The Info List - International Organization For Standardization

--- Advertisement ---

The International Organization for Standardization
(ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promotes worldwide proprietary, industrial and commercial standards. It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland,[3] and works in 162 countries.[1] It was one of the first organizations granted general consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council.


1 Overview 2 Language usage 3 Name and abbreviations 4 History 5 Structure

5.1 IEC joint committees

5.1.1 ISO/IEC JTC 1 5.1.2 ISO/IEC JTC 2

6 Membership 7 Financing 8 International Standards and other publications

8.1 Document copyright

9 Standardization
process 10 Products named after ISO 11 Criticism 12 See also 13 References

13.1 Citations 13.2 Sources

14 External links

Overview[edit] The International Organization for Standardization
is an independent, non-governmental organization, the members of which are the standards organizations of the 162[1] member countries. It is the world's largest developer of voluntary international standards and facilitates world trade by providing common standards between nations. Over twenty thousand standards have been set covering everything from manufactured products and technology to food safety, agriculture and healthcare.[3] Use of the standards aids in the creation of products and services that are safe, reliable and of good quality. The standards help businesses increase productivity while minimizing errors and waste. By enabling products from different markets to be directly compared, they facilitate companies in entering new markets and assist in the development of global trade on a fair basis. The standards also serve to safeguard consumers and the end-users of products and services, ensuring that certified products conform to the minimum standards set internationally.[3] Language usage[edit] The three official languages of the ISO are English, French, and Russian.[2] Name and abbreviations[edit] The name of the organization in French is Organisation internationale de normalisation, and in Russian, Международная организация по стандартизации (Mezhdunarodnaya organizatsiya po standartizatsii). ISO is not an acronym. The organization adopted ISO as its abbreviated name in reference to the Greek word isos (ίσος, meaning "equal"),[4] as its name in the three official languages would have different acronyms. During the founding meetings of the new organization, the Greek word explanation was not invoked, so this meaning may have been made public later.[5] ISO gives this explanation of the name: "Because 'International Organization for Standardization' would have different acronyms in different languages (IOS in English, OIN in French), our founders decided to give it the short form ISO. ISO is derived from the Greek isos, meaning equal. Whatever the country, whatever the language, the short form of our name is always ISO." Both the name ISO and the ISO logo are registered trademarks, and their use is restricted.[6] History[edit]

Plaque marking the building in Prague
where the ISO's predecessor, the ISA, was founded.

The organization today known as ISO began in 1926[dubious – discuss] as the International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations (ISA). It was suspended in 1942[7] during World War II, but after the war ISA was approached by the recently formed United Nations Standards Coordinating Committee (UNSCC) with a proposal to form a new global standards body. In October 1946, ISA and UNSCC delegates from 25 countries met in London and agreed to join forces to create the new International Organization for Standardization; the new organization officially began operations in February 1947.[8] Structure[edit] ISO is a voluntary organization whose members are recognized authorities on standards, each one representing one country. Members meet annually at a General Assembly to discuss ISO's strategic objectives. The organization is coordinated by a Central Secretariat based in Geneva.[9] A Council with a rotating membership of 20 member bodies provides guidance and governance, including setting the Central Secretariat's annual budget.[9][10] The Technical Management Board is responsible for over 250 technical committees, who develop the ISO standards.[9][11][12][13] IEC joint committees[edit] ISO has formed two joint committees with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) to develop standards and terminology in the areas of electrical and electronic related technologies. ISO/IEC JTC 1[edit] Main article: ISO/IEC JTC 1 ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC 1) was created in 1987 to "[d]evelop, maintain, promote and facilitate IT standards",[14] where IT refers to information technology. ISO/IEC JTC 2[edit] ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 2 (JTC 2) was created in 2009 for the purpose of "[s]tandardization in the field of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources".[15] Membership[edit] Further information: Countries in the International Organization for Standardization

  ISO member countries with a national standards body and ISO voting rights.   Correspondent members (countries without a national standards body).   Subscriber members (countries with small economies).

ISO has 162 national members.[1] ISO has three membership categories:[1]

Member bodies are national bodies considered the most representative standards body in each country. These are the only members of ISO that have voting rights. Correspondent members are countries that do not have their own standards organization. These members are informed about ISO's work, but do not participate in standards promulgation. Subscriber members are countries with small economies. They pay reduced membership fees, but can follow the development of standards.

