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Isaiah
Isaiah
was the 8th-century BC Jewish prophet for whom the Book of Isaiah
Isaiah
is named.[3][4] Within the text of the Book of Isaiah, Isaiah
Isaiah
himself is referred to as "the prophet",[5] but the exact relationship between the Book of Isaiah
Isaiah
and any such historical Isaiah
Isaiah
is complicated. The traditional view is that all 66 chapters of the book of Isaiah
Isaiah
were written by one man, Isaiah, possibly in two periods between 740 BCE and c. 686 BCE, separated by approximately 15 years, and includes dramatic prophetic declarations of Cyrus the Great in the Bible, acting to restore the nation of Israel
Israel
from Babylonian captivity. Another widely-held view is that parts of the first half of the book (chapters 1–39) originated with the historical prophet, interspersed with prose commentaries written in the time of King Josiah
Josiah
a hundred years later, and that the remainder of the book dates from immediately before and immediately after the end of the exile in Babylon, almost two centuries after the time of the historic prophet.[a] [b]

Contents

1 Biography 2 In Christianity 3 In Latter-day Saints 4 In Islam 5 Rabbinic literature 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Biography[edit]

Russian icon of the Prophet
Prophet
Isaiah, 18th century (iconostasis of Transfiguration Church, Kizhi
Kizhi
monastery, Karelia, Russia).

Painting of Isaiah
Isaiah
by Antonio Balestra

The first verse of the Book of Isaiah
Book of Isaiah
states that Isaiah
Isaiah
prophesied during the reigns of Uzziah
Uzziah
(or Azariah), Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, the kings of Judah ( Isaiah
Isaiah
1:1). Uzziah's reign was 52 years in the middle of the 8th century BCE, and Isaiah
Isaiah
must have begun his ministry a few years before Uzziah's death, probably in the 740s BCE. Isaiah lived until the fourteenth year of Hezekiah's reign (who died 698 BCE). He may have been contemporary for some years with Manasseh. Thus Isaiah
Isaiah
may have prophesied for as long as 64 years.[9] According to some modern interpretations, Isaiah's wife was called "the prophetess" ( Isaiah
Isaiah
8:3), either because she was endowed with the prophetic gift, like Deborah
Deborah
(Judges 4:4) and Huldah
Huldah
(2 Kings 22:14–20), or simply because she was the "wife of the prophet".[9][10] They had two sons, naming one Shear-jashub, meaning "A remnant shall return" ( Isaiah
Isaiah
7:3), and the younger, Maher-Shalal-Hash-Baz, meaning, "Spoil quickly, plunder speedily" ( Isaiah
Isaiah
8:3).

Isaiah
Isaiah
receives his vision of the Lord's house. A stained glass window at St. Matthew's German Evangelical Lutheran Church
St. Matthew's German Evangelical Lutheran Church
in Charleston, South Carolina

Soon after this, Shalmaneser V
Shalmaneser V
determined to subdue the kingdom of Israel, taking over and destroying Samaria
Samaria
(722 BCE). So long as Ahaz reigned, the kingdom of Judah was unmolested by the Assyrian power. But when Hezekiah
Hezekiah
gained the throne, he was encouraged to rebel "against the king of Assyria" (2 Kings 18:7), and entered into an alliance with the king of Egypt
Egypt
( Isaiah
Isaiah
30:2–4). The king of Assyria threatened the king of Judah, and at length invaded the land. Sennacherib
Sennacherib
(701 BC) led a powerful army into Judah. Hezekiah
Hezekiah
was reduced to despair, and submitted to the Assyrians (2 Kings 18:14–16). But after a brief interval, war broke out again. Again Sennacherib
Sennacherib
led an army into Judah, one detachment of which threatened Jerusalem
Jerusalem
( Isaiah
Isaiah
36:2–22; 37:8). Isaiah
Isaiah
on that occasion encouraged Hezekiah
Hezekiah
to resist the Assyrians (37:1–7), whereupon Sennacherib sent a threatening letter to Hezekiah, which he "spread before the LORD" (37:14).[9]

