HOME
The Info List - Iran–Iraq Relations





Iran– Iraq
Iraq
relations (Persian: روابط ایران و عراق ; Arabic: العلاقات العراقية الإيرانية) extend for millennia into the past. The Islamic Republic of Iran
Iran
and the Republic of Iraq
Iraq
share a long border (the longest border by far for both nations) and an ancient cultural and religious heritage. In ancient times Iraq
Iraq
formed part of the core of Persia
Persia
(modern-day Iran) for about a thousand years. Modern relations between the two nations grew increasingly difficult after the 14 July Revolution
14 July Revolution
in Iraq
Iraq
in 1958 overthrew the Hashemite Monarchy and resulted in the country withdrawing from the Baghdad Pact. The Ba'ath Party
Ba'ath Party
gained power in Iraq
Iraq
in the 1960s, taking a more aggressive stance on border disputes. In the aftermath of the Islamic revolution
Islamic revolution
in Iran
Iran
in 1979, Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
launched an invasion of Iran
Iran
over border disputes and a design to gain control of oil-rich areas in Iran's territory. The conflict lasted for eight years and ended in a stalemate, and involved the use of chemical weapons and violence against Iraqi Kurds and Arabs, who were accused of colluding with Iran. While Iran
Iran
did not support the multi-national coalition against Iraq's invasion of Kuwait
Kuwait
in 1991, it housed many Shia political organizations opposing Saddam's rule. The fall of Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
in 2003 and the eventual rise to power by pro-Iranian Shia factions (i.e. Islamic Dawa Party
Islamic Dawa Party
and Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq) led to the normalisation of relations between the two countries.[1] As of January 2010, the two countries have signed over 100 economic and cooperation agreements.[2] Since 2003, Iraq
Iraq
has allowed Shia Muslims from Iran
Iran
to make the pilgrimage to holy Shia sites in Iraq. In March 2008, Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad became the first Iranian president to visit Iraq
Iraq
since Iran's 1979 Islamic revolution. Former Iraqi prime minister Nouri al-Maliki
Nouri al-Maliki
has made several state visits to Iran
Iran
since 2006 and expressed sympathy with Iran
Iran
over its nuclear energy program. Iran
Iran
is today Iraq's largest trading partner. Iran
Iran
and Iraq
Iraq
are very close allies supporting each other against ISIS. The relationship between the two countries is strong in part due to the fact that both governments operate on a Shi'ite
Shi'ite
system of governance. Iran
Iran
has an embassy in Baghdad
Baghdad
and four consulate generals in Basrah, Sulaymaniyah, Arbil
Arbil
and Karbala. Iraq
Iraq
has an embassy in Tehran
Tehran
and consulate generals in Kermanshah, Ahvaz
Ahvaz
and Mashhad.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Antiquity

1.1.1 Akkadian Empire 1.1.2 Sumerian Empire 1.1.3 Assyrian Empire 1.1.4 Babylonian Empire 1.1.5 Achaemenid Iranian Empire 1.1.6 Seleucid Empire 1.1.7 Parthian Empire 1.1.8 Sassanid Iranian Empire

1.2 Medieval era

1.2.1 Abbasid Caliphate

1.2.1.1 Buyid dynasty

1.2.2 Ilkhanate 1.2.3 Jalayirid Sultanate 1.2.4 Kara Koyunlu 1.2.5 Aq Qoyunlu

1.3 Modern era

1.3.1 Safavid Iranian Empire 1.3.2 Pahlavi era 1.3.3 Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War 1.3.4 Post-war reconciliation 1.3.5 Post-Saddam

