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The Irtysh River
River
(Mongolian: Эрчис мөрөн, Erchis mörön,[1] "erchleh", "twirl"; Russian: Иртыш; Kazakh: Ертіс, Ertis, ه‌رتىس; Chinese: 额尔齐斯河, pinyin: É'ěrqísī hé, Xiao'erjing: عَعَرٿِسِ حْ; Uyghur: ئېرتىش, Ertish; Tatar: Cyrillic Иртеш, Latin İrteş, Arabic ﻴﺋرتئش, Siberian Tatar: Эйәртеш, Eya’rtes’) is a river in Russia, China, and Kazakhstan. It is the chief tributary of the Ob River. The river's source lies in the Mongolian Altai in Dzungaria
Dzungaria
(the northern part of Xinjiang, China) close to the border with Mongolia. The Irtysh's main tributaries include the Tobol
Tobol
River, Demyanka River and the Ishim River. The Ob-Irtysh system forms a major drainage basin in Asia, encompassing most of Western Siberia and the Altai Mountains.

Contents

1 Geography 2 Economic use 3 Cities 4 Bridges 5 History 6 Cultural references 7 Other uses 8 See also 9 Notes 10 Literature

Geography[edit]

The Irtysh in Omsk

The Irtysh near Pavlodar
Pavlodar
in Kazakhstan

From its origins as the Kara-Irtysh (Black Irtysh) in the Mongolian Altay mountains in Xinjiang, China, the Irtysh flows northwest through Lake Zaysan
Lake Zaysan
in Kazakhstan, meeting the Ishim and Tobol
Tobol
rivers before merging with the Ob near Khanty-Mansiysk
Khanty-Mansiysk
in western Siberia, Russia after 4,248 kilometres (2,640 mi). The name Black Irtysh (Kara-Irtysh in Kazakh, or Cherny Irtysh in Russian) is applied by some authors, especially in Russia
Russia
and Kazakhstan, to the upper course of the river, from its source entering Lake Zaysan. The term White Irtysh, in opposition to the Black Irtysh, was occasionally used in the past to refer to the Irtysh below lake Zaysan;[2] now this usage is largely obsolete. Economic use[edit] In Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Russia, tankers, passenger and freight boats navigate the river during the ice-free season, between April and October. Omsk, home to the headquarters of the state-owned Irtysh River
River
Shipping Company, functions as the largest river port in Western Siberia. On the Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
section of the river there are presently three major hydroelectric plants, namely at Bakhtarma, Ust-Kamenogorsk
Ust-Kamenogorsk
and Shulbinsk. The world's deepest lock, with a drop of 42 metres (138 ft), allows river traffic to by-pass the dam at Ust-Kamenogorsk.[3] Plans exist for the construction of several more dams.

The Tobolsk
Tobolsk
river wharves in 1912

Three dams have been constructed on the Chinese section of the Irtysh as well: the Keketuohai (可可托海) Dam
Dam
(47°10′51″N 89°42′35″E / 47.18083°N 89.70972°E / 47.18083; 89.70972), the Kalasuke (喀腊塑克) Dam
Dam
(47°08′14″N 88°53′15″E / 47.13722°N 88.88750°E / 47.13722; 88.88750),[4][5] and the Project 635 Dam. There are also the Burqin Chonghu'er Dam
Dam
and the Burqin Shankou Dam
Dam
on the Irtysh's right tributary, the Burqin River
River
and the Jilebulake Dam
Dam
and Yamaguchi Dam on another right tributary, the Haba River. The Northern river reversal
Northern river reversal
proposals, widely discussed by the USSR planners and scientists in the 1960s and 1970s, would send some of the Irtysh's (and possibly Ob's) water to the water-deficient regions of central Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Uzbekistan. Some versions of this project would have seen the direction of flow of the Irtysh reversed in its section between the mouth of the Tobol
Tobol
(at Tobolsk) and the confluence of the Irtysh with the Ob at Khanty-Mansiysk, thus creating an "Anti-Irtysh".[6] While these gigantic interbasin transfer schemes were not implemented, a smaller Irtysh–Karaganda Canal was built between 1962 and 1974 to supply water to the dry Kazakh steppes and to one of the country's main industrial center, Karaganda. In 2002, pipelines were constructed to supply water from the canal to the Ishim River
River
and Kazakhstan's capital, Astana. In China, a short canal was constructed in 1987 (water intake at 47°26′31″N 87°34′11″E / 47.44194°N 87.56972°E / 47.44194; 87.56972) to divert some of the Irtysh water to the endorrheic Lake Ulungur, whose level had been falling precipitously due to the increasing irrigation use of the lake's main affluent, the Ulungur River.[7] In the last years of the 20th century and the early 2000s, a much more major project, the Irtysh–Karamay–Urümqi Canal was completed. Increased water use in China
China
has caused significant concerns among Kazakh and Russian environmentalists.[8][9] According to a report published by Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
fishery researchers in 2013, the total Irtysh water use in China
China
is about 3 cubic kilometres (0.7 cu mi) per year; as a result, only about 2/3 of what would be the river's "natural" flow (6 km3 out of 9 km3) reach the Kazakh border.[10] Cities[edit]