Then Isaiah
Isaiah
the son of Amoz sent unto Hezekiah, saying: "Thus saith the LORD, the God
God
of Israel: Whereas thou hast prayed to Me against Sennacherib
Sennacherib
king of Assyria, this is the word which the LORD hath spoken concerning him: The virgin daughter of Zion hath despised thee and laughed thee to scorn; the daughter of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
hath shaken her head at thee. Whom hast thou taunted and blasphemed? And against whom hast thou exalted thy voice? Yea, thou hast lifted up thine eyes on high, even against the Holy One of Israel!" (37:21–23)

According to the account in 2 Kings 19 (and its derivative account in 2 Chronicles 32) an angel of God
God
fell on the Assyrian army and 185,000 of its men were killed in one night. "Like Xerxes in Greece, Sennacherib
Sennacherib
never recovered from the shock of the disaster in Judah. He made no more expeditions against either the Southern Levant or Egypt."[9][11] The remaining years of Hezekiah's reign were peaceful (2 Chr 32:23–29). Isaiah
Isaiah
probably lived to its close, and possibly into the reign of Manasseh. The time and manner of his death are not specified in either the Bible
Bible
or other primary sources.[9] The Talmud
Talmud
[Yevamot 49b] says that he suffered martyrdom by being sawn in two under the orders of Manasseh.[12] According to rabbinic literature, Isaiah
Isaiah
was the maternal grandfather of Manasseh.[13] Some writers assert that Isaiah
Isaiah
was a vegetarian, on the basis of passages in the Book of Isaiah
Book of Isaiah
that extol nonviolence and reverence for life, such as Isaiah
Isaiah
1:11, 11:6-9, 65:25, and 66:3. Some of these writers refer to "the vegetarian Isaiah",[14] "the notorious vegetarian Isaiah",[15] and "Isaiah, the vegetarian prophet".[16] The book of Isaiah, along with the book of Jeremiah, is distinctive in the Hebrew bible for its direct portrayal of the "wrath of the Lord" as presented, for example, in Isaiah
Isaiah
9:19 stating, "Through the wrath of the Lord of hosts is the land darkened, and the people shall be as the fuel of the fire."[17] In Christianity[edit]

Representation of the Prophet
Prophet
Isaiah
Isaiah
illustrating a 14th-century prose translation of the Gospels