1.4 Commerce

2 See also 3 References 4 External links

History[edit] Antiquity[edit] Akkadian Empire[edit] Main article: Akkadian Empire Sargon of Akkad
Sargon of Akkad
(r. 2334–2279 BC) was an Akkadian king who conquered Sumer
Sumer
and was the reason of moving the power from Southern Mesopotamia (southern Iraq) to central Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(central Iraq). Sargon's vast empire is known to have extended from Elam
Elam
to the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
sea, including Mesopotamia, parts of modern-day Iran
Iran
and Syria, and possibly parts of Anatolia
Anatolia
and the Arabian peninsula. Sumerian Empire[edit] Main articles: Third Dynasty of Ur
Third Dynasty of Ur
and Elam The Third Dynasty of Ur
Third Dynasty of Ur
(2119–2004 BC), or 'Neo-Sumerian Empire' was a Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur (southern Iraq). The Third Dynasty of Ur
Third Dynasty of Ur
came to preeminent power in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
after several centuries of Akkadian and Gutian rule. It controlled the cities of Isin, Larsa
Larsa
and Eshnunna, and extended from the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
(north Syrian) coast to the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
and Western Iran. A salient feature of the dynasty is its establishment of the earliest known law code after the Code of Urukagina—the Code of Ur-Nammu. During King Shulgi's reign, many significant changes occurred. He took steps to centralize and standardize the procedures of the empire. He is credited with standardizing administrative processes, archival documentation, the tax system, and the national calendar. The last Sumerian dynasty ended after an Elamite invasion in 2004 BC. From this point on, with the growing Akkadian presence in the region, the Sumerian language
Sumerian language
declined, after more than three thousand years of cultural identity, as the population increasingly adopted Akkadian. Future Babylonian Kings carried the title 'King of Sumer
Sumer
and Akkad', however, for some fourteen centuries to come. The title would also be claimed by Cyrus of Persia
Persia
in the 6th century BC. Assyrian Empire[edit] Main article: Neo-Assyrian Empire The Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
(934–609 BC) was a multi-ethnic state composed of many peoples and tribes of different origins. During this period, Aramaic
Aramaic
was made an official language of the empire, alongside the Akkadian language. In the preceding Middle Assyrian period
Middle Assyrian period
(14th to 10th century BC), Assyria
Assyria
had been a minor kingdom of northern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(northern Iraq), competing for dominance with its southern Mesopotamian rival Babylonia. In 647 BC, the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal leveled the Elamite capital city of Susa
Susa
during a war in which the inhabitants apparently participated on an opposing side. A tablet unearthed in 1854 by Austen Henry Layard in Nineveh reveals Ashurbanipal as an "avenger", seeking retribution for the humiliations the Elamites had inflicted on the Mesopotamians over the centuries. Assyrian rule succumbed to Babylonia
Babylonia
with the Fall of Nineveh in 612 BC. Babylonian Empire[edit] Main articles: Neo-Babylonian Empire, Chaldea, and Medes In the golden age of Babylon, Nabopolassar
Nabopolassar
was intent on conquering from the pharaoh Necho II (who was still hoping to restore Assyrian power) the western provinces of Syria, and to this end dispatched his son Nebuchadnezzar II
Nebuchadnezzar II
with a powerful army westward. In the ensuing Battle of Carchemish
Carchemish
in 605 BC, the Egyptian army was defeated and driven back, and Syria
Syria
and Phoenicia were brought under the sway of Babylon. Nabopolassar
Nabopolassar
died in August of that year, and Nebuchadrezzar II returned home to Babylon
Babylon
to ascend to the throne. After the defeat of the Cimmerians
Cimmerians
and Scythians, all of Nebuchadrezzar's expeditions were directed westwards, although a powerful neighbour lay to the North; the cause of this was that a wise political marriage with Amytis of Media, the daughter of the Median king, had ensured a lasting peace between the two empires. Though Babylonia
Babylonia
was annexed by the rising Persian Empire in 539 BC, the Sumero–Akkadian culture of the Mesopotamians significantly influenced the succeeding empires of the Indo-Iranian tribes of the Medes
Medes
and the Persians.[3] Achaemenid Iranian Empire[edit] Main articles: Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
and Achaemenid Assyria In 539 BC, Persian forces led by Cyrus The Great defeated Babylonian forces at the Battle of Opis, east of the Tigris. Cyrus entered Babylon
Babylon
and presented himself as a traditional Mesopotamian monarch, restoring temples and releasing political prisoners.[4] Upon assuming power, Cyrus appointed provincial governors (the predecessors of the Persian satraps), and he required from his subjects only tribute and obedience. Following Cyrus's death, a brief period of Babylonian unrest ensued that climaxed in 522 B.C. with a general rebellion of Iranian colonies.