An aerial view of the Irtysh in Omsk

Major cities along the Irtysh, from source to mouth, include:

in China: Fuyun, Beitun, Burqin in Kazakhstan: Ust-Kamenogorsk, Semey, Aksu, Pavlodar in Russia: Omsk, Tara, Tobolsk, Khanty-Mansiysk

Bridges[edit]

The Sixty Years of Victory Bridge in Omsk. (The name commemorates the 60th anniversary of the V-E Day)

Seven railway bridges span the Irtysh. They are located in the following cities:

About 15 km downstream from Serebryansk
Serebryansk
(on the dead-end branch line from Oskemen
Oskemen
to Zyryanovsk) Oskemen Semey, on the Turkestan–Siberia Railway Pavlodar, on the South Siberian rail line ( Astana
Astana
to Barnaul) near Cherlak, on the Middle Siberian rail line (Среднесибирская магистраль) Omsk, on the Trans-Siberian Railway. Opened in 1896, this is the oldest bridge on the river. Tobolsk, on the Tyumen- Surgut
Surgut
line

As the Kuytun–Beitun Railway in China's Xinjiang
Xinjiang
is being extended toward Altay City, a railway bridge over the Irtysh at Beitun will need to be constructed as well. Numerous highway bridges over the Irtysh exist in China, Kazakhstan, and Russia. There are no bridges of any kind on the Irtysh downstream of Tobolsk (nor, for that matter, anywhere on the Ob downstream from its confluence with the Irtysh). History[edit]