Participating members are called "P" members, as opposed to observing members, who are called "O" members. Financing[edit] ISO is funded by a combination of:[16]

Organizations that manage the specific projects or loan experts to participate in the technical work. Subscriptions from member bodies. These subscriptions are in proportion to each country's gross national product and trade figures. Sale of standards.

International Standards and other publications[edit] See also: List of International Organization for Standardization standards ISO's main products are international standards. ISO also publishes technical reports, technical specifications, publicly available specifications, technical corrigenda, and guides.[17][18] International standards

These are designated using the format ISO[/IEC] [/ASTM] [IS] nnnnn[-p]:[yyyy] Title, where nnnnn is the number of the standard, p is an optional part number, yyyy is the year published, and Title describes the subject. IEC for International Electrotechnical Commission is included if the standard results from the work of ISO/IEC JTC1 (the ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee). ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) is used for standards developed in cooperation with ASTM International. yyyy and IS are not used for an incomplete or unpublished standard and may under some circumstances be left off the title of a published work.

Technical reports

These are issued when a technical committee or subcommittee has collected data of a different kind from that normally published as an International Standard,[17] such as references and explanations. The naming conventions for these are the same as for standards, except TR prepended instead of IS in the report's name. For example:

ISO/IEC TR 17799:2000 Code of Practice for Information Security Management ISO/TR 19033:2000 Technical product documentation — Metadata for construction documentation

Technical and publicly available specifications

Technical specifications may be produced when "the subject in question is still under development or where for any other reason there is the future but not immediate possibility of an agreement to publish an International Standard". A publicly available specification is usually "an intermediate specification, published prior to the development of a full International Standard, or, in IEC may be a 'dual logo' publication published in collaboration with an external organization".[17] By convention, both types of specification are named in a manner similar to the organization's technical reports. For example:

ISO/TS 16952-1:2006 Technical product documentation — Reference designation system — Part 1: General application rules ISO/PAS 11154:2006 Road vehicles — Roof load carriers

Technical corrigenda

ISO also sometimes issues "technical corrigenda" (where "corrigenda" is the plural of corrigendum). These are amendments made to existing standards due to minor technical flaws, usability improvements, or limited-applicability extensions. They are generally issued with the expectation that the affected standard will be updated or withdrawn at its next scheduled review.[17]

ISO guides These are meta-standards covering "matters related to international standardization".[17] They are named using the format "ISO[/IEC] Guide N:yyyy: Title". For example:

ISO/IEC Guide 2:2004 Standardization
and related activities — General vocabulary ISO/IEC Guide 65:1996 General requirements for bodies operating product certification

Document copyright[edit] ISO documents are copyrighted and ISO charges for most copies. It does not, however, charge for most draft copies of documents in electronic format. Although they are useful, care must be taken using these drafts as there is the possibility of substantial change before they become finalized as standards. Some standards by ISO and its official U.S. representative (and, via the U.S. National Committee, the International Electrotechnical Commission) are made freely available.[19][20] Standardization
process[edit] A standard published by ISO/IEC is the last stage of a long process that commonly starts with the proposal of new work within a committee. Here are some abbreviations used for marking a standard with its status:[21][22][23][24][25][26][27]

PWI – Preliminary Work Item NP or NWIP – New Proposal / New Work Item Proposal (e.g., ISO/IEC NP 23007) AWI – Approved new Work Item (e.g., ISO/IEC AWI 15444-14) WD – Working Draft (e.g., ISO/IEC WD 27032) CD – Committee Draft (e.g., ISO/IEC CD 23000-5) FCD – Final Committee Draft (e.g., ISO/IEC FCD 23000-12) DIS – Draft International Standard (e.g., ISO/IEC DIS 14297) FDIS – Final Draft International Standard (e.g., ISO/IEC FDIS 27003) PRF – Proof of a new International Standard (e.g., ISO/IEC PRF 18018) IS – International Standard (e.g., ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007)

Abbreviations used for amendments:[21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28]

NP Amd – New Proposal Amendment (e.g., ISO/IEC 15444-2:2004/NP Amd 3) AWI Amd – Approved new Work Item Amendment (e.g., ISO/IEC 14492:2001/AWI Amd 4) WD Amd – Working Draft Amendment (e.g., ISO 11092:1993/WD Amd 1) CD Amd / PDAmd – Committee Draft Amendment / Proposed Draft Amendment (e.g., ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/CD Amd 6) FPDAmd / DAM (DAmd) – Final Proposed Draft Amendment / Draft Amendment (e.g., ISO/IEC 14496-14:2003/FPDAmd 1) FDAM (FDAmd) – Final Draft Amendment (e.g., ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/FDAmd 4) PRF Amd – (e.g., ISO 12639:2004/PRF Amd 1) Amd – Amendment (e.g., ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/Amd 1:2007)

