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First incarnation: Anglo-Iraqi War 1948 Arab–Israeli War First Kurdish-Iraqi War Six-Day War Yom Kippur War Second Kurdish-Iraqi War Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
War Second incarnation: Iraq
Iraq
War Iraqi Civil War

Anbar clashes (2013–14) Northern Iraq
Iraq
offensive (June 2014) Northern Iraq
Iraq
offensive (August 2014) Military intervention against ISIL

Insignia

Ground Forces flag

The Iraqi Army, officially the Iraqi Ground Forces, is the ground force component of the Iraqi Armed Forces, having been active in various incarnations throughout the 20th and 21st centuries. The Iraqi Army
Army
in its modern form was first created by the United Kingdom during the inter-war period of de facto British control of Mandatory Iraq. Following the invasion of Iraq
Iraq
by U.S. forces in 2003, the Iraqi Army
Army
was rebuilt along American lines with enormous amounts of U.S. military assistance at every level. Because of the Iraqi insurgency that began shortly after the invasion, the Iraqi Army
Army
was later designed to initially be a counter-insurgency force.[3][4] With the withdrawal of U.S. troops in 2011, Iraqi forces have assumed full responsibility for their own security.[5] A New York Times
New York Times
article suggested that, between 2004 and 2014, the U.S. had provided the Iraqi Army
Army
with $25 billion in training and equipment in addition to an even larger sum from the Iraqi treasury.[6] The Army
Army
extensively collaborated with Iraqi Popular Mobilization Forces during anti-ISIL operations.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Royal Iraqi Army 1.2 1941 coup 1.3 1948 Arab–Israeli War 1.4 Republic declared 1.5 Six-Day War 1.6 Iran– Iraq
Iraq
war 1.7 Invasion of Kuwait
Kuwait
and the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
War 1.8 During the 1990s 1.9 Invasion of 2003

2 Formations of the army, 1922–2003

2.1 Corps 2.2 Infantry
Infantry
and mechanised divisions 2.3 Armoured divisions up to 2003 2.4 Brigades

3 Reform of the army

3.1 2008

4 Structure 5 Current status

5.1 Structure in 2012

6 Rank insignia 7 Training

7.1 Recruits and enlisted men 7.2 Officers 7.3 Military Transition Teams

8 Equipment

8.1 Uniforms and personal weapons

9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

History The threat of war with newly forming Republic of Turkey, which claimed the Ottoman vilayet of Mosul
Mosul
as part of their country, led the British to form the Iraqi Army
Army
on 6 January 1921. The Mussa Al-Kadhum Brigade consisted of ex-Iraqi-Ottoman officers, whose barracks were located in Kadhimyah.[7] The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
provided support and training to the Iraqi Army
Army
and the Iraqi Air Force
Iraqi Air Force
through a small military mission based in Baghdad.[8] Iraqi Army
Army
Day celebrates the soldiers that fight for Iraq. Royal Iraqi Army Main articles: British Mandate of Iraq
Iraq
and Kingdom of Iraq From 1533 to 1918, Iraq
Iraq
was under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, and fought as part of the Military of the Ottoman Empire. After 1917, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
took control of the country. The first Iraqi military forces established by the British were the Iraq
Iraq
Levies, several battalions of troops tasked to guard the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF) bases from which the British controlled Iraq. In August 1921, the British installed Hashemite
Hashemite
King Faisal I as the client ruler of the British Mandate of Iraq. Faisal had been forced out as the King of Syria
King of Syria
by the French. Likewise, British authorities selected Sunni
Sunni
Arab elites from the region for appointments to government and ministry offices in Iraq. The British and the Iraqis formalized the relationship between the two nations with the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty
Anglo-Iraqi Treaty
of 1922. With Faisal's ascension to the throne, the Iraqi Army
Army
became the Royal Iraqi Army
Army
(RIrA). In 1922, the army totalled 3,618 men. This was well below the 6,000 men requested by the Iraqi monarchy and even less than the British set limit of 4,500. Unattractive salaries hindered early recruiting efforts. At this time, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
maintained the right to levy local forces like the British-officered Iraq
Iraq
Levies which were under direct British control. With a strength of 4,984 men, the Iraq
Iraq
Levies outnumbered the army with its British set limit of 4,500 men. In 1924, the army grew to 5,772 men and, by the following year, had grown still more to reach 7,500 men. It was to stay at 7,500 men until 1933. The force now had six infantry battalions, three cavalry regiments, two mountain regiments, and one field battery.[9] In 1932, the Kingdom of Iraq
Iraq
was granted official independence. This was in accordance with the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty
Anglo-Iraqi Treaty
of 1930, whereby the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
would end its official mandate on the condition that the Iraqi government
Iraqi government
would allow British advisers to take part in government affairs, allow British military bases to remain, and a requirement that Iraq
Iraq
assist the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in wartime.[10] Upon achieving independence in 1932, political tensions arose over the continued British presence in Iraq, with Iraq's government and politicians split between those considered pro-British and those who were considered anti-British. The pro-British faction was represented by politicians such as Nuri as-Said
Nuri as-Said
who did not oppose a continued British presence. The anti-British faction was represented by politicians such as Rashid Ali al-Gaylani
Rashid Ali al-Gaylani
who demanded that remaining British influence in the country be removed.[11] In 1936, General Bakr Sidqi, who had won a reputation from suppressing tribal revolts, was named Chief of the General Staff and successfully pressured the King to demand that the Cabinet resign.[12] From that year to 1941, five coups by the RIrA occurred during each year led by the chief officers of the army against the government to pressure the government to concede to Army
Army
demands.[11] 1941 coup Main article: 1941 Iraqi coup d'état In early April 1941, during World War II, Rashid Ali al-Gaylani
Rashid Ali al-Gaylani
and members of the anti-British "Golden Square" launched a coup d'état against the current government. Prime Minister Taha al-Hashimi resigned and Rashid Ali al-Gaylani
Rashid Ali al-Gaylani
took his place as Prime Minister. Rashid Ali also proclaimed himself chief of a "National Defence Government." He did not overthrow the monarchy, but installed a more compliant Regent. He also attempted to restrict the rights of the British which were granted them under the 1930 treaty. On April 30 Iraqi Army
Army
units took the high ground to the south of RAF Habbaniya. An Iraqi envoy was sent to demand that no movements, either ground or air, were to take place from the base. The British refused the demand and then themselves demanded that the Iraqi units leave the area at once. In addition, the British landed forces at Basra
Basra
and the Iraqis
Iraqis
demanded that these forces be removed. At 0500 hours on 2 May 1941, the Anglo-Iraqi War
Anglo-Iraqi War
broke out between the British and Rashid Ali's new government when the British at RAF Habbaniya launched air strikes against the Iraqis. By this time, the army had grown significantly. It had four infantry divisions with some 60,000 men.[13] At full strength, each division had three brigades. The Iraqi 1st and 3rd Divisions were stationed in Baghdad. Also based within Baghdad
Baghdad
was the Independent Mechanized Brigade comprising a L3/35
L3/35
light tank company, an armoured car company, two battalions of "mechanized" infantry transported in trucks, a "mechanized" machine-gun company, and a "mechanized" artillery brigade. The 2nd Division was stationed in Kirkuk, and the 4th Division was in Al Diwaniyah, on the main rail line from Baghdad
Baghdad
to Basra. All these "mechanized" infantry units were transported by trucks. Hostilities between the British and the Iraqis
Iraqis
lasted from 2 May to 30 May 1941. The German government despatched an aviation unit, Fliegerführer Irak, and Italy send limited assistance, but both were too late and far from adequate. In the end, the British were able to march on Baghdad
Baghdad
and Rashid Ali al-Gaylani
Rashid Ali al-Gaylani
fled. After the Anglo-Iraqi War
Anglo-Iraqi War
ended, Nuri as-Said
Nuri as-Said
returned as Prime Minister and dominated the politics of Iraq
Iraq
until the overthrow of the monarchy and his assassination in 1958. Nuri as-Said
Nuri as-Said
pursued a largely pro-western policy during this period.[14] The army was not disbanded. Instead, it was maintained to hinder possible German offensive actions launched from southern Russia. British troops left in the late 1940s. 1948 Arab–Israeli War In the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the Iraqis
Iraqis
deployed an expeditionary force which peaked at 15,000–18,000 men.[15] In 1948, the RIrA deployed 21,000 men in twelve brigades and the Royal Iraqi Air Force deployed 100 planes, mostly British. Initially the Iraqis
Iraqis
committed around 3,000[16] men to the war effort including four infantry brigades, one armoured battalion and support personnel. These forces were to operate under Jordanian guidance[17] During the first truce the Iraqis
Iraqis
increased their force to about 10,000.[18] Ultimately, the Iraqi expeditionary force numbered around 15,000 to 18,000 men.[19] The first Iraqi forces to be deployed reached Jordan
Jordan
in April 1948 under the command of General Nur ad-Din Mahmud. On 15 May, Iraqi engineers built a pontoon bridge across the Jordan River
Jordan River
and attacked the Israeli settlement of Gesher. Over 3,000 Iraqi soldiers with armor and air support were unable to defeat less than 50 lightly armed Jewish defenders. Following this defeat Iraqi forces moved into the Nablus–Jenin– Tulkarm
Tulkarm
strategic triangle, where they suffered heavy casualties in the Israeli attack on Jenin
Jenin
which began on 3 June, but they managed to hold on to their positions. Active Iraqi involvement in the war effectively ended at this point.[20] In May 1955 the British finally withdrew from Iraq. The Iraqi authorities said during the withdrawal negotiations that a motorised infantry brigade was to be formed, based at the previous RAF Habbaniya, a location that had been occupied by the British Iraq Levies.[21] Republic declared Main article: Iraqi Republic (1958–68) The Hashemite
Hashemite
monarchy lasted until 1958, when it was overthrown through a coup d'état by the Iraqi Army, known as the 14 July Revolution. King Faisal II of Iraq
Iraq
along with members of the royal family were murdered. The coup brought Abd al-Karim Qasim
Abd al-Karim Qasim
to power. He withdrew from the Baghdad
Baghdad
Pact and established friendly relations with the Soviet Union. When Qāsim distanced himself from Abd an-Nāsir, he faced growing opposition from pro-Egypt officers in the Iraqi army. `Arif, who wanted closer cooperation with Egypt, was stripped of his responsibilities and thrown in prison. When the garrison in Mosul rebelled against Qāsim's policies, he allowed the Kurdish leader Barzānī to return from exile in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
to help suppress the pro-Nāsir rebels. The creation of the new Fifth Division, consisting of mechanized infantry, was announced on 6 January 1959, Army
Army
Day.[22] Qāsim was also promoted to the rank of general. In 1961, an Army
Army
buildup close to Kuwait
Kuwait
in conjunction with Iraqi claims over the small neighbouring state, led to a crisis with British military forces (land, sea, and air) deployed to Kuwait
Kuwait
for a period. In 1961, Kuwait
Kuwait
gained independence from Britain and Iraq
Iraq
claimed sovereignty over Kuwait. As in the 1930s, Qasim based Iraq's claim on the assertion that Kuwait
Kuwait
had been a district of the Ottoman province of Basra, unjustly severed by the British from the main body of Iraqi state when it had been created in the 1920s.[23] Britain reacted strongly to Iraq's claim and sent troops to Kuwait
Kuwait
to deter Iraq. Qāsim was forced to back down and in October 1963, Iraq
Iraq
recognized the sovereignty of Kuwait. Qāsim was assassinated in February 1963, when the Ba'ath Party
Ba'ath Party
took power under the leadership of General Ahmed Hasan al-Bakr
Ahmed Hasan al-Bakr
(prime minister) and Colonel Abdul Salam Arif
Abdul Salam Arif
(president). Nine months later `Abd as-Salam Muhammad `Arif led a successful coup against the Ba'ath government. On 13 April 1966, President Abdul Salam Arif
Abdul Salam Arif
died in a helicopter crash and was succeeded by his brother, General Abdul Rahman Arif. Following the Six-Day War
Six-Day War
of 1967, the Ba'ath Party
Ba'ath Party
felt strong enough to retake power (17 July 1968). Ahmad Hasan al-Bakr became president and chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC). Six-Day War