Irtysh River
River
landscape in Burqin County, China

A number of Mongol and Turkic peoples occupied the river banks for many centuries. In 657, Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
general Su Dingfang
Su Dingfang
defeated Ashina Helu, qaghan of the Western Turkic Khaganate, at the Battle of Irtysh River, ending the Tang campaign against the Western Turks.[11] Helu's defeat ended the Khaganate, strengthened Tang control of Xinjiang, and led to Tang suzerainty over the western Turks.[12] In the 15th and 16th centuries the lower and middle courses of the Irtysh lay within the Tatar Khanate of Sibir; its capital, Qashliq (also known as Sibir) was located on the Irtysh a few miles upstream from the mouth of the Tobol
Tobol
(where today's Tobolsk
Tobolsk
is situated). The Khanate of Sibir
Khanate of Sibir
was conquered by the Russians in the 1580s. The Russians started building fortresses and towns next to the sites of former Tatar towns; one of the first Russian towns in Siberia (after Tyumen) was Tobolsk, founded in 1587 at the fall of the Tobol
Tobol
into the Irtysh, downstream from the former Qashliq.[13] Farther east, Tara was founded in 1594, roughly at the border of the taiga belt (to the north) and the steppe to the south.[14] In the 17th century the Dzungar Khanate, formed by the Mongol Oirat people, became Russia's southern neighbor, and controlled the upper Irtysh. [15] As a result of Russia's confrontation with the Dzungars in the Peter the Great's era,[16] the Russians founded the cities of Omsk
Omsk
in 1716, Semipalatinsk
Semipalatinsk
in 1718, Ust-Kamenogorsk
Ust-Kamenogorsk
in 1720, and Petropavlovsk in 1752. The Chinese Qing Empire conquered Dzungaria
Dzungaria
in the 1750s. This prompted an increase in the Russian authorities' attention to their borderland; in 1756, the Orenburg
Orenburg
Governor Ivan Neplyuyev
Ivan Neplyuyev
even proposed the annexation of the Lake Zaysan
Lake Zaysan
region, but this project was forestalled by Chinese successes.[17] Concerns were raised in Russia
Russia
(1759) about the (theoretical) possibility of a Chinese fleet sailing from Lake Zaysan
Lake Zaysan
down the Irtysh and into Western Siberia. A Russian expedition visited Lake Zaysan
Lake Zaysan
in 1764, and concluded that such a riverine invasion would not be likely. Nonetheless, a chain of Russian pickets was established on the Bukhtarma River, north of Lake Zaysan.[18] Thus the border between the two empires in the Irtysh basin became roughly delineated, with a (sparse) chain of guard posts on both sides. The situation in the borderlands in the mid-19th century is described in a report by A. Abramof (ru; 1865). Even though the Zaysan region was recognized by both parties as part of the Qing empire, it had been annually used, by fishing expeditions sent by the Siberian Cossack Host. The summer expeditions started in 1803, and in 1822–25 their range was expanded through the entire Lake Zaysan
Lake Zaysan
and to the mouth of the Black Irtysh. Through the mid-19th century, the Qing presence on the upper Irtysh was mostly limited to the annual visit of the Qing amban from Chuguchak
Chuguchak
to one of the Cossacks' fishing stations (Batavski Piket).[19] The border between the Russian and the Qing empires in the Irtysh basin was established along the line fairly similar to China's modern border with Russia
Russia
and Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
by the Convention of Peking
Convention of Peking
of 1860.[20] The actual border line pursuant to the convention was drawn by the Protocol of Chuguchak
Chuguchak
(1864), leaving Lake Zaysan
Lake Zaysan
on the Russian side.[21][22] The Qing empire's military presence in the Irtysh basin crumbled during the 1862–77 Dungan Revolt. After the fall of the rebellion and the reconquest of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
by Zuo Zongtang, the border between the Russian and the Qing empires in the Irtysh basin was further slightly readjusted, in Russia's favor, by the Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1881). Cultural references[edit] The Irtysh River
River
serves as a backdrop in the epilogue of Fyodor Dostoyevsky's 1866 novel Crime and Punishment. Other uses[edit]

FC Irtysh Omsk, a soccer team in Omsk, Russia. FC Irtysh Pavlodar, a soccer team in Pavlodar, Kazakhstan. Irtysh (Иртыш), a Russian military hospital ship, used at the Bering Strait Swim 2013.

See also[edit]

Geography of China Geography of Kazakhstan Geography of Russia

Notes[edit]

^ The Secret History of the Mongols ^ Abramof 1865, p. 65, and the map before p. 65. ^ http://www.waterwaysworld.com/latest.cgi?month=012008&start=20 ^ " Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Kalasuke 140MW Hydroelectric Project".  ^ 考察调研组专家考察在建的喀腊塑克水利枢纽工程 (A group of experts visits the Kalasuke Dam), 2010-08-05 ^ Skornyakova, V. A.; Timasheva, I. Ye. (1980), "The possible environmental impact of the anti-Irtysh and problems of rational nature management", Soviet Geography, 21 (10), doi:10.1080/00385417.1980.10640361 (inactive 2017-11-01)  ^ Petr, T., ed. (1999), Fish and Fisheries at Higher Altitudes: Asia, Issue 385 of FAO fisheries technical paper, ISSN 0429-9345, Food & Agriculture Org., p. 257, ISBN 9251043094  (An English translation of the original paper published in the Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta in 1979). ^ KAZAKHSTAN: ENVIRONMENTALISTS SAY CHINA MISUSING CROSS-BORDER RIVERS. By Gulnoza Saidazimova, 7/16/2006. ^ Sievers, Eric W. (2002), "Transboundary Jurisdiction and Watercourse Law: China, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and the Irtysh" (PDF), Texas International Law Journal, 37 (1)  ^ Kulikov, Evgeny Vyacheslavovich (Куликов Евгений Вячеславович) (2013-08-23), Adapting of fisheries management to the changing Irtysh water basin hydrological regime  ^ Jonathan Karem Skaff (2009). Nicola Di Cosmo, ed. Military Culture in Imperial China. Harvard University Press. pp. 181–185. ISBN 978-0-674-03109-8.  ^ James A. Millward (2007). Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang. Columbia University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-231-13924-3.  ^ Forsyth, James (1994), A History of the Peoples of Siberia: Russia's North Asian Colony 1581-1990, Cambridge University Press, p. 34, ISBN 9780521477710  ^ March, G. Patrick (1996), Eastern Destiny: Russia
Russia
in Asia
Asia
and the North Pacific, ABC-CLIO, p. 31, ISBN 0275956482  ^ Forsyth 1994, pp. 37,125–127 ^ Forsyth 1994, p. 128 ^ Abramof 1865, p. 65 ^ Abramof 1865, p. 66 ^ Abramof 1865, pp. 62–63; see also the border shown on the map before p. 65. ^ Articles 2 and 3 in the Russian text of the treaty ^ (See the map) ^ "The Lost Frontier – Treaty Maps that Changed Qing's Northwestern Boundaries_The Changing Borders". npm.gov.tw. 