“ Of the four residences of the Achaemenids
Achaemenids
named by Herodotus—Ecbatana, Pasargadae
Pasargadae
or Persepolis, Susa
Susa
and Babylon—the last [situated in Iraq] was maintained as their most important capital, the fixed winter quarters, the central office of bureaucracy, exchanged only in the heat of summer for some cool spot in the highlands.[5] Under the Seleucids and the Parthians the site of the Mesopotamian capital moved a little to the north on the Tigris—to Seleucia
Seleucia
and Ctesiphon. It is indeed symbolic that these new foundations were built from the bricks of ancient Babylon, just as later Baghdad, a little further upstream, was built out of the ruins of the Sassanian double city of Seleucia-Ctesiphon.[5]

— Iranologist Ehsan Yarshater, The Cambridge History of Iran,[5]

Between 520 and 485 BC, the Iranian leader, Darius the Great, reimposed political stability in Babylon
Babylon
and ushered in a period of great economic prosperity. His greatest achievements were in road building, which significantly improved communication among the provinces, and in organizing an efficient bureaucracy. Darius's death in 485 B.C. was followed by a period of decay that led to a major Babylonian rebellion in 482 B.C. The Iranians violently quelled the uprising, and the repression that followed severely damaged Babylon's economic infrastructure. The first Iranian kings to rule Iraq
Iraq
followed Mesopotamian land-management practices conscientiously. Between 485 B.C. and the conquest by Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in 331 B.C., however, very little in Babylon
Babylon
was repaired and few of its once-great cities remained intact. Trade also was greatly reduced during this period. The established trade route from Sardis
Sardis
to Susa
Susa
did not traverse Babylonia, and the Iranian rulers, themselves much closer to the Orient, were able to monopolize trade from India
India
and other eastern points. As a result, Babylonia
Babylonia
and Assyria, which together formed the ninth satrapy of the Persian Empire, became economically isolated and impoverished. Their poverty was exacerbated by the extremely high taxes levied on them: they owed the Iranian crown 1,000 talents of silver a year, in addition to having to meet the extortionate demands of the local administrators, and they were responsible for feeding the Iranian court for four months every year. Iranian rule lasted for more than 200 years, from 551 B.C. to 331 B.C. During this time, large numbers of Iranians were added to Mesopotamia's ethnically diverse population. The flow of Iranians into Iraq, which began during the reign of the Achaemenids, initiated an important demographic trend that would continue intermittently throughout much of Iraqi history. Another important effect of Iranian rule was the disappearance of the Mesopotamian languages and the widespread use of Aramaic, the official language of the empire. Seleucid Empire[edit] Main articles: Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
and Greek–Iraqi relations By the fourth century B.C., nearly all of Babylon
Babylon
opposed the Achaemenids. Thus, when the Iranian forces stationed in Babylon surrendered to Alexander in 331 B.C. all of Babylonia
Babylonia
hailed him as a liberator. Alexander quickly won Babylonian favor when, unlike the Achaemenids, he displayed respect for such Babylonian traditions as the worship of their chief god, Marduk. Alexander also proposed ambitious schemes for Babylon. He planned to establish one of the two seats of his empire there and to make the Euphrates
Euphrates
navigable all the way to the Persian Gulf, where he planned to build a great port. Alexander's grandiose plans, however, never came to fruition. Returning from an expedition to the Indus River, he died in Babylon; most probably from malaria contracted there in 323 B.C. at the age of 32. In the politically chaotic period after Alexander's death, his generals fought for and divided up his empire. Parthian Empire[edit] Main article: Parthian Empire In 126 B.C., the Parthians, a nomadic Iranian people lead by the Arsacid Dynasty, captured the Tigris– Euphrates
Euphrates
river valley. The Parthians were able to control all trade between the East and the Greco–Roman world. For the most part, they chose to retain existing social institutions and to live in cities that already existed. Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
was immeasurably enriched by this, the mildest of all foreign occupations of the region. The population of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
was enormously enlarged, Iranians, and Aramaeans. With the exception of the Roman occupation under Trajan
Trajan
(A.D. 98–117) and Septimius Severus (A.D. 193–211), the Arsacids ruled until a new force of native Iranian rulers, the Persian Sassanids, conquered the region in A.D. 227. Sassanid Iranian Empire[edit] Main articles: Sassanid Empire
Sassanid Empire
and Asuristan During the time of the Sassanid Empire, from the 3rd century to the 7th century, the major part of Iraq
Iraq
was called in Persian Del-e Īrānshahr (lit. "the heart of Iran"), and its metropolis Ctesiphon (not far from present-day Baghdad) functioned for more than 800 years as the capital city of Iran.[6][7]

“ According to Sassanian documents, Persians distinguished two kinds of land within their empire: [the heartlands] "Īrān", and [the colonies] "Anīrān" ("non-Īrān"). Iraq
Iraq
was considered to be part of Īrān [the heartlands].[8] As Wilhelm Eilers observes: "For the Sassanians, too [as it was for the Parthians], the lowlands of Iraq
Iraq
constituted the heart of their dominions". This shows that Iraq
Iraq
was not simply part of the Persian Empire—it was the heart of Persia.[8]