Iraqi Army
Army
Panhard AML-60 armored car, 1970s. Iraq
Iraq
ordered about 250 of these vehicles between 1968 and 1976.

During the Six-Day War, the Iraqi 3rd Armoured Division was deployed in eastern Jordan.[24] However, the Israeli attack against the West Bank unfolded so quickly that the Iraqi force could not organise itself and reach the front before Jordan
Jordan
ceased fighting. Repeated Israeli airstrikes also held them up so that by the time they did reach the Jordan River
Jordan River
the entire West Bank
West Bank
was in Israeli hands. During the course of the Jordanian Campaign ten Iraqis
Iraqis
were killed and 30 Iraqis
Iraqis
were wounded, especially as the main battle was in Jerusalem. Fighting also raged in other areas of the West Bank, where Iraqi commandos and Jordanian soldiers defended their positions.[25] Barzānī and the Kurds
Kurds
who had begun a rebellion in 1961 were still causing problems in 1969. The secretary-general of the Ba`th party, Saddam Hussein, was given responsibility to find a solution. It was clear that it was impossible to defeat the Kurds
Kurds
by military means and in 1970 a political agreement was reached between the rebels and the Iraqi government. Following the Arab defeat in 1967, Jordan
Jordan
became a hotbed of Palestinian activity. During this time PLO elements attempted to create a Palestinian state within Jordan
Jordan
caused the Jordanians to launch their full military force against the PLO. As they were doing this Syria invaded Jordan
Jordan
and Iraq
Iraq
moved a brigade in Rihab, Jordan.[citation needed] Otherwise the only Iraqi activity was that they fired upon some Jordanian aircraft. Iraq
Iraq
sent a 60,000 man expeditionary force to the Syrian front during the Yom Kippur War. It consisted of the 3rd and 6th Armoured Divisions, two infantry brigades, twelve artillery battalions, and a special forces brigade. The two armoured divisions were, Pollack says, 'unquestionably the best formations of the Iraqi Army.'(Pollack p. 167) Yet during their operations on the Golan Heights, their performance was awful in virtually every category of military effectiveness. Military intelligence, initiative, and small unit independent action was virtually absent.[26] After the war, Iraq
Iraq
started a major military build-up. Active duty manpower doubled, and so did number of divisions, from six to twelve, of which four were now armoured and two mechanised infantry. (Pollack p. 182) Iran– Iraq
Iraq
war See also: Order of battle during the Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War Later, Saddam Hussein, looking to build fighting power against Iran soon after the outbreak of the Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War doubled the size of the Iraqi army from 1981, when it numbered 200,000 soldiers in 12 divisions and 3 independent brigades, to 1985, when it had 500,000 men in 23 divisions and nine brigades. The first new divisions were created in 1981 when the 11th and 12th Border Guard Divisions were converted into infantry formations and the 14th Infantry
Infantry
Division was formed.[27] Yet the rise in number of divisions is misleading, because during the war Iraqi divisions abandoned a standard organisation with permanent ('organic') brigades assigned to each division. Instead division headquarters were assigned a mission or sector and then assigned brigades to carry out the task - up to eight to ten brigades on some occasions.[28] The war came at a great cost in lives and economic damage - a half a million Iraqi and Iranian soldiers as well as civilians are believed to have died in the war with many more injured and wounded - but brought neither reparations nor change in borders. The conflict is often compared to World War I,[29] in that the tactics used closely mirrored those of the 1914–1918 war, including large scale trench warfare, manned machine-gun posts, bayonet charges, use of barbed wire across trenches and on no-mans land, human wave attacks by Iran, and Iraq's extensive use of chemical weapons (such as mustard gas) against Iranian troops and civilians as well as Iraqi Kurds. Invasion of Kuwait
Kuwait
and the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
War By the eve of the Invasion of Kuwait
Kuwait
which led to the 1991 Persian Gulf War, the army was estimated to number 1,000,000 men.[30] Just before the Persian Gulf War
Gulf War
began, the force comprised 47 infantry divisions plus 9 armoured and mechanised divisions, grouped in 7 corps.[31] This gave a total of about 56 army divisions, and total land force divisions reached 68 when the 12 Iraqi Republican Guard divisions were included.[32] Although it was said at the time in Western media that Iraqi troops numbered approximately 545,000 (even 600,000) today most experts think that both the qualitative and quantitative descriptions of the Iraqi army at the time were exaggerated, as they included both temporary and auxiliary support elements. Many of the Iraqi troops were also young, under-resourced and poorly trained conscripts. Saddam did not trust the army; among counterbalancing security forces was the Iraqi Popular Army.

Demolished Iraqi vehicles line the Highway of Death
Highway of Death
on 18 April 1991.