The Ascension of Isaiah, a pseudegraphical Christian text dated to sometime between the end of the 1st Century to the beginning of the 3rd, gives a detailed story of Isaiah
Isaiah
confronting an evil false prophet and ending with Isaiah
Isaiah
being martyred - none of which is attested in the original Biblical account. Gregory of Nyssa
Gregory of Nyssa
(c. 335–395), believed that the Prophet
Prophet
Isaiah "knew more perfectly than all others the mystery of the religion of the Gospel". Jerome
Jerome
(c. 342–420) also lauds the Prophet
Prophet
Isaiah, saying, "He was more of an Evangelist than a Prophet, because he described all of the Mysteries of the Church of Christ so vividly that you would assume he was not prophesying about the future, but rather was composing a history of past events."[18] Of specific note are the songs of the Suffering Servant, which Christians say are a direct prophetic revelation of the nature, purpose, and detail of the death of Jesus
Jesus
Christ. The Book of Isaiah
Book of Isaiah
is quoted many times by New Testament writers.[19] Ten of those references are about the Suffering Servant, how he will suffer and die to save many from their sins, be buried in a rich man's tomb, and be a light to the Gentiles. The Gospel of John
Gospel of John
says that Isaiah
Isaiah
"saw Jesus’ glory and spoke about him."[20][non-primary source needed] In Latter-day Saints[edit] Isaiah
Isaiah
is also a prominent prophet in the Latter-day Saint theology. Mormons consider the starting of The Church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints to be a fulfillment of Isaiah
Isaiah
11, the translation of the Book of Mormon
Book of Mormon
to be a fulfillment of Isaiah
Isaiah
29,[21] and the building of LDS temples as a fulfillment of Isaiah
Isaiah
2:2.[22] In addition, the Book of Mormon
Book of Mormon
and Doctrine and Covenants
Doctrine and Covenants
quote Isaiah more than any other prophet.[23] The Book of Mormon
Book of Mormon
quotes Jesus Christ as stating that "great are the words of Isaiah", and that all things prophesied by Isaiah
Isaiah
either have been or will be fulfilled.[24] In Islam[edit] Although Isaiah
Isaiah
or his Arabic name اليسع, Al-Yasa, are not mentioned by name in the Qu'ran
Qu'ran
or the Hadith, Muslim
Muslim
sources have accepted him as a prophet.[25] Some Muslim
Muslim
scholars, such as Ibn Kathir and Kisa'i, reproduced Jewish traditions regarding Isaiah, which were transmitted through early Jewish converts to Islam. Isaiah is mentioned as a prophet in Ibn Kathir's Story of Prophet
Prophet
Isaiah,[26] and the modern writers Muhammad Asad
Muhammad Asad
and Abdullah Yusuf Ali
Abdullah Yusuf Ali
[27] accepted Isaiah
Isaiah
as a true Hebrew prophet, who preached to the Israelites following the death of King David. Isaiah
Isaiah
is well known in Muslim
Muslim
exegesis and literature, notably for his predictions of the coming of Jesus
Jesus
and Muhammad.[28] Isaiah's narrative in Muslim literature can be divided into three sections. The first establishes Isaiah
Isaiah
as a prophet of Israel
Israel
during the reign of Hezekiah; the second relates Isaiah's actions during the siege of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
by Sennacherib; and the third warns the nation of coming doom.[29] Muslim
Muslim
exegesis preserves a tradition parallel to the Hebrew Bible,[30] which states that Hezekiah
Hezekiah
was king in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
during Isaiah's time. Hezekiah
Hezekiah
heard and obeyed Isaiah's advice, but could not quell the turbulence in Israel.[31] This tradition maintains that Hezekiah
Hezekiah
was a righteous man and that the turbulence worsened after him. After the death of the king, Isaiah
Isaiah
told the people not to forsake God, and he warned Israel
Israel
to cease from its persistent sin and disobedience. Muslim
Muslim
tradition maintains that the unrighteous of Israel
Israel
in their anger sought to kill Isaiah.[31] In a death that resembles that attributed to Isaiah
Isaiah
in Lives of the Prophets, Muslim exegesis recounts that Isaiah
Isaiah
was martyred by Israelites by being sawn in two.[31] Rabbinic literature[edit] Main article: Isaiah
Isaiah
in rabbinic literature According to the rabbinic literature, Isaiah
Isaiah
was a descendant of the royal house of Judah and Tamar ( Sotah 10b). He was the son of Amoz (not to be confused with Prophet
Prophet
Amos), who was the brother of King Amaziah of Judah. ( Talmud
Talmud
tractate Megillah 15a).[32] Notes[edit]

^ See the article Book of Isaiah
Book of Isaiah
for an extended overview of theories of its composition. ^ Alternative spellings include (US: /aɪˈzeɪ.ə/ or UK: /aɪˈzaɪ.ə/;[6] Hebrew: יְשַׁעְיָהוּ‬, Modern Yešayahu, Tiberian Yəšạʻyā́hû; Syriac: ܐܹܫܲܥܝܵܐ‎ ˀēšaˁyā; Greek: Ἠσαΐας, Ēsaïās; Latin: Isaias; Arabic: إشعيا Ašaʿyāʾ or šaʿyā;[7] "Yah is salvation"[8]