Medieval era[edit] Abbasid Caliphate[edit] Main articles: Islamic Golden Age
Islamic Golden Age
and Abbasid Caliphate The Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
of circa 650 A.D. was the second of the two great Islamic caliphates. It was ruled by the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs, who built their capital in Baghdad
Baghdad
(Iraq). The Abbasids had depended heavily on the support of Persians in their overthrow of the Umayyads. Abu al-'Abbas' successor, al-Mansur, moved their capital from Damascus to the new city of Baghdad
Baghdad
and welcomed non-Arab Muslims to their court. During the reign of its first seven caliphs, Baghdad became a center of power where Arab and Iranian cultures mingled to produce a blaze of philosophical, scientific, and literary glory. This era is remembered throughout the Muslim world, and by Iraqis in particular, as the pinnacle of the Islamic past.[9] Buyid dynasty[edit] Main article: Buyid dynasty

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2012)

Ilkhanate[edit] Main article: Ilkhanate

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2012)

Jalayirid Sultanate[edit] Main article: Jalayirids

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2012)

Kara Koyunlu[edit] Main article: Kara Koyunlu

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2012)

Aq Qoyunlu[edit] Main article: Aq Qoyunlu

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2012)

Modern era[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2012)

Safavid Iranian Empire[edit] Main article: Safavid dynasty

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2012)

In the modern era, the Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
of Iran
Iran
briefly asserted their hegemony over Iraq
Iraq
in the periods of 1501–1534 and 1622–1638,[10] losing Iraq
Iraq
to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
on both occasions (via the Treaty of Amasya in 1555 and the Treaty of Zuhab in 1639). Pahlavi era[edit] See also: Joint Operation Arvand

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2014)

According to Mohsen Milani, "From 1921, when Britain installed Faysal Ibn Hussein as the king of the newly formed Iraq
Iraq
... until 2003 ... Iraq
Iraq
was Iran's most hostile neighbor." Their competition was especially fierce after the 1968 Baathist coup and the concurrent withdrawal of British forces from the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
region.[11] Also in 1921, the British played a role in the 1921 Persian coup d'etat, which led to the rise of the Pahlavi dynasty
Pahlavi dynasty
as rulers of Iran
Iran
in 1925. Rezā Shāh's Iran
Iran
was in economic trouble, and he sought good ties with his neighbors in the 1920s—including Iraq. Iran
Iran
and Iraq
Iraq
were staunchly anticommunist and pursued pro-West policies. They also cooperated in preventing the emergence of a Kurdish state.[12] Iraq, supported by other Arab states, resisted Iranian influence under the Shah in the 1970s (which was backed by the United States as part of the Twin Pillars policy). This took the form of supporting insurgencies against the Shah in Khuzestan Province
Khuzestan Province
and Iranian Balochistan. The Shah, in turn, attempted to organize a coup against Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
in 1971 and helped Sultan Qaboos
Sultan Qaboos
of Oman quell an Iraqi-backed rebellion. He also backed a Kurdish rebellion led by Mustafa Barzani.[11] In 1975, Iran
Iran
and Iraq
Iraq
signed a demarcation agreement stemming from the Kurdish rebellion, which remained in stalemate.[10][11] Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War[edit] Main article: Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War The Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
in 1979 would drastically changed Iran–Iraq relations for 24 years. War broke out between Iraq
Iraq
and Iran
Iran
in September 1980. Eight years of fighting left more than one million people dead and caused huge disasters for both sides, thereby grimly blistering ties between Tehran
Tehran
and Baghdad. The United Nations
United Nations
(UN) issued Resolution 598 in July 1987, demanding an unconditional ceasefire between the two nations. Both nations adopted the resolution ending the war in August 1988. Post-war reconciliation[edit] Although Iran
Iran
condemned the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, the former enemies reestablished diplomatic relations in October 1990; one month later, Iranian Foreign Minister Ali Akbar Velayati
Ali Akbar Velayati
visited Baghdad. In January 2002, one year before the U.S.-led Iraq
Iraq
War, the bilateral relations improved significantly when an Iranian delegation led by Amir Hussein Zamani visited Iraq
Iraq
for final negotiations to resolve the conflict through talks on issues of prisoners of war and the missing in action.[13] Post-Saddam[edit] Main article: Iraq
Iraq
War After the US-led war on Iraq
Iraq
started in 2003, Tehran
Tehran
strongly opposed the invasion, calling for a key role of the UN in Iraq's reconstruction. Iran
Iran
then offered assistance to Iraq's post-war reconstruction and bilateral relations began to improve. In May 2005, a transitional government led by Ibrahim al-Jaafari of the pro-Iran Islamist Dawa party was established in Iraq. In mid May, Iranian foreign minister Kamal Kharazi
Kamal Kharazi
visited Iraq
Iraq
and Jaafari paid a visit to Iran
Iran
in July. In November, Iraqi president Jalal Talabani
Jalal Talabani
visited Iran, becoming the first Iraqi head of state to visit Iran
Iran
in almost four decades. Iran– Iraq
Iraq
relations have flourished since 2005 by the exchange of high level visits: Former Iraqi PM Nouri al-Maliki
Nouri al-Maliki
makes frequent visits, along with Jalal Talabani
Jalal Talabani
visiting numerous times, to help boost bilateral cooperation in all fields. A conflict occurred in December 2009, when Iraq
Iraq
accused Iran
Iran
of seizing an oil well on the border.[14] Commerce[edit]