The widespread support for Iraq
Iraq
during the Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War meant Iraq had military equipment from almost every major arms-selling country. This resulted in a lack of standardization in this large heterogeneous force, which additionally suffered from poor training and poor motivation. The majority of Iraqi armoured forces still used old Chinese Type 59s and Type 69s, Soviet-made T-55s from the 1950s and 1960s, and some T-72s from the 1970s in 1991. These machines were not equipped with up-to-date equipment, such as thermal sights or laser rangefinders, and their effectiveness in modern combat was very limited. The Iraqis
Iraqis
failed to find an effective countermeasure to the thermal sights and the sabot rounds used by the M1 Abrams, Challenger 1 and the other Coalition tanks. This equipment enabled Coalition tanks to effectively engage and destroy Iraqi tanks from more than three times the distance that Iraqi tanks could engage. The Iraqi tank crews used old, cheap steel penetrators against the advanced Chobham Armour
Chobham Armour
of these US and British tanks, with disastrous results. The Iraqi forces also failed to utilize the advantage that could be gained from using urban warfare — fighting within Kuwait
Kuwait
City — which could have inflicted significant casualties on the attacking forces. Urban combat reduces the range at which fighting occurs and can negate some of the technological advantage that well equipped forces enjoy. Iraqis
Iraqis
also tried to use Soviet military doctrine, but the implementation failed due to the lack of skill of their commanders and the preventive air strikes of the USAF and RAF
RAF
on communication centers and bunkers. While the exact number of Iraqi combat casualties has yet to be firmly determined, sources agree that the losses were substantial. Immediate estimates said up to 100,000 Iraqis
Iraqis
were killed. More recent estimates indicate that Iraq
Iraq
probably sustained between 20,000 and 35,000 fatalities, though other figures still maintain fatalities could have been as high as 200,000.[33] A report commissioned by the U.S. Air Force, estimated 10,000-12,000 Iraqi combat deaths in the air campaign and as many as 10,000 casualties in the ground war.[34] This analysis is based on Iraqi prisoner of war reports. It is known that between 20,000 and 200,000 Iraqi soldiers were killed. According to the Project on Defense Alternatives study,[35] 3,664 Iraqi civilians and between 20,000 and 26,000 military personnel were killed in the conflict. 75,000 Iraqi soldiers were wounded in the fighting. During the 1990s The International Institute for Strategic Studies
International Institute for Strategic Studies
(IISS) estimated the army's composition immediately after the 1991 War as 6 'armoured'/'mechanised' divisions, 23 infantry divisions, 8 Republican Guard divisions and four Republican Guard internal security divisions.[36] Jane's Defence Weekly
Jane's Defence Weekly
for 18 July 1992 stated that 10,000 troops from 5 divisions were fighting against Shia
Shia
Muslims in the southern marshlands. The IISS
IISS
gave the Iraqi Army's force structure as of 1 July 1997 as seven Corps
Corps
headquarters, six armoured or mechanised divisions, 12 infantry divisions, 6 RGF divisions, four Special
Special
Republican Guard Brigades, 10 commando, and two Special Forces
Special Forces
Brigades.[37] It was estimated to number 350,000 personnel, including 100,000 recently recalled reservists.[37] Invasion of 2003 In the days leading up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq
Iraq
and the following Iraq
Iraq
War, the army consisted of 375,000 troops, organized into five corps. In all, there were 11 infantry divisions, 3 mechanized divisions, and 3 armored divisions. The Republican Guard consisted of between 50,000 and 60,000 troops (although some sources indicate a strength of up to 80,000). In January 2003, before the start of the invasion of Iraq
Iraq
in March 2003, the force was primarily located in eastern Iraq. The five corps were organised as follows:

1st Corps, near Kirkuk
Kirkuk
consisted of the 5th Mechanized Division, 2nd Infantry
Infantry
Division, 8th Infantry
Infantry
Division and the 38th Infantry Division. 2nd Corps, near Diyala, had the 3rd Armored Division, 15th Infantry Division, and 34th Infantry
Infantry
Division. 3rd Corps, near An Nasiriyah, had the 6th Armored Division, the 51st Mechanized Division, and the 11th Infantry
Infantry
Division. 4th Corps, near Amarah, included the 10th Armored Division, 14th Infantry
Infantry
Division and 18th Infantry
Infantry
Division. 5th Corps, near Mosul, had the 1st Mechanized Division, and the 4th, 7th, and 16th Infantry
Infantry
Divisions. Western Desert Force, consisting of an armored infantry division and other units in western Iraq.

During the 2003 invasion of Iraq
Iraq
the Iraqi Army
Army
was defeated in a number of battles, including by Task Force Viking
Task Force Viking
in the north, and the Battle of Nasiriyah
Battle of Nasiriyah
and the Battle of Baghdad. The Iraqi Army
Army
was disbanded by Coalition Provisional Authority Order Number 2 issued by U.S. Administrator of Iraq
Iraq
Paul Bremer
Paul Bremer
on May 23, 2003 after its decisive defeat during the Second Gulf War.[38] Bremer said that it was not feasible to reconstitute the armed forces. His justifications for the disbandment included postwar looting, which had destroyed all the bases; that the largely Shiite draftees of the army would not respond to a recall plea from their former commanders, who were primarily Sunnis, and that recalling the army would be a political disaster because to the vast majority of Iraqis
Iraqis
it was a symbol of the old Baathist-led Sunni
Sunni
ascendancy..."[39] Formations of the army, 1922–2003 Corps

I Corps II Corps
Corps
— reorganised as an armoured corps for the Persian Gulf War, comprising the 17th Armoured Division and the 51st Mechanised Division III Corps
Corps
— In 2003, Nasiriyah was the headquarters of the Iraqi Army's 3rd Corps, composed of the 11th ID, 51st Mech ID, and 6th Armored Division — all at around 50 percent strength. The 51st operated south covering the oilfields, and the 6th was north near Al Amarah, which left three brigade-sized elements of the 11th ID to guard the An Nasiriyah
An Nasiriyah
area.[40] IV Corps V Corps VI Corps VII Corps Jihad Forces, Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
War

Infantry
Infantry
and mechanised divisions

1st Division, active from at least 1941. 1st Mechanised Division in Persian Gulf War
Gulf War
and Iraq
Iraq
War. Reformed after 2003. 2nd Division, active from at least 1941 3rd Division, active from at least 1941. Served in Iran– Iraq
Iraq
war 4th Division, active from at least 1941. As 4th Mountain Infantry Division, served in Iran– Iraq
Iraq
war. 5th Division, activated 1959. Served in Iran– Iraq
Iraq
war. As 5th Mechanised Division, fought in Battle of Khafji. 7th Division, served in Iran– Iraq
Iraq
war 8th Division. As 8th Mountain Infantry
Infantry
Division, served in Iran–Iraq war. 11th Division, served in Iran– Iraq
Iraq
war, Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
War 14th Division 15th Division, served in Iran- Iraq
Iraq
war (Operation Beit-ol-Moqaddas) 16th, 18th, 19th, 20th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th, 25th Divisions, 26th, 27th,[41] 28th, 28th, 30th, 31st, 33rd, 34th, 36th, 37th, 38th Divisions 39th, 42nd, 44th, 45th, 46th, 47th, 48th, 49th, 50th, 53rd, 54th, 56th Divisions Eisenstadt reported 'about eight infantry divisions remain unaccounted for' as of March 1993.[31]

Armoured divisions up to 2003

3rd Armoured Division, active by 1967, served in Yom Kippur War, Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War 6th Armoured Division, served in Yom Kippur War, Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War 9th Armoured Division, served in Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War, disbanded after First Battle of Basrah/Operation Ramadan, July 1982 (Pollack p. 205). Reformed after 2003. 10th Armoured Division, served in Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War, in Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
War with Jihad Forces (corps) 12th Armoured Division, served in Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War, Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
War with Jihad Forces (corps) 17th Armoured Division[42] 52nd Armoured Division

Brigades The 65th Special Forces
Special Forces
Brigade, 66th Special Forces
Special Forces
Brigade, 68th Special Forces
Special Forces
Brigade, and 440th Marine Brigade were active during the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
War. (Eisenstadt) Reform of the army

Iraqi Asad Babil tanks and an M113
M113
APC from the Iraqi Army
Army
9th Mechanized Division pass through a highway checkpoint in Mushahada, Iraq.

Based on Bush administration expectations that coalition forces would be welcomed as liberators after the overthrow of the Hussein regime,[43] prewar planners had only been expecting little if any resistance from the Iraqi people. Thus the new army was initially focused on external defence operations. The new Army
Army
was originally intended to comprise 27 battalions in three divisions numbering 40,000 soldiers in three years time. Vinnell Corporation was engaged to train the first nine battalions.[44] The Coalition Military Assistance Training Team (CMATT), headed by Major General Paul Eaton, was the organization set up by the Department of Defense with the responsibility of training and development of the new army. On August 2, 2003, the first battalion of new Iraqi Army
Army
recruits started a nine-week training course at a training base in Qaraqosh. They graduated on October 4, 2003.[45] In April 2004, several Iraqi battalions refused to fight as part of the force engaged in the First Battle of Fallujah.[46] The Fifth Battalion was among the new Iraqi units that fought in Fallujah.[47] In June 2004, the CMATT was dissolved, and passed on its responsibilities to the Multi-National Security Transition Command – Iraq
Iraq
(MNSTC-I) (initially headed by Lt. Gen. David Petraeus) with the new focus on providing security for the Iraqi people from the emerging threat posed by the Iraqi insurgency.[48] While the regular army was being formed, U.S. commanders around the country needed additional troops more quickly, and thus the Iraqi Civil Defense Corps
Corps
(which became the Iraqi National Guard by July 2004)[49] was formed. Coalition commanders formed these militia-type units separately in each area; only later were they gradually brought together as one force. There were several instances where they have refused to take military action against fellow Iraqis, such as in Fallujah, deserted, or allegedly aided the resistance. It is alleged that most guardsmen were drawn from the Shia
Shia
majority in Southern Iraq or the Kurdish majority in northern Iraq, rather than from the Sunni area which they were ordered to attack. In September 2004, a senior member of the National Guard, General Talib al-Lahibi was arrested on suspicion of having links with insurgent groups.[50] In December 2004, it was announced that the Iraqi National Guard would be dissolved.[51] At this time its strength was officially over 40,000 men. Its units became part of the army. The absorption of the ING by the regular army appears to have taken place on January 6, 2005, Iraqi Army
Army
Day.[52] On August 14, 2004, the NATO Training Mission - Iraq
Iraq
was established to assist the Iraqi military, including the army. On September 20 the provisional Fallujah
Fallujah
Brigade dissolved after being sent in to secure the city. The Fallujah
Fallujah
Brigade experiment of using former insurgents to secure a city was not repeated. Army
Army
training was transferred from Vinnell Corporation to the United States armed forces supported by U.S. allies, and is now done by three Iraqi training battalions. Training was impeded by domestic instability, infiltration by insurgents, and high desertion rates.[citation needed] In June 2005, the partnership between Coalition forces and Iraqi forces has increased due to the growing number of battalions in the Iraqi army, which then stood around 115. Out of this number, it was deemed that 80 of them were able to carry out operations in the field with Coalition support limited to logistics and strategic planning, whilst another 20-30 battalions still needed major Coalition support to carry out their operations. As of October 5, 2005 the Iraqi Army
Army
had 90 battalions trained well enough to be "deployed independently", i.e. without the help of others such as the United States.[53]