Literature[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Irtysh River.

Great Soviet Encyclopedia Abramof, A. (1865), translated by John Michell, "The lake Nor-Zaysan and its neighborhood", Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, J. Murray, 35: 58–69, doi:10.2307/3698078, JSTOR 3698078 

Coordinates: 61°05′24″N 68°49′15.60″E / 61.09000°N 68.8210000°E / 61.09000; 68.8210000

v t e

Rivers of Kazakhstan

Rivers

Ajaguz River Akan-Burluk River Aksu River Arys River Asa River Aschiagar River Ayat River Badam River Bala Bugun Bolshoy Uzen River Borolday River Bugun River Bukhtarma River Byan River Chu River Emba River Emil River Esentai River Ilek River Iman-Burluk River Irgiz River Ili River Irtysh River Ishim River Karatal River Kigach River Keles River Koksu River Koluton River Kurchum River Lepsy River Lukina River Maly Uzen River Narym River Nura River O River Qapal River Qyzylaghash River Sagyz River Sary su River Sharyn River Shiderti River Sytasty River Syr Darya Talas River Temir River Tersakkan River Tobol
Tobol
River Tuolba River Torgay River Ural River Uba River Ubagan River Uil River Ulba River Ulken-Bugun

v t e

Major rivers of China

Seven Great Rivers of Eastern China Yangtze
Yangtze
· Yellow · Pearl · Heilongjiang · Huai · Hai · Liao

Yangtze
Yangtze
system

Yalong Min Dadu Qingyi (Sichuan) Tuo Jialing Bailong Fu (Sichuan) Qu Wu Hanshui Muma Chi Du Bao Qing Chishui Xiang

Xiao Lei Mi

Zi Yuan Lishui Miluo Gan Fu (Jiangxi) Xin Qingyi (Anhui) Qinhuai Xitiao Huangpu Suzhou Creek

Yellow system

Daxia Tao Qingshui Wuding Fen Wei Jing Luo (Henan) Luo (Shaanxi) Qin Xiaoqing

Pearl system

North East Han (Guangdong) Mei Ting West Yujiang Yong Xun Qian Hongshui Nanpan Beipan Rong Li (Guangxi) Gui Liu

Heilongjiang system

Songhua 2nd Songhua Nen Mudan Ussuri Argun Kherlen Woken Huifa

Huai system

Guo Ying Shiguan Quan Hui Hong

Hai system

Chaobai Yongding Hutuo Ziya Daqing Wenyu Juma Sanggan Fuyang Wei Ju Jiyunhe

Liao system

Hun Taizi Xar Moron Xinkai Western Liao Eastern Liao

Other major rivers

Tarim Black Karatash Ili Shule Tumen Yalu Luan Red Minjiang Longjiang Lancang Beilun Nujiang Lion Spring Elephant Spring Yarlung Tsangpo (Horse Spring) Nyang Subansiri Irtysh Suifen Qiantang Puyang Jiao (Shandong) Dai Si Shu Cao'e Jiao (Zhejiang) Ou Mulan Jin (Fujian) Nandu Wanquan Taping

Major canals

Grand Canal Lingqu North Jiangsu Main Irrigation Canal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 240457

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