanna, possibly searching the eastern and western
horizons. In the same myth, while searching for her attacker,
Inanna herself makes several movements that correspond with the
Venus in the sky.
Because the movements of
Venus appear to be discontinuous (it
disappears due to its proximity to the sun, for many days at a time,
and then reappears on the other horizon), some cultures did not
Venus as single entity; instead, they assumed it to be
two separate stars on each horizon: the morning and evening star.
Nonetheless, a cylinder seal from the
Jemdet Nasr period
Jemdet Nasr period indicates
that the ancient Sumerians already knew that the morning and evening
stars were the same celestial object. The discontinuous movements
Venus relate to both mythology as well as Inanna's dual nature.
Inanna in her aspect as Anunītu was associated with the eastern fish
of the last of the zodiacal constellations, Pisces. Her
consort Dumuzi was associated with the contiguous first constellation,
Babylonian terracotta relief of
Eshnunna (early second
Life-sized statue of a goddess, probably Ishtar, holding a vase from
Mari, Syria (eighteenth century BC)
Terracotta relief of
Ishtar with wings from
Larsa (second millennium
Ishtar clutching her breasts from
Susa (c. 1300 – c.
Ishtar holding a bow from Ennigaldi-Nanna's museum
(eighth century BC)
Hellenized bas-relief sculpture of
Ishtar standing with her servant
Palmyra (third century AD)
Akkadian cylinder seal depicting
Inanna resting her foot on
the back of a lion while
Ninshubur stands in front of her paying
obeisance, c. 2334-2154 BC
The Sumerians worshipped
Inanna as the goddess of both warfare and
sexuality. Unlike other gods, whose roles were static and whose
domains were limited, the stories of
Inanna describe her as moving
from conquest to conquest. She was portrayed as young and
impetuous, constantly striving for more power than she had been
Although she was worshipped as the goddess of love,
Inanna was not the
goddess of marriage, nor was she ever viewed as a mother
goddess. A description of her from one of her hymns declares,
"When the servants let the flocks loose, and when cattle and sheep are
returned to cow-pen and sheepfold, then, my lady, like the nameless
poor, you wear only a single garment. The pearls of a prostitute are
placed around your neck, and you are likely to snatch a man from the
tavern." In Inanna's Descent to the Underworld,
Inanna treats her
lover Dumuzid in a very capricious manner. This aspect of Inanna's
personality is emphasized in the later standard
Akkadian version of
Epic of Gilgamesh
Epic of Gilgamesh in which
Gilgamesh points out Ishtar's infamous
ill-treatment of her lovers.
Inanna was also worshipped as one of the Sumerian war deities.
One of her hymns declares: "She stirs confusion and chaos against
those who are disobedient to her, speeding carnage and inciting the
devastating flood, clothed in terrifying radiance. It is her game to
speed conflict and battle, untiring, strapping on her sandals."
Battle itself was occasionally referred to as the "Dance of
An ancient Sumerian depiction of the marriage of
Inanna's twin brother was Utu, the god of the sun and justice (who was
later known as
East Semitic languages). In
Utu are shown as extremely close; in
fact, their relationship frequently borders on incestuous.
Inanna's sukkal is the goddess Ninshubur, whose relationship with
Inanna is one of mutual devotion. In the myth of her descent into
Inanna addresses Ereshkigal, the queen of the
underworld, as her "older sister", but the two goddesses
almost never appear together in Sumerian literature. In Uruk,
Inanna was usually regarded as the daughter of the sky god An,
but, in the
Isin tradition, she is usually described as the daughter
of the moon god Nanna (who was later known as Sin). In
literary texts, she is sometimes described as the daughter of
Enlil or the daughter of Enki. In some later stories,
Ishtar is the sister of Ishkur (Hadad), the god of storms,
and, in Hittite mythology,
Ishtar is the sister of Teshub, the Hittite
Dumuzid (later known as Tammuz), the god of shepherds, is usually
described as Inanna's husband, but Inanna's loyalty to him is
questionable; in the myth of her descent into the Underworld, she
abandons Dumuzid and permits the galla demons to drag him down into
Underworld as her replacement, but in the later myth of
The Return of Dumuzid
Inanna paradoxically mourns over Dumuzid's death
and ultimately decrees that he will be allowed to return to
be with her for one half of the year.
Inanna is not usually
described as having any offspring, but, in the myth of Lugalbanda
and in a single building inscription from the Third Dynasty of Ur, the
warrior god Shara is described as her son. She was also sometimes
considered the mother of Lulal, who is described in other texts as
the son of Ninsun.
The poem of
Enki and the World Order (ETCSL 1.1.3) begins by
describing the god
Enki and his establishment of the cosmic
organization of the universe. Towards the end of the poem, Inanna
Enki and complains that he has assigned a domain and special
powers to all of the other gods except for her. She declares that
she has been treated unfairly.
Enki responds by telling her that
she already has a domain and that he does not need to assign her
Original Sumerian tablet of the Courtship of
Inanna and Dumuzid
The myth of "
Inanna and the Huluppu Tree", found in the preamble to
the epic of
Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Netherworld
Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Netherworld (ETCSL
22.214.171.124), centers around a young Inanna, not yet stable in her
power. It begins with a huluppu tree, which Kramer
identifies as possibly a willow, growing on the banks of the
Inanna moves the tree to her garden in
Uruk with the
intention to carve it into a throne once it is fully grown. The tree
grows and matures, but the serpent "who knows no charm," the
Anzû-bird, and Lilitu, the Sumerian forerunner to the Biblical
Lilith, all take up residence within the tree, causing
Inanna to cry
with sorrow. The hero Gilgamesh, who, in this story, is portrayed
as her brother, comes along and slays the serpent, causing the
Anzû-bird and Lilitu to flee. Gilgamesh's companions chop down
the tree and carve its wood into a bed and a throne, which they give
to Inanna, who fashions a pikku and a mikku (probably a drum and
drumsticks respectively, although the exact identifications are
uncertain), which she gives to
Gilgamesh as a reward for his
The Sumerian hymn
Utu contains an etiological myth
Inanna became the goddess of sex. At the beginning
of the hymn,
Inanna knows nothing of sex, so she begs her brother
Utu to take her to
Kur (the Sumerian Underworld), so that she may
taste the fruit of a tree that grows there, which will reveal to
her all the secrets of sex.
Utu complies and, in Kur, Inanna
tastes the fruit and becomes knowledgeable. The hymn employs the
same motif found in the myth of
Ninhursag and in the Biblical
story of Adam and Eve.
Inanna Prefers the Farmer (ETCSL 126.96.36.199.3) begins with a
rather playful conversation between
Inanna and Utu, who incrementally
reveals to her that it is time for her to marry. She is
courted by a farmer named
Enkimdu and a shepherd named Dumuzid. At
Inanna prefers the farmer, but
Utu and Dumuzid gradually
persuade her that Dumuzid is the better choice for a husband, arguing
that, for every gift the farmer can give to her, the shepherd can give
her something even better. In the end,
Dumuzid. The shepherd and the farmer reconcile their differences,
offering each other gifts.
Samuel Noah Kramer
Samuel Noah Kramer compares the myth
to the Biblical story of
Cain and Abel
Cain and Abel because both myths center
around a farmer and a shepherd competing for divine favor and, in both
stories, the deity in question ultimately chooses the shepherd.
Conquests and patronage
Akkadian cylinder seal from c. 2300 BC or thereabouts depicting the
deities Inanna, Utu, Enki, and Isimud
Enki (ETCSL t.1.3.1) is a lengthy poem written in Sumerian,
which may date to the
Ur III period; it tells the story of how
Inanna stole the sacred mes from Enki, the god of water and human
culture. In ancient Sumerian mythology, the mes were sacred
powers or properties belonging the gods that allowed human
civilization to exist. Each me embodied one specific aspect of
human culture. These aspects were very diverse and the mes listed
in the poem include abstract concepts such as Truth, Victory, and
Counsel, technologies such as writing and weaving, and also social
constructs such as law, priestly offices, kingship, and prostitution.