Iraqi commandos training under the supervision of soldiers of the US 82nd Airborne.

On May 3, 2006 a significant command-and-control development took place. The Iraqi Army
Army
command and control center opened in a ceremony at the Iraqi Ground Forces Command
Iraqi Ground Forces Command
(IFGC) headquarters at Camp Victory.[54] The IGFC was established to exercise command and control of assigned Iraqi Army
Army
forces and, upon assuming Operational Control, to plan and direct operations to defeat the Iraqi insurgency. At the time, the IFGC was commanded by Lt. Gen. Abdul-Qadar. In 2006 the ten planned divisions began to be certified and assume battlespace responsibility: the 6th and 8th before June 26, 2006, the 9th on June 26, 2006, the 5th on July 3, 2006, the 4th on August 8, 2006, and the 2nd on December 21, 2006. After divisions were certified, they began to be transferred from U.S. operational control to Iraqi control of the IGFC. The 8th Division was transferred on September 7, 2006,[55][56] and the 3rd Division on December 1, 2006. Another unspecified division also was transferred to IGFC control.[57] Also transferred to the Iraqi chain of command were smaller logistics units: on November 1, 2006, the 5th Motor Transport Regiment (MTR) was the fifth of nine MTRs to be transferred to the Iraqi Army
Army
divisions. 2007 plans included, MNF-I said, great efforts to make the Iraqi Army able to sustain itself logistically.[58] As of June 26, 2006, three Iraqi divisions, 18 brigades and 69 battalions were in control of battlespace (including two police commando battalions).[59] 2008

Members of Iraqi Army
Army
3rd Brigade, 14th Division participate in a parade for Iraqi and Coalition military members attending the graduation ceremony, February 13.

On March 25, 2008, the Iraqi Army
Army
launched its first solely planned and executed high-profile division-level operation, Operation Charge of the Knights in Basra. They received Multi-National Force – Iraq support only in air support, logistics and via embedded advisors. Also, a British infantry brigade, part of Multi-National Division South-East, and stationed in Basra, were ready in a tactical overwatch role. Their participation was limited to the provision of embedded training teams.[citation needed] In April–June 2008, two brigades of the Iraqi Army
Army
11th Division, supported by US forces, moved into the southern third of Sadr City. They were tasked to stop rocket and mortar attacks on US bases and the Green Zone. Following the Siege of Sadr City—a month of fighting—the Mahdi Army
Army
agreed to let Iraqi forces into the remaining portion of the city. On May 20, troops from the Iraqi Army 3rd Brigade of the 1st (Iraqi Reaction Force) Division and a brigade from the 9th Division moved into the northern districts of Sadr City and began clearing operations. In May, Iraqi army forces launched Operation Lion's Roar
Operation Lion's Roar
(later renamed to Operation Mother of Two Springs) in Mosul
Mosul
and surrounding areas of Nineva province. Iraq
Iraq
became one of the top purchasers of U.S. military equipment with the Iraqi army trading its AK-47
AK-47
assault rifles for the more accurate U.S. M-16 and M-4 rifles, among other equipment.[60] In June 2008 the army moved troops to the southern Maysan
Maysan
province. Following a four-day amnesty for insurgents to turn over weapons, the Iraqi Army
Army
moved into the provincial capital Amarah. Structure The Iraqi Army
Army
began the Anglo-Iraqi War
Anglo-Iraqi War
with a force of four divisions. A fifth was formed in 1959. By the outbreak of the Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War, the force had grown to nine divisions. By 1990, with wartime expansion, the force had grown greatly to at least 56 divisions, making the Iraqi army the fourth largest army in the world and one of the strongest in the Middle East. After the defeat in the Persian Gulf War
Gulf War
in 1991, force size dropped to around 23 divisions, as well as Republican Guard formations. The new army formed after 2003 was initially planned to be three divisions strong, but was then raised to ten divisions, and the force is now expected to grow to 20 divisions. The U.S. House Armed Services Committee commented in 2007 that "It is important to note that in the initial fielding plan, five army divisions would be tied to the regions from where they were recruited and the other five would be deployable throughout Iraq. This was partially due to the legacy of some army divisions being formed from the National Guard units and has caused some complications in terms of making these forces available for operations in all areas of Iraq, and the military becoming a truly national, non-sectarian force."[61] According to the United States Department of Defense
United States Department of Defense
Measuring Safety and Security in Iraq
Iraq
report of August 2006, plans at that time called for the Iraqi Army
Army
to be built up to an approximately 300,000-person force. This was based around an Army
Army
with 10 infantry divisions and 6 mechanised infantry division consisting of 36 brigades and 113 battalions (91 infantry, 12 special forces, 24 mechanised infantry, 60 armored battalions, 1 security). Nine Motorized Transportation Regiments, 5 logistics battalions, 2 support battalions, 5 Regional Support Units (RSUs), and 91 Garrison Support Units (GSUs) are intended to provide logistics and support for each division, with Taji National Depot providing depot-level maintenance and resupply. Each battalion, brigade, and division headquarters will be supported by a Headquarters and Service Company (HSC) providing logistical and maintenance support to its parent organisation. The army will also include 17 SIBs and a Special
Special
Operations Forces Brigade consisting of two special operational battalions.[62]

Iraqi T-72s pass in review in Baghdad, June 30, 2009.

The Iraqi Army
Army
consists of nine regional joint commands. The Joint Operational Commands fall under the command of the National Operations Center. The Iraqi Ground Forces Command
Iraqi Ground Forces Command
does not directly command the army's divisions. As of July 2009, the Iraqi Army
Army
had 14 divisions (1st-12th, 14th, and 17th, the designation 13 not being used), containing 56 brigades or 185 combat battalions.[citation needed] The 6th Division and the 17th Division are still missing their fourth manoeuvre brigades. By April 2010, the combat battalion total had risen to 197 combat battalions. Each division has four line brigades, an engineering regiment, and a support regiment. Three of the 56 brigades are not Iraqi Ground Forces Command
Iraqi Ground Forces Command
combatant brigades and are not assigned to a division. They are the Baghdad Brigade formed in the fall of 2008, the 1st Presidential Brigade formed in January 2008, and the 2nd Presidential Brigade formed in the spring of 2009.[citation needed] Current status In summer 2014, large elements of the Iraqi army were routed by a much smaller and less well-equipped force from the Islamic State. Budget problems continued to hinder the manning of combat support and combat service support units. The lack of soldiers entering boot camp is forcing Iraqi leaders at all levels to face the dual challenge of manning and training enabler units out of existing manpower. In the 2015 Pentagon budget, a further $1.3billion has been requested to provide weapons for the Iraqi Army.[6] However, the New York Times reported that "some of the weaponry recently supplied by the army has already ended up on the black market and in the hands of Islamic State fighters". The same November 2014 article contended that corruption is endemic in the Iraqi Army. It quoted Col. Shaaban al-Obeidi of the internal security forces, who told the paper's David D Kirkpatrick: “Corruption is everywhere." The article claimed that one Iraqi general is known as “chicken guy” because of his reputation for selling the soldiers’ poultry provisions.[6] Divisions are forming engineer, logistics, mortar, and other units by identifying over-strength units, such as the Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) battalions and other headquarters elements, and then transferring them as needed. Problems include infiltration and an insufficient US advisory effort. The new army aimed to exclude recruits that are former regime security and intelligence organizations members, personnel of the Special Republican Guard, top-level Ba'ath Party
Ba'ath Party
members, and Ba'ath Party security and militia organizations.[63] However the army is widely known to have been infiltrated by a multitude of groups ranging from local militias to foreign insurgents. This has led to highly publicized deaths and compromised operations. The Iraqi Special Operations Forces
Iraqi Special Operations Forces
are a Ministry of Defence (Iraq) funded component that reports directly to the Prime Minister of Iraq.[63]

An Iraqi soldier standing on a turret of a T-72
T-72
tank in March 2006.