References[edit]

^ Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam
Islam
and Judaism, B. M. Wheeler, Appendix II ^ St. John the Baptist
John the Baptist
Byzantine Catholic Cathedral, Holy Prophet Isaiah ^ The Scofield Study Bible
Bible
III, NKJV, Oxford University Press ^ De Jong, Matthijs J., Isaiah
Isaiah
Among The Ancient Near Eastern Prophets: A Comparative Study of the Earliest Stages of the Isaiah Tradition and the Neo-Assyrian Prophecies, BRILL, 2007, p. 13–17 [1] ^ Isaiah
Isaiah
38:1 ^ Wells, John C. (1990). ""Isaiah"". Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow, England: Longman. p. 378. ISBN 0-582-05383-8.  ^ Rippin, A., “S̲h̲aʿyā”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. ^ New Bible
Bible
Dictionary, Second Edition, Tyndale Press, Wheaton, IL, USA 1987. ^ a b c d e  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Easton, Matthew George (1897). "Isaiah". Easton's Bible
Bible
Dictionary (New and revised ed.). T. Nelson and Sons.  ^ Coogan, Michael D. A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament, Oxford University Press, 2009, p.273. ^ Sayce, Archibald Henry. The Ancient Empires of the East. Macmillan, 1884, p. 134. ^ "Isaiah", Jewish Encyclopedia ^ "HEZEKIAH". JewishEncyclopedia.com.  ^ "Religious Quotes". Animal Liberation Front. Retrieved 2016-04-01.  ^ "The Biblical Basis of Veganism". Cincinnati, Ohio: The Nazarenes of Mount Carmel. Retrieved 2016-04-01.  ^ Braunstein, Mark (1980). "Vegetarianism in Art". Vegetarian Times (40). Isaiah, the vegetarian prophet, meant also that humans must sit with the lamb, the kid, the ox—because humans must make peace with the animals before they can make peace with other humans.  ^ Isaiah
Isaiah
9:19. ^ The Lives of the Holy Prophets, Holy Apostles
Apostles
Convent, ISBN 0-944359-12-4, page 101. ^ Graham, Ron. " Isaiah
Isaiah
in the New Testament - Quotations Chart - In Isaiah
Isaiah
Order".  ^ John 12:41 ^ "Encyclopedia of Mormonism, "Isaiah"".  ^ "lds.org - Temples".  ^ "lds.org - Isaiah".  ^ "3 Nephi 23:1-3".  ^ Encyclopedia of Islam ^ "Ibn Kathir: Story of Prophet
Prophet
Isaiah
Isaiah
(pbuh)". islamawareness.net.  ^ The Holy Qur'an: Text, Translation and Commentary, Note. 2173 to 17:4: "The Book is the revelation given to the Children of Israel. Here it seems to refer to the burning words of Prophets like Isaiah. For example, see Isaiah, chap, 24. or Isaiah
Isaiah
5:20–30, or Isaiah 3:16–26." ^ Encyclopedia of Islam, Shaya, Online Web. ^ Tabari, History of the Prophets and Kings, i, 638–45 ^ Isaiah
Isaiah
38. ^ a b c Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, Isaiah
Isaiah
bin Amoz ^ "ISAIAH - JewishEncyclopedia.com". jewishencyclopedia.com. 

Further reading[edit]