The mes were believed to grant power over all the aspects of
civilization, both positive and negative.
In the myth,
Inanna travels from her own city of
Uruk to Enki's city
of Eridu, where she visits his temple, the E-Abzu.
greeted by Enki's sukkal, Isimud, who offers her food and
Inanna starts up a drinking competition with
Enki. Then, once
Enki is thoroughly intoxicated, Inanna
persuades him to give her the mes.
Inanna flees from Eridu
in the Boat of Heaven, taking the mes back with her to Uruk.
Enki wakes up to discover that the mes are gone and asks
has happened to them.
Isimud replies that
Enki has given all
of them to Inanna.
Enki becomes infuriated and sends
multiple sets of fierce monsters after
Inanna to take back the mes
before she reaches the city of Uruk. Inanna's sukkal
Ninshubur fends off all of the monsters that
Enki sends after
them. Through Ninshubur's aid,
manages to take the mes back with her to the city of Uruk.
Enki reconciles with her and bids her a positive
farewell. It is possible that this legend may represent a
historic transfer of power from the city of
Eridu to the city of
Uruk. It is also possible that this legend may be a symbolic
representation of Inanna's maturity and her readiness to become the
Queen of Heaven.
Inanna Takes Command of
Heaven is an extremely fragmentary,
but important, account of Inanna's conquest of the
Eanna temple in
Uruk. It begins with a conversation between
Inanna and her brother
Utu in which
Inanna laments that the
Eanna temple is not within their
domain and resolves to claim it as her own. The text becomes
increasingly fragmentary at this point in the narrative, but
appears to describe her difficult passage through a marshland to reach
the temple while a fisherman instructs her on which route is best to
Inanna reaches her father An, who is shocked by
her arrogance, but nevertheless concedes that she has succeeded and
that the temple is now her domain. The text ends with a hymn
expounding Inanna's greatness. This myth may represent an eclipse
in the authority of the priests of An in
Uruk and a transfer of power
to the priests of Inanna.
Inanna briefly appears at the beginning and end of the epic poem
Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta
Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta (ETCSL 188.8.131.52). The epic deals with a
rivalry between the cities of
Uruk and Aratta. Enmerkar, the king of
Uruk, wishes to adorn his city with jewels and precious metals, but
cannot do so because such minerals are only found in
Aratta and, since
trade does not yet exist, the resources are not available to him.
Inanna, who is the patron goddess of both cities, appears to
Enmerkar at the beginning of the poem and tells him that she
Uruk over Aratta. She instructs
Enmerkar to send a
messenger to the lord of
Aratta to ask for the resources Uruk
needs. The majority of the epic revolves around a great contest
between the two kings over Inanna's favor.
Inanna reappears at
the end of the poem to resolve the conflict by telling
establish trade between his city and Aratta.
The original Sumerian clay tablet of
Inanna and Ebih, which is
currently housed in the Oriental Institute at the University of
Inanna and her brother
Utu were regarded as the dispensers of divine
justice, a role which
Inanna exemplifies in several of her
Inanna and Ebih (ETCSL 1.3.2), otherwise known as Goddess
of the Fearsome Divine Powers, is a 184-line poem written by the
Enheduanna describing Inanna's confrontation with
Mount Ebih, a mountain in the
Zagros mountain range. The poem
begins with an introductory hymn praising Inanna. The goddess
journeys all over the entire world, until she comes across Mount Ebih
and becomes infuriated by its glorious might and natural beauty,
considering its very existence as an outright affront to her own
authority. She rails at Mount Ebih, shouting:
Mountain, because of your elevation, because of your height,
Because of your goodness, because of your beauty,
Because you wore a holy garment,
Because An organized(?) you,
Because you did not bring (your) nose close to the ground,
Because you did not press (your) lips in the dust.
Inanna petitions to An, the Sumerian god of the heavens, to allow her
to destroy Mount Ebih. An warns
Inanna not to attack the
mountain, but she ignores his warning and proceeds to attack and
destroy Mount Ebih regardless. In the conclusion of the myth, she
explains to Mount Ebih why she attacked it. In Sumerian poetry,
the phrase "destroyer of Kur" is occasionally used as one of Inanna's
Shukaletuda (ETCSL 1.3.3) begins with a hymn to
Inanna, praising her as the planet Venus. It then introduces
Shukaletuda, a gardener who is terrible at his job and partially
blind. All of his plants die, except for one poplar tree.
Shukaletuda prays to the gods for guidance in his work. To his
surprise, the goddess
Inanna sees his one poplar tree and decides to
rest under the shade of its branches.
Shukaletuda removes her
clothes and rapes
Inanna while she sleeps. When the goddess wakes
up and realizes she has been violated, she becomes furious and
determines to bring her attacker to justice. In a fit of rage,
Inanna unleashes horrible plagues upon the Earth, turning water into
blood. Shukaletuda, terrified for his life, pleads his father for
advice on how to escape Inanna's wrath. His father tells him to
hide in the city, amongst the hordes of people, where he will
hopefully blend in.
Inanna searches the mountains of the East for
her attacker, but is not able to find him. She then releases
a series of storms and closes all roads to the city, but is still
unable to find Shukaletuda, so she asks
Enki to help her find
him, threatening to leave her temple in
Uruk if he does not. Enki
consents and allows
Inanna to "fly across the sky like a
Inanna finally locates Shukaletuda, who vainly attempts
to invent excuses for his crime against her.
Inanna rejects these
excuses and kills him. Theology professor Jeffrey Cooley has
cited the story of
Shukaletuda as a Sumerian astral myth, arguing that
the movements of
Inanna in the story correspond with the movements of
the planet Venus. He has also stated that, while
praying to the goddess, he may have been looking toward
Venus on the
The text of the poem
Inanna and Bilulu (ETCSL 1.4.4), discovered at
Nippur, is badly mutilated and scholars have interpreted it in a
number of different ways. The beginning of the poem is mostly
destroyed, but seems to be a lament. The intelligible part
of the poem describes
Inanna pining after her husband Dumuzid, who is
in the steppe watching his flocks.
Inanna sets out to find
him. After this, a large portion of the text is missing.
When the story resumes,
Inanna is being told that Dumuzid has been
Inanna discovers that the old bandit woman Bilulu and
her son Girgire are responsible. She travels along the road to
Edenlila and stops at an inn, where she finds the two murderers.
Inanna stands on top of a stool and transforms Bilulu into "the
waterskin that men carry in the desert", forcing her to
pour the funerary libations for Dumuzid.
Descent into the Underworld
Copy of the
Akkadian version of Ishtar's Descent into the Underworld
from the Library of Assurbanipal, currently held in the British Museum
in London, England
Depiction of Inanna/
Ishtar from the
Ishtar Vase, dating to the early
second millennium BC
Two different versions of the story of Inanna-Ishtar's descent into
Underworld have survived: a Sumerian version dating to
Third Dynasty of Ur
Third Dynasty of Ur (ETCSL 1.4.1) and a clearly
Akkadian version from the early second millennium
BC. The Sumerian version of the story is nearly three times
the length of the later
Akkadian version and contains much greater
In Sumerian religion, the
Kur was conceived of as a dark, dreary
cavern located deep underground; life there was envisioned as "a
shadowy version of life on earth". It was ruled by Inanna's
sister, the goddess Ereshkigal. Before leaving, Inanna
instructs her minister and servant
Ninshubur to plead with the deities
Enlil, Nanna, Anu, and
Enki to rescue her if she does not return after
three days. The laws of the underworld dictate that, with the
exception of appointed messengers, those who enter it may never
Inanna dresses elaborately for the visit; she wears a
turban, wig, lapis lazuli necklace, beads upon her breast, the 'pala
dress' (the ladyship garment), mascara, a pectoral, and golden ring,
and holds a lapis lazuli measuring rod. Each garment is a
representation of a powerful me she possesses.
Inanna pounds on the gates of the Underworld, demanding to be let
in. The gatekeeper Neti asks her why she has come
Inanna replies that she wishes to attend the funeral rites of
Gugalanna, the "husband of my elder sister Ereshkigal".