The Iraqi Army
Army
Band performs during a ceremony at Camp Taji
Camp Taji
in May 2006.

Structure in 2012 Each of the joint and multi-agency operational commands also include the Department of Border Enforcement
Department of Border Enforcement
(DBE), Federal Police, Emergency Police, Oil Police, FPS, etc. in their command as well as Iraqi Army. As of the Fall of 2012, the Iraqi Army
Army
was organized as follows:

National Operations Center – Baghdad

Baghdad
Baghdad
Operational Command – Baghdad[64] – Lt. Gen. Abud Qanbar

Karkh Area Command (KAC) - Western Baghdad. Responsible for the Kadhimiyah, Karkh, Mansour, Bayaa, and Doura Security Districts. Rusafa Area Command (RAC) - Eastern Baghdad. Responsible for the Adhamiyah, Rusafa, Sadr City, New Baghdad, and Karadah Security Districts. 6th Motorised Division – Western Baghdad. 9th Armored Division – Taji
Taji
– Division certified and assumes responsibility of the battle space of the northern Baghdad
Baghdad
Governorate on June 26, 2006.[65] 11th Infantry
Infantry
Division – East Baghdad
Baghdad
(probably planned to become a mechanized division). 17th Commando Division – HQ Mahmadiyah The 17th Division commander has been reported as Staff Maj. Gen. Ali Jassam Mohammad. 23rd Commando Brigade 25th Commando Brigade - ' Baghdad
Baghdad
Eagles' - former 4th Bde, 6th Div. Has received commando training by U.S. Special Forces
Special Forces
and air assault training. 55th Commando Brigade

Niniweh Operational Command[66] - Mosul

2nd Division – Mosul
Mosul
destroyed by ISIS in 2014 3rd Motorised Division – Al-Kasik destroyed by ISIS in 2014 15th Division Formed in 2015 16th Division

Diyala Operational Command - Sulamaniyah, Diyala, Kirkuk, Salahadin

4th Motorised Division – Tikrit – Division certified on August 8, 2006.[67] 5th Infantry
Infantry
Division (Iron) – Diyala Governorate
Diyala Governorate
– Division certified on July 3, 2006.[68] 12th Motorized Division – Tikrit – split off from 4 Div in mid-2008.

Basrah Operational Command – Basrah

8th Commando Division – HQ Diwaniyah 10th Commando Division – An Nasiriyah 14th Division – Basrah[69] - division commander Maj. Gen. Abdul Aziz Noor Swady al Dalmy[70]

Anbar Operational Command – Ramadi

1st Infantry
Infantry
Division – Fallujah
Fallujah
destroyed by ISIS in 2014 7th Infantry
Infantry
Division – Ramadi, West Al Anbar
Al Anbar
Province – transferred to Iraqi Ground Forces Command
Iraqi Ground Forces Command
on November 1, 2007.[71]

In late June 2014, after the large-scale Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant offensive in the north of Iraq, it was reported that ISIL ""took the weapons stores of the 2nd and 3rd [Iraqi army] divisions in Mosul, the 4th division in Salah al Din, the 12th division in the areas near Kirkuk, and another division in Diyala," said Jabbar Yawar, secretary-general of the Kurkish Ministry of Peshmerga
Peshmerga
Affairs.[72] Reuters reported that the 5th Division (Iraq), located in Diyala Province, was by October 2014 reporting to informal "militias’ chain of command," not to the Iraqi Army, according to several U.S. and coalition military officials.[73] A much later report from Small Wars Journal said that in "..2013 and 2014 the 7th Division of the Iraqi Army, 99% Sunni, fought IS virtually alone, until it was almost completely destroyed."[74] The October 2014 Reuters report quoted Lieutenant General Mick Bednarek, Chief of the Office of Security Cooperation, in Iraq
Iraq
from 2013 until July 2014, as estimating that "the army has only five functioning divisions.., whose fighting readiness ranges between 60 and 65 percent." Michael Knights wrote in 2016 that the rebuilding from the mid-2014 disaster had been steady but "very slow". "By January 2015 a fair number of brigades had been salvaged and a couple of new brigades were built but the overall frontline combat strength of the ISF was halved due to attrition in the manning of each brigade. [U]nits were weaker and many were too demoralized or lightly equipped to do more than hold in place. A year later, by January 2016, significant progress has been made in terms of available forces albeit largely by shuffling around personnel and raising around a dozen new and very small 1,000-strong brigades."[75] The new 15th and 16th Divisions have been identified, which appear to be comprised of some of the new brigades that Knights mentions, including the 71st, 72nd, 73rd, 75th, and 76th. The Institute for the Study of War said in their 29 December 2014 situation report that "..The 19th Division is a new military formation intended to include members from the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 12th IA divisions that melted away during the rapid advance of ISIS in June of 2014. This formation will almost certainly include volunteer fighters, most likely displaced persons from Mosul, who reside in refugee camps. The.. sectarian composition of the unit will be important to watch. The formation of the division was initially proposed by Defense Minister Khaled al-Obaidi
Khaled al-Obaidi
on November 4, 2014 during a visit to Iraqi Kurdistan. During that visit he requested assistance from the Kurdistan Regional Government
Kurdistan Regional Government
[with] basing the new division in Iraqi Kurdistan and giving the force responsibility for clearing Mosul."[76] Rank insignia Main article: Iraqi Army
Army
Ranks Insignia Training

Iraqi soldiers perform a live-fire exercise using Bulgarian AR-M1 rifles.

An Iraqi Army
Army
T-72
T-72
tank performs a live-fire training exercise at the Besmaya Gunnery Range, in Besmaya, Baghdad, 28 October 2008.

There are three levels of troop capability in the new army: one, two, and three. Level three refers to troops that have just completed basic training, level two refers to troops that are able to work with soldiers, and level one refers to troops that can work by themselves. Members of NATO Training Mission – Iraq
Iraq
(NTM-I) opened a Joint Staff College in ar Rustamiyah in Baghdad
Baghdad
on September 27, 2005 with 300 trainers. Training at bases in Norway, Italy, Jordan, Germany, and Egypt has also taken place and 16 NATO countries have allocated forces to the training effort.[77] The Multi-National Force Iraq
Iraq
has also conducted a variety of training programs for both enlisted men and officers including training as medics, engineers, quartermasters, and military police. Beyond the various courses and programs being held in-country, both American staff colleges and military academies have begun taking Iraqi applicants, with Iraqi cadets being enrolled at both the United States Military Academy and the US Air Force Academy.[78] Recruits and enlisted men Iraqi Army
Army
recruits undergo a standard eight-week [79] basic training course that includes basic soldiering skills, weapons marksmanship and individual tactics. Former soldiers are eligible for an abbreviated three-week "Direct Recruit Replacement Training" course designed to replace regular basic training to be followed by more training once they have been assigned to a unit. Soldiers later go on to enroll in more specific advanced courses targeted for their respective fields. This could involve going to the Military Intelligence School, the Signal School, the Bomb Disposal School, the Combat Arms Branch School, the Engineer
Engineer
School, and the Military Police School. Officers The Iraqi Armed Service and Supply Institute located in Taji
Taji
plays a significant role in training aspiring Iraqi non-commissioned officers and commissioned officers. The training is based on a Sandhurst model, chosen in part due to its shorter graduation time compared to West Point. Much of the Iraqi officer training programme is copied directly from the Sandhurst course. CMATT's main recruiting stations are located in Baghdad, Basra
Basra
and Mosul. The most desired recruits are individuals who have prior military service or are skilled in specific professions such as first aid, heavy equipment operation, food service and truck driving. A recruitment target of approximately one thousand men is desired to eventually form a 757-man battalion. Soldier fallout usually occurs due to voluntary withdrawal or failure to meet training standards. Due to the current demand for these battalions to become active as soon as possible, the first four battalions' officers, non-commissioned officers, and enlisted men are being trained simultaneously (in separate groups). Notable differences in training between CAATT and former training under Saddam's regime include schooling in human rights, the laws of land warfare, and tolerance in a multi-ethnic team. Based on the philosophy used by the U.S. military to boost its own size in response to World War II
World War II
— that an army can be built faster by focusing on the training on its leadership rather than enlisted men — CMATT has pursued a similar strategy of focusing recruitment and training on commissioned and non-commissioned officers for the remaining 23 Iraqi battalions. Upon successful completion of officer training, these groups of officers will form the battalion's leadership cadre, which will then be responsible for overseeing its own recruitment, training, and readiness of its enlisted men. It is hoped that having the Iraqi leadership train its own will overcome problems faced by CAATT's training process; namely recruitment, desertion, and unit loyalty. Military Transition Teams All Iraqi Army
Army
battalions have embedded U.S. Military transition teams, according to the National Strategy for Victory in Iraq. The MiTTs advise their Iraqi battalions in the areas of intelligence, communications, fire support, logistics and infantry tactics. Larger scale operations are often done jointly with American battalions. This operational training aims to make the battalion self-sustainable tactically, operationally and logistically so that the battalion will be prepared to take over responsibility for battle space. The DOD (as of March '07) reported that 6000 advisors arranged in 480+ teams were embedded with Iraqi units.[80] However, in April, the Congressional Research Service
Congressional Research Service
reported that only around 4000 U.S. forces were embedded with Iraqi units at a rate of 10 per battalion.[79] Former U.S. Army
Army
analyst Andrew Krepinevich argued that the roughly twelve advisors per Iraqi battalion (approximately 500 troops) is less than half the sufficient amount needed to efficiently implement the combat advisory effort .[81] Krepinevich argues that officers try to avoid taking on advisory tasks due to the US Army's practice of prioritising the promotion of officers that have served with a U.S. unit over ones that have served with foreign forces.[82] Equipment