Baltzer, Klaus (2001). Deutero-Isaiah: A Commentary on Isaiah
Isaiah
40–55. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.  Childs, Brevard S. (2001). Isaiah: a commentary. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-22143-0.  Church, Brooke Peters (1953). The Private Lives of the Prophets and the Times in Which They Lived. New York: Rinehart.  Cohon, Beryl D. (1939). The Prophets: Their Personalities and Teachings. New York: Scribner.  Herbert, Arthur Sumner (1975). The book of the prophet Isaiah: Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-08624-8.  Herbert, Arthur Sumner (1975). The book of the Prophet
Prophet
Isaiah, chapters 40–66. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-20721-5.  Kraeling, Emil G. (1969). The Prophets. Chicago: Rand McNally.  Miscall, Peter D. (1993). Isaiah. Sheffield, England: JSOT Press. ISBN 1-85075-435-7.  Quinn-Miscall, Peter D. (2001). Reading Isaiah: poetry and vision. Louisville: Westminster Press. ISBN 0-664-22369-9.  Phillips, J. B. (1963). Four Prophets, Amos, Hosea, First Isaiah, Micha: A Modern Translation from the Hebrew. New York: Macmillan.  Sawyer, John F. A. (1996). The fifth gospel: Isaiah
Isaiah
in the history of Christianity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-44007-6.  Scott, R. B. Y. (1968). The Relevance of the Prophets. Macmillan: London.  Smith, J. M. Powis (1941). The Prophets and Their Times. Chicago: University of Chicago. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Isaiah

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Isaiah

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Isaiah.

Sermons on Isaiah Isaiah
Isaiah
(Isaias) at the Catholic Encyclopedia Avraham Gileadi's new translation and commentary on Isaiah. From a LDS Church perspective. Isaiah
Isaiah
Testifies of Christ A LDS Church
LDS Church
perspective on Isaiah's writings by Gregorio Billikopf. Prophet
Prophet
Isaiah
Isaiah
Orthodox icon and synaxarion Isaiah
Isaiah
Commentary Isaiah
Isaiah
the Prophet
Prophet
at the Christian Iconography web site

v t e

Prophets in the Hebrew Bible

Pre-Patriarchal

Abel Kenan Enoch Noah (in rabbinic literature)

Patriarchs / Matriarchs

Abraham Isaac Jacob Levi Joseph Sarah Rebecca Rachel Leah

Israelite prophets in the Torah

Moses (in rabbinic literature) Aaron Miriam Eldad and Medad Phinehas

Mentioned in the Former Prophets

Joshua Deborah Gideon Eli Elkanah Hannah Abigail Samuel Gad Nathan David Solomon Jeduthun Ahijah Shemaiah Elijah Elisha Iddo Hanani Jehu Micaiah Jahaziel Eliezer Zechariah ben Jehoiada Huldah

Major

Isaiah (in rabbinic literature) Jeremiah Ezekiel Daniel (in rabbinic literature)

Minor

Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah (in rabbinic literature) Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi

Noahide

Beor Balaam Job (in rabbinic literature)

Other

Amoz Beeri Baruch Agur Uriah Buzi Mordecai Esther (in rabbinic literature) Oded Azariah

Italics indicate persons whose status as prophets is not universally accepted.

v t e

Extra-Quranic Prophets of Islam

In Stories of the Prophets

Enoch Eber Khidr Joshua Samuel Isaiah Jeremiah Ezekiel Ezra Daniel

In Islamic tradition

Seth Shem Eli Ahijah Shemaiah Iddo Hanani Jehu Micaiah Eliezer Zechariah ben Jehoiada Urijah Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah Berechiah Samī Joel Amos Obadiah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Malachi Hanzalah Khaled bin Sinan

In Quranic exegesis

Abel Saduq, Masduq, and Shalum Hosea Zechariah, son of Berechiah

v t e

Saints of the Catholic Church

Virgin Mary

Mother of God
God
(Theotokos) Immaculate Conception Perpetual virginity Assumption Marian apparition

Guadalupe Laus Miraculous Medal Lourdes Fatima

Titles of Mary

Apostles

Andrew Barnabas Bartholomew James of Alphaeus James the Greater John Jude Matthew Matthias Paul Peter Philip Simon Thomas

Archangels

Gabriel Michael Raphael

Confessors

Anatolius Chariton the Confessor Edward the Confessor Maximus the Confessor Michael of Synnada Paphnutius the Confessor Paul I of Constantinople Salonius Theophanes the Confessor