Neti reports this to Ereshkigal, who tells him: "Bolt the
seven gates of the underworld. Then, one by one, open each gate a
Inanna enter. As she enters, remove her royal
garments." Perhaps Inanna's garments, unsuitable for a funeral,
along with Inanna's haughty behavior, make
Following Ereshkigal's instructions, Neti tells
Inanna she may enter
the first gate of the underworld, but she must hand over her lapis
lazuli measuring rod. She asks why, and is told, "It is just the ways
of the Underworld." She obliges and passes through.
through a total of seven gates, at each one removing a piece of
clothing or jewelry she had been wearing at the start of her
journey, thus stripping her of her power. When she arrives
in front of her sister, she is naked:
"After she had crouched down and had her clothes removed, they were
carried away. Then she made her sister Erec-ki-gala rise from her
throne, and instead she sat on her throne. The Anna, the seven judges,
rendered their decision against her. They looked at her – it was the
look of death. They spoke to her – it was the speech of anger. They
shouted at her – it was the shout of heavy guilt. The afflicted
woman was turned into a corpse. And the corpse was hung on a
Three days and three nights pass, and Ninshubur, following
instructions, goes to the temples of Enlil, Nanna, An, and Enki, and
pleads with each of them to rescue Inanna. The first three
deities refuse, saying Inanna's fate is her own fault, but
Enki is deeply troubled and agrees to help. He creates two
sexless figures named gala-tura and the kur-jara from the dirt under
the fingernails of the deities. He instructs them to appease
Ereshkigal and, when she asks them what they want, ask for
the corpse of Inanna, which they must sprinkle with the food and water
of life. When they come before Ereshkigal, she is in agony
like a woman giving birth. She offers them whatever they want,
including life-giving rivers of water and fields of grain, if they can
relieve her, but they refuse all of her offers and ask only for
Inanna's corpse. The gala-tura and the kur-jara sprinkle Inanna's
corpse with the food and water of life and revive her. Galla
demons sent by
Inanna out of the Underworld,
insisting that someone else must be taken to the
Inanna's replacement. They first come upon
attempt to take her, but
Inanna stops them, insisting that
Ninshubur is her loyal servant and that she had rightfully mourned for
her while she was in the Underworld. They next come upon
Shara, Inanna's beautician, who is still in mourning. The
demons attempt to take him, but
Inanna insists that they may not,
because he had also mourned for her. The third person they
come upon is Lulal, who is also in mourning. The demons try
to take him, but
Inanna stops them once again.
Ancient Sumerian cylinder seal impression showing Dumuzid being
tortured in the
Underworld by the galla demons
Finally, they come upon Dumuzid, Inanna's husband. Despite Inanna's
fate, and in contrast to the other individuals who were properly
mourning Inanna, Dumuzid is lavishly clothed and resting beneath a
tree, or upon her throne, entertained by slave-girls. Inanna,
displeased, decrees that the demons shall take him, using language
which echoes the speech
Ereshkigal gave while condemning her. The
demons then drag Dumuzid down to the Underworld. In other
recensions of the story, Dumuzid tries to escape his fate, and is able
to flee from the demons for a time, as Inanna's brother Utu, the god
of the Sun, repeatedly intervenes and transforms Dumuzid into a
variety of different animals, enabling him to escape. Nonetheless, the
galla eventually capture Dumuzid and drag him down to the Underworld.
However, Geshtinanna, Dumuzid's sister, out of love for him, begs to
be taken in his place.
Inanna decrees that Dumuzid will spend half the
year in the underworld with Ereshkigal, but that his sister will take
the other half. Inanna, displaying her typically capricious
behavior, mourns Dumuzid's time in the underworld. This she reveals in
a haunting lament of his deathlike absence from her, for "[he] cannot
answer . . . [he] cannot come/ to her calling . . . the young man has
gone." Her own powers, notably those connected with fertility,
subsequently wane, to return in full when he returns from the
netherworld each six months. This cycle then approximates the shift of
Akkadian version begins with
Ishtar approaching the gates of the
Underworld and demanding the gatekeeper to let her in:
If you do not open the gate for me to come in,
I shall smash the door and shatter the bolt,
I shall smash the doorpost and overturn the doors,
I shall raise up the dead and they shall eat the living:
And the dead shall outnumber the living!
The gatekeeper (whose name is not given in the
hurries to tell
Ereshkigal of Ishtar's arrival.
Ereshkigal orders him
Ishtar enter, but tells him to "treat her according to the
ancient rites." The gatekeeper lets
Ishtar into the underworld,
opening one gate at a time. At each gate,
Ishtar is forced to
shed one article of clothing. When she finally passes the seventh
gate, she is naked. In a rage,
Ishtar throws herself at
Ereshkigal orders her servant
Namtar to imprison
Ishtar and unleash sixty diseases against her.
Ishtar descends to the underworld, all sexual activity ceases on
earth. The god Papsukkal, the
Akkadian counterpart to
Ninshubur, reports the situation to Ea, the god of wisdom and
culture. Ea creates an intersex being called Asu-shu-namir and
sends them to Ereshkigal, telling them to invoke "the name of the
great gods" against her and to ask for the bag containing the waters
Ereshkigal becomes enraged when she hears Asu-shu-namir's
demand, but she is forced to give them the water of life.
Ishtar with this water, reviving her. Then,
Ishtar passes back through the seven gates, receiving one article of
clothing back at each gate, and exiting the final gate fully
The "Burney Relief," which is believed to represent either
her older sister
Ereshkigal (c. 19th or 18th century BC)
Diane Wolkstein interprets the myth as a union between
Inanna and her own "dark side": her twin sister-self, Ereshkigal. When
Inanna ascends from the Underworld, it is through Ereshkigal's powers,
Inanna is in the underworld, it is
apparently takes on the powers of fertility. The poem ends with a line
in praise, not of Inanna, but of Ereshkigal. Wolkstein interprets the
narrative as a praise-poem dedicated to the more negative aspects of
Inanna's domain, symbolic of an acceptance of the necessity of death
in order to facilitate the continuance of life. Joseph Campbell
interprets the myth as being about the psychological power of a
descent into the unconscious, the realization of one's own strength
through an episode of seeming powerlessness, and the acceptance of
one's own negative qualities.
Conversely, Joshua Mark argues that the most likely moral intended by
the original author of the Descent of
Inanna is that there are always
consequences for one's actions: "The Descent of Inanna, then, about
one of the gods behaving badly and other gods and mortals having to
suffer for that behavior, would have given to an ancient listener the
same basic understanding anyone today would take from an account of a
tragic accident caused by someone’s negligence or poor judgment:
that, sometimes, life is just not fair."
Another recent interpretation, by Clyde Hostetter, holds that the myth
is an allegorical report of related movements of the planets Venus,
Mercury, and Jupiter; and those of the waxing crescent Moon in
the Second Millennium, beginning with the spring equinox and
concluding with a meteor shower near the end of one synodic period of
Venus. The three-day disappearance of
Inanna refers to the
three-day planetary disappearance of
Venus between its appearance as a
morning or evening star. The fact that Gugalana is slain refers
to the disappearance of the constellation Taurus when the sun rises in
that part of the sky, which in the
Bronze Age marked the occurrence of
the vernal equinox.
Epic of Gilgamesh
Ancient Mesopotamian terracotta relief showing
Gilgamesh slaying the
Bull of Heaven, sent by
Ishtar in Tablet VI of the Epic of Gilgamesh
after he spurns her amorous advances
Main article: Epic of Gilgamesh
Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh,
Ishtar appears to
he and his companion
Enkidu have returned to
Uruk from defeating the
Humbaba and demands
Gilgamesh to become her lover. Gilgamesh
refuses her, pointing out that all of her previous lovers have
Listen to me while I tell the tale of your lovers. There was Tammuz,
the lover of your youth, for him you decreed wailing, year after year.
You loved the many-coloured Lilac-breasted Roller, but still you
struck and broke his wing [...] You have loved the lion tremendous in
strength: seven pits you dug for him, and seven. You have loved the
stallion magnificent in battle, and for him you decreed the whip and
spur and a thong [...] You have loved the shepherd of the flock; he
made meal-cake for you day after day, he killed kids for your sake.