This section may stray from the topic of the article into the topic of another article, List of current equipment of the Iraqi Army. Please help improve this section or discuss this issue on the talk page. (December 2017)

Main articles: List of current equipment of the Iraqi Army
Army
and Former Equipment of the Iraqi Army

A convoy of 1st Motor Transport Regiment, 1st Iraqi Army
Army
Division KrAZ-6322

Virtually all of the equipment used by the former Iraqi Army
Army
was either destroyed by the U.S. and British Forces during the invasion, or was looted during the chaotic aftermath shortly after the fall of the Hussein regime. Four T-55
T-55
tanks however have been recovered from an old army base in al-Muqdadiyah and are now in service with the 1st Division. In February 2004 the U.S. government announced that Nour USA was awarded a $327,485,798 contract to procure equipment for both the Iraqi Army
Army
and the Iraqi National Guard; however, this contract was canceled in March 2004 when an internal Army
Army
investigation (initiated due to complaints from losing bidders) revealed that Army
Army
procurement officers in Iraq
Iraq
were violating procedures with sloppy contract language and incomplete paperwork. On May of that same year the U.S. Army
Army
Tank-automotive and Armaments Command (TACOM) stated that they would award a contract worth $259,321,656 to ANHAM Joint Venture in exchange for procuring the necessary equipment (and providing its required training) for a minimum of 15 and a maximum of 35 battalions. The minimum bid would begin to be delivered immediately and further orders could be placed until the maximum of 35 battalion sets or September 2006 after the first order was fully delivered. In May 2005, Hungary
Hungary
agreed to donate 77 T-72s to the Iraqi Army, with the refurbishment contract going to Defense Solutions to bring the tanks up to operational status for an estimated 4.5 million dollars US.[83] After a delay in the payment of funds from the Iraqi government,[84] the 9th Mechanised Division received the tanks at its headquarters in Taji
Taji
over a three-day period starting on November 8, 2005.[83] On July 29, 2005, the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
gained approval to purchase 180 M113A1 APCs in good condition from Switzerland, with the intent to transfer them to Iraq
Iraq
as a gift. Domestic political opposition in Switzerland
Switzerland
successfully froze the sale, fearing that the export would violate the country's longstanding tradition of neutrality as well as perhaps make Switzerland
Switzerland
a target for terrorism.[85] 173 M113s, 44 APC Talhas, and 100 FV103 Spartans were donated by Jordan, Pakistan
Pakistan
and UAE. 600 AMZ Dzik-3 (Ain Jaria) APCs were ordered in Poland
Poland
(option for 1,200) for delivery by Jan 2007. 573 Otokar Akrep APCs for delivery by Jan 2007. 756 Iraqi Light Armored Vehicles (option for 1,050) for delivery by November 2008.[86][87] Greece donated 100 BMP-1
BMP-1
to the Iraqi Army. 713 M1114
M1114
and 400 M1151
M1151
HMMWVs purchased for IA with delivery complete by end July 2006. Serbia
Serbia
has signed a US$230m deal with Iraq
Iraq
to sell weapons and military equipment, the defence ministry said in March 2008. It did not specify the weapons but Serbian military experts believe they include Serbian-made CZ-99
CZ-99
hand guns, Zastava M21
Zastava M21
5.56 mm assault rifles, Zastava M84
Zastava M84
machine guns, anti-tank weapons (M79 "Osa", Bumbar, and M90 "Strsljen"), ammunition and explosives and about 20 Lasta 95 basic trainer aircraft. Iraq's defence Minister Abdul-Qadir al-Obaidi visited Belgrade
Belgrade
in September and November to discuss boosting military ties with Serbia.[88][89] In August 2008, the United States proposed military sales to Iraq, which will include the latest upgraded M1A1 Abrams
M1A1 Abrams
battle tanks, attack helicopters, Stryker
Stryker
armored vehicles, modern radios, all to be valued at an estimated $2.16 billion.[90] In December 2008, the United States approved a $6 billion arms deal with Iraq
Iraq
that included 140 M1A1 Abrams
M1A1 Abrams
tanks and 400 Stryker
Stryker
combat vehicles for elite Iraqi army units.[91] In December 2009, Ukraine has signed a deal to deliver $550 million worth of arms to Iraq, the agreement with the Iraqi ministry of defense calls for Ukraine to produce and deliver 420 BTR-4
BTR-4
armored personnel carriers, six AN-32B military transport planes and other military hardware to Iraq. [92] In February 2009, the US military announced it had struck deals with Iraq
Iraq
that will see Baghdad
Baghdad
spend $5 billion on American-made weapons, equipment and training.[93] Uniforms and personal weapons The average Iraqi soldier is equipped with an assortment of uniforms ranging from the Desert Camouflage Uniform, the 6 color "Chocolate Chip" DBDU, the woodland-pattern BDU, the U.S. Marine Corps
Corps
MARPAT, or Jordanian KA7. Nearly all have a PASGT
PASGT
ballistic helmet, Generation I OTV ballistic vest, and radio. Their light weapons consist of stocks of Cold War-era arms, namely the Tabuk series of Zastava M-70
Zastava M-70
copies and derivatives like the Tabuk Sniper Rifle, the Russian AKM
AKM
and the Chinese Type 56 assault rifles, the Zastava M72
Zastava M72
and PKM machine guns, and Al-Kadesih sniper rifle though they have received assistance from the U.S. in the form of American-made weapons, including M16A2 and M16A4
M16A4
rifles and M4 carbines. However weapons registration is poor. A 2006 report by the Special Inspector General for Iraq
Iraq
Reconstruction (SIGIR) notes that out of the 370,000 weapons turned over to the U.S. since the fall of Saddam's regime, only 12,000 serial numbers have been recorded.[94] The lack of proper accounting for these weapons makes the acquisition of small arms by anti-governmental forces such as insurgents or sectarian militias much easier. See also

Iraq
Iraq
portal

Iraqi Air Force Iraqi Army
Army
Ranks Insignia Iraqi Navy Iraqi Republican Guard Iraqi Security Forces Iraqi Special
Special
Operations Forces Uniforms of Iraqi Armed Forces