[right] Mayor of Baghdad, Naeem Aboub met with the Mayor of Mashhad

Iran
Iran
plays an important role in the Iraqi reconstruction. Iran's non-oil exports to Iraq
Iraq
were valued at $1.8 billion in 2007 and $2.3 billion in 2008.[15] Each month, more than 40,000 Iranians visit Shiite holy sites such as Najaf
Najaf
and Karbala, buying religious souvenirs and supporting the economy through tourism. Iraq
Iraq
imports cars, construction materials, medicine, fruits, spices, fish, air conditioners, office furniture, carpets and apparel from Iran. Basra alone imports $45 million of goods from Iran
Iran
each year, including carpets, construction materials, fish and spices. Each day, 100 to 150 commercial trucks transport goods from Iran
Iran
to Iraq
Iraq
through the nearby Shalamcheh
Shalamcheh
border crossing (2008). As of January 2010, the two countries signed over 100 economic and cooperation agreements.[2] The volume of trade between Iran
Iran
and Iraq
Iraq
reached $12 billion in 2013.[16] The main areas of trade between the two countries are the construction, food and industrial sectors. See also[edit]

Iran
Iran
portal Iraq
Iraq
portal

Iraqis in Iran Greater Iran Arab– Iran
Iran
relations

References[edit]