You struck and turned him into a wolf; now his own herd-boys chase him
away, his own hounds worry his flanks."
Infuriated by Gilgamesh's refusal,
Ishtar goes to heaven and
tells her father
Gilgamesh has insulted her.
her why she is complaining to him instead of confronting Gilgamesh
Ishtar demands that
Anu give her the Bull of Heaven
and swears that if he does not give it to her, she will "break in the
doors of hell and smash the bolts; there will be confusion [i.e.,
mixing] of people, those above with those from the lower depths. I
shall bring up the dead to eat food like the living; and the hosts of
the dead will outnumber the living."
Akkadian Tablet XI (the "Deluge Tablet") of the Epic of
Ishtar the Bull of Heaven, and
Ishtar sends it to attack
Gilgamesh and his friend Enkidu.
Enkidu kill the
Bull and offer its heart to the Assyro-Babylonian sun-god
Enkidu are resting,
Ishtar stands up
on the walls of
Uruk and curses Gilgamesh.
Enkidu tears off the
Bull's right thigh and throws it in Ishtar's face, saying, "If I
could lay my hands on you, it is this I should do to you, and lash
your entrails to your side." (
Enkidu later dies for this
Ishtar calls together "the crimped courtesans, prostitutes
and harlots" and orders them to mourn for the Bull of
Gilgamesh holds a celebration over the Bull of
Later in the epic,
Gilgamesh the story of the Great
Flood, which was sent by the god
Enlil to annihilate all life on
earth because the humans, who were vastly overpopulated, made too much
noise and prevented him from sleeping.
Utnapishtim tells how,
when the flood came,
Ishtar wept and mourned over the destruction of
humanity, alongside the Anunnaki. Later, after the flood
Utnapishtim makes an offering to the gods. Ishtar
Utnapishtim wearing a lapis lazuli necklace with beads
shaped like flies and tells him that
Enlil never discussed the flood
with any of the other gods. She swears him that she will never
Enlil to cause another flood and declares her lapis lazuli
necklace a sign of her oath.
Ishtar invites all the gods except
Enlil to gather around the offering and enjoy.
In the Hittite Creation myth,
Ishtar is born after the god Kumarbi
overthrows his father Anu.
Kumarbi bites off Anu's genitals and
swallows them, causing him to become pregnant with Anu's
Ishtar and her brother, the Hittite storm god
Teshub. This account later became the basis for the Greek story of
Uranus's castration by his son Cronus, resulting in the birth of
Aphrodite, described in Hesiod's Theogony. Later in the Hittite
Ishtar attempts to seduce the monster Ullikummi, but fails
because the monster is both blind and deaf and is unable to see or
hear her. The Hurrians and Hittites appear to have syncretized
Ishtar with their own goddess Išḫara. In a
pseudepigraphical Neo-Assyrian text written in the seventh century
BCE, but which claims to be the autobiography of Sargon of Akkad,
Ishtar is claimed to have appeared to Sargon "surrounded by a cloud of
doves" while he was working as a gardener for Akki, the drawer of the
Ishtar then proclaimed Sargon her lover and allowed him to
become the ruler of
Sumer and Akkad.
The Greek myth of
Aphrodite and Adonis, shown here on this altar from
the Greek city of Taras in Magna Graecia, dating to c. 400-375 BC, is
derived from the Mesopotamian myth of
Inanna and Dumuzid.
Statue from the
Aihole temple of the Hindu goddess Durga, heavily
armed with a lion at her side, slaying the buffalo demon. Durga's
warrior aspects and associations with lions may be derived from
The cult of Inanna-
Ishtar may have been introduced to the Kingdom of
Judah during the reign of King Manasseh and, although Inanna
herself is not directly mentioned in the
Bible by name, the Old
Testament contains numerous allusions to her cult. Jeremiah 7:18
and Jeremiah 44:15-19 mention "the Queen of Heaven", who is probably a
syncretism of Inanna-
Ishtar and the West Semitic goddess
Astarte. Jeremiah states that the Queen of Heaven
was worshipped by women who baked cakes for her.
Song of Songs
Song of Songs bears strong similarities to the Sumerian love poems
Inanna and Dumuzid, particularly in its usage of
natural symbolism to represent the lovers' physicality. Song of
Songs 6:10 ("Who is she that looketh forth as the morning, fair as the
moon, clear as the sun, and terrible as an army with banners?") is
almost certainly a reference to Inanna-Ishtar. Ezekiel 8:14
mentions Inanna's husband Dumuzid under his later
East Semitic name
Tammuz and describes a group of women mourning Tammuz's
death while sitting near the north gate of the Temple in
The cult of Inanna-
Ishtar also heavily influenced the cult of the
Phoenician goddess Astarte. The Phoenicians introduced
the Greek islands of
Cyprus and Cythera, where she either
gave rise to or heavily influenced the Greek goddess
Aphrodite took on Inanna-Ishtar's
associations with sexuality and procreation. Furthermore, she was
known as Ourania (Οὐρανία), which means "heavenly", a
title corresponding to Inanna's role as the Queen of Heaven.
Early artistic and literary portrayals of
Aphrodite are extremely
similar on Inanna-Ishtar.
Aphrodite was also a warrior
goddess; the second-century AD Greek geographer Pausanias
records that, in Sparta,
Aphrodite was worshipped as
which means "warlike". He also mentions that Aphrodite's
most ancient cult statues in
Sparta and on Cythera showed her bearing
arms. Modern scholars note that Aphrodite's
warrior-goddess aspects appear in the oldest strata of her
worship and see it as an indication of her Near Eastern
Aphrodite also absorbed Ishtar's association with
doves and the Greek word for "dove" was peristerá, derived from
the Semitic phrase peraḥ Ištar, meaning "bird of Ishtar".
The myth of
Adonis is derived from the story of Inanna
The cult of
Inanna may also have influenced the deities Ainina and
Danina of the Caucasian Iberians mentioned by the medieval Georgian
Kevin Tuite argues that the Georgian
goddess Dali was also influenced by Inanna, noting that both Dali
Inanna were associated with the morning star, both were
characteristically depicted nude, both were associated with gold
jewelry, both sexually preyed on mortal men, both were
associated with human and animal fertility, and both had
ambiguous natures as sexually attractive, but dangerous, women.
The Hindu goddess
Durga may also have been influenced by
Inanna. Like Inanna,
Durga was envisioned as a warrior
goddess with a fierce temper who slew demons. Both goddesses
were portrayed riding on the backs of lions and both were
associated with the destruction of the wicked. Like Inanna, Durga
was also associated with sexuality.
Traditional Mesopotamian religion began to gradually decline between
the third and fifth centuries AD as ethnic Assyrians converted to
Christianity. Nonetheless, the cult of
Ishtar and Tammuz managed
to survive in parts of Upper Mesopotamia. In the tenth century
AD, an Arab traveler wrote that "All the
Sabaeans of our time, those
Babylonia as well as those of Harran, lament and weep to this day
over Tammuz at a festival which they, more particularly the women,
hold in the month of the same name." The cult of
Mardin as late as the eighteenth century. Early
Christians in the Middle East assimilated elements of
Ishtar into the
cult of the Virgin Mary. The Syrian writers Jacob of Serugh
Romanos the Melodist
Romanos the Melodist both wrote laments in which the Virgin Mary
describes her compassion for her son at the foot of the cross in
deeply personal terms closely resembling Ishtar's laments over the
death of Tammuz.
A modern illustration depicting Inanna-Ishtar's descent into the
Underworld taken from Lewis Spence's Myths and Legends of Babylonia
Inanna has become an important figure in modern feminist theory
because she appears in the male-dominated Sumerian pantheon, but
is equally as powerful, if not more powerful than, the male deities
she appears alongside. Simone de Beauvoir, in her book The Second
Sex (1949), argues that Inanna, along with other powerful female
deities from antiquity, have been marginalized by modern culture in
favor of male deities.