Other abbreviations:[25][26][28][29]

TR – Technical Report (e.g., ISO/IEC TR 19791:2006) DTR – Draft Technical Report (e.g., ISO/IEC DTR 19791) TS – Technical Specification (e.g., ISO/TS 16949:2009) DTS – Draft Technical Specification (e.g., ISO/DTS 11602-1) PAS – Publicly Available Specification TTA – Technology Trends Assessment (e.g., ISO/TTA 1:1994) IWA – International Workshop Agreement (e.g., IWA 1:2005) Cor – Technical Corrigendum (e.g., ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/Cor 1:2008) Guide – a guidance to technical committees for the preparation of standards

International Standards are developed by ISO technical committees (TC) and subcommittees (SC) by a process with six steps:[23][30]

Stage 1: Proposal stage Stage 2: Preparatory stage Stage 3: Committee stage Stage 4: Enquiry stage Stage 5: Approval stage Stage 6: Publication stage

The TC/SC may set up working groups (WG) of experts for the preparation of a working drafts. Subcommittees may have several working groups, which can have several Sub Groups (SG).[31]

Stages in the development process of an ISO standard[22][23][24][27][30][28]

Stage code Stage Associated document name Abbreviations

Description Notes

00 Preliminary Preliminary work item PWI

10 Proposal New work item proposal


20 Preparatory Working draft or drafts


30 Committee Committee draft or drafts


40 Enquiry Enquiry draft


(CDV in IEC)

50 Approval Final draft


60 Publication International Standard


90 Review

95 Withdrawal

It is possible to omit certain stages, if there is a document with a certain degree of maturity at the start of a standardization project, for example a standard developed by another organization. ISO/IEC directives allow also the so-called "Fast-track procedure". In this procedure a document is submitted directly for approval as a draft International Standard (DIS) to the ISO member bodies or as a final draft International Standard (FDIS) if the document was developed by an international standardizing body recognized by the ISO Council.[23] The first step—a proposal of work (New Proposal) is approved at the relevant subcommittee or technical committee (e.g., SC29 and JTC1 respectively in the case of Moving Picture Experts Group
Moving Picture Experts Group
– ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11). A working group (WG) of experts is set up by the TC/SC for the preparation of a working draft. When the scope of a new work is sufficiently clarified, some of the working groups (e.g., MPEG) usually make open request for proposals—known as a "call for proposals". The first document that is produced for example for audio and video coding standards is called a verification model (VM) (previously also called a "simulation and test model"). When a sufficient confidence in the stability of the standard under development is reached, a working draft (WD) is produced. This is in the form of a standard but is kept internal to working group for revision. When a working draft is sufficiently solid and the working group is satisfied that it has developed the best technical solution to the problem being addressed, it becomes committee draft (CD). If it is required, it is then sent to the P-members of the TC/SC (national bodies) for ballot. The CD becomes final committee draft (FCD) if the number of positive votes is above the quorum. Successive committee drafts may be considered until consensus is reached on the technical content. When it is reached, the text is finalized for submission as a draft International Standard (DIS). The text is then submitted to national bodies for voting and comment within a period of five months. It is approved for submission as a final draft International Standard (FDIS) if a two-thirds majority of the P-members of the TC/SC are in favour and not more than one-quarter of the total number of votes cast are negative. ISO will then hold a ballot with National Bodies where no technical changes are allowed (yes/no ballot), within a period of two months. It is approved as an International Standard (IS) if a two-thirds majority of the P-members of the TC/SC is in favour and not more than one-quarter of the total number of votes cast are negative. After approval, only minor editorial changes are introduced into the final text. The final text is sent to the ISO Central Secretariat, which publishes it as the International Standard.[21][23] Products named after ISO[edit] The fact that many of the ISO-created standards are ubiquitous has led, on occasion, to common use of "ISO" to describe the actual product that conforms to a standard. Some examples of this are:

Many CD images end in the file extension "ISO" to signify that they are using the ISO 9660 standard file system as opposed to another file system—hence CD images are commonly referred to as "ISOs". Virtually all computers with CD-ROM
drives that can read CDs use this standard. Some DVD-ROMs also use ISO 9660 file systems. Photographic film's sensitivity to light (its "film speed") is described by ISO 6, ISO 2240 and ISO 5800. Hence, the film's speed is often referred to by its ISO number. As it was originally defined in ISO 518, the flash hot shoe found on cameras is often called the "ISO shoe". ISO 11783, which is marketed as ISOBUS.