Notes

^ International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance 2017, 380. ^ Al-Marashi, Ibrahim; Sammy Salama (2008). Iraq's Armed Forces: An Analytical History. London and New York: Routledge. p. 206. ISBN 0-415-40078-3.  Al-Marashi and Salama note that the eighty-third anniversary of Iraqi Army
Army
Day was celebrated in 2004. ^ "Measuring Security and Stability in Iraq" (PDF). U.S. Department of Defense. August 2006. p. 52.  ^ "The Gulf Military Balance in 2010" (PDF). Center for Strategic and International Studies. 22 April 2010. p. 2.  ^ " Iraq
Iraq
Withdrawal: U.S. Abandoning Plans To Keep Troops
Troops
In Country". The Huffington Post. 15 October 2011.  ^ a b c "Graft Hobbles Iraq's Military In Fighting Isis". The New York Times. 23 November 2014.  ^ Kenneth M. Pollack, Arabs at War: Military Effectiveness 1948–91, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln/London, 2002, p.149 ^ Lyman, p. 25 ^ Al-Marashi, pp. 23–24 ^ Ghareeb, Edmund A.; Dougherty, Beth K. Historical Dictionary of Iraq. Lanham, Maryland and Oxford: The Scarecrow Press, Ltd., 2004. Pp. lvii. ^ a b Ghareeb; Dougherty. Pp lvii ^ S.E. Finer, The Man on Horseback, 1962, 157-8. ^ Playfair, I.S.O.; and others (2006). The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume II The Germans come to the help of their Ally (1941). History of the Second World War, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Military Series, Official Campaign History, Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-84734-427-5, p.182 and Lyman, Iraq
Iraq
1941, p. 25 ^ Ghareeb; Dougherty. Pp lviii ^ Kenneth M. Pollack, Arabs at War: Military Effectiveness 1948–91, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln/London, 2002, p.150, 156. ^ D. Kurzman, Genesis 1948, 1972, p. 382. ^ I. Pappe, The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine, 2006, p. 129. ^ Kurzman, p. 556. ^ Pollack, 2002, p. 150. ^ Pollack, 2002, pp. 149–155. ^ Solomon (Sawa) Solomon, "The Assyrian Levies, The Final Chapter", Nineveh Magazine 4Q,93, V16, No4. ^ The Times, 'New Division for Iraq
Iraq
Army,' 7 January 1959 ^ Tripp, Charles. A History of Iraq. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002, p.165 ^ Pollack, 2002, p.167 ^ Follow me- The story of the Six Day War 2. Six Day War- Tom Segev ^ Pollack p.173-5, citing among others Tzvi Ofer, 'The Iraqi Army
Army
in the Yom Kippur War,' transl. 'Hatzav,' Tel Aviv: Ma'arachot, 1986, p.128-65. Pollack notes that the various accounts of Iraqi operations on the Golan Heights are highly contradictory. He relies on Ofer, 1986, which is an Israeli General Staff critique of the official Iraqi General Staff analysis of the battle. ^ Pollack 2002 p. 207 ^ Pollack 2002 p. 208 ^ Abrahamian, Ervand, A History of Modern Iran, Cambridge, 2008, p.171 ^ Brassey's, IISS
IISS
Military Balance 1989-90, p.101 ^ a b Michael Eisenstadt, 'The Iraqi Armed Forces
Iraqi Armed Forces
Two Years On, Jane's Intelligence Review, March 1993, p.124 ^ Eisenstadt notes that four IRG security divisions were formed between the invasion of Kuwait
Kuwait
and the outbreak of war. They remained in Iraq
Iraq
during the war. Eisenstadt p.124 ^ Robert Fisk, The Great War For Civilisation; The Conquest of the Middle East (Fourth Estate, 2005), p.853. ^ Keaney, Thomas; Eliot A. Cohen (1993). Gulf War
Gulf War
Air Power Survey. United States Dept. of the Air Force. ISBN 0-16-041950-6.  ^ "Wages of War - Appendix 2: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 1991 Gulf War".  ^ IISS
IISS
Military Balance 1992-3 ^ a b IISS
IISS
Military Balance 1997-98 ^ Iraqi Security and Military Force Developments: A Chronology, 2, 4, 6, 7 [1] ^ Bremer III, L. Paul (2007-09-06). "How I Didn't Dismantle Iraq's Army". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-04.  ^ Rohr, Karl. "Fighting Through the Fog of War". Marine Corps
Corps
Gazette. Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. Retrieved 29 December 2008.  ^ See Gulf War
Gulf War
Air Power Survey, Vol. I, pg 68/97. ^ Pike, John. "17th Armored Division". www.globalsecurity.org.  ^ Christopher Spearin, ‘A Justified Heaping of the Blame?,’ in Stoker (ed). Military Advising and Assistance, Routledge, 2008, p.229 ^ Charles Tiefer, “The Iraq
Iraq
Debacle: The Rise and Fall of Procurement-Aided Unilateralism as a Paradigm of Foreign War,” University of Pennsylvania Journal of Int’l Law 29 (2007) ^ "CPA-IRAQ.org: Homepage of The New Iraq
Iraq
- Information about the Iraqi Dinar" (PDF). www.cpa-iraq.org. October 2003. Retrieved July 1, 2004.  ^ Bing West (7 December 2011). No True Glory: A Frontline Account of the Battle for Fallujah. Random House Publishing Group. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-307-80834-9.  ^ * Zacchea, Michael; Kemp, Ted (2017-04-01). Ragged Edge: A US Marine's Account of Leading the Iraqi Army
Army
Fifth Battalion. Chicago Review Press. ISBN 9781613738443.  ^ Kalev Sepp (2005-03-14). "Prepared Statement before the House Subcommittee on National Security, Emerging Threats, and International Relations regarding the training of Iraqi Security Forces" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 23, 2005. Retrieved 2008-10-07.  ^ Ibrahim Al-Marashi; Sammy Salama (7 April 2008). Iraq's Armed Forces: An Analytical History. Routledge. p. 212. ISBN 978-1-134-14564-5.  ^ "US arrests senior Iraqi commander". BBC. Retrieved 11 October 2014.  ^ " Iraq
Iraq
to dissolve National Guard". BBC. Retrieved 11 October 2014.  ^ Cordesman and Baetjer, 2006, p.147-148. On the ING, see Neil Barnett, 'Iraq's turbulent transition,' Jane's Defence Weekly, 8 September 2004, p.23 ^ The Long War Journal, Training the Iraqi Army
Army
- Revisited, Again, 2005 ^ "Iraqi command and control center opens doors amidst turnover of new territory". Multi-National Force – Iraq. 2006-05-04. Archived from the original on 2006-07-08.  ^ "US hands over control of Iraq
Iraq
military". Iraq
Iraq
Updates. 7 September 2006. Archived from the original on 16 January 2009. Retrieved 3 January 2018.  ^ "US hands over control of Iraq
Iraq
military". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2018-01-03.  ^ " Iraqis
Iraqis
to Command Four Northern Divisions by February, U.S. General Says". U.S. Department of defense. December 1, 2006. Retrieved 11 October 2014.  ^ MTRs transferred in order of event: 8th, 4th, 6th, 5th and 1st (2 Nov). IA 5th MTR driving toward success - Daily article on www.mnf-iraq.com, 20 November 2006. ^ "Pentagon Press Briefing June 23, 2006, with Secretary Donald Rumsfeld and Gen. George Casey". MNF-I. Retrieved 11 October 2014.  ^ Ceerwan Aziz, "Iraqi forces load up on U.S. arms," USA Today (5/22/2008). Retrieved 11 October 2014 ^ House Armed Services Committee, "THE CONTINUING CHALLENGE OF BUILDING THE IRAQI SECURITY FORCES (note 53, page 120)" (PDF). 27 June 2007.  ^ "United States Department of Defense" (PDF). www.defenselink.mil.  ^ a b John Pike. "New Iraqi Army
Army
(NIA)". Retrieved 11 October 2014.  ^ "Microsoft Word - OOBpage7-IGFC-B.rtf" (PDF).  ^ This Week in Iraq
Iraq
- MNF-I Newsletter, June 26, 2006 ^ Long War Journal, Microsoft Word - OOBpage5-IGFC-M.rtf ^ Daily story on MNF-I Webpage, August 9, 2006 ^ "The Advisor, MNSTC-I Newsletter, July 8, 2006" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-11-12.  ^ Page 9: IGFC Basrah Sector - Long War Journal ^ "Iraqi Bedouins seek role in secure future". 25 January 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2014.  ^ ""7th Iraqi Army
Army
Division now Controlled by Iraqi Government", MNF-I Press Release November 03 2007". Retrieved 11 October 2014.  ^ Abdulrahim, Raja (29 June 2014). "ISIS weapons windfall may alter balance in Iraq, Syria conflicts" – via LA Times.  ^ Parker, Ned. "Power failure in Iraq
Iraq
as militias outgun state". Reuters.  ^ "The Iraqi Military, The US-led Coalition and the Mosul
Mosul
Operation: The Risk of Snatching Defeat from the Jaws of Victory - Small Wars Journal". smallwarsjournal.com.  ^ Knights, Michael (March 2016). The Future of Iraq's Armed Forces (PDF). Baghdad: Al-Bayan Center for Planning and Studies. p. 22.  ^ " Iraq
Iraq
Situation Report: January 1-2, 2015" (PDF). Institute for the Study of War.  ^ Jeremy M. Sharp and Christopher M. Blanchard - Post-War Iraq:Foreign Contributions to Training, Peacekeeping, and Reconstruction - Congressional Research Service ^ DJ Elliott and CJ Radin - Iraqi Security Forces Order of Battle - Long War Journal ^ a b Iraq
Iraq
- Post-Saddam Governance and Security, CRS Report for Congress, p.41 ^ U.S. Department of Defense, Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq (March 2007), p. 23, p. 25 ^ Andrew F. Krepinevich, Send in the Advisers Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine. - Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments ^ PRWeb.com, First Vietnamese-American to Serve as a Military Advisor to the New Iraqi Army, 2006 ^ a b Defense Industry Daily, Iraq
Iraq
Receives T-72s & BMPs - With Another Armored Brigade Planned, 2005 ^ "Iraq's T-72s: Payment Received".  ^ "Defense News (dead)". Retrieved 11 October 2014. [permanent dead link] ^ "Global MRAP: The International Light Armored Vehicle".  ^ "Armor: Cougars Cousin Badger Arrives in Baghdad". www.strategypage.com.  ^ Serbia
Serbia
signs Iraq
Iraq
arms deal - IraqUpdates.com ^ Serbia
Serbia
seals multimillion arms deal with Iraq
Iraq
- International Herald Tribune ^ Foss, Christopher (2008-08-12). " Iraq
Iraq
orders Abrams tanks through US FMS programme". Jane's. Retrieved 2008-10-07.  ^ "Procurement: Iraq
Iraq
Buys What It Knows", Strategy Page (December 18, 2008). Retrieved 20.02.2015 ^ https://www.alsumaria.tv/news/19726/ukraine-to-sell-550-million-of-arms-to-iraq ^ http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticleNew.asp?col=&section=middleeast&xfile=data/middleeast/2009/February/middleeast_February246.xml Archived 2011-06-08 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Reports to Congress Archived 2010-02-22 at the Wayback Machine. - Special
Special
Inspector General For Iraq
Iraq
Reconstruction