Tikva Frymer-Kensky has argued that Inanna
was a "marginal figure" in
Sumerian religion who embodies the
"socially unacceptable" archetype of the "undomesticated, unattached
woman". Johanna Stuckey has argued against this idea, pointing
out Inanna's centrality in
Sumerian religion and her broad diversity
of powers, neither of which seem to fit the idea that she was in any
way regarded as "marginal".
The Argentinian-born Jewish feminist artist Liliana Kleiner created an
exhibition of paintings depicting her interpretations of Inanna's
myths, which was first displayed in Mexico in 2008. The
exhibition was later shown in
Jerusalem in 2011 and in
Inanna is one of the names on the Heritage Floor of The
Dinner Party by American feminist artist
Judy Chicago as a related
woman to Ishtar, who has a seat at the table.
Inanna is worshipped as a form of the Goddess in modern Neopaganism
and Wicca. Her name occurs in the refrain of the "Burning Times
Chant", one of the most widely used Wiccan liturgies.
Inanna's Descent into the
Underworld was the inspiration for the
"Descent of the Goddess", one of the most popular and most
important myths in Gardnerian Wicca.
Inanna is also an
important figure in modern
BDSM culture. Author and historian
Anne O. Nomis has cited the portrayal of
Inanna in the myth of Inanna
and Ebih as an early example of the dominatrix archetype,
characterizing her as a powerful female who forces gods and men into
submission to her.
Scholar Paul Thomas has criticized the modern portrayal of Inanna,
accusing it of anachronistically imposing modern gender conventions on
the ancient Sumerian story, portraying
Inanna as a wife and
mother, two roles the ancient Sumerians never ascribed to
her, while ignoring the more masculine elements of Inanna's
cult, particularly her associations with warfare and violence.
Douglas E. Cowan has also criticized the portrayal of
Inanna in modern
Neopaganism, remarking that it "reduces [her] to little more than a
patron goddess of parking lots and crawlspaces".
While classical deities such as
Aphrodite frequently appear
in modern popular culture, Mesopotamian deities have, by
contrast, fallen into almost complete obscurity. Inanna-Ishtar
has somewhat resisted this tendency, but has not been immune to
it. She usually only appears in works with strong mythological
input, and most modern portrayals of Inanna-
Ishtar have virtually
nothing in common with the ancient goddess except for her name.
In his 1853 pamphlet The Two Babylons, as part of his argument that
Roman Catholicism is actually Babylonian paganism in disguise,
Alexander Hislop, a Protestant minister in the Free Church of
Scotland, incorrectly argued that the modern English word
be derived from
Ishtar due to the phonetic similarity of the two
words. Modern scholars have unanimously rejected Hislop's
arguments as erroneous and based on a flawed understanding of
Babylonian religion. Nonetheless, Hislop's book is
still popular among some groups of evangelical Protestants
and the ideas promoted in it have become widely circulated, especially
through the Internet, due to a number of popular
Vincent d'Indy wrote Symphony Ishtar, variations symphonique,
Op. 42, a symphony inspired by the Assyrian monuments in the British
Museum. The 1963 splatter film
Blood Feast concerns a serial
killer who sacrifices his victims to Ishtar, who is incorrectly
identified as an "Egyptian goddess".
Ishtar also gave her name to
the 1987 box office bomb Ishtar, in which the character Shirra was
loosely modeled on her. The character
Buffy Summers in Buffy the
Vampire Slayer bears remarkably strong similarities to Ishtar,
but these may be coincidental. Hercules: The Legendary Journeys,
following the portrayal in Blood Feast, portrays
Ishtar as a
soul-eating Egyptian mummy. One of the two highlands of the
Venus is named "
John Craton composed a
full-length opera about Ishtar and she has also been referenced
in numerous rock and death metal songs.
c. 5300–4100 BC
c. 4100–2900 BC
c. 2900–2334 BC
Early Dynastic period
c. 2334–2218 BC
writings by Enheduanna:
Nin-me-šara, "The Exaltation of Inanna"
In-nin ša-gur-ra, "A Hymn to
Inanna (Inana C)"
In-nin me-huš-a, "
Inanna and Ebih"
The Temple Hymns
Hymn to Nanna, "The Exaltation of Inanna"
c. 2218–2047 BC
c. 2047–1940 BC
Ur III Period
Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta
Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Netherworld
Inanna and Enki
Inanna's Descent into the Underworld
^ modern-day Warka, Biblical Erech
^ é-an-na = sanctuary ('house' + 'Heaven'[='An'] + genitive)
^ Collins 1994, pp. 114–115.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Black & Green 1992, p. 108.
^ a b c d e Leick 1998, p. 88.
^ a b Heffron 2016.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, p. xviii.
^ a b Nemet-Nejat 1998, p. 182.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, p. xv.
^ a b c d e f Kramer 1961, p. 101.
^ a b c Mark 2011.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k Leick 1998, p. 87.
^ a b c Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, pp. xviii, xv.
^ a b c d e Collins 1994, pp. 110–111.
^ a b Leick 1998, p. 86.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Harris 1991, pp. 261–278.
^ a b Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, pp. xiii–xix.
^ Rubio 1999, pp. 1–16.
^ a b c d Collins 1994, p. 110.
^ a b Leick 1998, p. 96.
^ Suter 2014, p. 51.
^ a b c Vanstiphout 1984, pp. 225–228.
^ a b Vanstiphout 1984, p. 228.
^ Vanstiphout 1984, pp. 228–229.
^ a b Suter 2014, p. 551.
^ a b Suter 2014, pp. 550–552.
^ Suter 2014, pp. 552–554.
^ a b c d Van der Mierop 2007, p. 55.
^ a b Collins 1994, p. 111.
^ Mark 2017.
^ a b c d Black & Green 1992, pp. 108–109.
^ a b Black & Green 1992, p. 99.
^ a b Guirand 1968, p. 58.
^ a b Monaghan 2014, p. 39.
^ Leick 1994, pp. 157–158.
^ Leick 1994, p. 285.
^ Roscoe & Murray 1997, p. 65.
^ a b Roscoe & Murray 1997, pp. 65–66.
^ Leick 1994, pp. 158–163.
^ Roscoe & Murray 1997, p. 66.
^ a b c d e Kramer 1970.
^ a b c Nemet-Nejat 1998, p. 196.
^ a b Pryke 2017, p. 128.
^ Day 2004, pp. 15–17.
^ a b Marcovich 1996, p. 49.
^ Nemet-Nejat 1998, p. 193.
^ a b Assante 2003, pp. 14–47.
^ a b Day 2004, pp. 2–21.
^ a b Sweet 1994, pp. 85–104.
^ a b Ackerman 2006, pp. 116–117.
^ a b Ackerman 2006, p. 115.
^ a b Ackerman 2006, pp. 115–116.
^ a b Black & Green 1992, pp. 156, 169–170.
^ a b c Liungman 2004, p. 228.
^ a b c Black & Green 1992, p. 118.
^ a b c d Collins 1994, pp. 113–114.
^ Kleiner 2005, p. 49.
^ a b c Black & Green 1992, p. 170.
^ a b Black & Green 1992, pp. 169–170.
^ Nemet-Nejat 1998, pp. 193–194.
^ Gressman & Obermann 1928, p. 81.
^ Jacobsen 1976.
^ a b Black & Green 1992, p. 156.
^ Black & Green 1992, pp. 156–157.
^ Black & Green 1992, pp. 119.
^ a b c d e Lewis & Llewellyn-Jones 2018, p. 335.
^ a b c d Botterweck & Ringgren 1990, p. 35.
^ Nemet-Nejat 1998, p. 203.
^ a b c d e f g h i j Cooley 2008, pp. 161–172.
^ Cooley 2008, pp. 163–164.
^ a b Foxvog 1993, p. 106.
^ Black & Green 1992, pp. 34–35.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, pp. 92, 193.
^ a b Black & Green 1992, pp. 108–9.
^ Leick 1994, pp. 65–66.
^ Fiore 1965.
^ Gilgamesh, p. 86
^ Pryke 2017, p. 146.
^ Vanstiphout 1984, pp. 226–227.