Criticism[edit] With the exception of a small number of isolated standards,[19] ISO standards are normally not available free of charge, but for a purchase fee,[32] which has been seen by some as too expensive for small open source projects.[33] The ISO/IEC JTC1 fast-track procedures ("Fast-track" as used by OOXML and "PAS" as used by OpenDocument) have garnered criticism in relation to the standardization of Office Open XML
Office Open XML
(ISO/IEC 29500). Martin Bryan, outgoing Convenor of ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34 WG1, is quoted as saying:

I would recommend my successor that it is perhaps time to pass WG1’s outstanding standards over to OASIS, where they can get approval in less than a year and then do a PAS submission to ISO, which will get a lot more attention and be approved much faster than standards currently can be within WG1.

The disparity of rules for PAS, Fast-Track and ISO committee generated standards is fast making ISO a laughing stock in IT circles. The days of open standards development are fast disappearing. Instead we are getting 'standardization by corporation'.[34]

Computer security entrepreneur and Ubuntu investor, Mark Shuttleworth, commented on the Standardization
of Office Open XML
Office Open XML
process by saying "I think it de-values the confidence people have in the standards setting process," and Shuttleworth alleged that ISO did not carry out its responsibility. He also noted that Microsoft
had intensely lobbied many countries that traditionally had not participated in ISO and stacked technical committees with Microsoft
employees, solution providers and resellers sympathetic to Office Open XML.

When you have a process built on trust and when that trust is abused, ISO should halt the process... ISO is an engineering old boys club and these things are boring so you have to have a lot of passion … then suddenly you have an investment of a lot of money and lobbying and you get artificial results. The process is not set up to deal with intensive corporate lobbying and so you end up with something being a standard that is not clear.[35]

See also[edit]

American National Standards Institute, (ANSI) AP (Associated Press) Stylebook Brazilian National Standards Organization BSI Group, British Standards Institution (BSI) Bureau of Indian Standards Canadian Standards Association, (CSA) Countries in the International Organization for Standardization Deutsches Institut für Normung, (DIN) the German Institute for Standardization Engelbert Pigal Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione, (UNI) Italian National Standardization
Body European Committee for Standardization, (CEN) GOST, a set of technical standards maintained by the Euro-Asian Council for Standardization, Metrology and Certification IEEE Standards Association Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology Interface 2010, the Interface Marketing Supplier Integration Institute International Classification for Standards The International Customer Service Institute International Electrotechnical Commission, (IEC) International healthcare accreditation International Telecommunication Union Internet Engineering Task Force List of International Organization for Standardization
standards Standardization Standards Australia Standards organization Terminology planning policy

ISO divisions

ISO/TC 37 "Terminology and other language and content resources", a fundamental ISO standardization committee ISO/TC 68 TC 46/SC 9 ISO/TC 211 ISO/TC 215 ISO/TC 223 ISO/TC 262 ISO/TC 289 ISO/TC 292

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ a b c d e "ISO members". International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 2018-01-26.  ^ a b "How to use the ISO Catalogue". ISO.org. Archived from the original on 4 October 2007.  ^ a b c "About ISO". ISO. Archived from the original on 4 October 2007.  ^ "About ISO". ISO. Archived from the original on 19 September 2012.  ^ "Friendship among equals" (PDF). ISO.  (page 20) ^ "ISO name and logo". ISO. Archived from the original on 19 September 2012.  ^ "A Brief History of ISO". University of Pittsburgh.  ^ Friendship among equals – Recollections from ISO's first fifty years (PDF), International Organization for Standardization, 1997, pp. 15–18, ISBN 92-67-10260-5, archived (PDF) from the original on 26 October 2012  ^ a b c "Structure and governance". International Organization for Standardization. Archived from the original on 19 September 2012.  ^ "Council". International Organization for Standardization. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012.  ^ "Technical committees". International Organization for Standardization. Archived from the original on 19 September 2012.  ^ "Who develops ISO standards?". International Organization for Standardization. Archived from the original on 19 September 2012.  ^ "Governance of technical work". International Organization for Standardization. Archived from the original on 19 September 2012.  ^ "ISO/IEC JTC 1". International Organization for Standardization. Archived from the original on 15 December 2011.  ^ "ISO/IEC JPC 2 Joint Project Committee – Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources – Common terminology". International Organization for Standardization. Archived from the original on 6 October 2012.  ^ "General information on ISO". ISO. Archived from the original on 5 October 2007.  ^ a b c d e The ISO directives are published in two distinct parts:

"ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1: Procedures for the technical work" (PDF). ISO/IEC. 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 June 2012.  "ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2: Rules for the structure and drafting of International Standards" (PDF). ISO/IEC. 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 October 2011. 