^ Mottaki: No one can harm Iran- Iraq
Iraq
relations Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Iran, Iraq
Iraq
have signed 100 economic agreements Archived 2016-04-07 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Hirad Dinavari. "More alike than different". The Iranian. The cultural give and take influenced many things, some of which are the cuneiform writing and the building of ziggurats which the later Assyrians and the Achaemenid (Hakhamaneshi) Persians inherited. The Assyrians influenced the cultures of Media and Urartu, and the influence of Elam
Elam
lived on among the Medes
Medes
and Persians. The various Iranian speaking peoples who had been migrating into what is now the Caucasus, Iran, Afghanistan and Central Asia were heavily influenced by the aboriginal Elamites and the Semitic Babylonians and Assyrians. This difference can be most noticed when one compares other Iranian speaking peoples who lived in Eurasia like the Scythians
Scythians
and Sarmatians whose culture was very different with that of Iranian tribes who settled in the Iranian Plateau. So from that far back, Iran (the geographic location) has been multi-ethnic.  ^ The Achaemenid Persian Empire (550–330 B.C.) ^ a b c Yarshater, Ehsan (1993). The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 3. Cambridge University Press. p. 482. ISBN 9780521200929. Of the four residences of the Achaemenids
Achaemenids
named by Herodotus—Ecbatana, Pasargadae
Pasargadae
or Persepolis, Susa
Susa
and Babylon—the last [situated in Iraq] was maintained as their most important capital, the fixed winter quarters, the central office of bureaucracy, exchanged only in the heat of summer for some cool spot in the highlands. Under the Seleucids and the Parthians the site of the Mesopotamian capital moved a little to the north on the Tigris—to Seleucia
Seleucia
and Ctesiphon. It is indeed symbolic that these new foundations were built from the bricks of ancient Babylon, just as later Baghdad, a little further upstream, was built out of the ruins of the Sassanian double city of Seleucia-Ctesiphon.  ^ Marcinkowski, Christoph (2010). Shi'ite
Shi'ite
Identities: Community and Culture in Changing Social Contexts. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 83. ISBN 9783643800497. During the time of the Sasanids, Iran's last dynasty before the arrival of Islam in the 7th century, the major part of Iraq
Iraq
was called in Persian Del-i Īrānshahr (lit. 'heart of Iran'), and its metropolis Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
(not far from present-day Baghdad) functioned for more than 800 years as the capital city of Iran.  ^ Yavari, Neguin (1997). Iranian Perspectives on the Iran- Iraq
Iraq
War; Part II. Conceptual Dimensions; 7. National, Ethnic, and Sectarian Issues in the Iran- Iraq
Iraq
War. University Press of Florida. p. 78. ISBN 9780813014760. Iraq
Iraq
with its capital of Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
was called by the Sasanian kings the 'heart of Iranshahr,' the land of Iran... The ruler spent most of the year in this capital, only moving to the cities of the highlands of Iran
Iran
for the Summer.  ^ a b Buck, Christopher (1999). Paradise And Paradigm: Key Symbols In Persian Christianity And The Baháí̕ Faith. SUNY Press. p. 64. ISBN 9780791440612.  ^ The Abbasid Caliphate, 750-1258 ^ a b Mokhtari, Fariborz (Spring 2005). "No One Will Scratch My Back: Iranian Security Perceptions in Historical Context" (PDF). The Middle East Journal. 59 (2). Retrieved 19 August 2013. [permanent dead link] ^ a b c Hamilton, Henri J. Barkey, Scott B. Lasensky, and Phebe Marr, editors; chapter by Mohsen Milani (2011). "Iran's Strategies and Objectives in Post-Saddam Iraq". Iraq, Its Neighbors, and the United States: Competition, Crisis, and the Reordering of Power. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace. pp. 75–76. ISBN 1601270771. Retrieved 6 November 2014.  ^ Milani, Mohsen. " Iraq
Iraq
(part 6: Pahlavi Period, 1921-79)". Encyclopedia Iranica. XIII. pp. 564–572. Retrieved 14 November 2014.  ^ "Iranian Delegation in Iraq
Iraq
for Talks on POWs, MIAs", People's Daily Online, Retrieved 10 July 2013. ^ Muhanad Mohammed (19 December 2012). "Iran, Iraq
Iraq
seek diplomatic end to border dispute". Reuters. Retrieved 18 August 2012.  ^ "Iran's Non-Oil Exports To Iraq
Iraq
To Exceed 3 Billion Dollars". Payvand. 20 March 2010. Retrieved 19 September 2011.  ^ " Iraq
Iraq
looks to expand trade with Iran". Jabbar. December 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2014. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Relations of Iran
Iran
and Iraq.

Iraq
Iraq
and Iran: The Years of Crisis – A book which explores Iran– Iraq
Iraq
relations

v t e

Foreign relations of Iran

Africa

Algeria Egypt Gambia Ghana Kenya Morocco Senegal South Africa Sudan

Americas

Bolivia Brazil Canada Cuba Ecuador Mexico United States Uruguay Venezuela

Asia

Middle East

Arab world Iraq Israel Kuwait Lebanon Oman Palestine Qatar Saudi Arabia Syria United Arab Emirates Yemen

Elsewhere

Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bangladesh China Georgia

pre-Pahlavi

India Indonesia Japan Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Malaysia North Korea Pakistan Philippines South Korea Sri Lanka Tajikistan Thailand Turkmenistan Turkey Uzbekistan Vietnam

Europe

Belarus Bosnia and Herzegovina Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Holy See Italy Netherlands Poland Russia Serbia Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom

Oceania

Australia

Multilateral

European Union NATO

Disputes

Nuclear program of Iran Views on the nuclear program of Iran Iran–Israel proxy conflict Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict

Related topics

Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister Diplomatic missions of / in Iran Trade Promotion Organization of Iran Foreign direct investment in Iran Iranian diaspora Ambassadors from Iran

v t e

Foreign relations of Iraq

Africa

Egypt

Americas

Brazil Cuba United States

Asia

Middle East

Bahrain Iran Israel Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Palestine Saudi Arabia Syria Turkey United Arab Emirates

Elsewhere

China Georgia India Indonesia Pakistan Philippines

Europe

Belarus Denmark European Union France Germany Greece Italy Russia Serbia Sweden Ukraine United Kingdom

Disputes

Arab–Israeli conflict

Related topics

United Nations Ministry of Foreign Affairs Diplomatic missions of / in Iraq Iraqi diaspora

Iraqi Ministry of For

.