Enheduanna pre 2250 BCE "A hymn to Inana (Inana C)". The Electronic
Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature. 2003. lines 18–28. 4.07.3.
^ Vanstiphout 1984, p. 227.
^ Lung 2014.
^ Black & Green 1992, pp. 108, 182.
^ a b Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, pp. x–xi.
^ Pryke 2017, p. 36.
^ a b c Pryke 2017, pp. 36–37.
^ Black & Green 1992, p. 183.
^ a b c Pryke 2017, p. 94.
^ a b c Black & Green 1992, p. 77.
^ a b Pryke 2017, p. 108.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, p. ix-xi.
^ Jordan 2002, p. 137.
^ a b c d e f g Puhvel 1987, p. 25.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, pp. 71–84.
^ a b Leick 1998, p. 93.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, p. 89.
^ Black & Green 1992, p. 173.
^ a b Hallo 2010, p. 233.
^ Kramer 1963, pp. 172–174.
^ Kramer 1963, p. 174.
^ Kramer 1963, p. 182.
^ Kramer 1963, p. 183.
^ Kramer 1961, p. 30.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, p. 141.
^ Pryke 2017, pp. 153–154.
^ a b Kramer 1961, p. 33.
^ Kramer 1961, pp. 33–34.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, p. 140.
^ Kramer 1961, p. 34.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, p. 9.
^ a b c d e f g Leick 1998, p. 91.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, pp. 30–49.
^ a b Kramer 1961, pp. 102–103.
^ Kramer 1961, pp. 101–103.
^ Kramer 1961, pp. 32–33.
^ a b Leick 1998, p. 90.
^ a b c d Kramer 1961, p. 66.
^ a b Black & Green 1992, p. 130.
^ Kramer 1961, p. 65.
^ Kramer 1961, pp. 65–66.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer, pp. 13–14.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, p. 14.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, pp. 14–20.
^ a b Kramer 1961, pp. 66–67.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, p. 20.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, pp. 20–21.
^ Kramer 1961, p. 67.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer1983, p. 21.
^ Kramer 1961, pp. 67–68.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, pp. 20–24.
^ a b Kramer 1961, p. 68.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1961, pp. 20–24.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, pp. 24–25.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, pp. 26–27.
^ Green 2003, p. 74.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, p. 146-150.
^ Vanstiphout 2003, pp. 57–61.
^ a b Vanstiphout 2003, p. 49.
^ Vanstiphout 2003, pp. 57–63.
^ Vanstiphout 2003, pp. 61–63.
^ Vanstiphout 2003, pp. 63–87.
^ Vanstiphout 2003, p. 50.
^ Pryke 2017, pp. 162–173.
^ a b Pryke 2017, p. 165.
^ Attinger 1988, pp. 164–195.
^ a b c d Karahashi 2004, p. 111.
^ Kramer 1961, pp. 82–83.
^ a b Karahashi 2004, pp. 111–118.
^ Kramer 1961, p. 82.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Cooley 2008, p. 162.
^ a b Cooley 2008, p. 163.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Leick 1998, p. 89.
^ a b Pryke 2017, p. 166.
^ Black & Green 1992, p. 109.
^ a b c Kramer 1961, pp. 83–86.
^ a b c Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, pp. 127–135.
^ Dalley 1989, p. 154.
^ a b c Choksi 2014.
^ a b Kramer 1961, pp. 86–87.
^ Kramer 1961, p. 88.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, p. 56.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, p. 157.
^ a b c Kramer 1961, p. 90.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, pp. 54–55.
^ a b Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, p. 55.
^ Kramer 1961, p. 91.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, pp. 56–57.
^ Wolkstein 1983, p. 57.
^ Kilmer 1971, pp. 299–309.
^ Kramer 1961, p. 87.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, pp. 157–159.
^ Black, Jeremy; Cunningham, Graham; Flückiger-Hawker, Esther;
Robson, Eleanor; Taylor, John; Zólyomi, Gábor. "Inana's descent to
the netherworld". Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature.
Oxford University. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
^ a b Kramer 1961, pp. 93–94.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, pp. 61–64.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, pp. 61–62.
^ a b c d Kramer 1961, p. 94.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, pp. 62–63.
^ a b c Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, p. 64.
^ a b Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, pp. 65–66.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, p. 65.
^ Kramer 1961, pp. 94–95.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, pp. 67–68.
^ a b c Kramer 1961, p. 95.
^ a b c Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, pp. 68–69.
^ Kramer 1961, pp. 95–96.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, pp. 69–70.
^ a b c Kramer 1961, p. 96.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, pp. 70.
^ a b Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, pp. 70–71.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, pp. 71–73.
^ Kramer 1966.
^ a b Sandars 1989, pp. 162, 164–165.
^ a b Dalley 1989, p. 155.
^ a b Dalley 1989, p. 156.
^ Dalley 1989, pp. 156–157.
^ Dalley 1989, p. 157-158.
^ a b c Dalley 1989, pp. 158–160.
^ Bertman 2003, p. 124.
^ Wolkstein & Kramer 1983, pp. 158–162.
^ Campbell 2008, pp. 88–90.
^ a b c d Hostetter 1991, p. 53.
^ a b Dalley 1989, pp. 81–82.
^ a b c d e f Dalley 1989, p. 80.
^ Gilgamesh, p. 86
^ Gilgamesh, p. 87
^ a b c d e Dalley 1989, p. 82.
^ Gilgamesh, p. 88
^ Dalley 1989, p. 82-83.
^ Dalley 1989, pp. 109–116.
^ Dalley 1989, pp. 109–111.
^ Dalley 1989, p. 113.
^ Dalley 1989, p. 114.
^ a b Dalley 1989, pp. 114–115.
^ Dalley, pp. 114–115.
^ Dalley 1989, p. 115.
^ a b Puhvel 1987, p. 27.
^ Güterbock et al. 2002, p. 29.
^ Black & Green 1992, p. 110.
^ a b c Westenholz 1997, pp. 33–49.
^ a b West 1997, p. 57.
^ a b Burkert 1985, p. 177.
^ a b Parpola 1998, pp. 224–225, 260.
^ a b Parpola 2015.
^ a b c d e f Baring & Cashford 1991.
^ a b Pryke 2017, p. 193.
^ Pryke 2017, pp. 193, 195.
^ Pryke 2017, pp. 193–195.
^ a b Breitenberger 2007, p. 10.
^ Smith 2002, p. 182.
^ a b Pryke 2017, p. 194.
^ Black & Green 1992, p. 73.
^ a b Pryke 2017, p. 195.
^ a b c d Warner 2016, p. 211.
^ a b Marcovich 1996, pp. 43–59.
^ a b c Cyrino 2010, pp. 49–52.
^ Breitenberger 2007, pp. 8–12.
^ a b c d Breitenberger 2007, p. 8.
^ a b Breitenberger 2007, pp. 10–11.
^ a b Cyrino 2010, pp. 51–52.
^ a b Budin 2010, pp. 85–86, 96, 100, 102–103, 112, 123, 125.
^ Graz 1984, p. 250.
^ a b Iossif & Lorber 2007, p. 77.
^ Tseretheli 1935, pp. 55–56.
^ Tuite 2004, pp. 16–18.
^ Tuite 2004, p. 16.
^ a b Tuite 2004, pp. 16–17.
^ Tuite 2004, p. 17.
^ Tuite 2004, pp. 17–18.
^ Tuite 2004, p. 18.
^ Parpola 1998, p. 225.
^ Parpola 1998, p. 260.
^ a b Parpola 2004, p. 17.
^ Warner 2016, pp. 210–212.
^ Warner 2016, p. 212.
^ a b c Pryke 2017, pp. 196–197.
^ a b c d e f g h i j Pryke 2017, p. 196.
^ a b c Kleiner 2016.
^ Chicago 2007.
^ Rountree 2017, p. 167.
^ Weston & Bennett 2013, p. 165.
^ Weston & Bennett, p. 165.
^ a b Buckland 2001, pp. 74–75.
^ a b Gallagher 2005, p. 358.
^ Nomis 2013, pp. 59–60.