^ ISO. "ISO/IEC Directives and ISO supplement". Archived from the original on 16 May 2008.  ^ a b "Freely Available Standards". ISO. 1 February 2011.  ^ "Free ANSI Standards". Archived from the original on 3 April 2007.  ^ a b c "About MPEG". chiariglione.org. Archived from the original on 21 February 2010.  ^ a b c ISO. "International harmonized stage codes". Archived from the original on 4 October 2007.  ^ a b c d e f ISO. "Stages of the development of International Standards". Archived from the original on 12 August 2007.  ^ a b c "The ISO27k FAQ – ISO/IEC acronyms and committees". IsecT Ltd. Archived from the original on 24 November 2005.  ^ a b c ISO (2007). "ISO/IEC Directives Supplement — Procedures specific to ISO" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 January 2012.  ^ a b c ISO (2007). "List of abbreviations used throughout ISO Online". Archived from the original on 12 August 2007.  ^ a b c "US Tag Committee Handbook" (DOC). March 2008.  ^ a b c ISO/IEC JTC1 (2 November 2009), Letter Ballot on the JTC 1 Standing Document on Technical Specifications and Technical Reports (PDF)  ^ ISO. "ISO deliverables". Archived from the original on 12 August 2007.  ^ a b ISO (2008), ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 – Procedures for the technical work, Sixth edition, 2008 (PDF), archived (PDF) from the original on 14 July 2010  ^ ISO, IEC (5 November 2009). "ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29, SC 29/WG 11 Structure (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 – Coding of Moving Pictures and Audio)". Archived from the original on 28 January 2001.  ^ "Shopping FAQs". ISO. Archived from the original on 5 October 2007.  ^ Jelliffe, Rick (1 August 2007). "Where to get ISO Standards on the Internet free". oreillynet.com. Archived from the original on 24 November 2007. The lack of free online availability has effectively made ISO standard irrelevant to the (home/hacker section of the) Open Source community  ^ "Report on WG1 activity for December 2007 Meeting of ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34/WG1 in Kyoto". iso/jtc1 sc34. Archived from the original on 12 August 2007.  ^ "Ubuntu's Shuttleworth blames ISO for OOXML's win". ZDNet.com. 1 April 2008. Archived from the original on 4 April 2008. 


JoAnne Yates and Craig N. Murphy, "Coordinating International Standards: The Formation of the ISO" (PDF). .archive.org/web/20100922210249/http://web.mit.edu/iandeseminar/Papers/Fall2006/Yates.pdf Archived Check archiveurl= value (help) (PDF) from the original on 22 September 2010.  MIT Innovations and Entrepreneurship Seminar Series, Fall 2006. Kuert, Willy (1997). "Friendship Among Equals – Recollections from ISO's first fifty years" (PDF). ISO. .archive.org/web/20121026060448/http://www.iso.org/iso/2012_friendship_among_equals.pdf Archived Check archiveurl= value (help) (PDF) from the original on 26 October 2012. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to International Organization for Standardization

Official website

Publicly Available Standards, with free access to a small subset of the standards. Advanced search for standards and/or projects Concept Database, a terminological database of ISO standards.

v t e

International Organization for Standardization


ISO/PAS 28007:2012 ISO/TS 80004

Technical reports

ISO/IEC TR 12182

Member bodies

Algerian Institute of Standardization American National Standards Institute ANSI-ASQ National Accreditation Board (ANAB) Instituto Argentino de Normalización y Certificación ASC X9 AFNOR Austrian Standards Institute Brazilian National Standards Organization BSI Group Bureau of Normalization Committee for Standardization, Metrology and Certification of Belarus Cyprus Organisation for Standardisation Deutsches Institut für Normung Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione ICONTEC Indian Register Quality Systems Badan Standardisasi Nasional Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran Japanese Industrial Standards Committee Kenya Bureau of Standards Korean Agency for Technology and Standards Korean Standards Association National Standards Authority of Ireland South African Bureau of Standards Standardization
Administration of China Standards Australia Standards Council of Canada Standards Institute of Israel Standards Norway State Committee for Technical Regulation and Consumer Policy Swedish Standards Institute Swiss Association for Standardization UN CEFACT TBG5 Vinçotte