Disciples

Apollos Mary Magdalene Priscilla and Aquila Silvanus Stephen Timothy Titus Seventy disciples

Doctors

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Evangelists

Matthew Mark Luke John

Church Fathers

Alexander of Alexandria Alexander of Jerusalem Ambrose
Ambrose
of Milan Anatolius Athanasius of Alexandria Augustine of Hippo Caesarius of Arles Caius Cappadocian Fathers Clement of Alexandria Clement of Rome Cyprian
Cyprian
of Carthage Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem Damasus I Desert Fathers Desert Mothers Dionysius of Alexandria Dionysius of Corinth Dionysius Ephrem the Syrian Epiphanius of Salamis Fulgentius of Ruspe Gregory the Great Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nyssa Hilary of Poitiers Hippolytus of Rome Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus
Irenaeus
of Lyons Isidore of Seville Jerome
Jerome
of Stridonium John Chrysostom John of Damascus Maximus the Confessor Melito of Sardis Quadratus of Athens Papias of Hierapolis Peter Chrysologus Polycarp
Polycarp
of Smyrna Theophilus of Antioch Victorinus of Pettau Vincent of Lérins Zephyrinus

Martyrs

Canadian Martyrs Carthusian Martyrs Forty Martyrs of England and Wales Four Crowned Martyrs Great Martyr The Holy Innocents Irish Martyrs Joan of Arc Lübeck martyrs Korean Martyrs Martyrology Martyrs of Albania Martyrs of China Martyrs of Japan Martyrs of Laos Martyrs of Natal Martyrs of Otranto Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War Maximilian Kolbe Perpetua and Felicity Saints of the Cristero War Stephen Three Martyrs of Chimbote Uganda Martyrs Vietnamese Martyrs

Patriarchs

Adam Abel Abraham Isaac Jacob Joseph Joseph (father of Jesus) David Noah Solomon Matriarchs

Popes

Adeodatus I Adeodatus II Adrian III Agapetus I Agatho Alexander I Anacletus Anastasius I Anicetus Anterus Benedict II Boniface I Boniface IV Caius Callixtus I Celestine I Celestine V Clement I Cornelius Damasus I Dionysius Eleuterus Eugene I Eusebius Eutychian Evaristus Fabian Felix I Felix III Felix IV Gelasius I Gregory I Gregory II Gregory III Gregory VII Hilarius Hormisdas Hyginus Innocent I John I John XXIII John Paul II Julius I Leo I Leo II Leo III Leo IV Leo IX Linus Lucius I Marcellinus Marcellus I Mark Martin I Miltiades Nicholas I Paschal I Paul I Peter Pius I Pius V Pius X Pontian Sergius I Silverius Simplicius Siricius Sixtus I Sixtus II Sixtus III Soter Stephen I Stephen IV Sylvester I Symmachus Telesphorus Urban I Victor I Vitalian Zachary Zephyrinus Zosimus

Prophets

Agabus Amos Anna Baruch ben Neriah David Dalua Elijah Ezekiel Habakkuk Haggai Hosea Isaiah Jeremiah Job Joel John the Baptist Jonah Judas Barsabbas Malachi Melchizedek Micah Moses Nahum Obadiah Samuel Seven Maccabees and their mother Simeon Zechariah (prophet) Zechariah (NT) Zephaniah

Virgins

Agatha of Sicily Agnes of Rome Bernadette Soubirous Brigid of Kildare Cecilia Clare of Assisi Eulalia of Mérida Euphemia Genevieve Kateri Tekakwitha Lucy of Syracuse Maria Goretti Mother Teresa Narcisa de Jesús Rose of Lima

See also

Military saints Virtuous pagan

Catholicism portal Saints portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 143011742 LCCN: n80109418 GND: 118639897 SUDOC: 033745625 MusicBrainz: 5e66c130-fa18-4828-8840-

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