^ a b Nomis 2013, p. 53.
^ a b c Thomas 2007, p. 1.
^ Cowan 2005, p. 49.
^ Hislop 1903, p. 103.
^ a b Grabbe 1997, p. 28.
^ a b Mcllhenny 2011, p. 60.
^ Brown 1976, p. 268.
^ a b D'Costa 2013.
^ a b c Pryke 2017, p. 203.
^ Pryke 2017, pp. 202–203.
^ Pryke 2017, p. 202.
^ Pryke 2017, p. 197.
Ackerman, Susan (2006) , Day, Peggy Lynne, ed., Gender and
Difference in Ancient Israel, Minneapolis, Minnesota: Fortress Press,
Assante, Julia (2003), "From Whores to Hierodules: The Historiographic
Invention of Mesopotamian Female Sex Professionals", in Donahue, A.
A.; Fullerton, Mark D., Ancient Art and Its Historiography, Cambridge,
England: Cambridge University Press, pp. 13–47
Attinger, Pascal (1988), "Inana et Ebih", Zeitschrift für
Assyriologie, 3, pp. 164–195
Baring, Anne; Cashford, Jules (1991), The Myth of the Goddess:
Evolution of an Image, London, England: Penguin Books,
Bertman, Stephen (2003), Handbook to Life in Ancient Mesopotamia,
Oxford, England: Oxford University Press,
Black, Jeremy; Green, Anthony (1992), Gods, Demons and Symbols of
Ancient Mesopotamia: An Illustrated Dictionary, The British Museum
Press, ISBN 0-7141-1705-6
Botterweck, G. Johannes; Ringgren, Helmer (1990), Theological
Dictionary of the Old Testament, VI, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B.
Eerdmans Publishing Co., ISBN 0-8028-2330-0
Breitenberger, Barbara (2007),
Aphrodite and Eros: The Development of
Greek Erotic Mythology, New York City, New York and London, England,
Brown, Peter Lancaster (1976), Megaliths, Myths and Men: An
Introduction to Astro-Archaeology, New York ,City, New York: Dover
Publications, ISBN 9780800851873
Buckland, Raymond (2001),
Wicca for Life: The Way of the Craft -- From
Birth to Summerland, New York City, New York: Kensington Publishing
Corporation, ISBN 0-8065-2455-3
Budin, Stephanie L. (2010), "
Aphrodite Enoplion", in Smith, Amy C.;
Pickup, Sadie, Brill's Companion to Aphrodite, Brill's Companions in
Classical Studies, Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill Publishers,
pp. 85–86, 96, 100, 102–103, 112, 123, 125,
Burkert, Walter (1985), Greek Religion, Cambridge, Massachusetts:
Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-36281-0
Campbell, Joseph (2008), The Hero with a Thousand Faces, Novato,
California: New World Library, pp. 88–90
Chicago, Judy (2007), The Dinner Party: From Creation to Preservation,
London, England: Merrell, ISBN 1-85894-370-1
Choksi, M. (2014), "Ancient Mesopotamian Beliefs in the Afterlife",
Ancient History Encyclopedia, ancient.eu
Collins, Paul (1994), "The Sumerian Goddess
Inanna (3400-2200 BC)",
Papers of from the Institute of Archaeology, 5, UCL
Cooley, Jeffrey L. (2008), "Inana and Šukaletuda: A Sumerian Astral
Myth", KASKAL, 5: 161–172, ISSN 1971-8608
Cowan, Douglas E. (2005), Cyberhenge: Modern Pagans on the Internet,
New York: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-96910-7
Cyrino, Monica S. (2010), Aphrodite, Gods and Heroes of the Ancient
World, New York City, New York and London, England: Routledge,
Dalley, Stephanie (1989), Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, the Flood,
Gilgamesh, and Others, Oxford, England: Oxford University Press,
Day, John (2004), "Does the
Old Testament Refer to Sacred Prostitution
and Did It Actual Exist in Ancient Israel?", in McCarthy, Carmel;
Healey, John F., Biblical and Near Eastern Essays: Studies in Honour
of Kevin J. Cathcart, Cromwell Press, pp. 2–21,
D'Costa, Krystal (31 March 2013), "Beyond Ishtar: The Tradition of
Eggs at Easter: Don't believe every meme you encounter.", Scientific
American, Nature America, Inc.
Enheduanna. "The Exaltation of
Inanna B): Translation". The
Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature. 2001.
Fiore, Simon (1965), Voices From the Clay: The Development of
Assyro-Babylonian Literature, Norman, University of Oklahoma
Foxvog, D. (1993), "Astral Dumuzi", in Hallo, William W.; Cohen, Mark
E.; Snell, Daniel C.; et al., The Tablet and the scroll: Near Eastern
studies in honor of William W. Hallo (2nd ed.), CDL Press,
p. 106, ISBN 0962001392
George, Andrew, ed. (1999), The Epic of Gilgamesh: The Babylonian Epic
Poem and Other Texts in
Akkadian and Sumerian, Penguin,
Gallagher, Ann-Marie (2005), The
Wicca Bible: The Definitive Guide to
Magic and the Craft, New York City, New York: Sterling Publishing Co.,
Inc., ISBN 1-4027-3008-X
Grabbe, Lester L. (1997), Can a "History of Israel" Be Written?, The
Library of Hebrew Bible/
Old Testament Studies, 245, Sheffield,
England: Sheffield Academic Press, ISBN 978-0567043207
Graz, F. (1984), Eck, W., ed., "Women, War, and Warlike Divinities",
Zeitschrift fur Papyrologie und Epigraphik, Bonn, Germany: Dr. Rudolf
Habelt GmbH (55): 250, JSTOR 20184039
Green, Alberto R. W. (2003). The Storm-God in the Ancient Near East.
Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns. ISBN 9781575060699.
Guirand, Felix (1968), "Assyro-Babylonian Mythology", New Larousse
Encyclopedia of Mythology, translated by Aldington; Ames, London,
England: Hamlyn, pp. 49–72
Hallo, William W. (2010), The World's Oldest Literature: Studies in
Sumerian Belles-Lettres, Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill,
Harris, Rivkah (February 1991), "Inanna-
Ishtar as Paradox and a
Coincidence of Opposites", History of Religions, 30 (3): 261–278,
doi:10.1086/463228, JSTOR 1062957
Heffron, Yağmur (2016), "Inana/Ištar (goddess)", Ancient
Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses, University of Pennsylvania
Hislop, Alexander (1903) , The Two Babylons: The Papal Worship
Proved to Be the Worship of Nimrod and His Wife (Third ed.), S.W.