References

Al-Marashi, Ibrahim; Salama, Sammy (2008). Iraq's Armed Forces: An Analytical History. Oxon and New York: Routledge. p. 254. ISBN 0-415-40078-3.  Lyman, Robert (2006). Iraq
Iraq
1941: The Battles for Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah
Fallujah
and Baghdad. Campaign. Oxford, New York: Osprey Publishing. p. 96. ISBN 1-84176-991-6.  Kenneth M. Pollack, Arabs at War: Military Effectiveness 1948-91, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London, 2002, and Pollack's book reviewed in International Security, Vol. 28, No.2.

Further reading

Hamdani, Ra'ad. Before History Left Us. Beirut: Arab Scientific Publishers, 2006. Tzvi Ofer, The Iraqi Army
Army
in the Yom Kippur War', transl. Hatzav, Tel Aviv: Ma'arachot, 1986 Michael Knights, "Free rein: domestic security forces take over in Iraq," Jane's Intelligence Review (November 4, 2010) Loose Ends: Iraq's Security Forces between U.S. Drawdown and Withdrawal (Baghdad/Washington/Brussels: International Crisis Group, October 26, 2010). Kevin M. Woods, Williamson Murray, and Thomas Holaday, with Mounir Elkhamri, 'Saddam's War: An Iraqi military perspective of the Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War,' McNair Papers 70, INSS/NDU, Washington DC, 2009. Gray, Wesley (2013-08-10). Embedded: A Marine Corps
Corps
Adviser Inside the Iraqi Army. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 9781612514062.  Includes very useful thoughts on Iraq
Iraq
Army
Army
personnel 'laziness.' Owen West, The Snake Eaters: Counterinsurgency Advisors in Combat James Dobbins, Seth G. Jones, Keith Crane, Andrew Rathmell, Brett Steele, The UN's Role in Nation-Building: From the Congo to Iraq
Iraq
(CPA period)

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Army
Army
of Iraq.

Iran's Militias Are Taking Over Iraq's Army
Army
(Feb. 2015), Eli Lake, Bloomberg News Blog on Iraqi Forces by Former Naval Intelligence Officer D. J. Elliot www.365iniraq.com Articles and pictures from an Iraqi Army
Army
transition team Building Iraqi security forces : hearing before the Subcommittee on National Security, Emerging Threats and International Relations of the Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives, March 14, 2005 Rebuilding Iraq: Resource, Security, Governance, Essential Services, and Oversight Issues: United States General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Committees, June, 2004 Cordesman, Anthony H.: Prepared Statement before the Subcommittee on National Security, Emerging Threats, and International Relations of the Committee on Government Reform, March 14, 2005 Cordesman, Anthony H., Iraqi Security Forces, Praeger/CSIS, 2006 ISBN 0-275-98908-9 Cordesman, Anthony H., Iraqi Force Development: A Current Status Report July 2005 – February 2006, February 15, 2006 America's old Humvees add new luster to Iraqi fleet, Christian Science Monitor, March 17, 2008 Blog on Iraqi Forces by Former Naval Intelligence Officer D. J. Elliot Russia's Bunker-Smashing Rockets Have Arrived in Iraq khaleejtimes.com

v t e

Iraqi security forces

Military

Ministry of Defence Iraqi Armed Forces Iraqi Army Iraqi Navy Iraqi Air Force Iraqi Special
Special
Operations Forces Popular Mobilization Forces

Law enforcement

Ministry of Interior Iraqi Police Facilities Protection Service Department of Border Enforcement Private Security Company Association of Iraq

Intelligence

Iraqi National Intelligence Service General Security Directorate

Media

Team Media War

v t e

Armed groups in the Iraq
Iraq
conflict (2003–present)

Iraqi government

Iraqi Armed Forces

Iraqi Army Iraqi Air Force

Iraqi Police

Iraqi Police
Iraqi Police
Service National Police Supporting Forces

Facilities Protection Service

Ba'athists

Army
Army
of the Men of the Naqshbandi Order Fedayeen Saddam General Military Council for Iraqi Revolutionaries Al-Awda General Command of the Armed Forces, Resistance and Liberation in Iraq Popular Army New Return Patriotic Front Political Media Organ of the Ba'ath Party Popular Resistance for the Liberation of Iraq Al-Abud Network

Militias and others

Shia
Shia
Islamic militias

Mahdi Army Abu Deraa's Mahdi Army
Army
faction Badr Organization Sheibani Network Soldiers of Heaven Free Iraqi Forces Special
Special
Groups (Iraq)

Asa'ib Ahl al-Haq Promised Day Brigade Kata'ib Hezbollah

Sunni
Sunni
Islamic militias

Awakening groups 1920 Revolution Brigade Jaish al-Rashideen Islamic Army
Army
in Iraq Islamic Front for the Iraqi Resistance Hamas of Iraq White Flags

Kurdish militias

Peshmerga Kurdistan Workers' Party Kurdistan Freedom Hawks Kurdistan Free Life Party

Turkmen militias

Iraqi Turkmen
Iraqi Turkmen
Front 16Brigade 52nd Brigade 92nd Brigade Brigade of Imam Hussein Sayyid al-Shuhada Bashir Regiment

Assyrian militias

Qaraqosh
Qaraqosh
Protection Committee Nineveh Plain Forces Nineveh Plain Protection Units Dwekh Nawsha Syriac Military Council Kataib Rouh Allah Issa Ibn Miriam

Yazidi militias

Asayîşa Êzîdxanê Êzîdxan Protection Force Sinjar Alliance

Sinjar Resistance Units Êzîdxan Women's Units

Insurgents

Nationalist Salafis

Mujahideen Army Mujahideen Battalions of the Salafi Group of Iraq Islamic Salafist Boy Scout Battalions Mohammad's Army

Salafi Jihadists

Ansar al-Islam Black Banner Organization Abu Theeb's group Jaish Abi Baker's group Jamaat Ansar al-Sunna Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant

Mujahideen Shura Council Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad

Wakefulness and Holy War

v t e

Iraq articles

History

Ancient

Sumer Akkadian Empire Babylonia Assyria Neo-Assyrian Empire Neo-Babylonian Empire Achaemenid Assyria Seleucid Babylonia Parthian Babylonia Sassanid Asorestan

638–1958

Muslim conquest of Persia Abbasid Caliphate Buyid dynasty Kara Koyunlu Ak Koyunlu Safavids Ottoman Iraq (Mamluk dynasty) Mandatory Iraq Kingdom of Iraq Arab Federation

Republic

1958–68 1968–2003 2003–11 2011–present

Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party
Ba'ath Party
Iraq
Iraq
Region (National Command) Saddam Hussein Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War Invasion of Kuwait Gulf War Sanctions Iraq
Iraq
War

U.S. invasion Iraqi insurgency U.S. troop withdrawal

Insurgency (2011–2013) Civil War (2014–present)

Mosul
Mosul
liberation

Geography

Al-Faw Peninsula Al-Jazira Euphrates Hamrin Mountains Persian Gulf Islands Mesopotamia Mesopotamian Marshes Places Lakes Shatt al-Arab Syrian Desert Tigris Umm Qasr Zagros Mountains

Politics

Administrative divisions Constitution Council of Representatives (legislative) Elections Foreign aid Foreign relations Government

Council of Ministers Presidency Council President Prime Minister

Human rights

in pre-Saddam Iraq in Saddam Hussein's Iraq in post-invasion Iraq

in ISIL-controlled territory

LGBT Freedom of religion Women

Law Military Police Political parties Judiciary Wars and conflicts

Economy

Central Bank Dinar (currency) Infrastructure Oil Industry Oil reserves Reconstruction Stock Exchange Telecommunications Transportation

Society

Cuisine Culture Education Health Media Music Smoking Sports

Demographics

Iraqis

diaspora refugees

Languages

Arabic Aramaic Kurdish Persian Iraqi Turkmen
Iraqi Turkmen
dialect

Minorities

Armenians Assyrians Circassians Kurds Mandaeans Marsh Arabs Persians Solluba Turkmen/Turcoman Jews

Religion

Islam Christianity Mandaeism Yazidis

Outline Index

Cat

.