Countries in the International Organization for Standardization Information Technology Task Force ISO Development Environment List of International Organization for Standardization
standards List of International Organization for Standardization
technical committees Quality Objectives

v t e

ISO standards by standard number

List of ISO standards / ISO romanizations / IEC standards


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 16 31

-0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13

128 216 217 226 228 233 259 269 302 306 428 518 519 639

-1 -2 -3 -5 -6

646 690 732 764 843 898 965 1000 1004 1007 1073-1 1413 1538 1745 1989 2014 2015 2022 2047 2108 2145 2146 2240 2281 2709 2711 2788 2848 2852 3029 3103 3166

-1 -2 -3

3297 3307 3602 3864 3901 3977 4031 4157 4217 4909 5218 5428 5775 5776 5800 5964 6166 6344 6346 6385 6425 6429 6438 6523 6709 7001 7002 7098 7185 7200 7498 7736 7810 7811 7812 7813 7816 8000 8178 8217 8571 8583 8601 8632 8652 8691 8807 8820-5 8859

-1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -8-I -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 -16

8879 9000/9001 9075 9126 9293 9241 9362 9407 9506 9529 9564 9594 9660 9897 9899 9945 9984 9985 9995


10005 10006 10007 10116 10118-3 10160 10161 10165 10179 10206 10218 10303

-11 -21 -22 -28 -238

10383 10487 10585 10589 10646 10664 10746 10861 10957 10962 10967 11073 11170 11179 11404 11544 11783 11784 11785 11801 11898 11940 (-2) 11941 11941 (TR) 11992 12006 12182 12207 12234-2 13211

-1 -2

13216 13250 13399 13406-2 13450 13485 13490 13567 13568 13584 13616 14000 14031 14224 14289 14396 14443 14496

-2 -3 -6 -10 -11 -12 -14 -17 -20

14644 14649 14651 14698 14750 14764 14882 14971 15022 15189 15288 15291 15292 15398 15408 15444


15445 15438 15504 15511 15686 15693 15706


15707 15897 15919 15924 15926 15926 WIP 15930 16023 16262 16612-2 16750 16949 (TS) 17024 17025 17100 17203 17369 17442 17799 18000 18004 18014 18245 18629 18916 19005 19011 19092 (-1 -2) 19114 19115 19125 19136 19439 19500 19501 19502 19503 19505 19506 19507 19508 19509 19510 19600 19752 19757 19770 19775-1 19794-5 19831


20000 20022 20121 20400 21000 21047 21500 21827:2002 22000 23270 23271 23360 24517 24613 24617 24707 25178 25964 26000 26300 26324 27000 series 27000 27001 27002 27006 27729 28000 29110 29148 29199-2 29500 30170 31000 32000 38500 40500 42010 55000 80000

-1 -2 -3


v t e

Social and environmental accountability

Ethics and principles

Aarhus Convention Corporate accountability / behaviour / social responsibility Ethical banking Ethical code Extended producer responsibility Organizational ethics Organizational justice Principles for Responsible Investment Social responsibility Stakeholder theory Sullivan principles Transparency (behavioral social) UN Global Compact

Social accounting

Double bottom line Ethical Positioning Index Higg Index Impact assessment (environmental equality social) ISO 26000 ISO 45001 Genuine progress indicator Performance indicator SA8000 Social return on investment Whole-life cost

Environmental accounting

Carbon accounting Eco-Management and Audit
Scheme Emission inventory Environmental full-cost accounting / impact assessment / management system / profit-and-loss account ISO 14000 ISO 14031:1999 Life-cycle assessment Pollutant release and transfer register Sustainability accounting / measurement / metrics and indices / standards and certification / supply chain Toxics Release Inventory Triple bottom line


Global Reporting Initiative GxP
guidelines Sustainability reporting


Community-based monitoring Environmental (certification) Fair trade (certification) ISO 19011


Bangladesh Accord Benefit corporation Child labour Community interest company Conflict of interest Disasters Disinvestment Eco-labeling Environmental pricing reform Environmental, social and corporate governance Ethical consumerism Euthenics Health impact assessment Market governance mechanism Product certification Public participation Social enterprise Socially responsible investing Stakeholder (engagement) Supply chain management

Environment portal Category Commons Organizations

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 149705257 LCCN: n79034445 ISNI: 0000 0001 2182 7734 GND: 1008314-5 SUDOC: 026467984 BNF: cb118710878 (data) NLA: 35232591 NDL: 00288472