Hostetter, Clyde (1991), Star Trek to Hawa-i'i, San Luis Obispo,
California: Diamond Press, p. 53
Jacobsen, Thorkild (1976), The Treasures of Darkness: A History of
Mesopotamian Religion, Yale University Press,
Jordan, Michael (2002), Encyclopedia of Gods, London, England: Kyle
Cathie Limited, ISBN 978-1856261319
Iossif, Panagiotis; Lorber, Catharine (2007), "Laodikai and the
Goddess Nikephoros", L'Antiquité Classique, L'Antiquité Classique,
76: 77, ISSN 0770-2817, JSTOR 41665635
Karahashi, Fumi (April 2004), "Fighting the Mountain: Some
Observations on the Sumerian Myths of
Inanna and Ninurta", Journal of
Near Eastern Studies, 63 (2): 111–8, JSTOR 422302
Kilmer, Anne Draffkorn (1971), "How Was Queen
Ereshkigal Tricked? A
New Interpretation of the Descent of Ishtar", Ugarit-Forschungen, 3:
Kleiner, Fred (2005), Gardner's Art Through the Ages, Belmont,
California: Thompson Learning, Inc., p. 49,
Kleiner, Liliana (2016), "About", lilianakleiner.org, Liliana
Kramer, Samuel Noah (1966), "Dumuzi's Annual Resurrection: An
Important Correction to 'Inanna's Descent'", Bulletin of the American
Schools of Oriental Research, 183 (31)
Kramer, Samuel Noah (1988), History Begins at Sumer: Thirty-Nine
Firsts in Recorded History (3rd ed.), University of Pennsylvania
Press, ISBN 978-0-8122-1276-1
Kramer, Samuel Noah (28 April 1970), The Sacred Marriage Rite,
Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press,
Kramer, Samuel Noah (1961), Sumerian Mythology: A Study of Spiritual
and Literary Achievement in the Third Millennium B.C.: Revised
Edition, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press,
Kramer, Samuel Noah (1963), The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, and
Character, Chicago, Illinois:
University of Chicago
University of Chicago Press,
Leick, Gwendolyn (1998) , A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern
Mythology, New York City, New York: Routledge,
Leick, Gwendolyn (2013) , Sex and Eroticism in Mesopotamian
Literature, New York City, New York: Routledge,
Lewis, Sian; Llewellyn-Jones, Lloyd (2018), The Culture of Animals in
Antiquity: A Sourcebook with Commentaries, New York City, New York and
London, England: Routledge, ISBN 978-1-315-20160-3
Lung, Tang (2014), "Marriage of
Inanna and Dumuzi", Ancient History
Encyclopedia, Ancient History Encyclopedia
Liungman, Carl G. (2004), Symbols: Encyclopedia of Western Signs and
Ideograms, Lidingö, Sweden: HME Publishing,
Marcovich, Miroslav (1996), "From
Ishtar to Aphrodite", Journal of
Aesthetic Education, 39 (2): 43–59, doi:10.2307/3333191,
Mark, Joshua (2011), "Inanna's Descent: A Sumerian Tale of Injustice",
Ancient History Encyclopedia, ancient.eu
Mark, Joshua (20 January 2017), "Anu", Ancient History Encyclopedia,
Ancient History Encyclopedia
Mcllhenny, Albert M. (2011), This Is the Sun?: Zeitgeist and Religion
(Volume I: Comparative Religion), p. 60,
Monaghan, Patricia (2014), Encyclopedia of Goddesses and Heroines, New
World Library, p. 39, ISBN 9781608682171
Nemet-Nejat, Karen Rhea (1998), Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia,
Daily Life, Greenwood, ISBN 978-0313294976
Nomis, Anne O. (2013), "The Warrior Goddess and her Dance of
Domination", The History & Arts of the Dominatrix, Mary Egan
Publishing, ISBN 9780992701000
Parpola, Asko (1998), Studia Orientalia, 84, Finnish Oriental Society,
Parpola, Asko (2015), The Roots of Hinduism: The Early Aryans and the
Indus Civilization, Oxford, England: Oxford University Press,
Parpola, Simo (2004), Assyrian Identity in Ancient Times and Today
(PDF), Helsinki, Finland
Pryke, Louise M. (2017), Ishtar, New York and London: Routledge,
Puhvel, Jaan (1987), Comparative Mythology, Baltimore, Maryland: Johns
Hopkins University Press, ISBN 0-8018-3938-6
Roscoe, Will; Murray, Stephen O. (1997), Islamic Homosexualities:
Culture, History, and Literature, New York City, New York: New York
University Press, ISBN 0-8147-7467-9
Rountree, Kathryn (2017), Cosmopolitanism, Nationalism, and Modern
Paganism, Palgrave Studies in New and Alternative Spiritualities,
doi:10.1057/978-1-137-56200-5, ISBN 978-1-137-57040-6
Rubio, Gonzalo (1999), "On the Alleged "Pre-Sumerian Substratum"",
Journal of Cuneiform Studies, 51: 1–16, JSTOR 1359726
"Inana's descent to the nether world: translation", The Electronic
Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature, Faculty of Oriental Studies,
University of Oxford, 2001
Sandars, Nancy K. (1989), Poems of
Heaven and Hell from Ancient
Mesopotamia, Penguin, pp. 162, 164–5,
Smith, Mark S. (2002), The Early History of God: Yahweh and the Other
Deities in Ancient Israel (2nd ed.), Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
Company, ISBN 9780802839725
Suter, Claudia E. (2014), "Human, Divine, or Both?: The
Uruk Vase and
the Problem of Ambiguity in Early Mesopotamian Visual Arts", in
Feldman, Marian; Brown, Brian, Approaches to Ancient Near Eastern Art,
Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter, pp. 545–568
Sweet, R. (1994), "A New Look at the 'Sacred Marriage' in Ancient
Mesopotamia", in Robbins, E.; Sandahl, E., Corolla Torontonensis:
Studies in Honour of Ronald Morton Smith, Toronto,
Thomas, Paul (2007), "Re-Imagining Inanna: The Gendered
Reappropriation of the Ancient Goddess in Modern Goddess Worship",
Pomegranate: the International Journal of Pagan Studies, 6,
Tseretheli, Michael (1935), "The Asianic (Asia Minor) elements in
national Georgian paganism", Georgica, 1 (1): 55–56
Tuite, Kevin (20 February 2004), "The meaning of Dæl. Symbolic and
spatial associations of the south Caucasian goddess of game animals.",
Linguaculture: Studies in the interpenetration of language and
culture. Essays to Honor Paul Friedrich (PDF), Montreal, Quebec:
University of Montreal
Van der Mierop, Marc (2007), A History of the Ancient Near East:
3,000–323 BC, Blackwell, ISBN 978-1-4051-4911-2
Vanstiphout, H. L. (1984), "Inanna/
Ishtar as a Figure of Controversy",
Struggles of Gods: Papers of the Groningen Work Group for the Study of
the History of Religions, Berlin: Mouton Publishers, 31,
Vanstiphout, Herman (2003), Epics of Sumerian Kings (PDF), Atlanta,
Georgia: Society of Biblical Literature, pp. 49–96,
Warner, Marina (2016) , Alone of All Her Sex: The Myth and Cult
of the Virgin Mary, Oxford, England: Oxford University Press,
West, M. L. (1997), The East Face of Helicon: West Asiatic Elements in
Greek Poetry and Myth, Oxford, England: Clarendon Press, p. 57,
Westenholz, Joan Goodnick (1997), Legends of the Kings of Akkade: The
Texts, pp. 33, 49, ISBN 9780931464850
Weston, Donna; Bennett, Andy (2013), Pop Pagans: Paganism and Popular
Music, New York and London: Routledge,
Wolkstein, Diane; Kramer, Samuel Noah (1983), Inanna: Queen of Heaven
and Earth: Her Stories and Hymns from Sumer, New York City, New York:
Harper&Row Publishers, ISBN 0-06-090854-8
Baring, Anne (1991), The Myth of the Goddess: Evolution of an Image,
London, England: Viking Arkana
Black, Jeremy (2004). The Literature of Ancient Sumer. Oxford
University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-926311-0.
"The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature". Faculty of
Oriental Studies, University of Oxford. 2003.
Frymer-Kensky, Tikva Simone (1992), In the Wake of the Goddesses:
Women, Culture, and the Biblical Transformation of Pagan Myth, Free
Press, ISBN 0029108004
Fulco, William J., S.J. "Inanna." In Eliade, Mircea, ed., The
Encyclopedia of Religion. New York: Macmillan Group, 1987. Vol. 7,
Halloran, John A. (2009). "Sumerian Lexicon Version 3.0".
Pereira, Sylvia Brunton (1981). Descent to the Goddess. Inner City
Books. ISBN 978-0-919123-05-2. A Jungian interpretation of
the process of psychological 'descent and return', using the story of
Inanna as translated by Wolkstein & Kramer 1983.
Santo, Suzanne Banay (January 15, 2014), From the Deep: Queen Inanna
Dies and Comes Back to Life Again, Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Red
Butterfly Publications, p. 32, ISBN 9780988091412
Stuckey, Johanna (2001), "
Inanna and the Huluppu Tree, An Ancient
Mesopotamian Narrative of Goddess Demotion", in Devlin-Glass, Frances;
McCredden, Lyn, Feminist Poetics of the Sacred, American Academy of
Religion, ISBN 978-0-19-514468-0
Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses: Inana/Ištar (goddess)
Other major deities
Dumuzid the Shepherd
Demons, spirits, and monsters